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Sample records for underlying proper disjunction

  1. Broad-scale recombination patterns underlying proper disjunction in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Fledel-Alon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although recombination is essential to the successful completion of human meiosis, it remains unclear how tightly the process is regulated and over what scale. To assess the nature and stringency of constraints on human recombination, we examined crossover patterns in transmissions to viable, non-trisomic offspring, using dense genotyping data collected in a large set of pedigrees. Our analysis supports a requirement for one chiasma per chromosome rather than per arm to ensure proper disjunction, with additional chiasmata occurring in proportion to physical length. The requirement is not absolute, however, as chromosome 21 seems to be frequently transmitted properly in the absence of a chiasma in females, a finding that raises the possibility of a back-up mechanism aiding in its correct segregation. We also found a set of double crossovers in surprisingly close proximity, as expected from a second pathway that is not subject to crossover interference. These findings point to multiple mechanisms that shape the distribution of crossovers, influencing proper disjunction in humans.

  2. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Brainerd, C J

    2017-09-01

    It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words. In addition, disjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised proactive interference, whereas conjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised retroactive interference. That pattern suggests that disjunction fallacies are more dependent on target recollection, whereas conjunction fallacies are more dependent on context recollection.

  3. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

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    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  4. Uncertainty and the difficulty of thinking through disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between decision under uncertainty and thinking through disjunctions. Decision situations that lead to violations of Savage's sure-thing principle are examined, and a variety of simple reasoning problems that often generate confusion and error are reviewed. The common difficulty is attributed to people's reluctance to think through disjunctions. Instead of hypothetically traveling through the branches of a decision tree, it is suggested, people suspend judgement and remain at the node. This interpretation is applied to instances of decision making, information search, deductive and inductive reasoning, probabilistic judgement, games, puzzles and paradoxes. Some implications of the reluctance to think through disjunctions, as well as potential corrective procedures, are discussed.

  5. Non-disjunction of chromosome 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, M; Collins, A; Petersen, M B

    1998-01-01

    A sample of 100 trisomy 18 conceptuses analysed separately and together with a published sample of 61 conceptuses confirms that an error in maternal meiosis II (MII) is the most frequent cause of non-disjunction for chromosome 18. This is unlike all other human trisomies that have been studied......, which show a higher frequency in maternal meiosis I (MI). Maternal MI trisomy 18 shows a low frequency of recombination in proximal p and medial q, but not the reduction in proximal q observed in chromosome 21 MI non-disjunction. Maternal MII non-disjunction does not fit the entanglement model...... that predicts increased recombination, especially near the centromere. Whereas recent data on MII trisomy 21 show the predicted increase in recombination proximally, maternal MII trisomy 18 has non-significantly reduced recombination. Therefore, chromosome-specific factors must complicate the simple model...

  6. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  7. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs. Michael A Henning, Sinclair A Marcon. Abstract. A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, ...

  8. The negations of conjunctions, conditionals, and disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet; Orenes, Isabel; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-09-01

    How do reasoners understand and formulate denials of compound assertions, such as conjunctions and disjunctions? A theory based on mental models postulates that individuals enumerate models of the various possibilities consistent with the assertions. It therefore predicts a novel interaction: in affirmations, conjunctions, A and B, which refer to one possibility, should be easier to understand than disjunctions, A or B, which refer to more than one possibility; in denials, conjunctions, not(A and B), which refer to more than one possibility, should be harder to understand than disjunctions, not(A or B), which do not. Conditionals are ambiguous and they should be of intermediate difficulty. Experiment 1 corroborated this trend with a task in which the participants selected which possibilities were consistent with assertions, such as: Bob denied that he wore a yellow shirt and he wore blue pants on Tuesday. Experiment 2 likewise showed that participants' own formulations of verbal denials yielded the same trend in which denials of conjunctions were harder than denials of conditionals, which in turn were harder than denials of disjunctions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) for the numerical simulation of polycrystalline aggregates under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Mohamed Aziz; Robert, Camille; Ammar, Amine; El Arem, Saber; Morel, Franck

    2018-02-01

    The numerical modelling of the behaviour of materials at the microstructural scale has been greatly developed over the last two decades. Unfortunately, conventional resolution methods cannot simulate polycrystalline aggregates beyond tens of loading cycles, and they do not remain quantitative due to the plasticity behaviour. This work presents the development of a numerical solver for the resolution of the Finite Element modelling of polycrystalline aggregates subjected to cyclic mechanical loading. The method is based on two concepts. The first one consists in maintaining a constant stiffness matrix. The second uses a time/space model reduction method. In order to analyse the applicability and the performance of the use of a space-time separated representation, the simulations are carried out on a three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregate under cyclic loading. Different numbers of elements per grain and two time increments per cycle are investigated. The results show a significant CPU time saving while maintaining good precision. Moreover, increasing the number of elements and the number of time increments per cycle, the model reduction method is faster than the standard solver.

  10. Generalized Disjunctions in (Infinitary) Structural Consequence Relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2012), s. 442-443 ISSN 1079-8986. [Logic Colloquium 2011. 11.07.2011-16.07.2011, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Abstract Algebraic Logic * Generalized disjunction * Proof by cases properties * Consequence relations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.math.ucla.edu/~asl/bsl/1803- toc .htm

  11. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization from Temporally Disjunct 3-D Measurements

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    Paula Doubrawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. We find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  12. Proper Acknowledgment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    The concern in Australian universities about the prevalence of plagiarism has led to the development of policies about academic integrity and in turn focused attention on the need to inform students about how to avoid plagiarism and how to properly acknowledge. Teaching students how to avoid plagiarism can appear to be straightforward if based on…

  13. Hoare Logic for Disjunctive Information Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Li, Ximeng

    2015-01-01

    Information flow control extends access control by not only regulating who is allowed to access what data but also the subsequent use of the data accessed. Applications within communication networks require such information flow control to depend on the actual data. For a concurrent language...... with synchronous communication and separate data domains we develop a Hoare logic for enforcing disjunctive information flow policies. We establish the soundness of the Hoare logic with respect to an operational semantics and illustrate the development on a running example....

  14. The compatibility heuristic in non-categorical hypothetical reasoning: inferences between conditionals and disjunctions.

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    Espino, Orlando; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2013-11-01

    A new theory explains how people make hypothetical inferences from a premise consistent with several alternatives to a conclusion consistent with several alternatives. The key proposal is that people rely on a heuristic that identifies compatible possibilities. It is tested in 7 experiments that examine inferences between conditionals and disjunctions. Participants accepted inferences between conditionals and inclusive disjunctions when a compatible possibility was immediately available, in their binary judgments that a conclusion followed or not (Experiment 1a) and ternary judgments that included it was not possible to know (Experiment 1b). The compatibility effect was amplified when compatible possibilities were more readily available, e.g., for 'A only if B' conditionals (Experiment 2). It was eliminated when compatible possibilities were not available, e.g., for 'if and only if A B' bi-conditionals and exclusive disjunctions (Experiment 3). The compatibility heuristic occurs even for inferences based on implicit negation e.g., 'A or B, therefore if C D' (Experiment 4), and between universals 'All A's are B's' and disjunctions (Experiment 5a) and universals and conditionals (Experiment 5b). The implications of the results for alternative theories of the cognitive processes underlying hypothetical deductions are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Non-disjunction of chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Merete; Collins, Andrew; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2007-01-01

    We performed a molecular study with 21 microsatellites on a sample of 82 trisomy 13 conceptuses, the largest number of cases studied to date. The parental origin was determined in every case and in 89% the extra chromosome 13 was of maternal origin with an almost equal number of maternal MI and MII...... recombination in both maternal MI and MII errors and the former is associated with a significant number of tetrads (33%) that are nullichiasmate, which do not appear to be a feature of normal chromosome 13 meiosis. This study supports the evidence for subtle chromosome-specific influences on the mechanisms...... that determine non-disjunction of human chromosomes, consistent with the diversity of findings for other trisomies. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug-15...

  16. Effect of biostimulant sprays on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and esca proper infected vines under greenhouse and fi eld conditions

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    S. Di Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants are compounds that infl uence physiological processes in plants, producing better growth and enhancing stress tolerance. The effect of some biostimulants on vines was investigated over a number of years to assess their effect both on the incidence of esca leaf symptoms in the vineyard and on the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora artifi cially inoculated into potted vines. Field trials were carried out for 4–7 years in fi ve 15-20-yearold vineyards infected with esca proper. Potted plants were sprayed with biostimulants, after which the vine trunks were inoculated with P. chlamydospora, and then the vines were sprayed again with biostimulants in the following 2 or 3 growing seasons. On the whole, biostimulants in the fi eld did not reduce foliar symptoms. The percentage of symptomatic vines that had shown symptoms in previous years was higher in the biostimulant-sprayed plots. In the greenhouse, a certain reduction of internal necrosis caused by P. chlamydospora was seen with three of the four biostimulants tested. Prospects for biostimulants as a means control esca are discussed.

  17. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

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    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  18. Under Voltage Lock-Out Design Rules for Proper Start-Up of Energy Autonomous Systems Powered by Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitier, V.; Durand Estèbe, P.; Monthéard, R.; Bafleur, M.; Dilhac, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with the issue of the initial start-up of an autonomous and battery-free system powered by an energy harvester associated with a storage subsystem based on supercapacitors initially discharged. A review of different low power Under Voltage Lock-Out (UVLO) solutions used to delay the load start-up and to avoid a useless discharge of supercapacitors is presented and discussed.

  19. The induction of non-disjunction by irradiation in mammalian oogenesis and spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, I.; Probeck, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    Test systems to detect non-disjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis are described and the results obtained from a study of radiation effects on non-disjunction presented. It is shown that X-rays may induce non-disjunction in mouse oogenesis and spermatogenesis, thereby increasing the potential risk of aneuploidies among the F1 generation. (C.F.)

  20. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

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    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

  1. Searching for Complex Patterns Using Disjunctive Anomaly Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sabhnani, Maheshkumar; Dubrawski, Artur; Schneider, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Objective Disjunctive anomaly detection (DAD) algorithm [1] can efficiently search across multidimensional biosurveillance data to find multiple simultaneously occurring (in time) and overlapping (across different data dimensions) anomalous clusters. We introduce extensions of DAD to handle rich cluster interactions and diverse data distributions. Introduction Modern biosurveillance data contains thousands of unique time series defined across various categorical dimensions (zipcode, age group...

  2. Distribution of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    approach, and the information packaging approach. ... information structure. = morphology. Examples of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga, isiZulu, Siswati, and Setswana are shown in (2). Descriptively speaking, the ... Updating the focus-based approach, Creissels (2014) argues for an information packaging.

  3. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction underlies stroke work improvement in the acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxuan; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Constantino, Jason; Trayanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be due to three mechanisms: resynchronization of ventricular contraction, efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction, and mitral regurgitation reduction. However, the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to the acute response of CRT, specifically stroke work improvement, has not been quantified. Objective The goal of this study was to use an MRI-based anatomically accurate 3D model of failing canine ventricular electromechanics to quantify the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement and identify the predominant mechanisms. Methods An MRI-based electromechanical model of the failing canine ventricles assembled previously by our group was further developed and modified. Three different protocols were used to dissect the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement. Results Resynchronization of ventricular contraction did not lead to significant stroke work improvement. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction was the predominant mechanism underlying stroke work improvement. Stroke work improvement peaked at an intermediate AV delay, as it allowed ventricular filling by atrial contraction to occur at a low diastolic LV pressure but also provided adequate time for ventricular filling before ventricular contraction. Diminution of mitral regurgitation by CRT led to stroke work worsening instead of improvement. Conclusion Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction is responsible for significant stroke work improvement in the acute CRT response. PMID:23928177

  4. Early signs of range disjunction of submountainous plant species: an unexplored consequence of future and contemporary climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Emilien; Lenoir, Jonathan; Piedallu, Christian; Gégout, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Poleward and upward species range shifts are the most commonly anticipated and studied consequences of climate warming. However, these global responses to climate change obscure more complex distribution change patterns. We hypothesize that the spatial arrangement of mountain ranges and, consequently, climatic gradients in Europe, will result in range disjunctions. This hypothesis was investigated for submountainous forest plant species at two temporal and spatial scales: (i) under future climate change (between 1950-2000 and 2061-2080 periods) at the European scale and (ii) under contemporary climate change (between 1914-1987 and 1997-2013 periods) at the French scale. We selected 97 submountainous forest plant species occurring in France, among which distribution data across Europe are available for 25 species. By projecting future distribution changes for the 25 submountainous plant species across Europe, we demonstrated that range disjunction is a likely consequence of future climate change. To assess whether it is already taking place, we used a large forest vegetation-plot database covering the entire French territory over 100 years (1914-2013) and found an average decrease in frequency (-0.01 ± 0.004) in lowland areas for the 97 submountainous species - corresponding to a loss of 6% of their historical frequency - along with southward and upward range shifts, suggesting early signs of range disjunctions. Climate-induced range disjunctions should be considered more carefully since they could have dramatic consequences on population genetics and the ability of species to face future climate changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Children's Interpretation of Disjunction in the Scope of "before": A Comparison of English and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like "The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny". English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ("The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny"). This interpretation conforms…

  6. Larmor time and proper time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudaka, Shoju [Department of Physics, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0129 (Japan); Matsumoto, Shuichi, E-mail: shuichi@edu.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0129 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    The idea of a Larmor clock is reexamined in the relativistic regime. We propose a concept of proper time for quantum theoretical particles. The Larmor clock can measure, under some relevant conditions, the proper time that passes while the particle stays in a space region. Our approach to Larmor clock is different than those of other researchers in the following two aspects: our concept of Larmor clock does not distinguish whether the particle is transmitted or reflected at the end of its stay, and pointer of our Larmor clock is not the spin but the total angular momentum. -- Highlights: ► The idea of a Larmor clock is reexamined in the relativistic regime. ► We propose a concept of proper time for quantum theoretical particles. ► The Larmor clock measures the passage of this quantum theoretical proper time.

  7. PropeR revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Talmon, Jan; Tange, Huibert; Grimson, Jane; Hasman, Arie

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The PropeR EHR system (PropeRWeb) is a multidisciplinary electronic health record (EHR) system for multidisciplinary use in extramural patient care for stroke patients. DESIGN: The system is built using existing open source components and is based on open standards. It is implemented

  8. Disjunctive cuts in a branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    This talk presents computational results that show the usefulness of the general-purpose valid inequalities disjunctive cuts when applied to the CVRP. Results indicate that the disjunctive cuts are able to reduce the gap between lower bound and upper bound more than state-of-the-art problem...... specific inequalities. Results also indicate that introducing the cuts leads to a smaller branch and bound tree and faster solution times overall....

  9. Characterizations of proper actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Harald

    2004-03-01

    Three kinds of proper actions of increasing strength are defined. We prove that the three definitions specialize to the definitions by Bourbaki, by Palais and by Baum, Connes and Higson in their respective settings. The third of these, which thus turns out to be the strongest, originally only concerns actions of second countable locally compact groups on metrizable spaces. In this situation, it is shown to coincide with the other two definitions if the total space locally has the Lindelöf property and the orbit space is regular.

  10. Proper Islamic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    mobile, religiously committed communities to the opportunities and perils presented by modernisation. It also tells us something about the debates concerning the meanings and practices of Islam within an aggressive, globalised, secularised modernity. In Malaysia this is an especially intriguing issue...... spite of a long line of social theory analyzing the spiritual in the economic, and vice versa, very little of the recent increase in scholarship on Islam addresses its relationship with capitalism. Johan Fischer’s book,Proper Islamic Consumption, begins to fill this gap. […] Fischer’s detailed...

  11. Tracking the evolutionary history of Cortinarius species in section Calochroi, with transoceanic disjunct distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica, Sigisfredo; Spahn, Philipp; Oertel, Bernhard; Ammirati, Joseph; Oberwinkler, Franz

    2011-07-19

    Cortinarius species in section Calochroi display local, clinal and circumboreal patterns of distribution across the Northern Hemisphere where these ectomycorrhizal fungi occur with host trees throughout their geographical range within a continent, or have disjunct intercontinental distributions, the origins of which are not understood. We inferred evolutionary histories of four species, 1) C. arcuatorum, 2) C. aureofulvus, 3) C. elegantior and 4) C. napus, from populations distributed throughout the Old World, and portions of the New World (Central- and North America) based on genetic variation of 154 haplotype internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from 83 population samples. By describing the population structure of these species across their geographical distribution, we attempt to identify their historical migration and patterns of diversification. Models of population structure from nested clade, demographic and coalescent-based analyses revealed genetically differentiated and geographically structured haplotypes in C. arcuatorum and C. elegantior, while C. aureofulvus showed considerably less population structure and C. napus lacked sufficient genetic differentiation to resolve any population structure. Disjunct populations within C. arcuatorum, C. aureofulvus and C. elegantior show little or no morphological differentiation, whereas in C. napus there is a high level of homoplasy and phenotypic plasticity for veil and lamellae colour. The ITS sequences of the type specimens of C. albobrunnoides and C. albobrunnoides var. violaceovelatus were identical to one another and are treated as one species with a wider range of geographic distribution under C. napus. Our results indicate that each of the Calochroi species has undergone a relatively independent evolutionary history, hypothesised as follows: 1) a widely distributed ancestral population of C. arcuatorum diverged into distinctive sympatric populations in the New World; 2) two divergent lineages in C

  12. Tracking the evolutionary history of Cortinarius species in section Calochroi, with transoceanic disjunct distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammirati Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortinarius species in section Calochroi display local, clinal and circumboreal patterns of distribution across the Northern Hemisphere where these ectomycorrhizal fungi occur with host trees throughout their geographical range within a continent, or have disjunct intercontinental distributions, the origins of which are not understood. We inferred evolutionary histories of four species, 1 C. arcuatorum, 2 C. aureofulvus, 3 C. elegantior and 4 C. napus, from populations distributed throughout the Old World, and portions of the New World (Central- and North America based on genetic variation of 154 haplotype internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences from 83 population samples. By describing the population structure of these species across their geographical distribution, we attempt to identify their historical migration and patterns of diversification. Results Models of population structure from nested clade, demographic and coalescent-based analyses revealed genetically differentiated and geographically structured haplotypes in C. arcuatorum and C. elegantior, while C. aureofulvus showed considerably less population structure and C. napus lacked sufficient genetic differentiation to resolve any population structure. Disjunct populations within C. arcuatorum, C. aureofulvus and C. elegantior show little or no morphological differentiation, whereas in C. napus there is a high level of homoplasy and phenotypic plasticity for veil and lamellae colour. The ITS sequences of the type specimens of C. albobrunnoides and C. albobrunnoides var. violaceovelatus were identical to one another and are treated as one species with a wider range of geographic distribution under C. napus. Conclusions Our results indicate that each of the Calochroi species has undergone a relatively independent evolutionary history, hypothesised as follows: 1 a widely distributed ancestral population of C. arcuatorum diverged into distinctive sympatric

  13. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Persea group (Lauraceae) and its biogeographic implications on the evolution of tropical and subtropical Amphi-Pacific disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lang; Li, Jie; Rohwer, Jens G; van der Werff, Henk; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Li, Hsi-Wen

    2011-09-01

    The Persea group (Lauraceae) has a tropical and subtropical amphi-pacific disjunct distribution with most of its members, and it includes two Macaronesian species. The relationships within the group are still controversial, and its intercontinental disjunction has not been investigated with extensive sampling and precise time dating. • ITS and LEAFY intron II sequences of 78 Persea group species and nine other Lauraceae species were analyzed with maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Divergence time estimation employed Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method under a relaxed clock. • Several traditional genera or subgenera within the Persea group form well-supported monophyletic groups except Alseodaphne and Dehaasia. The divergence time of the Persea group is estimated as ∼55.3 (95% higher posterior densities [HPD] 41.4-69.9) million years ago (mya). Two major divergences within the Persea group are estimated as ∼51.9 (95% HPD 38.9-63.9) mya and ∼48.5 (95% HPD 35.9-59.9) mya. • Persea can be retained as a genus by the inclusion of Apollonias barbujana and exclusion a few species that do not fit into the established subgenera. A major revision is recommended for the delimitation between Alseodaphne, Dehaasia, and Nothaphoebe. We suggest that the Persea group originated from the Perseeae-Laureae radiation in early Eocene Laurasia. Its amphi-pacific disjunction results from the disruption of boreotropical flora by climatic cooling during the mid- to late Eocene. The American-Macaronesian disjunction may be explained by the long-distance dispersal.

  14. Illusory inferences from a disjunction of conditionals: a new mental models account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, P; Lecas, J F

    2000-08-14

    (Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Savary, F. (1999, Illusory inferences: a novel class of erroneous deductions. Cognition, 71, 191-229.) have recently presented a mental models account, based on the so-called principle of truth, for the occurrence of inferences that are compelling but invalid. This article presents an alternative account of the illusory inferences resulting from a disjunction of conditionals. In accordance with our modified theory of mental models of the conditional, we show that the way individuals represent conditionals leads them to misinterpret the locus of the disjunction and prevents them from drawing conclusions from a false conditional, thus accounting for the compelling character of the illusory inference.

  15. Molecular biogeography of tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan disjunction pattern with an African origin of core genistoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Huang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Ping Yan; Yu-H Wu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and EastAsia-North America disjunction,with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F...

  16. GAS2L1 Is a Centriole-Associated Protein Required for Centrosome Dynamics and Disjunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, F.K.; Jia, Y.; Jiang, K.; Grigoriev, I.S.; Hau, B.K.; Shen, Y.; Du, S.; Akhmanova, A.S.; Qi, R.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation require timely separation of the two duplicated centrosomes, and this process is initiated in late G2 by centrosome disjunction. Here we report that GAS2L1, a microtubule- and actin-binding protein, associates with the proximal end of mature

  17. Optimizing reserve expansion for disjunct populations of San Joaquin kit fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Brian Cypher; Patrick A. Kelly; Scott Phillips; Katherine Ralls; Hugh P. Possingham

    2004-01-01

    Expanding habitat protection is a common strategy for species conservation. We present a model to optimize the expansion of reserves for disjunct populations of an endangered species. The objective is to maximize the expected number of surviving populations subject to budget and habitat constraints. The model accounts for benefits of reserve expansion in terms of...

  18. The effects of disjunct sampling and averaging time on maximum mean wind speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Mann, J.

    2006-01-01

    Conventionally, the 50-year wind is calculated on basis of the annual maxima of consecutive 10-min averages. Very often, however, the averages are saved with a temporal spacing of several hours. We call it disjunct sampling. It may also happen that the wind speeds are averaged over a longer time...

  19. Phenology of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. in a Disjunctly-zoned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avicennia marina in Gazi Bay, Kenya, displays a disjunct zonation pattern across the intertidal zone with a seaward and a landward A. marina fringe. Earlier studies revealed significant differences in its vegetation structure, physiognomy, root system and leaf morphology, which can be attributed to salinity and tidal ...

  20. Fire chronology and windstorm effects on persistence of a disjunct oak-shortleaf pine community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Jones; Marlin L. Bowles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated effects of a human-altered fire regime and wind storms on persistence of disjunct oak-shortleaf pine vegetation occurring along 5.5 km of xeric habitat on the east bluffs of the Mississippi River in Union County, IL. In 2009, we resampled vegetation transects established in seven stands in 1954 and obtained 26 cross sections containing fire scars from...

  1. Phylogeography and disjunct distribution in Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae), an endangered cerrado shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Rabelo, Suelen Gonçalves; Vieira, Roberto F

    2009-09-01

    Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) were estimated using coalescent analyses. A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) dated from approx. 790,655 +/- 36,551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623,555 +/- 55,769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the extinction of populations in some areas as climate

  2. Living on the edge: timing of Rand Flora disjunctions congruent with ongoing aridification in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Lisa; Riina, Ricarda; Mairal, Mario; Meseguer, Andrea S; Culshaw, Victoria; Cendoya, Jon; Serrano, Miguel; Carbajal, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Santiago; Heuertz, Myriam; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands-Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ. To provide a temporal framework for this pattern, we used published data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA to estimate the age of disjunction of 17 lineages that span 12 families and nine orders of angiosperms. We further used these estimates to infer diversification rates for Rand Flora disjunct clades in relation to their higher-level encompassing lineages. Our results indicate that most disjunctions fall within the Miocene and Pliocene periods, coinciding with the onset of a major aridification trend, still ongoing, in Africa. Age of disjunctions seemed to be related to the climatic affinities of each Rand Flora lineage, with sub-humid taxa dated earlier (e.g., Sideroxylon) and those with more xeric affinities (e.g., Campylanthus) diverging later. We did not find support for significant decreases in diversification rates in most groups, with the exception of older subtropical lineages (e.g., Sideroxylon, Hypericum, or Canarina), but some lineages (e.g., Cicer, Campylanthus) showed a long temporal gap between stem and crown ages, suggestive of extinction. In all, the Rand Flora pattern seems to fit the definition of biogeographic pseudocongruence, with the pattern arising at different times in response to the increasing aridity of the African continent, with interspersed periods of humidity allowing range expansions.

  3. The disjunct pattern of the Neotropical harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Gonyleptidae explained by climate-driven range shifts in the Quaternary: Paleodistributional and molecular evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vergara

    Full Text Available The disjunct distribution of the harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae is used as a case study to test the hypothesis of a trans-Chaco Pleistocene paleobridge during range expansion stages. This would have temporarily connected humid regions ('Mesopotamia' in northeastern Argentina, and the 'Yungas' in the northwest, NWA in the subtropical and temperate South American lowlands. The present study combines two independent approaches: paleodistributional reconstruction, using the Species Distribution Modeling method MaxEnt and projection onto Quaternary paleoclimates (6 kya, 21 kya, 130 kya, and phylogeographic analyses based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I molecular marker. Models predict a maximal shrinkage during the warm Last Interglacial (130 kya, and the rise of the hypothesized paleobridge in the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya, revealing that cold-dry stages (not warm-humid ones, as supposed enabled the range expansion of this species. The disjunction was formed in the mid-Holocene (6 kya and is intensified under current conditions. The median-joining network shows that NWA haplotypes are peripherally related to different Mesopotamian lineages; haplotypes from Santa Fe and Córdoba Provinces consistently occupy central positions in the network. According to the dated phylogeny, Mesopotamia-NWA expansion events would have occurred in the last glacial period, in many cases closely associated to the Last Glacial Maximum, with most divergence events occurring shortly thereafter. Only two (out of nine NWA haplotypes are shared with Mesopotamian localities. A single, presumably relictual NWA haplotype was found to have diverged much earlier, suggesting an ancient expansion event not recoverable by the paleodistributional models. Different measures of sequence statistics, genetic diversity, population structure and history of demographic changes are provided. This research offers the first available evidence for the historical

  4. The challenge of consciousness with special reference to the exclusive disjunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonites

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of evolution makes sense of the emergence of consciousness. Reduction is not wrong as such, but must not be totalised. The fact that we are star stuff does not preclude the novelty of consciousness. Materialism is naturalism, but naturalism need not be materialism. Neural pathways are relevant but are not the total picture. The central thesis is about David Chalmers’s philosophy being based on an exclusive disjunction. An inclusive disjunction is, when explained, more appropriate. Functionalism is appropriate. Thomas Nagel’s philosophy on first person ontology can still be maintained. Quantum and complexity theories’ hypothesis on consciousness is more compatible with freedom of decision than classical theories.

  5. Enhanced non-disjunction and recombination as consequences of γ-induced deficiencies in Petunia hybrida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D.

    1979-01-01

    Non-disjunction events, spontaneous or induced, are rather frequent in plants. In Petunia, no significant effect of γ-radiations was detected. However, the study of some monogametic mutants characterized by a terminal deletion showed that, at the level of the chromosome pair involved by this deletion, both the frequency of specific trisomics and the recombination fractions between 4 marker loci were considerably increased in the progeny of the mutants as compared with that of the control. These features, i.e. deletion-induced non-disjunction and recombination, may be considered as indirect effects of radiations. Generalization to other species may be of importance in the fields of mammalian genetics and plant breeding. (Auth.)

  6. Disjunctive Probabilistic Modal Logic is Enough for Bisimilarity on Reactive Probabilistic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Marco; Miculan, Marino

    2016-01-01

    Larsen and Skou characterized probabilistic bisimilarity over reactive probabilistic systems with a logic including true, negation, conjunction, and a diamond modality decorated with a probabilistic lower bound. Later on, Desharnais, Edalat, and Panangaden showed that negation is not necessary to characterize the same equivalence. In this paper, we prove that the logical characterization holds also when conjunction is replaced by disjunction, with negation still being not necessary. To this e...

  7. THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A BOOLEAN FORMULA OF A POLYGON IN THE DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Butov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on finalizing the method of finding a polygon Boolean formula in disjunctive normal form, described in the previous article [1]. An improved method eliminates the drawback asso-ciated with the existence of a class of problems for which the solution is only approximate. The pro-posed method always allows to find an exact solution. The method can be used, in particular, in the systems of computer-aided design of integrated circuits topology.

  8. Elucidating the mechanisms of paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A R; Petersen, M B; Pettay, D; Taft, L; Allran, K; Freeman, S B; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Torfs, C; Mikkelsen, M; Hassold, T J; Sherman, S L

    1998-08-01

    Paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 accounts for 5-10% of Down syndrome cases, therefore, relative to the maternally derived cases, little is known about paternally derived trisomy 21. We present the first analysis of recombination and non-disjunction for a large paternally derived population of free trisomy 21 conceptuses ( n = 67). Unlike maternal cases where the ratio of meiosis I (MI) to meiosis II (MII) errors is 3:1, a near 1:1 ratio exists among paternal cases, with a slight excess of MII errors. We found no paternal age effect for the overall population nor when classifying cases according to stage of non-disjunction error. Among 22 MI cases, only five had an observable recombinant event. This differs significantly from the 11 expected events ( P < 0.02, Fisher's exact), suggesting reduced recombination along the non-disjoined chromosomes 21 involved in paternal MI non-disjunction. No difference in recombination was detected among 27 paternal MII cases as compared with controls. However, cases exhibited a slight increase in the frequency of proximal and medial exchange when compared with controls (0.37 versus 0.28, respectively). Lastly, this study confirmed previous reports of excess male probands among paternally derived trisomy 21 cases. However, we report evidence suggesting an MII stage-specific sex ratio disturbance where 2.5 male probands were found for each female proband. Classification of MII cases based on the position of the exchange event suggested that the proband sex ratio disturbance was restricted to non-telomeric exchange cases. Based on these findings, we propose new models to explain the association between paternally derived trisomy 21 and excessive male probands.

  9. "So they are not alive?": Dementia, reality disjunctions and conversational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydén, Lars-Christer; Samuelsson, Christina

    2018-01-01

    In some conversations involving persons with Alzheimer's disease, the participants may have to deal with the difficulty that they do not share a common ground in terms of not only who is alive or dead, but even more, who could possibly be alive. It is as if the participants face a reality disjunction. There are very few empirical studies of this difficulty in conversations involving persons with Alzheimer's disease or other kinds of dementia diagnoses. Often studies of confabulation have a focus on the behavior and experience of the healthy participants, but rarely on the interaction and the collaborative contributions made by the person with dementia. In the present article, we discuss various strategies used by all participants in an everyday conversation. The material consists of an hour long everyday conversation between a woman with Alzheimer's disease and two healthy participants (relatives). This conversation is analyzed by looking at the organization of the interaction with an emphasis on how the participants deal with instances of reality disjunctions. The result from the analysis demonstrates that both the healthy participants as well as the person with dementia together skillfully avoid the face threats posed by reality disjunctive contributions by not pursuing argumentative lines that in the end might jeopardize both the collaborative and the personal relations.

  10. TOWARDS PROPER CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    proper harnessing and management of cultural resources in Nigeria for sustainable development .... and knowledge) to organize the resources available to man with the aim of optimizing their use in the ... needs‖ (World Bank 1992). Thus, as ...

  11. Properly colored connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang; Qin, Zhongmei

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of proper connection of graphs is discussed in this book with real world applications in computer science and network security. Beginning with a brief introduction, comprising relevant definitions and preliminary results, this book moves on to consider a variety of properties of graphs that imply bounds on the proper connection number. Detailed proofs of significant advancements toward open problems and conjectures are presented with complete references. Researchers and graduate students with an interest in graph connectivity and colorings will find this book useful as it builds upon fundamental definitions towards modern innovations, strategies, and techniques. The detailed presentation lends to use as an introduction to proper connection of graphs for new and advanced researchers, a solid book for a graduate level topics course, or as a reference for those interested in expanding and further developing research in the area.

  12. Inferring the biogeographic origins of inter-continental disjunct endemics using a Bayes-DIVA approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJ HARRIS; Jun WEN; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2013-01-01

    The arcto-Tertiary relictual flora is comprised of many genera that occur non-contiguously in the temperate zones of eastern Asia,Europe,eastern North America,and westem North America.Within each distributional area,species are typically endemic and may thus be widely separated from closely related species within the other areas.It is widely accepted that this common pattern of distribution resulted from of the fragmentation of a once morecontinuous arcto-Tertiary forest.The historical biogeographic events leading to the present-day disjunction have often been investigated using a phylogenetic approach.Limitations to these previous studies have included phylogenetic uncertainty and uncertainty in ancestral range reconstructions.However,the recently described Bayes-DIVA method handles both types of uncertainty.Thus,we used Bayes-DIVA analysis to reconstruct the stem lineage distributions for 185 endemic lineages from 23 disjunct genera representing 17 vascular plant families.In particular,we asked whether endemic lineages within each of the four distributional areas more often evolved from (1) widespread ancestors,(2) ancestors dispersed from other areas,or (3) endemic ancestors.We also considered which of these three biogeographic mechanisms may best explain the origins of arcto-Tertiary disjunct endemics in the neotropics.Our results show that eastern Asian endemics more often evolved from endemic ancestors compared to endemics in Europe and eastern and western North America.Present-day endemic lineages in the latter areas more often arose from widespread ancestors.Our results also provide anecdotal evidence for the importance of dispersal in the biogeographic origins of arcto-Tertiary species endemic in the neotropics.

  13. Evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions in six continents in the Ampelopsis clade of the grape family (Vitaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Ampelopsis clade (Ampelopsis and its close allies) of the grape family Vitaceae contains ca. 43 species disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Australia, and is a rare example to study both the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere intercontinental disjunctions. We reconstruct the temporal and spatial diversification of the Ampelopsis clade to explore the evolutionary processes that have resulted in their intercontinental disjunctions in six continents. Results The Bayesian molecular clock dating and the likelihood ancestral area analyses suggest that the Ampelopsis clade most likely originated in North America with its crown group dated at 41.2 Ma (95% HPD 23.4 - 61.0 Ma) in the middle Eocene. Two independent Laurasian migrations into Eurasia are inferred to have occurred in the early Miocene via the North Atlantic land bridges. The ancestor of the Southern Hemisphere lineage migrated from North America to South America in the early Oligocene. The Gondwanan-like pattern of intercontinental disjunction is best explained by two long-distance dispersals: once from South America to Africa estimated at 30.5 Ma (95% HPD 16.9 - 45.9 Ma), and the other from South America to Australia dated to 19.2 Ma (95% HPD 6.7 - 22.3 Ma). Conclusions The global disjunctions in the Ampelopsis clade are best explained by a diversification model of North American origin, two Laurasian migrations, one migration into South America, and two post-Gondwanan long-distance dispersals. These findings highlight the importance of both vicariance and long distance dispersal in shaping intercontinental disjunctions of flowering plants. PMID:22316163

  14. A new biogeographically disjunct giant gecko (Gehyra: Gekkonidae: Reptilia) from the East Melanesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M.; Clegg, Jonathan R.; Fisher, Robert N.; Richards, Stephen J.; Taylor, Peter N.; Jocque, Merlijn M. T.

    2016-01-01

    The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.

  15. The eastern Asian and eastern and western North American floristic disjunction: congruent phylogenetic patterns in seven diverse genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Q Y; Soltis, D E; Soltis, P S

    1998-10-01

    One of the most remarkable examples of intercontinental disjunction of the North Temperate Flora involves eastern Asia and eastern and western North America. Although there has been considerable interest in this phytogeographic pattern for over 150 years (e.g., Gray, 1859; Li, 1952; Graham, 1972; Boufford and Spongberg, 1983; Wu, 1983; Tiffney, 1985a, 1985b), relationships among taxa displaying the disjunction remain obscure. Understanding phylogenetic relationships is, however, a prerequisite for historical biogeographic analyses of this distributional pattern. To understand better the relationships of taxa displaying this intercontinental disjunction, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using a variety of DNA data sets for species of four genera (Cornus, Boykinia, Tiarella, and Trautvetteria) that occur in eastern Asia, eastern North America, and western North America. An area cladogram was constructed for each of the four genera, all of which show a similar pattern of relationship: the eastern Asian species are sister to all North American species. An identical phylogenetic pattern is also found in three other taxa exhibiting this disjunction (Aralia sect. Aralia, Calycanthus, and Adiantum pedatum). The congruent phylogenetic pattern found in these seven diverse genera raises the possibility of a common origin of the eastern Asia, eastern and western North America disjunction. The data are in agreement with the long-standing hypothesis that this well-known floristic disjunction represents the fragmentation of a once continuous Mixed Mesophytic forest community and suggest that the disjunction may have involved only two major vicariance events: an initial split between Eurasia and North America, followed by the isolation of floras between eastern and western North America. However, congruence between phylogenies and geographic distributions does not necessarily indicate an identical phytogeographic history. Taxa exhibiting the same phylogenetic pattern may have

  16. Machine safety: proper safeguarding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K J

    1992-06-01

    1. OSHA mandates certain safeguarding of machinery to prevent accidents and protect machine operators. OSHA specifies moving parts that must be guarded and sets criteria for the guards. 2. A 1989 OSHA standard for lockout/tagout requires locking the energy source during maintenance, periodically inspecting for power transmission, and training maintenance workers. 3. In an amputation emergency, first aid for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shock, and bleeding are the first considerations. The amputated part should be wrapped in moist gauze, placed in a sealed plastic bag, and placed in a container of 50% water and 50% ice for transport. 4. The role of the occupational health nurse in machine safety is to conduct worksite analyses to identify proper safeguarding and to communicate deficiencies to appropriate personnel; to train workers in safe work practices and observe compliance in the use of machine guards; to provide care to workers injured by machines; and to reinforce safe work practices among machine operators.

  17. No-Disjunction and loss of anafasica Hamster-human hybrid embryos of two cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsa, I.; Tusell, L.; Alvarez, R.; Genesca, A.; Miro, R.; Egozcue, J.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possible effect anafasica the ionizing radiations in masculine germinal cells a new test it has been developed combining two techniques, the fecundation interspecific gives ovocitos hamster without area pellucid with human sperms and the fluorescent in situ hybridization in cells in interface using probes gives DNA specific centrometricas. Analyzing the segregation gives the chromosomes marked in the embryos two cells, you can detect the reciprocal products easily an anomalous segregation. Give this way the recount the fluorescent signs in the nuclei siblings and in the micronucleus it provides an esteem the due aneuploidy to errors meiotic or premiotic, with this way the resulting aneuploidy the errors in the first division mitotic the embryos, as much no-disjunction as lost anafasica

  18. New verifiable stationarity concepts for a class of mathematical programs with disjunctive constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Matúš; Gfrerer, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a sufficiently broad class of non-linear mathematical programs with disjunctive constraints, which, e.g. include mathematical programs with complemetarity/vanishing constraints. We present an extension of the concept of [Formula: see text]-stationarity which can be easily combined with the well-known notion of M-stationarity to obtain the stronger property of so-called [Formula: see text]-stationarity. We show how the property of [Formula: see text]-stationarity (and thus also of M-stationarity) can be efficiently verified for the considered problem class by computing [Formula: see text]-stationary solutions of a certain quadratic program. We consider further the situation that the point which is to be tested for [Formula: see text]-stationarity, is not known exactly, but is approximated by some convergent sequence, as it is usually the case when applying some numerical method.

  19. Cooperative parallel adaptive neighbourhood search for the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zhe; Wu, Lei

    2017-09-01

    This article investigates the use of parallel computing for solving the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem. The proposed parallel computing model can be viewed as a cooperative algorithm based on a multi-neighbourhood search. The cooperation system is composed of a team manager and a crowd of team members. The team members aim at applying their own search strategies to explore the solution space. The team manager collects the solutions from the members and shares the best one with them. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a group of benchmark data sets. The results obtained are compared to those reached by the best methods from the literature. The results show that the proposed method is able to provide the best solutions in most cases. In order to highlight the robustness of the proposed parallel computing model, a new set of large-scale instances is introduced. Encouraging results have been obtained.

  20. Processing inferences at the semantics/pragmatics frontier: disjunctions and free choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, Emmanuel; Bott, Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Linguistic inferences have traditionally been studied and categorized in several categories, such as entailments, implicatures or presuppositions. This typology is mostly based on traditional linguistic means, such as introspective judgments about phrases occurring in different constructions, in different conversational contexts. More recently, the processing properties of these inferences have also been studied (see, e.g., recent work showing that scalar implicatures is a costly phenomenon). Our focus is on free choice permission, a phenomenon by which conjunctive inferences are unexpectedly added to disjunctive sentences. For instance, a sentence such as "Mary is allowed to eat an ice-cream or a cake" is normally understood as granting permission both for eating an ice-cream and for eating a cake. We provide data from four processing studies, which show that, contrary to arguments coming from the theoretical literature, free choice inferences are different from scalar implicatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Possible mechanisms of chromosomal aberrations: VII. Comparative dynamics of sister chromatid disjunction and realization of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations during mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, L.I.; Akhmamet'eva, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    An increase in radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations during c-metaphase sister chromatid disjunction was demonstrated in murine bone marrow cells exposed to a total γ-irradiation at 0.5 Gy. Caffeine (Cf) treatment during mitosis partially suppressed the chromatid disjunction rate and increased the number of radiation-induced aberrations in this mitosis. Nalidixic acid (NA) treatment of c-metaphase cells completely suppressed chromatid disjunction and the realization of induced aberrations. Topoisomerase 2 was assumed to be involved during mitosis in both processes

  3. Feeling-of-knowing for proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaute, Marie; Chambres, Patrick; Larochelle, Serge

    2002-12-01

    The main objective of the presented study was to study feeling-of-knowing (FOK) in proper name retrieval. Many studies show that FOK can predict performance on a subsequent criterion test. Although feeling-of-knowing studies involve questions about proper names, none make this distinction between proper names and common names. Nevertheless, the specific character of proper names as a unique label referring to a person should allow participants to target precisely the desired verbal label. Our idea here was that the unique character of proper name information should result in more accurate FOK evaluations. In the experiment, participants evaluated feeling-of-knowing for proper and common name descriptions. The study demonstrates that FOK judgments are more accurate for proper names than for common names. The implications of the findings for proper names are briefly discussed in terms of feeling-of-knowing hypotheses.

  4. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for correct...

  5. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  6. Taxonomic monograph of Oxygyne (Thismiaceae), rare achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophs with strongly disjunct distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Martin; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Rudall, Paula J; Suetsugu, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Oxygyne Schltr. (Thismiaceae) is a rare and little-known genus of achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophic perennial herbs with one of the most remarkable distributions of all angiosperm plant genera globally, being disjunct between Japan and West-Central Africa. Each species is known only from a single location, and in most cases from a single specimen. This monographic study names, describes and maps two new species, Oxygyne duncanii Cheek from cloud forest in SW Region Cameroon and O. frankei Cheek from gallery forest in the Central African Republic , representing the first new Oxygyne species described from Africa in 112 years, and raising the number of described Oxygyne species from four to six. Oxygyne duncanii is remarkable for sharing more morphological characters with two of the three Japanese species ( O. hyodoi C.Abe & Akasawa, O. shinzatoi (H. Ohashi) Tsukaya) than with the geographically much closer type species of the genus, O. triandra from Mt Cameroon. Based mainly on herbarium specimens and field observations made in Cameroon and Japan during a series of botanical surveys, we provide descriptions, synonymy, mapping and extinction risk assessments for each species of Oxygyne , together with keys to the genera of Thismiaceae and the species of Oxygyne . The subterranean structures of African Oxygyne are described for the first time, and found to be consistent with those of the Japanese species. We review and reject an earlier proposal that the Japanese species should be segregated from the African species as a separate genus, Saionia Hatus. The only character that separates the two disjunct species groups is now flower colour: blue or partly-blue in the Japanese species compared with orange-brown in the African species. Studies of the pollination biology and mycorrhizal partners of Oxygyne are still lacking. Two of the six species, O. triandra Schltr. and O. hyodoi , appear to be extinct, and the remaining four are assessed as Critically Endangered using

  7. Taxonomic monograph of Oxygyne (Thismiaceae, rare achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophs with strongly disjunct distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cheek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygyne Schltr. (Thismiaceae is a rare and little-known genus of achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophic perennial herbs with one of the most remarkable distributions of all angiosperm plant genera globally, being disjunct between Japan and West–Central Africa. Each species is known only from a single location, and in most cases from a single specimen. This monographic study names, describes and maps two new species, Oxygyne duncanii Cheek from cloud forest in SW Region Cameroon and O. frankei Cheek from gallery forest in the Central African Republic, representing the first new Oxygyne species described from Africa in 112 years, and raising the number of described Oxygyne species from four to six. Oxygyne duncanii is remarkable for sharing more morphological characters with two of the three Japanese species (O. hyodoi C.Abe & Akasawa, O. shinzatoi (H. Ohashi Tsukaya than with the geographically much closer type species of the genus, O. triandra from Mt Cameroon. Based mainly on herbarium specimens and field observations made in Cameroon and Japan during a series of botanical surveys, we provide descriptions, synonymy, mapping and extinction risk assessments for each species of Oxygyne, together with keys to the genera of Thismiaceae and the species of Oxygyne. The subterranean structures of African Oxygyne are described for the first time, and found to be consistent with those of the Japanese species. We review and reject an earlier proposal that the Japanese species should be segregated from the African species as a separate genus, Saionia Hatus. The only character that separates the two disjunct species groups is now flower colour: blue or partly-blue in the Japanese species compared with orange-brown in the African species. Studies of the pollination biology and mycorrhizal partners of Oxygyne are still lacking. Two of the six species, O. triandra Schltr. and O. hyodoi, appear to be extinct, and the remaining four are assessed as Critically

  8. Phylogeographic Analysis Elucidates the Influence of the Ice Ages on the Disjunct Distribution of Relict Dragonflies in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsse, Sebastian; von Grumbkow, Philipp; Hummel, Susanne; Shah, Deep Narayan; Tachamo Shah, Ram Devi; Li, Jingke; Zhang, Xueping; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Wedmann, Sonja; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Unusual biogeographic patterns of closely related groups reflect events in the past, and molecular analyses can help to elucidate these events. While ample research on the origin of disjunct distributions of different organism groups in the Western Paleartic has been conducted, such studies are rare for Eastern Palearctic organisms. In this paper we present a phylogeographic analysis of the disjunct distribution pattern of the extant species of the strongly cool-adapted Epiophlebia dragonflies from Asia. We investigated sequences of the usually more conserved 18 S rDNA and 28 S rDNA genes and the more variable sequences of ITS1, ITS2 and CO2 of all three currently recognised Epiophlebia species and of a sample of other odonatan species. In all genes investigated the degrees of similarity between species of Epiophlebia are very high and resemble those otherwise found between different populations of the same species in Odonata. This indicates that substantial gene transfer between these populations occurred in the comparatively recent past. Our analyses imply a wide distribution of the ancestor of extant Epiophlebia in Southeast Asia during the last ice age, when suitable habitats were more common. During the following warming phase, its range contracted, resulting in the current disjunct distribution. Given the strong sensitivity of these species to climatic parameters, the current trend to increasing global temperatures will further reduce acceptable habitats and seriously threaten the existences of these last representatives of an ancient group of Odonata. PMID:22666462

  9. A hybrid guided neighborhood search for the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhand Hifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of a hybrid guided neighborhood search for solving the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem. The studied problem may be viewed as a combination of two NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems: the weighted-independent set and the classical binary knapsack. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid approach that combines both deterministic and random local searches. The deterministic local search is based on a descent method, where both building and exploring procedures are alternatively used for improving the solution at hand. In order to escape from a local optima, a random local search strategy is introduced which is based on a modified ant colony optimization system. During the search process, the ant colony optimization system tries to diversify and to enhance the solutions using some informations collected from the previous iterations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is computationally analyzed on a set of benchmark instances available in the literature. The provided results are compared to those realized by both the Cplex solver and a recent algorithm of the literature. The computational part shows that the obtained results improve most existing solution values.

  10. Utilization during mitotic cell division of loci controlling meiotic recombination and disjunction in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, B.S.; Carpenter, A.T.C.; Ripoll, P.

    1978-01-01

    To inquire whether the loci identified by recombination-defective and disjunction-defective meiotic mutants in Drosophila are also utilized during mitotic cell division, the effects of 18 meiotic mutants (representing 13 loci) on mitotic chromosome stability have been examined genetically. To do this, meiotic-mutant-bearing flies heterozygous for recessive somatic cell markers were examined for the frequencies and types of spontaneous clones expressing the cell markers. In such flies, marked clones can arise via mitotic recombination, mutation, chromosome breakage, nondisjunction or chromosome loss, and clones from these different origins can be distinguished. In addition, meiotic mutants at nine loci have been examined for their effects on sensitivity to killing by uv and x rays. Mutants at six of the seven recombination-defective loci examined (mei-9, mei-41, c(3)G, mei-W68, mei-S282, mei-352, mei-218) cause mitotic chromosome instability in both sexes, whereas mutants at one locus (mei-218) do not affect mitotic chromosome stability. Thus many of the loci utilized during meiotic recombination also function in the chromosomal economy of mitotic cells

  11. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Nouioui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase, dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator, and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.

  12. Public engagement in climate change - Disjunctions, tensions and blind spots in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, C

    2009-01-01

    There is much talk about engaging the public in climate change mitigation and adaptation in the UK and elsewhere. Governments rush to demand greater engagement of the public in tackling climate change and delivering sustainable futures. The importance that public engagement has gained as part of the UK climate agenda begs the questions of what is actually behind this call and what are the implications. This paper analyses the rationale for public engagement as enshrined in major policy documents. This rationale is clearly instrumental in that citizens are expected to engage by adopting the 'right attitude', by performing prescribed behaviours, and by consenting to proposed measures. Using recent cases of climate change mitigation and adaptation practice the paper discusses the implications of such an approach to public engagement. The paper concludes that until the manifold disjunctions between climate related policy agendas and their rationales for engagement are explicitly addressed citizen engagement will be serving incumbent interests rather than contributing to socially sustainable and democratic decision-making

  13. Disjunct eddy covariance measurements of volatile organic compound fluxes using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipale, R.

    2011-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources, vegetation being the dominant source on a global scale. Some of these reactive compounds are deemed major contributors or inhibitors to aerosol particle formation and growth, thus making VOC measurements essential for current climate change research. This thesis discusses ecosystem scale VOC fluxes measured above a boreal Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland. The flux measurements were performed using the micrometeorological disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), which is an online technique for measuring VOC concentrations. The measurement, calibration, and calculation procedures developed in this work proved to be well suited to long-term VOC concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS. A new averaging approach based on running averaged covariance functions improved the determination of the lag time between wind and concentration measurements, which is a common challenge in DEC when measuring fluxes near the detection limit. The ecosystem scale emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone were substantial. These three oxygenated VOCs made up about half of the total emissions, with the rest comprised of monoterpenes. Contrary to the traditional assumption that monoterpene emissions from Scots pine originate mainly as evaporation from specialized storage pools, the DEC measurements indicated a significant contribution from de novo biosynthesis to the ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions. This thesis offers practical guidelines for long-term DEC measurements with PTR-MS. In particular, the new averaging approach to the lag time determination seems useful in the automation of DEC flux calculations. Seasonal variation in the monoterpene biosynthesis and the detailed structure of a revised hybrid algorithm, describing both de novo and pool emissions, should be determined in

  14. Large-scale phylogeography of the disjunct Neotropical tree species Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Cruz, Fernanda; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Simon, Marcelo F; Salgueiro, Fabiano; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-10-01

    Neotropical rainforests exhibit high levels of endemism and diversity. Although the evolutionary genetics of plant diversification has garnered increased interest, phylogeographic studies of widely distributed species remain scarce. Here we describe chloroplast and nuclear variation patterns in Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae), a widespread tree in Neotropical rainforests that harbor two varieties with a disjunct distribution. Chloroplast and nuclear sequence analyses yielded 21 and 4 haplotypes, respectively. Two genetic diversity centers that correlate with the two known varieties were identified: the Southeastern Atlantic forest and the Amazonian basin. In contrast, the populations from southern and northeastern Atlantic forests and Andean-Central American forests exhibited low levels of genetic diversity and divergent haplotypes, likely related to historical processes that impact the flora and fauna in these regions, such as a founder's effect after dispersion and demographic expansion. Phylogeographic and demographic patterns suggest that episodes of genetic isolation and dispersal events have shaped the evolutionary history for this species, and different patterns have guided the evolution of S. parahyba. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that the dry corridor formed by Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions and the Andean uplift acted as barriers to this species' gene flow, a picture that may be generalized to most of the plant biodiversity tropical woodlands and forests. These results also reinforce the importance of evaluating multiple genetic markers for a more comprehensive understanding of population structure and history. Our results provide insight into the conservation efforts and ongoing work on the genetics of population divergence and speciation in these Neotropical rainforests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation-induced meiotic autosomal non-disjunction in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhoff, J.H.; Boer, P. de

    1980-01-01

    Male mice, heterozygous for the Rb(11.13)4Bnr translocation, were irradiated for 14.5 min with either a dose of 15-rad fission neutrons or 60-rad X-rays. Animals of this karyotype are known to show high levels of spontaneous autosomal non- disjunction (20-30%) after anaphase I. The effects of the irradiation on this process were determined after 2 and 3 h in air-dried preparations. The length of the period from the end of meiosis I till the end of meiosis II was assessed autoradiographically, with the aid of cells showing a labelled Y chromosome only and appeared to last less than 3 h. Inter-mouse variation with regard to the duration of the period last premeiotic S-phase till diakinesis/metaphase I prevented a more accurate estimate. On the basis of this 3-h datum, the induced effects were studied at intervals of 2 and 3 h after the start of the irradiation. The influence of irradiation was assessed by scoring: (1) univalents in primary spermatocytes, (2) delections, aneuploid chromosome counts and precocious centromere separation in secondary spermatocytes, and (3) chromatid gaps and breaks in both cell types. Both radiation types induced comparable levels of chromosomal damage. A neutron X-rays RBE value for these parameters was calculated to be 5.4 for the MI stage and 3.3. for the MII stage. The significantly higher incidence of cells showing damage at MII than at diakinesis/MI is not believed to indicate a difference in radiation sensitivity, but is believed to be merely the consequence of the different chromosomal processes taking place during the irradiation taking place during the irradiation-fixation time interval. (orig.)

  16. Large proper motions in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudworth, K.M.; Stone, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Several nebular features, as well as one faint star, with large proper motions were identified within the Orion nebula. The measured proper motions correspond to tangential velocities of up to approximately 70 km sec -1 . One new probable variable star was also found

  17. Proper motions and distances of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshni, Y.P.

    1982-01-01

    The author's theory that quasars are stars raises the question of their proper motions. From the evidence presented in a previous paper, it is hypothesised that planetary nuclei and quasars are related objects and that their distributions in the galaxy are not very different. Proper motions of 30 quasars, calculated from existing measurements, are discussed. It is shown that three of these, namely PHL 1033, LB 8956 and LB 8991, have proper motions comparable to the largest proper motion known amongst the planetary nuclei. From this it is estimated that these three quasars lie within a few hundred parsecs from the sun. The evidence presented in a previous paper and the present one clearly supports the theory that quasars are stars. The possibility of using the interstellar K and H lines as distance indicators of quasars is discussed and the available evidence summarised. The desirability of determining more accurate values of the proper motions of quasars is emphasised. (Auth.)

  18. KINERJA PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH HOTEL PESERTA PROPER DAN NON PROPER DI KABUPATEN BADUNG, PROVINSI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Nilakandi Perdanawati Pitoyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bali tourism development can lead to positive and negative impacts that threatening environmental sustainability. This research evaluates the hotel performance of the waste management that includes management of waste water, emission, hazardous, and solid waste by hotel that participate at PROPER and non PROPER. Research using qualitative descriptive method. Not all of non PROPER doing test on waste water quality, chimney emissions quality, an inventory of hazardous waste and solid waste sorting. Wastewater discharge of PROPER hotels ranged from 290.9 to 571.8 m3/day and non PROPER ranged from 8.4 to 98.1 m3/day with NH3 parameter values that exceed the quality standards. The quality of chimney emissions were still below the quality standard. The volume of the hazardous waste of PROPER hotels ranged from 66.1 to 181.9 kg/month and non PROPER ranged from 5.003 to 103.42 kg/month. Hazardous waste from the PROPER hotel which has been stored in the TPS hazardous waste. The volume of the solid waste of PROPER hotel ranged from 342.34 to 684.54 kg/day and non PROPER ranged from 4.83 to 181.51 kg/day. The PROPER and non PROPER hotel not sort the solid waste. The hotel performance in term of wastewater management, emission, hazardous, and solid waste is better at the PROPER hotel compared to non PROPER participants.

  19. Congruent biogeographical disjunctions at a continent-wide scale: Quantifying and clarifying the role of biogeographic barriers in the Australian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Michael D.; Cook, Dianne H.; Cook, Lyn G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To test whether novel and previously hypothesized biogeogaphic barriers in the Australian Tropics represent significant disjunction points or hard barriers, or both, to the distribution of plants. Location Australian tropics: Australian Monsoon Tropics and Australian Wet Tropics. Methods The presence or absence of 6,861 plant species was scored across 13 putative biogeographic barriers in the Australian Tropics, including two that have not previously been recognised. Randomizations of these data were used to test whether more species showed disjunctions (gaps in distribution) or likely barriers (range limits) at these points than expected by chance. Results Two novel disjunctions in the Australian Tropics flora are identified in addition to eleven putative barriers previously recognized for animals. Of these, eleven disjunction points (all within the Australian Monsoon Tropics) were found to correspond to range-ending barriers to a significant number of species, while neither of the two disjunctions found within the Australian Wet Tropics limited a significant number of species’ ranges. Main conclusions Biogeographic barriers present significant distributional limits to native plant species in the Australian Monsoon Tropics but not in the Australian Wet Tropics. PMID:28376094

  20. Mutation studies upon spermatogonial stem cells of mammals and genetic tests for non-disjunction in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattanach, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies upon strain differences in genetic response to radiation may facilitate extrapolation of mouse data to man. The objective of the project is to investigate the basis of the genetic responses obtained with different treatment regimes. Two systems of genetic (complementation) tests were developed using Robertsonian translocations in tester animals to detect non-disjunction and chromosome loss events in normal mice. The aim is to evaluate the two methods for detecting chromosome 11 loss, and compare the frequency of chromosomes 11 and 13 loss following X-irradiation of males and females. (R.P.) 6 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The recent advances in computation of asteroid proper elements are briefly reviewed. Although not representing real breakthroughs in computation and stability assessment of proper elements, these advances can still be considered as important improvements offering solutions to some practical problems encountered in the past. The problem of getting unrealistic values of perihelion frequency for very low eccentricity orbits is solved by computing frequencies using the frequency-modified Fourier transform. The synthetic resonant proper elements adjusted to a given secular resonance helped to prove the existence of Astraea asteroid family. The preliminary assessment of stability with time of proper elements computed by means of the analytical theory provides a good indication of their poorer performance with respect to their synthetic counterparts, and advocates in favor of ceasing their regular maintenance; the final decision should, however, be taken on the basis of more comprehensive and reliable direct estimate of their individual and sample average deviations from constancy.

  2. On the Determination of Proper Time

    OpenAIRE

    Hurl, Bing; Zhang, Zhi-Yong Wang Hai-Dong

    1998-01-01

    Through the analysis of the definition of the duration of proper time of a particle given by the length of its world line, we show that there is no transitivity of the coordinate time function derived from the definition, so there exists an ambiguity in the determination of the duration of the proper time for the particle. Its physical consequence is illustrated with quantum measurement effect.

  3. Different test systems in Aspergillus nidulans for the evaluation of mitotic gene conversion, crossing-over and non-disjunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bertoldi, M.; Griselli, M.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa; Barale, R.

    1980-01-01

    The wide variety of the genetic alterations produced by environmental mutagens has increased the necessity of using experimental microorganisms to reveal the induction of such genetic events with short-term tests. Aspergillus nidulans, because of its well-developed genetic system and the availability of morphological markers seay to score, can be profitably used in mutagen testing. The constitution of particular diploid strains of A. nidulans able to detect the induction of mitotic gene conversion, mitotic crossing-over and mitotic non-disjunction with selective procedures are described and validated with standard mutagens: methyl methanesulphonate and UV radiation (lacking a specific genetic activity), benomyl and p-fluorophenylalanine (with a specific genetic activity). The possibility of using mammalian metabolic activation of promutagens in A. nidulans in vitro was tested with cyclophosphamide, with positive results in all the tested genetic systems. A method that increases the sensitivity of conidia to mutagenic treatments is described; its application appeared to be particularly useful in experiments on crossing-over and non-disjunction. (orig.)

  4. Role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in the Northern Hemisphere disjunction: evidence from two herbaceous genera of Rubiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Meng, Ying; Volis, Sergei; Sun, Hang; Nie, Ze-Long

    2017-10-17

    To assess the role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in shaping the intercontinental disjunction in Northern Hemisphere, we analyzed the origin and diversification within a geological timeframe for two relict herbaceous genera, Theligonum and Kelloggia (Rubiaceae). Phylogenetic relationships within and between Theligonum and Kelloggia as well as their relatives were inferred using five chloroplast markers with parsimony, Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches. Migration routes and evolution of these taxa were reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and ancestral area reconstruction. Our results suggest the monophyly of each Theligonum and Kelloggia. Eastern Asian and North American species of Kelloggia diverged at ca.18.52 Mya and the Mediterranean species of Theligonum diverged from eastern Asian taxa at ca.13.73 Mya. Both Kelloggia and Theligonum are Tethyan flora relicts, and their ancestors might have been occurred in warm tropical to subtropical environments along the Tethys coast. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau separated the eastern and western Tethyan area may contribute significantly to the disjunct distributions of Theligonum, and the North Atlantic migration appears to be the most likely pathway of expansion of Kelloggia to North America. Our results highlight the importance role of the QTP uplift together with corresponding geological and climatic events in shaping biodiversity and biogeographic distribution in the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Editorial: The proper place for knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2009-11-01

    London University, Institute of education, described, in a book published in 2000, how awkwardly most of this literature was written and claimed that most of the academic community was rather unskilled in prescribing the paths we want learners to follow to achieve wisdom. It is "...grossly under-conceptualised in higher education...." (2000, p. 322 And, he asserts, for the most they miss the point of how we become educated in our age. He comments the following about knowledge in this context, which is inescapably a supercomplex one. He suggests:  The key problem of supercomplexity is not one of knowledge; it is one of being. Accordingly, we have to displace knowledge from the core of our pedagogies. The student's being has to take centre stage. Feeling uncertainty, responding to uncertainty, gaining confidence to insert oneself amid the numerous counter-claims to which one is exposed, engaging with the enemy, and developing resilience and courage: these are matters of being. Their acquisition calls for a revolution in the pedagogical relationships within a university. (Barnett 2000, s.170-171.  He clearly states that knowledge is pretty useless in itself, and that higher education has a significant way to go in order to put knowledge in its proper place. Writing well about what role and position "knowledge" has in the life of higher education is difficult, and Barnett's comment should remind us that there is more to education than "knowledge".  In this issue of Seminar.net, we find three different approaches to handling knowledge and putting it in its proper place. Knut Arne Strand and Tor Arne Hjeltnes focus on the process of helping corporate customers to explicate their needs for turning professional knowledge into teachable material for e-learning. Knowledge is here understood as a complex matter of people managing a professional knowledge base, and transforming it to a platform from which students can learn in practical contexts online. Siv Oltedal's project

  6. Dynamical systems of proper characteristic 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.H.; Hamoui, A.

    1991-07-01

    Flows with orbits of proper characteristics 0 exhibit recurrent behaviour, a feature of basic importance in the description of their dynamics. Here, we analyze flows with such orbits relating them with recurrent flows and with flows that exhibit orbital, Poisson or Lagrange stability. (author). 11 refs

  7. Improved Industrial Development In Nigeria Through Proper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper noted that most industrial development strategies in Nigeria did not give attention to technology education. And that technology education as recognized by few of the strategies were not only properly articulated for the tertiary institutions, but also poorly implemented. Therefore, to put technology and thus ...

  8. Archetypes: the PropeR way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Grimson, Jane; Tange, Huibert; Talmon, Jan; Hasman, Arie

    2004-01-01

    The PropeR project studies the effect of Decision Support in an Electronic Health Record system (EHR) on the quality of care. One of the applications supports a multidisciplinary primary care team rehabilitating stroke patients in their home environment. This project required an EHR system that

  9. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc

  10. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beckman, J., E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wsteffen@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jeb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  11. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  12. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  13. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  14. Polyphyly of the Padus group of Prunus (Rosaceae) and the evolution of biogeographic disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lin; Wen, Jun; Nie, Ze-Long; Johnson, Gabriel; Liang, Zong-Suo; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2013-05-01

    Prunus subgenus Padus is a group with a wide distribution in temperate eastern Asia and eastern North America with one species extending to Europe and one to Central America. Phylogenetic relationships of subgenus Padus were reconstructed using sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS, and plastid ndhF gene, and rps16 intron and rpl16 intron. Prunus subgenus Padus is shown to be polyphyletic. Taxa of subgenus Padus and subgenus Laurocerasus are highly intermixed in both the ITS and the plastid trees. The results support two disjunctions between eastern North America and Eurasia within the Padus group. One disjunction is between Prunus virginiana of eastern North America and P. padus of Eurasia, estimated to have diverged at 2.99 (95 % HPD 0.59-6.15)-4.1 (95 % HPD 0.63-8.59) mya. The other disjunction is between P. serotina and its Asian relatives. The second disjunction may have occurred earlier than the former one, but the age estimate is difficult due to the unresolved phylogenetic position of the P. serotina complex.

  15. AMPLITUDES OF DISJUNCTIVE DISLOCATIONS IN THE KNIPOVICH RIDGE FLANKS (NORTHERN ATLANTIC AS AN INDICATOR OF MODERN REGIONAL GEODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Sokolov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first map showing the vertical amplitudes of modern disjunctive dislocations inNorthern Atlantic, based on the estimated phase shifts of reflected waves recorded by high-frequency seismic acoustic surveys. The amplitude distribution pattern is mosaic with alternating areas of compression and extension in the flanks of the Knipovich rift system. The modern structure of the Knipovich Ridge, including two strike-slip faults, represents a local rift in the pull-apart setting. The asymmetry of stresses and the presence of compression in the ridge flanks is evidenced by the distribution of the focal mechanisms of strong earthquakes related to reverse faults. In the southeastern Knipovich Ridge, tectonic activity is marked by the asymmetric pattern of the epicenters of small earthquakes.

  16. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  17. Proper motion survey for solar nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    For its microlensing observations EROS 2 built one of the largest CCD mosaic opera ting since 1996. This instrument allowed us to survey a large area of the sky, to look for faint, cool compact objects in the Solar neighborhood that may contribute to the Dark Matter revealed by flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the Milky Way. We imaged over 400 square degrees, at least three times over four years, with a single, stable instrument. The aim of this work is the reduction, the analysis and the detection of high proper motion objects that would look like those expected in a dark halo. We selected and analyzed thousands of images taken in two bands, visible and near-infrared, and obtained a catalogue of several thousand stars with proper motion typically higher than 80 milli-arc-seconds per year. None of these candidates displays the expected properties of the halo objects: very high proper motion and faintness. The second part of our work was to put constraints on the contributions of white dwarfs and brown dwarfs ta the halo. To do that, we simulated our data set and estimated our sensitivity to halo objects. We compared our results about moderately high proper motion stars with existing Galactic models, and confirmed the robustness of these models. We deduced a upper limit ta the contribution of M_v = 17.5 white dwarfs to the standard halo of 10% (at the 95% confidence level), or 5% of a 14 Gyr old halo, and to the contribution of brown dwarfs of 7% (95% C.L.). Finally, among our candidates, several interesting objects, that do not belong to the halo but are among the coolest and faintest known, have been discovered. Systematic search for faint, nearby objects thus lead us to study disk L dwarfs, as well as old white dwarfs of the disk. (author) [fr

  18. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

    2012-12-01

    The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.

  20. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic evidence for a Pleistocene disjunction between Campanula jacobaea (Cape Verde Islands) and C. balfourii (Socotra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Marisa; Roquet, Cristina; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Vargas, Pablo; Aldasoro, Juan José

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of processes that led to biogeographic disjunct patterns of plant lineages in Macaronesia, North Africa and Socotra remains poor. Here, we study a group of Campanula species distributed across these areas integrating morphological and reproductive traits with phylogenetic and phylogeographic data based on the obtention of sequences for 4 highly variable cpDNA regions and AFLP data. The phylogeny obtained shows a sister relationship between Campanula jacobaea (endemic to Cape Verde Islands) and C. balfourii (endemic to Socotra), thus revealing a striking disjunct pattern (8300 km). These species diverged around 1.0 Mya; AFLP and haplotype data suggest that no genetic interchange has occurred since then. Their closest taxon, C. hypocrateriformis, is endemic to SW Morocco. The archipelagos of Macaronesia and Socotra have probably acted as refugia for North-African species, leading to speciation through isolation. Although C. balfourii has a restricted distribution, its genetic variability suggests that its populations have suffered no bottlenecks. C. jacobaea is also genetically rich and its distribution across Cape Verde Islands seems to have been influenced by the NE-SW trade winds, which may also have favoured the admixture found among the populations of the three southern islands. Floral features of the morphologically hypervariable C. jacobaea were also measured to assess whether the taxon C. bravensis, described for some of the southeast populations of C. jacobaea, corresponds to a different evolutionary entity. We show that morphological variation in C. jacobaea does not correspond to any genetic or geographic group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogeography of screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus: Successive disjunctions and extinctions due to cyclical climatic changes in southern South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Poljak

    Full Text Available Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution. C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.

  2. Phylogeography of screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus: Successive disjunctions and extinctions due to cyclical climatic changes in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Sebastián; Ferreiro, Alejandro M; Chiappero, Marina B; Sánchez, Julieta; Gabrielli, Magalí; Lizarralde, Marta S

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution). C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeographic diversification of linnaeoideae (caprifoliaceae s. L.) disjunctly distributed in Eurasia, North America and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Feng; Landrein, Sven; Dong, Wen-Pan; Nie, Ze-Long; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Funamoto, Tsuneo; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Linnaeoideae is a small subfamily of erect or creeping shrubs to small trees in Caprifoliaceae that exhibits a wide disjunct distribution in Eurasia, North America and Mexico. Most taxa of the subfamily occur in eastern Asia and Mexico but the monospecific genus Linnaea has a circumboreal to north temperate distribution. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses for Linnaeoideae and its close relatives based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS and nine plastid (rbcL, trnS-G, matK, trnL-F, ndhA, trnD-psbM, petB-D, trnL-rpl32 and trnH-psbA) markers. Our results support that Linnaeoideae is monophyletic, consisting of four eastern Asian lineages (Abelia, Diabelia, Dipelta and Kolkwitzia), the Mexican Vesalea, and Linnaea. The Mexican Vesalea was formerly placed in Abelia, but it did not form a clade with the eastern Asian Abelia; instead Vesalea and Linnaea are sisters. The divergence time between the eastern Asian lineages and the Mexican Vesalea plus the Linnaea clade was dated to be 50.86 Ma, with a 95% highest posterior density of 42.8 Ma (middle Eocene) to 60.19 Ma (early Paleocene) using the Bayesian relaxed clock estimation. Reconstructed ancestral areas indicated that the common ancestor of Linnaea plus Vesalea may have been widespread in eastern Asia and Mexico or originated in eastern Asia during the Eocene and likely migrated across continents in the Northern Hemisphere via the North Atlantic Land Bridges or the Bering Land Bridge. The Qinling Mountains of eastern Asia are the modern-day center of diversity of Kolkwitzia-Dipelta-Diabelia clade. The Diabeliaclade became highly diversified in Japan and eastern China. Populations of Diabelia serrata in Japan and eastern China were found to be genetically identical in this study, suggesting a recent disjunction across the East China Sea, following the last glacial event.

  4. Microcnemum coralloides (Chenopodiaceae- Salicornioideae: an example of intraspecific East-West disjunctions in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadereit, Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microcnemum is a monotypic genus of Salicornioideae comprising rare, annual, hygrohalophytic herbs growing in hypersaline inland lagoons and salt pans. Microcnemum coralloides shows an East-West disjunction in the Mediterranean region: M. coralloides subsp. coralloides occurs in central and eastern Spain while M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum grows in Turkey, Syria, Armenia and Iran. We studied the phylogeny, biogeography and morphological differentiation of M. coralloides. Molecular analyses, using five western and eight eastern accessions of the species, were based on three different markers (nuclear ITS and plastid atpB-rbcL spacer and trnT/F region analysed with Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood. Estimates of divergence times were calculated using a Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT and the Penalized Likelihood (PL method. The two subspecies can be clearly distinguished by their different seed testa surface. Other diagnostic characters were not found. The molecular data (ITS and ML analysis of the trnT/F region indicate that M. coralloides subsp. coralloides originated from within M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum which implies an East Mediterranean origin and subsequent westward dispersal. Age estimates for the split of the two subspecies range from 2.8–0.5 million years ago. Considering the relatively low genetic differentiation and the low crown group age (0.7–0.1 mya of M. coralloides subsp. coralloides in comparison to M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum we favour the hypothesis that the Iberian part of the species range was established during cold periods of the Early Pleistocene and that the range of the species was fragmented during a warmer period soon after its arrival in Iberia.Microcnemum es un género monotípico de Salicornioideae que consiste en hierbas higrohalófilas, anuales, raras, que crecen en cuencas endorréicas hipersalinas del interior y salares. Microcnemum coralloides muestran una disyunción Este

  5. Disjunction or non-disjunction in F2 generation according to the cross between a wheat mutant and its original lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touvin, H.

    1973-01-01

    An early homogeneous mutant line (B) was obtained in M 2 generation following the gamma-rays (15kR) treatment of the dry seeds of a fixed homogeneous line of soft wheat (A). The study of this mutant leads to the following observations: the earliness is stable in the mutant stock during successive generations and in different climatic conditions; the products of reciprocal crosses between the mutant B and the original line A, compared in micro-tests under greenhouse conditions gave following different results according to the cross; in the F 1 , the reciprocal hybrids (AxB, BxA) are earlier than the mutant. The F 1 offsprings (BxA) which received the earliness characteristic from the female parent, develop more rapidly than the reciprocal F 1 hybrid (AxB). Thus, this shows that there exist a maternal effect from the mutant side. In the F 2 , the descendants of the hybrid (AxB) segregated phenotypically in two classes, early and late, whereas the other hybrid (BxA) produces only early plants. The F 3 offsprings confirm the observations made in the F 2 generation. Although the F 3 generation of the hybrid (AxB) is composed of the early homogenous, the heterogeneous and the late homogeneous lines, but no segregation occurs in the cross (BxA). The segregation ratio in F 2 and in most of the backcrosses progenies indicates that the transmission of the earliness character is monogenic. From these results the existence of a major gene for earliness can be supposed, the expression of which appears to be under the control of the cytoplasm. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the reciprocal crosses in the use of the mutants [fr

  6. What is the proper evaluation method: Some basic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeb, Helmut; Schnabel, Georg; Srdinko, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments and applications demand for an extension of the energy range and the inclusion of reliable uncertainty information in nuclear data libraries. Due to the scarcity of neutron-induced reaction data beyond 20 MeV the extension of the energy range up to at least 150 MeV is not trivial because the corresponding nuclear data evaluations depend heavily on nuclear models and proper evaluation methods are still under discussion. Restricting to evaluation techniques based on Bayesian statistics the influence of the a priori knowledge on the final result of the evaluation is considered. The study clearly indicates the need to account properly for the deficiencies of the nuclear model. Concerning the covariance matrices it is argued that they depend not only on the model, but also on the method of generation and an additional consent is required for the comparison of different evaluations of the same data sets. (authors)

  7. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  8. THE PROPER MOTION OF PALOMAR 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, T. K.; Kallivayalil, N., E-mail: tkf4w@astro.virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 3530 McCormick Road, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Palomar 5 (Pal 5) is a faint halo globular cluster associated with narrow tidal tails. It is a useful system to understand the process of tidal dissolution, as well as to constrain the potential of the Milky Way. A well-determined orbit for Pal 5 would enable detailed study of these open questions. We present here the first CCD-based proper motion measurement of Pal 5 obtained using SDSS as a first epoch and new Large Binocular Telescope/Large Binocular Camera (LBC) images as a second, giving a baseline of 15 years. We perform relative astrometry, using SDSS as a distortion-free reference, and images of the cluster and also of the Pal 5 stream for the derivation of the distortion correction for LBC. The reference frame is made up of background galaxies. We correct for differential chromatic refraction using relations obtained from SDSS colors as well as from flux-calibrated spectra, finding that the correction relations for stars and for galaxies are different. We obtain μ{sub α} = −2.296 ± 0.186 mas yr{sup −1} and μ{sub δ} = −2.257 ± 0.181 mas yr{sup −1} for the proper motion of Pal 5. We use this motion, and the publicly available code galpy, to model the disruption of Pal 5 in different Milky Way models consisting of a bulge, a disk, and a spherical dark matter halo. Our fits to the observed stream properties (streak and radial velocity gradient) result in a preference for a relatively large Pal 5 distance of around 24 kpc. A slightly larger absolute proper motion than what we measure also results in better matches but the best solutions need a change in distance. We find that a spherical Milky Way model, with V{sub 0} = 220 km s{sup −1} and V{sub 20} {sub kpc}, i.e., approximately at the apocenter of Pal 5, of 218 km s{sup −1}, can match the data well, at least for our choice of disk and bulge parametrization.

  9. Precedent Proper Names in Informal Oikonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Akhmetova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Russian language informal city names (oikonyms motivated by other toponyms (with reference to Russia and the CIS. The author shows that the motivating proper name can replace the city name (e. g. Глазго < Glasgow ‘Glazov’ or contaminate with it (e. g. Экибостон < Ekibastuz + Boston, the “alien” onym being attracted to construct an informal oikonym due to its phonetic similarity or, on occasion, due to an affinity, either real or imaginary, between the two settlements. The author argues that the phonetic motivation is more characteristic for the modern urban tradition, than for popular dialects.

  10. Proper body mechanics from an engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Edward G

    2010-04-01

    The economic viability of the manual therapy practitioner depends on the number of massages/treatments that can be given in a day or week. Fatigue or injuries can have a major impact on the income potential and could ultimately reach the point which causes the practitioner to quit the profession, and seek other, less physically demanding, employment. Manual therapy practitioners in general, and massage therapists in particular, can utilize a large variety of body postures while giving treatment to a client. The hypothesis of this paper is that there is an optimal method for applying force to the client, which maximizes the benefit to the client, and at the same time minimizes the strain and effort required by the practitioner. Two methods were used to quantifiably determine the effect of using "poor" body mechanics (Improper method) and "best" body mechanics (Proper/correct method). The first approach uses computer modeling to compare the two methods. Both postures were modeled, such that the biomechanical effects on the practitioner's elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints could be calculated. The force applied to the client, along with the height and angle of application of the force, was held constant for the comparison. The second approach was a field study of massage practitioners (n=18) to determine their maximal force capability, again comparing methods using "Improper and Proper body mechanics". Five application methods were tested at three different application heights, using a digital palm force gauge. Results showed that there was a definite difference between the two methods, and that the use of correct body mechanics can have a large impact on the health and well being of the massage practitioner over both the short and long term. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  12. Topic B. Disposal objectives: are they fair and properly defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComble, C.

    1994-01-01

    In this work the author was asked to make some connections between the ethical issues that are presently being discussed and the objectives and the principles which have been espoused in the nuclear waste disposal area. He tries to group it under the following set of questions : are the objectives and principles which we espouse properly defined. Are they sufficiently complete. Have we missed any out. Did we make any additional suggestions. Are they fair when we measure them against these ethical principles. Are they too ambitious. Are we going too far in one direction. (O.L.)

  13. Diversification dynamics and transoceanic Eurasian-Australian disjunction in the genus Picris (Compositae) induced by the interplay of shifts in intrinsic/extrinsic traits and paleoclimatic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovák, Marek; Kučera, Jaromír; Lack, Hans Walter; Ziffer-Berger, Jotham; Melicharková, Andrea; Záveská, Eliška; Vďačný, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Understanding transcontinental biogeographic patterns has been one of the main foci of the field of biogeography. While multiple explanations for transcontinental disjunctions have been proposed, little is still known about the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic traits for the diversification dynamics of disjunct taxa. Here, we study the evolutionary history of the genus Picris L. (Compositae), a great model for investigating the diversification dynamics of transoceanic bipolar disjunct organisms. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Picris was a semelparous and heterocarpic herb that lived in unpredictable environments of North Africa and West Asia. Diversification analyses suggest a significant shift in speciation ca. 1 million years ago, likely associated with the onset of the mid-Pleistocene revolution. Longevity characters are correlated with the evolution of particular fruit types and with environmental conditions. Heterocarpic species are mostly semelparous herbs strongly linked with unpredictable habitats, while homocarpic taxa are mostly iteroparous plants occurring in predictable environments. Binary-state speciation and extinction analyses suggest that homocarpy, iteroparity, and habitats predictability accelerate diversification. Although the combination of homocarpy and iteroparity evolved in several lineages, only members of the P. hieracioides group were able to colonise Eurasia and expand to Australia by transoceanic dispersal. Those findings indicate that large-scale colonisation events depend on a complex interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-distance dispersal or postglacial contraction? Insights into disjunction between Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Taiwan in a cold-adapted herbaceous genus, Triplostegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan-Ting; Ye, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Jin-Long; Wan, Ji-Zhong; Yang, Tuo; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Lu, Li-Min; Li, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2018-01-01

    Current disjunct patterns can result from long-distance dispersal or postglacial contraction. We herein investigate the evolutionary history of Triplostegia to elucidate the disjunction between the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountain region (HHM) and Taiwan (TW). Genetic structure of Triplostegia was investigated for 48 populations using sequences from five chloroplast loci and the ribosomal nuclear internal transcribed spacer. Divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction, and species distribution modeling (SDM) were employed to examine the biogeographic history of Triplostegia . Substantial genetic differentiation among populations from southwestern China (SW), Central China (CC), and TW was detected. Triplostegia was inferred to have originated in SW, and diversification began during the late Miocene; CC was colonized in the mid-Pliocene, and TW was finally colonized in the early Pleistocene. SDM suggested an expansion of climatically suitable areas during the Last Glacial Maximum and range contraction during the Last interglacial in Triplostegia . Disjunction between HHM and TW in Triplostegia is most likely the consequence of topographic isolation and postglacial contraction. The potential climatic suitability areas for Triplostegia by 2070s (2061-2080) are predicted to slightly shrink and move northward. With continued global warming and human-induced deforestation, extinction risk may increase for the cold-adapted species, and appropriate strategies should be employed for ecosystem conservation.

  15. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements of organic compound fluxes from a subalpine forest using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A `virtual' disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC device was tested with field measurements of biogenic VOC fluxes at a subalpine forest site in the Rocky Mountains of the USA. A PTR-MS instrument was used as the VOC sensor. Daily peak emission fluxes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were around 1.5, 1, 0.8 and 0.4 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. High pass filtering due to long sampling lines was investigated in laboratory experiments, and suggested that VOC losses in PTFA lines are generally governed by diffusion laws. Memory effects and surface reactions did not seem to play a dominant role. Model estimates of MBO fluxes compared well with measured fluxes. The results also suggest that latent heat and sensible heat fluxes are reasonably well correlated with VOC fluxes and could be used to predict variations in VOC emissions. The release of MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde resulted in significant change of tropospheric oxidant levels and a 10--40% increase in ozone levels, as inferred from a photochemical box model. We conclude that vDEC with a PTR-MS instrument is a versatile tool for simultaneous field analysis of multiple VOC fluxes.

  16. ‘The Edification of the Church’: Richard Hooker’s Theology of Worship and the Protestant Inward / Outward Disjunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littlejohn W. Bradford

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteenth-century English Protestants struggled with the legacy left them by the Lutheran reformation: a strict disjunction between inward and outward that hindered the development of a robust theology of worship. For Luther, outward forms of worship had more to do with the edification of the neighbour than they did with pleasing God. But what exactly did ‘edification’ mean? On the one hand, English Protestants sought to avoid the Roman Catholic view that certain elements of worship held an intrinsic spiritual value; on the other hand, many did not want to imply that forms of worship were spiritually arbitrary and had a merely civil value. Richard Hooker developed his theology of worship in response to this challenge, seeking to maintain a clear distinction between the inward worship of the heart and the outward forms of public worship, while refusing to disassociate the two. The result was a concept of edification which sought to do justice to both civil and spiritual concerns, without, pace Peter Lake and other scholars, conceding an inch to a Catholic theology of worship

  17. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Securing radioactive sources through a proper management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    2009-01-01

    The safety and security of radioactive sources have become a hot issue for the nuclear community in the last two decades. The Goiania accident in Brazil and the September 11th attack alerted governments and nuclear agencies around the world to the vulnerability of the thousands of disused radioactive sources ill-stored or misplaced in a myriad of ways, especially in countries with less developed infra-structure. Once the threat of environmental contamination or malevolent use of these sources became clear, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the American Government spawned initiatives to reduce this risk, basically stimulating the proper conditioning of the sources and, whenever possible, seeking their repatriation to the countries of origin. Since 1996 Brazil has been participating actively in this effort, having carried out hands-on operations to condition old radium sources in Latin American and Caribbean countries and also repatriated its own neutron sources to the United States. A new operation is presently being organized: the reconditioning of the high activity sources contained in teletherapy units stored in the country using a mobile hot cell developed in South Africa. Also an agreement is being negotiated between the US National Nuclear Security Agency and the Brazilian CNEN to repatriate hundreds of radioactive gauges presently stored at CNEN's source storage buildings. (author)

  19. Ocean Models and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-de-Leon, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    The increasing computational developments and the better understanding of mathematical and physical systems resulted in an increasing number of ocean models. Long time ago, modelers were like a secret organization and recognize each other by using secret codes and languages that only a select group of people was able to recognize and understand. The access to computational systems was reduced, on one hand equipment and the using time of computers were expensive and restricted, and on the other hand, they required an advance computational languages that not everybody wanted to learn. Now a days most college freshman own a personal computer (PC or laptop), and/or have access to more sophisticated computational systems than those available for research in the early 80's. The resource availability resulted in a mayor access to all kind models. Today computer speed and time and the algorithms does not seem to be a problem, even though some models take days to run in small computational systems. Almost every oceanographic institution has their own model, what is more, in the same institution from one office to the next there are different models for the same phenomena, developed by different research member, the results does not differ substantially since the equations are the same, and the solving algorithms are similar. The algorithms and the grids, constructed with algorithms, can be found in text books and/or over the internet. Every year more sophisticated models are constructed. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition is a technique that allows the reduction of the number of variables to solve keeping the model properties, for which it can be a very useful tool in diminishing the processes that have to be solved using "small" computational systems, making sophisticated models available for a greater community.

  20. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  1. The proper time for antioxidant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-04-10

    Consuming food rich in antioxidants may help organisms to increase their antioxidant defences and avoid oxidative damage. Under the hypothesis that organisms actively consume food for its antioxidant properties, they would need to do so in view of other physiological requirements, such as energy requirements. Here, we observed that Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) consumed most seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day, while their consumption of staple seeds more profitable in energy intake (and poor in antioxidants) was maximal in the morning and the evening. This consumption of seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day may be explicable (1) because birds took advantage of a time window associated with relaxed energy requirements to ingest antioxidant resources, or (2) because birds consumed antioxidant resources as a response to the highest antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. If the latter hypothesis holds true, having the possibility to ingest antioxidants should be most beneficial in terms of oxidative balance in the middle of the day. Even though feeding on seeds rich in antioxidants improved Gouldian finches' overall antioxidant capacity, we did not detect any diurnal effect of antioxidant intake on plasma oxidative markers (as measured by the d-ROM and the OXY-adsorbent tests). This indicates that the diurnal pattern of antioxidant intake that we observed was most likely constrained by the high consumption of staple food to replenish or build up body reserves in the morning and in the evening, and not primarily determined by elevated antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. Consequently, animals appear to have the possibility to increase antioxidant defences by selecting food rich in antioxidants, only when energetic constraints are relaxed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Methods of Teaching Children Proper Lifting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the effects of three teaching methods on children\\'s ability to demonstrate and recall their mastery of proper lifting techniques. Method: Ninety-three primary five and six public school children who had no knowledge of proper lifting technique were assigned into three equal ...

  3. 5 CFR 2635.205 - Proper disposition of prohibited gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposition of prohibited gifts... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts From Outside Sources § 2635.205 Proper disposition of prohibited gifts. (a) An employee who has received a gift that cannot be accepted...

  4. The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both-De Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G

    Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5(1/2)-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of

  5. Determination of proper motions in the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilbach, E.

    1991-04-01

    For 458 stars in the Pleiades field from the catalog of Eichhorn et al. (1970) proper motions were derived on Tautenburg and CERGA Schmidt telescope plates measured with the automated measuring machine MAMA in Paris. The catalog positions were considered as first epoch coordinates with an epoch difference of ca. 33 years to the observations. The results show good coincidence of proper motions derived with both Schmidt telescopes within the error bars. Comparison with proper motions determined by Vasilevskis et al. (1979) displays some significant differences but no systematic effects depending on plate coordinates or magnitudes could be found. An accuracy of 0.3 arcsec/100a for one proper motion component was estimated. According to the criterion of common proper motion 34 new cluster members were identified.

  6. The Southern Proper Motion Program. IV. The SPM4 Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Terrence M.; van Altena, William F.; Zacharias, Norbert; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Castillo, Danilo; Herrera, David; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Monet, David G.; López, Carlos E.

    2011-07-01

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20° declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr-1, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr-1.

  7. Angiosperm disjunction "Campos rupestres - restingas": a re-evaluation Disjunção de Angiospermas Campos Rupestres - Restingas: uma reavaliação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy José Válka Alves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A disjunct distribution pattern between the extrazonal formations of the campos rupestres (rocky grasslands in the Espinhaço mountain range and the restingas (coastal strand vegetation in Brazil has been proposed repeatedly for several flowering-plant species. In order to validate this distribution pattern, available data from the literature and major herbaria were compiled and evaluated. Some of these species also occur in campos rupestres on mountain ranges in Goiás state, campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands of the Serra do Mar, and on geologically homologous rocky formations of the Guyana shield. Species that were also recorded for distinct zonal formations like cerrado, caatinga and forests were excluded from the pattern. The campo rupestre-restinga disjunction proved valid for 9 of 56 investigated species (16%. Explanations put forth by different authors for this unusual disjunction pattern are compared in the light of geological and climatological evidence.Um padrão de distribuição disjunta entre as formações extrazonais conhecidas por campos rupestres na cadeia do Espinhaço e as restingas do litoral brasileiro vem sendo repetidamente proposto para algumas espécies de fanerógamas. Para averiguar a validade deste padrão, foram reunidos dados disponíveis em literatura e nos principais herbários. Verificou-se que algumas espécies aparecem adicionalmente nos campos rupestres das Serras de Goiás, campos de altitude da Serra do Mar, em formações rupestres geologicamente homólogas do Escudo das Guianas. Foram excluídas do padrão as espécies cuja ocorrência foi verificada também em vegetação zonal, tal como cerrado, caatinga e matas. O padrão campo rupestre-restinga se mostrou válido para 9 de 56 espécies investigadas (16%. As razões apresentadas por distintos autores para explicar este padrão peculiar de disjunção são comparadas à luz de evidências geológicas e climatológicas.

  8. Proper laboratory notebook practices: protecting your intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickla, Jason T; Boehm, Matthew B

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory notebook contains a wealth of knowledge that can be critical for establishing evidence in support of intellectual property rights and for refuting claims of research misconduct. The proper type, organization, use, maintenance, and storage of laboratory notebooks should be a priority for everyone at research institutions. Failure to properly document research activities can lead to serious problems, including the loss of valuable patent rights. Consequences of improper laboratory notebook practices can be harsh; numerous examples are described in court cases and journal articles, indicating a need for research institutions to develop strict policies on the proper use and storage of research documentation.

  9. 75 FR 7616 - Mitigation of Carrier Fines for Transporting Aliens Without Proper Documents; Modification of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Transporting Aliens Without Proper Documents; Modification of Memorandum of Understanding and Recalculation of... States an alien who does not have a valid passport and an unexpired visa, as required under applicable law, is subject to a fine for each alien transported lacking the required documentation. Pursuant to...

  10. Cataclysmic variables in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, John R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755-3528 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien, E-mail: jns@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place NE, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We have discovered a new high proper motion cataclysmic variable (CV) in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive to stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas yr{sup −1}. This CV was selected for follow-up observations as part of a larger search for CVs selected based on proper motions and their near-UV−V and V−K{sub s} colors. We present spectroscopic observations from the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope at MDM Observatory. The new CV's orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2. Additionally, we present a full list of known CVs in the SUPERBLINK catalog.

  11. Possible Relativistic Definitions of Parallax, Proper Motion and Radial Velocity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klioner, S

    2000-01-01

    .... In this paper, the authors briefly describe a relativistic model of space-based optical positional observations valid at a high level of accuracy, and suggest definitions of parallax, proper motion...

  12. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  13. Proper time axis of a closed relativistic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.; Fadeev, N.G.; Shavokhina, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    The definition of a proper time axis of a closed relativistic system of colliding particles is given. The solution of the proper time axis problem is presented. If the light velocity c equals the imaginary unit i, then in the case of a plane motion of the system the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the known in engineering mechanics problem about the reduction of any system of forces, applied to a rigid body, to the dynamic screw. In the general case, when c=i, the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the problem about the reduction to the dynamic screw of a system of forces, applied to a rigid body in a four-dimensional Euclidean space

  14. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  15. Fast algorithms for finding proper strategies in game trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    We show how to find a normal form proper equilibrium in behavior strategies of a given two-player zero-sum extensive form game with imperfect information but perfect recall. Our algorithm solves a finite sequence of linear programs and runs in polynomial time. For the case of a perfect information...... game, we show how to find a normal form proper equilibrium in linear time by a simple backwards induction procedure....

  16. Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Bo; Li, Rui-Qi; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Manchester, Steven R; Lin, Li; Wang, Wei; Wen, Jun; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2013-01-01

    The hickory genus (Carya) contains ca. 17 species distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Asia and subtropical to temperate regions of eastern North America. Previously, the phylogenetic relationships between eastern Asian and eastern North American species of Carya were not fully confirmed even with an extensive sampling, biogeographic and diversification patterns had thus never been investigated in a phylogenetic context. We sampled 17 species of Carya and 15 species representing all other genera of the Juglandaceae as outgroups, with eight nuclear and plastid loci to reconstruct the phylogeny of Carya. The phylogenetic positions of seven extinct genera of the Juglandaceae were inferred using morphological characters and the molecular phylogeny as a backbone constraint. Divergence times within Carya were estimated with relaxed Bayesian dating. Biogeographic analyses were performed in DIVA and LAGRANGE. Diversification rates were inferred by LASER and APE packages. Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America. The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51) Ma. Genus-level DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses incorporating both extant and extinct genera of the Juglandaceae suggested that Carya originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia during the early Tertiary via the North Atlantic land bridge. Fragmentation of the distribution caused by global cooling in the late Tertiary resulted in the current disjunction. The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

  17. Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The hickory genus (Carya contains ca. 17 species distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Asia and subtropical to temperate regions of eastern North America. Previously, the phylogenetic relationships between eastern Asian and eastern North American species of Carya were not fully confirmed even with an extensive sampling, biogeographic and diversification patterns had thus never been investigated in a phylogenetic context. We sampled 17 species of Carya and 15 species representing all other genera of the Juglandaceae as outgroups, with eight nuclear and plastid loci to reconstruct the phylogeny of Carya. The phylogenetic positions of seven extinct genera of the Juglandaceae were inferred using morphological characters and the molecular phylogeny as a backbone constraint. Divergence times within Carya were estimated with relaxed Bayesian dating. Biogeographic analyses were performed in DIVA and LAGRANGE. Diversification rates were inferred by LASER and APE packages. Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America. The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51 Ma. Genus-level DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses incorporating both extant and extinct genera of the Juglandaceae suggested that Carya originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia during the early Tertiary via the North Atlantic land bridge. Fragmentation of the distribution caused by global cooling in the late Tertiary resulted in the current disjunction. The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

  18. The c-index is not proper for the evaluation of $t$-year predicted risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Paul; Kattan, Michael W; Gerds, Thomas A

    2018-02-16

    We show that the widely used concordance index for time to event outcome is not proper when interest is in predicting a $t$-year risk of an event, for example 10-year mortality. In the situation with a fixed prediction horizon, the concordance index can be higher for a misspecified model than for a correctly specified model. Impropriety happens because the concordance index assesses the order of the event times and not the order of the event status at the prediction horizon. The time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve does not have this problem and is proper in this context.

  19. Proper generalized decompositions an introduction to computer implementation with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Cueto, Elías; Alfaro, Icíar

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended to help researchers overcome the entrance barrier to Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD), by providing a valuable tool to begin the programming task. Detailed Matlab Codes are included for every chapter in the book, in which the theory previously described is translated into practice. Examples include parametric problems, non-linear model order reduction and real-time simulation, among others. Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) is a method for numerical simulation in many fields of applied science and engineering. As a generalization of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition or Principal Component Analysis to an arbitrary number of dimensions, PGD is able to provide the analyst with very accurate solutions for problems defined in high dimensional spaces, parametric problems and even real-time simulation. .

  20. Positions and proper motions of dwarf carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent-epochs positions and proper motions of nine dwarf carbon star candidates are presented along with finding charts for each object. Measurements are obtained from digitized Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) and Quik V plate archives at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from recent CCD images.

  1. 32 CFR 842.63 - Who are not proper claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who are not proper claimants. 842.63 Section 842.63 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND... accompanying US military and US national civilian employees. (c) Foreign military personnel suffering property...

  2. Fast algorithms for finding proper strategies in game trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    We show how to find a normal form proper equilibrium in behavior strategies of a given two-player zero-sum extensive form game with imperfect information but perfect recall. Our algorithm solves a finite sequence of linear programs and runs in polynomial time. For the case of a perfect informatio...

  3. Computing more proper covariances of energy dependent nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhanen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper. • We provide methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances in ENDF-6 format. • We propose methods to find nearby more proper covariances. • The methods can be used as a part of a quality assurance program. - Abstract: We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper in the sense that the covariances are positive, i.e., its eigenvalues are non-negative, and consistent with respect to the sum rules of nuclear data. For the ENDF-6 format covariances we present methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances. These methods would be useful as a part of a quality assurance program. We also propose methods that can be used to find nearby more proper energy dependent covariances. These methods can be used to remove unphysical components, while preserving most of the physical components. We consider several different senses in which the nearness can be measured. These methods could be useful if a re-evaluation of improper covariances is not feasible. Two practical examples are processed and analyzed. These demonstrate some of the properties of the methods. We also demonstrate that the ENDF-6 format covariances of linearly dependent nuclear data should usually be encoded with the derivation rules.

  4. Asteroid proper elements from an analytical second order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Z.; Milani, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have computed by a fully analytical method a new set of proper elements for 3322 numbered main-belt asteroids. They are presented in the following format: asteroid number, proper semimajor axis (AU), proper eccentricity, sine of proper inclination and quality code (see below). This new set is significantly more accurate than all the previous ones at low to moderate eccentricities and inclinations, and especially near the main mean-motion resonances (e.g., the Themis region). This is because the short periodic perturbations are rigorously removed, and the main effects of the second-order (containing the square of the ratio [the mass of Jupiter/mass of the Sun]) are accounted for. Effects arising from the terms in the Hamiltonian of degree up to four in the eccentricity and inclination of both the asteroid and Jupiter are taken into account, and the fundamental frequencies g (for the perihelion) and s(for the node) of the asteroid are computed with a interative algorithm consistent with the basic results of modern dynamics (e.g., Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory)

  5. PropeR: a multi disciplinary EPR system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Boers, Gerrit; Tange, Huibert; Talmon, Jan; Hasman, Arie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the architecture of an EPR system developed for the PropeR project. This EPR system not only aims at supporting home care of stroke patients, but is also designed in such a way that it can be ported to other medical services without much effort. We will briefly describe the

  6. Proper-time quantum-mechanics and the Klein paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaller, B.

    1981-01-01

    Scattering at high potential-steps is treated in the framework of relativistic proper-time theory. No paradox arises in contrast to Dirac's wavemechanics (''Klein's paradox''); pair creation may happen with a certain probability and may be described as a scattering process with ordinary quantum-mechanical methods. (author)

  7. Proper Lens Care (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Wearing contact lenses is a convenient way to improve vision without having to wear glasses. But unlike glasses, improper care and maintenance of lenses can result in severe eye problems, including blindness. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Cope discusses the importance of proper lens hygiene and maintenance.

  8. Proper Lens Care (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Wearing contact lenses is a convenient way to improve vision without having to wear glasses. But unlike glasses, improper care and maintenance of lenses can result in severe eye problems, including blindness. This podcast discusses the importance of proper lens hygiene and maintenance.

  9. Computing Proper Equilibria of Zero-Sum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2007-01-01

    We show that a proper equilibrium of a matrix game can be found in polynomial time by solving a linear (in the number of pure strategies of the two players) number of linear programs of roughly the same dimensions as the standard linear programs describing the Nash equilibria of the game....

  10. On proper Shapley values for monotone TU-games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.; Levinsky, R.; Zeleny, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Shapley value of a cooperative transferable utility game distributes the dividend of each coalition in the game equally among its members. Given exogenous weights for all players, the corresponding weighted Shapley value distributes the dividends proportionally to their weights. A proper Shapley

  11. Twisted equivariant K-theory, groupoids and proper actions

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarero, Jose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we define twisted equivariant K-theory for actions of Lie groupoids. For a Bredon-compatible Lie groupoid, this defines a periodic cohomology theory on the category of finite CW-complexes with equivariant stable projective bundles. A classification of these bundles is shown. We also obtain a completion theorem and apply these results to proper actions of groups.

  12. Radiating c metric: an example of a proper Ricci Collineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulestia, L.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.; Herrera, L.

    1984-01-01

    A generalization of the charged c metric to the nonstationary case is given. The possibility of associating the energy-momentum tensor with the electromagnetic or neutrino field is discussed. It is shown that, for a specific choice of the time-dependent parameters, the metric admits at least a two-parameter group of proper Ricci collineations

  13. Secular Extragalactic Parallax and Geometric Distances with Gaia Proper Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jennie; Darling, Jeremiah K.

    2018-06-01

    The motion of the Solar System with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) rest frame creates a well measured dipole in the CMB, which corresponds to a linear solar velocity of about 78 AU/yr. This motion causes relatively nearby extragalactic objects to appear to move compared to more distant objects, an effect that can be measured in the proper motions of nearby galaxies. An object at 1 Mpc and perpendicular to the CMB apex will exhibit a secular parallax, observed as a proper motion, of 78 µas/yr. The relatively large peculiar motions of galaxies make the detection of secular parallax challenging for individual objects. Instead, a statistical parallax measurement can be made for a sample of objects with proper motions, where the global parallax signal is modeled as an E-mode dipole that diminishes linearly with distance. We present preliminary results of applying this model to a sample of nearby galaxies with Gaia proper motions to detect the statistical secular parallax signal. The statistical measurement can be used to calibrate the canonical cosmological “distance ladder.”

  14. Proper comparison among methods using a confusion matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 IGARSS 2015, Milan, Italy, 26-31 July 2015 Proper comparison among methods using a confusion matrix 1,2 B.P. Salmon, 2,3 W. Kleynhans, 2,3 C.P. Schwegmann and 1J.C. Olivier 1School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Australia 2...

  15. A turbulent jet in crossflow analysed with proper orthogonal decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Pedersen, Jakob Martin; Özcan, Oktay

    2007-01-01

    and pipe diameter was 2400 and the jet to crossflow velocity ratios were R = 3.3 and R = 1.3. The experimental data have been analysed by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). For R = 3.3, the results in several different planes indicate that the wake vortices are the dominant dynamic flow structures...

  16. Globular Clusters: Absolute Proper Motions and Galactic Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, A. A.; Glushkova, E. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Yalyalieva, L. N.; Klinichev, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-match objects from several different astronomical catalogs to determine the absolute proper motions of stars within the 30-arcmin radius fields of 115 Milky-Way globular clusters with the accuracy of 1-2 mas yr-1. The proper motions are based on positional data recovered from the USNO-B1, 2MASS, URAT1, ALLWISE, UCAC5, and Gaia DR1 surveys with up to ten positions spanning an epoch difference of up to about 65 years, and reduced to Gaia DR1 TGAS frame using UCAC5 as the reference catalog. Cluster members are photometrically identified by selecting horizontal- and red-giant branch stars on color-magnitude diagrams, and the mean absolute proper motions of the clusters with a typical formal error of about 0.4 mas yr-1 are computed by averaging the proper motions of selected members. The inferred absolute proper motions of clusters are combined with available radial-velocity data and heliocentric distance estimates to compute the cluster orbits in terms of the Galactic potential models based on Miyamoto and Nagai disk, Hernquist spheroid, and modified isothermal dark-matter halo (axisymmetric model without a bar) and the same model + rotating Ferre's bar (non-axisymmetric). Five distant clusters have higher-than-escape velocities, most likely due to large errors of computed transversal velocities, whereas the computed orbits of all other clusters remain bound to the Galaxy. Unlike previously published results, we find the bar to affect substantially the orbits of most of the clusters, even those at large Galactocentric distances, bringing appreciable chaotization, especially in the portions of the orbits close to the Galactic center, and stretching out the orbits of some of the thick-disk clusters.

  17. The VMC survey. XXX. Stellar proper motions in the central parts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, F.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Rubele, S.; Schmidt, T.; Bekki, K.; Grijs, R. de; Emerson, J.; Ivanov, V. D.; Marconi, M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Ripepi, V.; van Loon, J. Th.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first spatially resolved map of stellar proper motions within the central ( 3.1 × 2.4 kpc) regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The data used for this study encompasses four tiles from the ongoing near-infrared VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system and covers a total contiguous area on the sky of 6.81 deg2. Proper motions have been calculated independently in two dimensions from the spatial offsets in the Ks filter over time baselines between 22 and 27 months. The reflex motions of approximately 33 000 background galaxies are used to calibrate the stellar motions to an absolute scale. The resulting catalog is composed of more than 690 000 stars which have been selected based on their position in the (J - Ks, Ks) color-magnitude diagram. For the median absolute proper motion of the SMC, we find (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (1.087 ± 0.192 (sys.) ± 0.003 (stat.), -1.187 ± 0.008 (sys.) ± 0.003 (stat.)) mas yr-1, consistent with previous studies. Mapping the proper motions as a function of position within the SMC reveals a nonuniform velocity pattern indicative of a tidal feature behind the main body of the SMC and a flow of stars in the south-east moving predominantly along the line-of-sight. Based on observations made with VISTA at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 179.B-2003.

  18. Proper Motion and Secular Variations of Keplerian Orbital Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey G. Butkevich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High-precision observations require accurate modeling of secular changes in the orbital elements in order to extrapolate measurements over long time intervals, and to detect deviation from pure Keplerian motion caused, for example, by other bodies or relativistic effects. We consider the evolution of the Keplerian elements resulting from the gradual change of the apparent orbit orientation due to proper motion. We present rigorous formulae for the transformation of the orbit inclination, longitude of the ascending node and argument of the pericenter from one epoch to another, assuming uniform stellar motion and taking radial velocity into account. An approximate treatment, accurate to the second-order terms in time, is also given. The proper motion effects may be significant for long-period transiting planets. These theoretical results are applicable to the modeling of planetary transits and precise Doppler measurements as well as analysis of pulsar and eclipsing binary timing observations.

  19. Towards the Proper Integration of Extra-Functional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Hochmuller

    1999-01-01

    In spite of the many achievements in software engineering, proper treatment of extra-functional requirements (also known as non-functional requirements) within the software development process is still a challenge to our discipline. The application of functionality-biased software development methodologies can lead to major contradictions in the joint modelling of functional and extra-functional requirements. Based on a thorough discussion on the nature of extra-functional requirements as wel...

  20. Parallaxes and Proper Motions From the MCCormick Observatory: List 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianna, Philip A.; Patterson, Richard J.; Swain, Melanie A.

    1996-01-01

    Trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions are presented for 32 late-type stars observed photographically with the Leander McCormick 67 cm refractor. Eighteen of the stars have no previously published parallaxes. Twenty one of the stars are K and M dwarfs identified by Vyssotsky and his collaborators. The list includes several x-ray luminous M dwarfs, a rapidly rotating spotted flare star, and two astrometric binaries.

  1. NATIONAL EXPERIENCES REGARDING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PROPER PRACTICE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgheu Liliana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the principles of proper governance codes, which even tough have blossomed in all parts of the world for more than a decade, the degree in which companies adopt the codes vary in different countries, and the decision to adopt a certain code does not automatically guarranty efficient corporate governance. The paper trys to identify the mechanisms needed for implementing the codes and that will lead to higher efficiency.

  2. Radar Measurements of Ocean Surface Waves using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Golinval, 2002, Physical interpretation of the proper orthogonal modes using the singular value decomposition, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 249...complex and contain contributions from the environment (e.g., wind, waves, currents) as well as artifacts associated with electromagnetic (EM) (wave...Although there is no physical basis/ interpretation inherent to the method because it is purely a mathematical tool, there has been an increasing

  3. Proper Lens Care (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-17

    Wearing contact lenses is a convenient way to improve vision without having to wear glasses. But unlike glasses, improper care and maintenance of lenses can result in severe eye problems, including blindness. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Cope discusses the importance of proper lens hygiene and maintenance.  Created: 8/17/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/17/2017.

  4. Proper Lens Care (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-17

    Wearing contact lenses is a convenient way to improve vision without having to wear glasses. But unlike glasses, improper care and maintenance of lenses can result in severe eye problems, including blindness. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Cope discusses the importance of proper lens hygiene and maintenance.  Created: 8/17/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/17/2017.

  5. THE COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    The noun in Albanian language classified as common and proper. The common nouns in turn divide into countable and uncountable. Collective nouns and substance nouns are subclasses of the other classes. The structure of noun formation between Albanian and English on the general aspect of morphology and syntax still didn’t study in the way of comparative, contrast and generative. Those fields are our object of study. In Albanian and English we find some concepts of studies for noun for exam...

  6. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Balaz, A.; Knezevic, Z.; Potocnik, M.

    2009-12-01

    A procedure of gridification of the computation of asteroid proper orbital elements is described. The need to speed up the time consuming computations and make them more efficient is justified by the large increase of observational data expected from the next generation all sky surveys. We give the basic notion of proper elements and of the contemporary theories and methods used to compute them for different populations of objects. Proper elements for nearly 70,000 asteroids are derived since the beginning of use of the Grid infrastructure for the purpose. The average time for the catalogs update is significantly shortened with respect to the time needed with stand-alone workstations. We also present basics of the Grid computing, the concepts of Grid middleware and its Workload management system. The practical steps we undertook to efficiently gridify our application are described in full detail. We present the results of a comprehensive testing of the performance of different Grid sites, and offer some practical conclusions based on the benchmark results and on our experience. Finally, we propose some possibilities for the future work.

  7. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements on the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A procedure of gridification of the computation of asteroid proper orbital elements is described. The need to speed up the time consuming computations and make them more efficient is justified by the large increase of observational data expected from the next generation all sky surveys. We give the basic notion of proper elements and of the contemporary theories and methods used to compute them for different populations of objects. Proper elements for nearly 70,000 asteroids are derived since the beginning of use of the Grid infrastructure for the purpose. The average time for the catalogs update is significantly shortened with respect to the time needed with stand-alone workstations. We also present basics of the Grid computing, the concepts of Grid middleware and its Workload management system. The practical steps we undertook to efficiently gridify our application are described in full detail. We present the results of a comprehensive testing of the performance of different Grid sites, and offer some practical conclusions based on the benchmark results and on our experience. Finally, we propose some possibilities for the future work.

  8. Proper Names in Dialectal Idioms: Stages of Idiomatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Kogan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the functioning of proper names (both personal and place names and their derivatives in dialectal idioms. Based upon the criteria of the establishing of the idiomatic status of word combinations, traditionally used in contemporary lexicology, the author marks out four stages of the entry of units containing proper names and their derivatives into a regional idiomatic inventory: 1 word combinations with figurative meanings and transparent motivation easily decoded by every member of the local community (e. g., naryaditsa kak Anisya Klimovskaya ‘to be slovenly dressed’; 2 word combinations with a proper name localizing a nationally known idiom (e. g., zhelninsky telyonok ‘screaming person’; 3 word combinations including a name with a general meaning (e. g., Masha s Yashey ‘two inseparable persons’; 4 idioms with non-transparent motivation (e. g., tutursky pop ‘cuckoo male’. The analyzed data are retrieved from dialect dictionaries (including those of idioms and notes made by the Ural Federal University Toponymic Expeditions in Kostroma Region in 2011–2013.

  9. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arrighi, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chand, Kyle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  10. Computation of asteroid proper elements on the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure of gridification of the computation of asteroid proper orbital elements is described. The need to speed up the time consuming computations and make them more efficient is justified by the large increase of observational data expected from the next generation all sky surveys. We give the basic notion of proper elements and of the contemporary theories and methods used to compute them for different populations of objects. Proper elements for nearly 70,000 asteroids are derived since the beginning of use of the Grid infrastructure for the purpose. The average time for the catalogs update is significantly shortened with respect to the time needed with stand-alone workstations. We also present basics of the Grid computing, the concepts of Grid middleware and its Workload management system. The practical steps we undertook to efficiently gridify our application are described in full detail. We present the results of a comprehensive testing of the performance of different Grid sites, and offer some practical conclusions based on the benchmark results and on our experience. Finally, we propose some possibilities for the future work.

  11. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge. Using the unique feature in yeast meiosis that centrosomes are linked for hours before their separation, we have revealed that Mps3 is cleaved at its nucleus-localized N-terminal domain, the process of which is regulated by its phosphorylation at serine 70. Cleavage of Mps3 takes place at the yeast centrosome and requires proteasome activity. We show that noncleavable Mps3 (Mps3-nc inhibits centrosome separation during yeast meiosis. In addition, overexpression of mps3-nc in vegetative yeast cells also inhibits centrosome separation and is lethal. Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery.

  12. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Bailey A.; Han, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge. Using the unique feature in yeast meiosis that centrosomes are linked for hours before their separation, we have revealed that Mps3 is cleaved at its nucleus-localized N-terminal domain, the process of which is regulated by its phosphorylation at serine 70. Cleavage of Mps3 takes place at the yeast centrosome and requires proteasome activity. We show that noncleavable Mps3 (Mps3-nc) inhibits centrosome separation during yeast meiosis. In addition, overexpression of mps3-nc in vegetative yeast cells also inhibits centrosome separation and is lethal. Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery. PMID:28609436

  13. Highly disjunct and highly infected millipedes – a new cave-dwelling species of Chiraziulus (Diplopoda: Spirostreptida: Cambalidae from Iran and notes on Laboulbeniales ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiraziulus is a highly disjunct, hitherto monotypic genus of cambalid millipedes, geographically isolated in Iran by more than 7000 km from its presumed closest relatives in East Asia and North America. Recent fieldwork in caves of Iran has provided several specimens of this genus, allowing the description of Chiraziulus troglopersicus sp. nov. The intraspecific variability of the type species, C. kaiseri Mauriès, 1983, is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. Chiraziulus is characterized by exceedingly long microtrichose gonopod flagella which from their insertion points on the posterior face of the anterior gonopod coxites first point distad instead of basad or basad-posteriad as in most other flagelliferous Cambalidea (and Julida, then traverse a groove on the mesal surface of the anterior gonopod coxites, making a full (360° loop. The same feature is also illustrated for the first time in the genus Cambala. The patterns and prevalence of the infection with a species of ectoparasitic fungus of the genus Rickia (order Laboulbeniales in the type material of C. kaiseri is described. An updated review of the cave-adapted fauna of Iran is given.

  14. Handling medical negligence: necessity of a proper system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuwadatta Subedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of medical negligence has been catching attention of many people nowadays. With advancement of technology in medical field, many incurable diseases of past time can now be managed well at the cost of burdening expenditure. This   has resulted in obvious expectations to the patient and their families that any ailment can be cured from the medical procedures and therapies. When these expectations are not met in terms of complications or death of the near ones, people get frustrated and tend to allege health care providers against medically negligent.Negligence are of two types; civil negligence where the doctors are alleged to have lost simple degree of care and attention to the patients thereby causing damage whereas in criminal negligence, the doctors grossly deviate from the standard of care and competence or perform activities which are understood prima facie as a crime, for eg: performing criminal abortion, organ transplantation against the law etc.Whatever the type of negligence, there are legal measures to file complaint against the doctors who are alleged to have caused negligence. Gone are the days when people regarded doctors near to gods. Medical service also falls under the consumer protection act where the patients are the consumers and medical personnel, the service providers. The patients have rights to get quality medical service under this act. If the patients or their relatives are dissatisfied with the medical service rendered to them by the health care providers, they have the right to lodge complaint to the compensation committee of the district in which chief district officer (CDO is the chairman in each district. If there is an issue of criminal negligence, the complaint can also be filed in the concerned court.In some circumstances, when the patient develops complications or dies, the attendants accuse the doctors for the failure in treatment and protest in the hospital premises rather than opting the legal way

  15. Taxonomic and Thematic Organisation of Proper Name Conceptual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J. Crutch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI. The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g. action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson than those working in different genres (e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly. Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation – taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC and naval history (FBI. The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie, thematic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy, and unrelated arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot. We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  16. THE TEACHERS ROLE IN FORMING PROPER BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Being acquainted and well aware of the presence of physical deformation in school population, this study is based on the research of postural deformity of the pupils of the 5th grade of elementary school and determination of dependance of deformations appearance in relation to frequency of remonstration and indication to correct sitting position from proffesors’ perspective. The complete program content is conducted in the territory of the city of Kragujevac in several elementary schools comprising 299 students of the 5th grade. The object was to determine the number of students with kyphotic and lordotic deformity, to determine the presence of deformation in depandance of gender and to determine the presence of kyphotic and lordotic deformity in depandance of the frequency of proffesors indication to improper sitting. We can notice higher presence of kyphotic deformity at the probationers of male population that it is the case with female population while the higher presence of lordotic deformity is at female population.The highest number of probationers have reported that none of the proffesors warn them about proper sitting. The measures inside the groups sorted by gender qualifi cation, indicate on high percentage of both boys and girls who are not warned on proper sitting. Also, inside the groups of improper body holders, we can notice the most signifi cant kyphotic and lordotic deformity in the category of students who are never warned to sit properly. These indicators report us that is necessary to invest much more work on the education of parents and children as well as school stuff at the preschool and school institutions which would result in reducing the appearence and development of postural deformity at the population who is more liable to transformations of such kind.

  17. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  18. Self-inflicted skin lesions: the importance of a proper diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitre Dimitrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Patients with self-inflicted skin lesions (SISL are most often referred to dermatologists. Since psychological and psychiatric conditions might be the underlying reasons for the behavior of these patients, the psychology-associated component should always be kept in mind when approaching such individuals. Objective. To discuss distinctive aspects of the approach towards patients with SISL and emphasize the most relevant issues concerning the management of psychodermatoses. Case report. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with a 6-month history of skin lesions misdiagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis. Conscientious history taking and physical examination enabled the diagnosis of SISL. Conclusions. The proper approach to patients presenting with psychodermatoses differs from that for other dermatological patients and requires considering several additional aspects. We would like to emphasize the distinguishing aspects and importance of the proper approach to patients with SISL that might aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating these individuals in the future.

  19. Proper Elements and Secular Resonances for Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugé, C.; Nesvorný, D.

    2007-06-01

    We present results of an analytical study of proper elements and secular resonances for the irregular satellites of the outer planets. In the case of the Jovian system we identify three satellite families, two of them previously known (Carme and Ananke), plus a new agglomeration of four bodies that includes Pasiphae as its largest member. While the distribution of proper elements for Saturn's moons seems to be more random, a small cluster was found for the direct moons formed by Albiorix, Erriapo, and 2004 S1, slightly different from the so-called Gaulish cluster. No significant families are detected in the present study for the Uranian or Neptunian satellite systems. For each satellite system we determine the location of several secular resonances in the proper element space. Apart from the well-known resonance locks of Pasiphae, Sinope, and Siarnaq, a comparison between the resonance locations and proper elements shows that Saturn's satellite Narvi also exhibits temporary librations in the ϖ-ϖsolar resonance. However, unlike the resonant Jovian moons that are located in the same configuration, Narvi's critical argument librates alternately around values near 90° and 270°. Neither the Uranian nor Neptunian systems seem to have resonant moons. The resonant dynamics of the real satellites in the vicinity of ϖ˙-ϖ˙solar=0 is studied with a simple model for secular resonances based on the restricted three-body problem. Depending on the initial conditions, we show the existence of one or two modes of libration that can occur at different values of the critical angle, showing a good correspondence with the observed behavior of all the resonant moons. Finally, we discuss the global distribution of the real satellites with respect to the secular resonances, as compared with synthetic populations of bodies drawn solely from stability conditions. For Saturn, we find that the present satellite population appears compatible with simple random distributions. Although

  20. uvby photometry in McCormick proper motion fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Danish 50 cm telescope at the European Southern Observatory was used to obtain high-precision uvby photometry for 50 F2 to G2 stars, with V values in the 9.4-12.3 mag range, which were selected in the southern galactic polar regions of the McCormick proper motion fields and measured on six different nights. The brighter stars are found to systematically exhibit smaller m(1) indices, of about 0.02 mag, upon comparison with the earlier data of Blaauw et al (1976). Single measurements are given for 98 stars in eight McCormick fields at intermediate southern galactic latitudes.

  1. The observable defects and the proper functioning guarantee in trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oviedo Albán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two legal mechanisms for buyer´s protection contained in the Colombian Commercial Code, parallel to building regulations, because of hidden defects in the sale, which are: guarantee by observable defects at delivery and guarantee for proper functioning. The author analyzes the poor way such actions are enshrined in the Code as a consequence of a fragmented and dispersed regime for defective compliance actions in the laws of Private Law. This paper proposes a reinterpretation of such actions from the perspective of the lack of conformity that is based on a unified system of remedies for breach, concepts embodied in modern instruments of contract law.

  2. Proper and incorrect body posture in students from music schools

    OpenAIRE

    Hadlich, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Hadlich Roland. Proper and incorrect body posture in students from music schools. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(2):562-584. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.556100 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4405 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © The Author...

  3. Proper Living - Exploring Domestic Ideals in Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2014-01-01

    Houses frame homes, households, and daily life, and it is reasonable to suggest that ideas of domestic space in medieval society, and ideas of how to live in an orderly and acceptable manner in the eyes of one’s peers and oneself are reflected in domestic architecture, its layout, fittings......, and ornaments. This paper addresses ideas of proper living in affluent rural and urban milieus in medieval Denmark, particularly as they are expressed through houses, inventories, and murals, and it also addresses current challenges in understanding the materialized ideas based on excavations and analysis...

  4. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE HH 110/270 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdic, P. [Instituto de Astronomia, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reipurth, B.; Walawender, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Raga, A. C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bally, J., E-mail: primoz@geofisica.unam.mx, E-mail: reipurth@IfA.Hawaii.Edu, E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: John.Bally@casa.colorado.edu, E-mail: joshw@ifa.hawaii.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present a study of the HH 110/270 system based on three sets of optical images obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope, the Subaru Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The ground-based observations are made in the H{alpha} and [S II] emission lines and the HST observations are made in the H{alpha} line only. Ground-based observations reveal the existence of nine knots, which have not been previously discussed and offer some important insight into the HH 110/270 history. We perform a kinematic study of the HH 110/270 system and an analysis of its emission properties. We measure proper motions of all the knots in the system. Four of the newly identified knots belong to the HH 270 jet. Their positions indicate that the jet's axis changed its direction in the past. We speculate that similar changes may have occurred many times in the past and this could be part of the reason for the unusual structure of the HH 110 jet. The HST observations allow us to resolve individual knots into their substructures and to measure their proper motions. These measurements show that the knots are highly turbulent structures. Finally, we report the discovery of four new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located near the HH 110/270 system.

  5. How to get properly rid of confidential data?

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Have you ever bought a used laptop on ebay? Try it and you might not only get (hopefully) functional hardware, but also a bunch of personal files, intriguing photos, sensitive documents, etc. Not everybody worries enough to clean the local hard disks properly before selling their equipment or giving it away. So the next owner of the hard disk can comfortably crawl through the remaining data, and use it at his or her convenience...   In fact, properly cleaning a hard disk is difficult! Deleting local files or formatting the hard disk usually just purges the files from being listed in the folder, but the actual data remains intact on the hard disk. Freely available tools can easily reconstruct those files and, thus, expose it. It is better practice to get rid of your files by running tools like “shred” on the Linux platform (try “shred –fuvzn1 [FILENAME]” or check “man shred” for details), or “File Shredder&rdqu...

  6. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE HH 110/270 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdič, P.; Reipurth, B.; Walawender, J.; Raga, A. C.; Bally, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the HH 110/270 system based on three sets of optical images obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope, the Subaru Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The ground-based observations are made in the Hα and [S II] emission lines and the HST observations are made in the Hα line only. Ground-based observations reveal the existence of nine knots, which have not been previously discussed and offer some important insight into the HH 110/270 history. We perform a kinematic study of the HH 110/270 system and an analysis of its emission properties. We measure proper motions of all the knots in the system. Four of the newly identified knots belong to the HH 270 jet. Their positions indicate that the jet's axis changed its direction in the past. We speculate that similar changes may have occurred many times in the past and this could be part of the reason for the unusual structure of the HH 110 jet. The HST observations allow us to resolve individual knots into their substructures and to measure their proper motions. These measurements show that the knots are highly turbulent structures. Finally, we report the discovery of four new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located near the HH 110/270 system.

  7. Towards the Proper Integration of Extra-Functional Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Hochmuller

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the many achievements in software engineering, proper treatment of extra-functional requirements (also known as non-functional requirements within the software development process is still a challenge to our discipline. The application of functionality-biased software development methodologies can lead to major contradictions in the joint modelling of functional and extra-functional requirements. Based on a thorough discussion on the nature of extra-functional requirements as well as on open issues in coping with them, this paper emphasizes the role of extra-functional requirements in the software development process. Particularly, a framework supporting the explicit integration of extra functional requirements into a conventional phase-driven process model is proposed and outlined.

  8. Preschoolers' knowledge about the appearance of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathryn Maycumber; Pasnak, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Preschoolers' knowledge of the appearance of proper names was tested in three experiments with 25 boys and 22 girls from low-income families. Children from a Head Start program, whose parents signed a permission letter, participated. Their ages ranged from 3 yr. 6 mo. to 5 yr. 6 mo. (M = 52.2 mo., SD = 4.9). When shown consonant-vowel-consonant trigrams such as Rit or baF or dEg with various capitalization patterns, the children showed a tendency to recognize that CVC trigrams with the first letter capitalized or all letters capitalized were the ones most likely to represent a person's name. When their own names were substituted, which typically contained more than three letters, their performance was markedly better. Children also had a strong tendency to consider trigrams of Latin letters as more likely to be a person's name than trigrams of non-Latin characters (e.g., Sanskrit).

  9. Social inequalities in health: a proper concern of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael; Bell, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Social inequalities are a proper concern of epidemiology. Epidemiological thinking and modes of analysis are central, but epidemiological research is one among many areas of study that provide the evidence for understanding the causes of social inequalities in health and what can be done to reduce them. Understanding the causes of health inequalities requires insights from social, behavioral and biological sciences, and a chain of reasoning that examines how the accumulation of positive and negative influences over the life course leads to health inequalities in adult life. Evidence that the social gradient in health can be reduced should make us optimistic that reducing health inequalities is a realistic goal for all societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The proper generalized decomposition for advanced numerical simulations a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Chinesta, Francisco; Leygue, Adrien

    2014-01-01

    Many problems in scientific computing are intractable with classical numerical techniques. These fail, for example, in the solution of high-dimensional models due to the exponential increase of the number of degrees of freedom. Recently, the authors of this book and their collaborators have developed a novel technique, called Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) that has proven to be a significant step forward. The PGD builds by means of a successive enrichment strategy a numerical approximation of the unknown fields in a separated form. Although first introduced and successfully demonstrated in the context of high-dimensional problems, the PGD allows for a completely new approach for addressing more standard problems in science and engineering. Indeed, many challenging problems can be efficiently cast into a multi-dimensional framework, thus opening entirely new solution strategies in the PGD framework. For instance, the material parameters and boundary conditions appearing in a particular mathematical mod...

  11. Principles of Proper Nutrition in Children with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khajavikia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Celiac disease (CD is a hereditary disorder of the immune system which damages the mucosa of the small intestine caused by gluten consumption(even very small amounts. Villous atrophy, leads to malabsorption, which is due to decreased absorption levels. The first bowel symptoms are seen during the first 2 years of life. Currently, the only treatment is to compliance with a gluten-free diet lifelong. The purpose of this study was to introduce the principles of proper nutrition in children with CD to prevent complications of malabsorption.   Results: The patients do not tolerate the proteins of cereals in bread such as wheat, barley, black barley and rye. Substituting wheat flour with rice flour, corn and potatoes and using olive oil, sunflower, corn oil and peanut oil for cooking is recommended. Until the disappearance of symptoms, consumption of milk, fat and high-fiber foods should be avoided. Deficiency of folic acid, iron, vitamin B12 and calcium are common. If necessary, iron, folic acid and multivitamin can be used. These children need proper energy according to their personal needs and should have a diet high in protein. Consumption of potatoes, corn, vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy and nuts (non- roasted in any form is allowed. Identifying foods which contain gluten (prepared sauces, sausages, salami, herbal supplements, all canned meat products, crushed barbecue, prepared soups, espresso and coffee , white vinegar, curd, dried milk, pasta, pastries prepared by wheat flour, compote and food supplements is recommended.   Conclusions: The identification of substances containing gluten by parents and children, and removal of harmful substances from the diet causes the intestines to quickly begin to rebuild itself. Keywords: Nutrition, Child, Celiac, Diet.

  12. Morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human subiculum is a significant part of the hippocampal formation positioned between the hippocampus proper and the entorhinal and other cortices. It plays an important role in spatial navigation, memory processing and control of the response to stress. The aim of our study was identification of the morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper: the maximum length and width of cell body and total dendritic length and volume of cell body. Comparing the measured parameters of different types of subicular neurons (bipolar, multipolar, pyramidal neurons with triangular-shaped soma and neurons with oval-shaped soma, we can conclude that bipolar neurons have the lowest values of the measured parameters: the maximum length of their cell body is 14.1 ± 0.2 µm, the maximum width is 13.9 ± 0.5 µm, and total dendritic length is 14597 ± 3.1 µm. The lowest volume value was observed in bipolar neurons; the polymorphic layer is 1152.99 ± 662.69 µm3. The pyramidal neurons of the pyramidal layer have the highest value for the maximal length of the cell body (44.43 ± 7.94 µm, maximum width (23.64 ± 1.89 µm, total dendritic length (1830 ± 466.3 µm and volume (11768.65±4004.9 µm3 These characteristics of the pyramidal neurons indicate their importance, because the axons of these neurons make up the greatest part of the fornix, along with the axons of neurons of the CA1 hippocampal field.

  13. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. V. Final Measurement for Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2007-03-01

    The measured proper motion of Fornax, expressed in the equatorial coordinate system, is (μα,μδ)=(47.6+/-4.6,-36.0+/-4.1) mas century-1. This proper motion is a weighted mean of four independent measurements for three distinct fields. Each measurement uses a quasi-stellar object as a reference point. Removing the contribution of the motion of the Sun and of the local standard of rest to the measured proper motion produces a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μGrfα,μGrfδ)=(24.4+/-4.6,-14.3+/-4.1) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center has a radial component of Vr=-31.8+/-1.7 km s-1 and a tangential component of Vt=196+/-29 km s-1. Integrating the motion of Fornax in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 118 (66, 137) and 152 (144, 242) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence intervals derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.13 (0.11, 0.38), and the orbital period is 3.2 (2.5, 4.6) Gyr. The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 101° (94°, 107°) to the Galactic plane. Fornax could be a member of a proposed ``stream'' of galaxies and globular clusters; however, the membership of another proposed galaxy in the stream, Sculptor, has been previously ruled out. Fornax is in the Kroupa-Theis-Boily plane, which contains 11 of the Galactic satellite galaxies, but its orbit will take it out of that plane. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  14. Chemically Dissected Rotation Curves of the Galactic Bulge from Main-sequence Proper Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, William I.; Calamida, Annalisa; Sahu, Kailash C.; Brown, Thomas M.; Gennaro, Mario; Avila, Roberto J.; Valenti, Jeff; Debattista, Victor P.; Rich, R. Michael; Minniti, Dante; Zoccali, Manuela; Aufdemberge, Emily R.

    2018-05-01

    We report results from an exploratory study implementing a new probe of Galactic evolution using archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations. Precise proper motions are combined with photometric relative metallicity and temperature indices, to produce the proper-motion rotation curves of the Galactic bulge separately for metal-poor and metal-rich main-sequence samples. This provides a “pencil-beam” complement to large-scale wide-field surveys, which to date have focused on the more traditional bright giant branch tracers. We find strong evidence that the Galactic bulge rotation curves drawn from “metal-rich” and “metal-poor” samples are indeed discrepant. The “metal-rich” sample shows greater rotation amplitude and a steeper gradient against line-of-sight distance, as well as possibly a stronger central concentration along the line of sight. This may represent a new detection of differing orbital anisotropy between metal-rich and metal-poor bulge objects. We also investigate selection effects that would be implied for the longitudinal proper-motion cut often used to isolate a “pure-bulge” sample. Extensive investigation of synthetic stellar populations suggests that instrumental and observational artifacts are unlikely to account for the observed rotation curve differences. Thus, proper-motion-based rotation curves can be used to probe chemodynamical correlations for main-sequence tracer stars, which are orders of magnitude more numerous in the Galactic bulge than the bright giant branch tracers. We discuss briefly the prospect of using this new tool to constrain detailed models of Galactic formation and evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  15. What can Gaia proper motions tell us about Milky Way dwarf galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Helmi, A.; Breddels, M.

    We present a proper-motion study on models of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor, based on the predicted proper-motion accuracy of Gaia measurements. Gaia will measure proper motions of several hundreds of stars for a Sculptor-like system. Even with an uncertainty on the proper motion of order 1.5

  16. Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.

  17. Opening a Pandora's Box: Proper Names in English Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierini, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the linguistic-cultural aspects and usage of phraseological units involving personal and place names in English. The introductory sections outline the linguistic features of proper names and phraseological units. The qualitative part of this study provides a list of units belonging to four phraseological types (idioms, stereotyped similes, binomials, formulae, drawn from idiom dictionaries. An investigation of the sources of names shows that the personal and place names involved are historically, socially or culturally prominent in British culture. Here is noted a predominance of personal over place names, and within the former, a predominance of male over female names, and first names over family names, with a number of hypocorisms. The quantitative part of the study consists of a corpus search of the selected units in the British National Corpus in order to find their frequency and distribution across registers. The search reveals that they have very low levels of occurrence, and are more commonly used in written registers, in particular, in fiction, journalism and miscellaneous texts.

  18. TMAP/CKAP2 is essential for proper chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Eunhee; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-15

    Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a novel mitotic spindle-associated protein which is frequently up-regulated in various malignances. However, its cellular functions remain unknown. Previous reports suggested that the cellular functions of TMAP/CKAP2 pertain to regulation of the dynamics and assembly of the mitotic spindle. To investigate its role in mitosis, we studied the effects of siRNA-mediated depletion of TMAP/CKAP2 in cultured mammalian cells. Unexpectedly, TMAP/CKAP2 knockdown did not result in significant alterations of the spindle apparatus. However, TMAP/CKAP2-depleted cells often exhibited abnormal nuclear morphologies, which were accompanied by abnormal organization of the nuclear lamina, and chromatin bridge formation between two daughter cell nuclei. Time lapse video microscopy revealed that the changes in nuclear morphology and chromatin bridge formations observed in TMAP/CKAP2-depleted cells are the result of defects in chromosome segregation. Consistent with this, the spindle checkpoint activity was significantly reduced in TMAP/CKAP2-depleted cells. Moreover, chromosome missegregation induced by depletion of TMAP/CKAP2 ultimately resulted in reduced cell viability and increased chromosomal instability. Our present findings demonstrate that TMAP/CKAP2 is essential for proper chromosome segregation and for maintaining genomic stability.

  19. Training waste generators: The first responder in proper waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dealing with waste effectively requires a ''cradle to grave'' approach to waste management. The first step in that chain of custody is the waste generator. The waste generator plays the key role in the correct identification, packaging, and disposal of waste. The Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed several short training programs for waste generators. This training presents a consistent approach to proper handling of waste within the ORNL waste management system. This training has been developed for generators of solid low-level radioactive waste, hazardous and mixed waste, and transuranic waste. In addition to the above, a Waste Minimization training program has been developed for use by all organizations at ORNL who generate any type of hazardous waste. These training programs represent a combined effort of the training staff and the technical staff to assure that all ORNL staff accept their responsibility for handling all types of radioactive and hazardous wastes correctly from its generation to its disposal. 4 refs

  20. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 – stage electrical low pressure impactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50 from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles.

    Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit.

    As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m−2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from −4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m−2 s−1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10−3 m

  1. Knowing Our Neighbors: Four New Nearby High Proper Motion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Ianna, Philip A.; Riedel, Adric R.; Finch, Charlie T.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a well-understood, volume-limited (and ultimately volume-complete) sample of stellar systems within 25 pc is essential for determining the stellar luminosity function, the mass-luminosity relationship, the stellar velocity distribution, and the stellar multiplicity fraction. Such a sample also provides insight into the local star formation history. Towards that end, the Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) team measures trigonometric parallaxes to establish which systems truly lie within the 25-pc radius of the Solar Neighborhood. Recent astrometric measurements with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m telescope establish three high proper motion systems as members (2MASS J02511490-0352459, 2MASS J15345704-1418486, and 2MASS J09211410-2104446) and confirm a fourth (2MASS J23062928-0502285). All four proper motions exceed 0.9”/yr. 2MA0251 travels 2.1497±0.0009”/yr in 149.20±0.05° at a distance of 11.0±0.4 pc. 2M2306 moves 1.0344±0.0007”/yr in 118.50±0.08° at a distance of 12.7±0.2 pc. 2MA1534 goes 0.9726±0.0004”/yr in 251.50 ±0.05° at a distance of 10.93±0.10 pc. 2MA0921 shifts 0.9489±0.0003”/yr in 164.70±0.04° at a distance of 12.3±0.2 pc. The corresponding tangential velocities are 112.4, 62.4, 50.4, and 55.5 km/s whereas the median for parallaxes previously published by RECONS is 53 km/s. With radial velocities in the literature of -75.5 to 80.53 km/s, none of these is a candidate member of any young moving groups.To characterize these late M-early L systems more fully, RECONS obtained VRI photometry; their I -band magnitudes range from 14.10 to 16.55. Over their astrometric baselines of 7.75 to 8.99 years, these demonstrated long-term I-band variability of 0.0135 mag. or less, indicating they may be older systems.With each new confirmation, we come closer to completing the census of the Solar Neighborhood.NSF grants AST 05-07711 and AST 09-08402, NASA-SIM, Georgia State University, the University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College

  2. Solar radiation at the surface in the Baltic Proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Keevallik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation data recorded at 12 sites around the central part of the Baltic Sea during 1996-2000 drawn from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment meteorological data archives are used to study the spatio-temporal variability of daily global radiation totals. The annual average daily global radiation total varies from about 10 MJ m-2 at Visby(on Gotland and Kołobrzeg (on the coast of Poland to less than 9 MJ m-2 at Zīlāni (inland Latvia, Šilutė (Lithuaniaand Jokioinen (Finland. The monthly average daily global radiation total over the whole region extends from 0.93 in December to 19.0 in June. The variability in global radiation is analysed on the basis of the fraction of the daily total at the top of the atmosphere.The spatial and temporal variability is the least in August - this shows that the variation in the cloud cover and atmospheric properties at this time of year is the smallest. The spatial correlation is the strongest between the two Finnish stations - Vantaa and Jokioinen. It is also high between Stockholm and Norrköping, on the east coast of Sweden. The correlation coefficients are the largest over the whole area in April. Radiation data from coastal stations are compared with an earlier parameterization basedon ship observations (Rozwadowska & Isemer 1998, Isemer & Rozwadowska 1999. It is concluded that in climatological research, actinometric data from Visby can be used to characterize the radiation field over the northern part of the Baltic Proper and those from Kołobrzeg to characterize the radiation field over the southern part of this sea.

  3. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  4. Meiotic non-disjunction induced by fission neutrons relative to X-rays observed in mouse secondary spermatocytes. Pt. 1. The response of different cell stages to a single radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, A.; Pacchierotti, F.; Metalli, P. (Nuclear Energy Agency, Rome (Italy). Div. of Physics and Biomedical Sciences)

    1983-03-01

    (C57BL/CnexC3H/Cne)F/sub 1/ male mice were irradiated with 2 Gy of 250-kV X-rays or 0.56 Gy of attenuated fission spectrum neutrons, and killed at various times after treatment. Second meiotic metaphases of spermatogenetic cells irradiated in various meiotic and premeiotic stages were observed. These stages were first meiotic metaphase, diplotene, late pachytene, mid-pachytene, zygotene, pre-leptotene and spermatogonia. Cells were classified by chromosome counting, and those with 18 <=n<=22 were recorded. An index of induction of non-disjunction events was obtained by the frequency of hyper-haploid spermatocytes relative to the sum of hyper-haploid and normal haploid spreads. The frequency of hyper-haploid spermatocytes was 0.7+-0.4 in control mice. It was higher after treatment with both types of radiation at all meiotic stages tested, with a peak of induction at and shortly before metaphase I-diakinesis (16-19%). Irradiated gonial cells also yielded values higher than did controls. The difference was statistically significant after irradiation with neutrons, showing that radiation can induce non-disjunction events in stem cells.

  5. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  6. The proper contributions of social workers in health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, J

    1986-01-01

    of the clinician. Provision of social work services to the health system has become a questionable priority and raises the issue of whether much of what is now termed "health care' could more appropriately be termed "social care' and provided in a primary social work setting to which medicine and nursing would make their "proper contributions'.

  7. A Demonstration of Optimal Apodization Determination for Proper Lateral Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Komiya, Yuichi; Uga, Shinya

    2009-07-01

    We have realized effective ultrasound (US) beamformings by the steering of plural beams and apodizations for B-mode imaging with a high lateral resolution and accurate measurement of tissue or blood displacement vector and/or strain tensor using the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM), or multidimensional autocorrelation or Doppler methods (MAM and MDM) using multidimensional analytic signals. For instance, the coherent superposition of the steered beams performed in the lateral cosine modulation method (LCM) has a higher potential for realizing a more accurate measurement of a displacement vector than the synthesis of the displacement vector using the accurately measured axial displacements obtained by the multidimensional synthetic aperture method (MDSAM), multidirectional transmission method (MTM) or the use of plural US transducers. Originally, the apodization function to be used for realizing a designed point spread function (PSF) was obtained by the Fraunhofer approximation (FA). However, to obtain the best approximated, designed PSF in the least-squares sense, we proposed a linear optimization (LO) method. Furthermore, on the basis of the knowledge about the losts of US energy during the propagation, we have recently developed a nonlinear optimization (NLO) method, in which the feet of the main lobes in apodization function are properly truncated. Thus, NLO also allows the decrease in the number of channels or the confinement of the effective aperture. In this study, to gain insight into the ideal shape of the PSF, the accuracies of the two-dimensional (2D) displacement vector measurements were compared for typical PSFs with distinct lateral envelope shapes, particularly, in terms of full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the length of the feet, i.e., the Gaussian function, Hanning window and parabolic function. It was confirmed that a PSF having a wide FWHM and short feet was ideal. Such a PSF yielded an echo with a high signal

  8. Requirements of Slm proteins for proper eisosome organization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eisosomes are large immobile assemblies at the cortex of a cell under the membrane ... microscopic analysis of Abp1-RFP revealed that the actin defect in slmts cells was not ... Our data provide evidence for the requirement of Slm proteins in eisosome ..... with a bandwidth of 10 nm, and emission was measured at. 680 nm ...

  9. 32 CFR 536.27 - Identification of a proper claimant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... principal injury may be presented by other parties. A claim may not be presented by a “volunteer,” meaning...) Transfer or assignment. (1) Under the Antiassignment Act (31 U.S.C. 3727) and Defense Finance and... benefit of creditors, corporate liquidations, consolidations, or reorganizations, and where title passes...

  10. Requirements of Slm proteins for proper eisosome organization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eisosomes are large immobile assemblies at the cortex of a cell under the membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC) in yeast. Slm1 has recently been identified as an MCC component that acts downstream of Mss4 in a pathway that regulates actin cytoskeleton organization in response to stress. In this study, we showed that ...

  11. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. IV. Measurement for Sculptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a measurement of the proper motion of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy determined from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph in the imaging mode. Each of two distinct fields contains a quasi-stellar object that serves as the ``reference point.'' The measured proper motion of Sculptor, expressed in the equatorial coordinate system, is (μα, μδ)=(9+/-13, 2+/-13) mas century-1. Removing the contributions from the motion of the Sun and the motion of the local standard of rest produces the proper motion in the Galactic rest frame: (μGrfα, μGrfδ)=(-23+/-13, 45+/-13) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center has a radial component of Vr=79+/-6 km s-1 and a tangential component of Vt=198+/-50 km s-1. Integrating the motion of Sculptor in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 68 (31, 83) and 122 (97, 313) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence interval derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.29 (0.26, 0.60), and the orbital period is 2.2 (1.5, 4.9) Gyr. Sculptor is on a polar orbit around the Milky Way: the angle of inclination is 86° (83°, 90°). Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  12. Smarandachely Adjacent-Vertex-Distinguishing Proper Edge Chromatic Number of Cm∨Kn

    OpenAIRE

    Shunqin Liu

    2016-01-01

    According to different conditions, researchers have defined a great deal of coloring problems and the corresponding chromatic numbers. Such as, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper total chromatic number. And we focus on the smarandachely adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic...

  13. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...

  14. The Requirement of Being a "Fit and Proper" Person for the Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important requirement for admission as an attorney or advocate is to be a "fit and proper" person. Lawyers are also struck from the respective rolls of advocates or attorneys if they cease to be "fit and proper". This requirement of being a "fit and proper" person is not defined or described in legislation. It is left to the ...

  15. Proper orthogonal decomposition applied to laminar thermal convection in a vertical two plate channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Herrera, C; Murillo-Ramírez, J G; Pérez-Reyes, I; Moreno-Hernández, D

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the thermal convection with imposed shear flow in a thin two-plate channel. Flow structures are investigated under heating asymmetric conditions and different laminar flow conditions. The dynamics of heat flow and the energy distribution were determined by visualization with the Schlieren technique and application of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method. The obtained results from the POD mode analysis revealed that for some flow conditions the heat transfer is related to the energy of the POD modes and their characteristic numbers. It was possible to detect periodic motion in the two-plate channel flow from the POD mode analysis. It was also found that when the energy is distributed among many POD modes, the fluid flow is disorganized and unsteady. (paper)

  16. Proper Valuation of Perpetuities in an Inflationary Environment without Real Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the proper valuation of perpetuities without real growth. The case of a “pure” non growing perpetuity (zero real growth and zero inflation is of academic interest but in practice it might be difficult to find. The findings contradict what is generally accepted in the literature. In particular we examine the textbook formula for calculating thevalue of a perpetuity.When working with perpetuities we are in presence of a Chinese box: we have found that when working with perpetuities in a scenario of non zero inflation and zero real growth value increases with inflation. On the other hand, the textbook formula for calculating a non growing perpetuity in the same scenario under values the value of the perpetuity by relevant amounts.

  17. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. III. Measurement for Ursa Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2005-07-01

    This article presents a measurement of the proper motion of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy determined from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in two distinct fields. Each field contains a quasi-stellar object that serves as the ``reference point.'' The measured proper motion for Ursa Minor, expressed in the equatorial coordinate system, is (μα,μδ)=(-50+/-17,22+/-16) mas century-1. Removing the contributions of the solar motion and the motion of the local standard of rest yields the proper motion in the Galactic rest frame: (μGrfα,μGrfδ)=(-8+/-17,38+/-16) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center has a radial component of Vr=-75+/-44 km s-1 and a tangential component of Vt=144+/-50 km s-1. Integrating the motion of Ursa Minor in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 40 (10, 76) and 89 (78, 160) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence intervals derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.39 (0.09, 0.79), and the orbital period is 1.5 (1.1, 2.7) Gyr. The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 124° (94°, 136°) to the Galactic plane. Ursa Minor is not a likely member of a proposed stream of galaxies on similar orbits around the Milky Way, nor is the plane of its orbit coincident with a recently proposed planar alignment of galaxies around the Milky Way. Comparing the orbits of Ursa Minor and Carina shows no reason for the different star formation histories of these two galaxies. Ursa Minor must contain dark matter to have a high probability of having survived disruption by the Galactic tidal force until the present. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  18. Dimension invariants for groups admitting a cocompact model for proper actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Martínez-Pérez, Conchita

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a group that admits a cocompact classifying space for proper actions X. We derive a formula for the Bredon cohomological dimension for proper actions of G in terms of the relative cohomology with compact support of certain pairs of subcomplexes of X. We use this formula to compute the Br...

  19. 20 CFR 658.415 - Transferring complaints to proper JS office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transferring complaints to proper JS office... Agency Js Complaint System § 658.415 Transferring complaints to proper JS office. (a) Where a JS-related... local office serving the area in which the employer is located. Where a JS-related complaint deals with...

  20. 32 CFR 725.7 - Contents of a proper request or demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of a proper request or demand. 725.7 Section 725.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL RELEASE... § 725.7 Contents of a proper request or demand. (a) Routine requests. If official information is sought...

  1. Treatment of Proper Name Retrieval Deficits in an Individual with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Silkes, JoAnn P.; Phatak, Vaishali; Kendall, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating language deficits in individuals with left temporal-lobe epilepsy have consistently demonstrated impairments in proper name retrieval. The aim of this Phase I rehabilitation study was to investigate the effects of a linguistically distributed word retrieval treatment on proper name retrieval in an individual with…

  2. 25 CFR 87.12 - Insuring the proper performance of approved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insuring the proper performance of approved plans. 87.12... DISTRIBUTION OF INDIAN JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.12 Insuring the proper performance of approved plans. A timetable... regarding the maintenance of the timetable, a full accounting of any per capita distribution, and the...

  3. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs. 170... § 170.423 Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs. An ONC-ATCB shall: (a) Operate its certification... EHR Module developer conspicuously include the following text on its Web site and in all marketing...

  4. The VMC survey. XXVIII. Improved measurements of the proper motion of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, Florian; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Rubele, Stefano; Schmidt, Thomas; Bekki, Kenji; de Grijs, Richard; Emerson, Jim; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Sun, Ning-Chen; van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2018-05-01

    We use deep multi-epoch point-spread function (PSF) photometry taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to measure and analyze the proper motions of stars within the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc, NGC 104). The observations are part of the ongoing near-infrared VISTA survey of the Magellanic Cloud system (VMC). The data analyzed in this study correspond to one VMC tile, which covers a total sky area of 1.77 deg2. Absolute proper motions with respect to 9070 background galaxies are calculated from a linear regression model applied to the positions of stars in 11 epochs in the Ks filter. The data extend over a total time baseline of about 17 months. We found an overall median proper motion of the stars within 47 Tuc of (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+5.89 ± 0.02 (statistical) ± 0.13 (systematic), -2.14 ± 0.02 (statistical) ± 0.08 (systematic)) mas yr-1, based on the measurements of 35 000 individual sources between 5' and 42' from the cluster center. We compared our result to the proper motions from the newest US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC5), which includes data from the Gaia data release 1. Selecting cluster members ( 2700 stars), we found a median proper motion of (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+5.30 ± 0.03 (statistical) ± 0.70 (systematic), -2.70 ± 0.03 (statistical) ± 0.70 (systematic)) mas yr-1. Comparing the results with measurements in the literature, we found that the values derived from the VMC data are consistent with the UCAC5 result, and are close to measurements obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope. We combined our proper motion results with radial velocity measurements from the literature and reconstructed the orbit of 47 Tuc, finding that the cluster is on an orbit with a low ellipticity and is confined within the inner 7.5 kpc of the Galaxy. We show that the use of an increased time baseline in combination with PSF-determined stellar centroids in crowded regions significantly improves

  5. The imprint of proper motion of nonlinear structures on the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluie, Robin; Laguna, Pablo

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the imprint of nonlinear matter condensations on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in an Omega = 1, cold dark matter (CDM) model universe. Temperature anisotropies are obtained by numerically evolving matter inhomogeneities and CMB photons from the beginning of decoupling until the present epoch. The underlying density field produced by the inhomogeneities is followed from the linear, through the weakly clustered, into the fully nonlinear regime. We concentrate on CMB temperature distortions arising from variations in the gravitational potentials of nonlinear structures. We find two sources of temperature fluctuations produced by time-varying potentials: (1) anisotropies due to intrinsic changes in the gravitational potentials of the inhomogeneities and (2) anisotropies generated by the peculiar, bulk motion of the structures across the microwave sky. Both effects generate CMB anisotropies in the range of 10(exp -7) approximately less than or equal to (Delta T/T) approximately less than or equal to 10(exp -6) on scales of approximately 1 deg. For isolated structures, anisotropies due to proper motion exhibit a dipole-like signature in the CMB sky that in principle could yield information on the transverse velocity of the structures.

  6. Autophagy is required for efficient meiosis progression and proper meiotic chromosome segregation in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhara, Hirotada; Yamamoto, Ayumu

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation system, which contributes to development and differentiation of various organisms. Yeast cells undergo meiosis under nitrogen-starved conditions and require autophagy for meiosis initiation. However, the precise roles of autophagy in meiosis remain unclear. Here, we show that autophagy is required for efficient meiosis progression and proper meiotic chromosome segregation in fission yeast. Autophagy-defective strains bearing a mutation in the autophagy core factor gene atg1, atg7, or atg14 exhibit deformed nuclear structures during meiosis. These mutant cells require an extracellular nitrogen supply for meiosis progression following their entry into meiosis and show delayed meiosis progression even with a nitrogen supply. In addition, they show frequent chromosome dissociation from the spindle together with spindle overextension, forming extra nuclei. Furthermore, Aurora kinase, which regulates chromosome segregation and spindle elongation, is significantly increased at the centromere and spindle in the mutant cells. Aurora kinase down-regulation eliminated delayed initiation of meiosis I and II, chromosome dissociation, and spindle overextension, indicating that increased Aurora kinase activity may cause these aberrances in the mutant cells. Our findings show a hitherto unrecognized relationship of autophagy with the nuclear structure, regulation of cell cycle progression, and chromosome segregation in meiosis. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Bilirubin glucuronidation revisited: proper assay conditions to estimate enzyme kinetics with recombinant UGT1A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Tracy, Timothy S; Remmel, Rory P

    2010-11-01

    Bilirubin, an end product of heme catabolism, is primarily eliminated via glucuronic acid conjugation by UGT1A1. Impaired bilirubin conjugation, caused by inhibition of UGT1A1, can result in clinical consequences, including jaundice and kernicterus. Thus, evaluation of the ability of new drug candidates to inhibit UGT1A1-catalyzed bilirubin glucuronidation in vitro has become common practice. However, the instability of bilirubin and its glucuronides presents substantial technical challenges to conduct in vitro bilirubin glucuronidation assays. Furthermore, because bilirubin can be diglucuronidated through a sequential reaction, establishment of initial rate conditions can be problematic. To address these issues, a robust high-performance liquid chromatography assay to measure both bilirubin mono- and diglucuronide conjugates was developed, and the incubation conditions for bilirubin glucuronidation by human embryonic kidney 293-expressed UGT1A1 were carefully characterized. Our results indicated that bilirubin glucuronidation should be assessed at very low protein concentrations (0.05 mg/ml protein) and over a short incubation time (5 min) to assure initial rate conditions. Under these conditions, bilirubin total glucuronide formation exhibited a hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten) kinetic profile with a K(m) of ∼0.2 μM. In addition, under these initial rate conditions, the relative proportions between the total monoglucuronide and the diglucuronide product were constant across the range of bilirubin concentration evaluated (0.05-2 μM), with the monoglucuronide being the predominant species (∼70%). In conclusion, establishment of appropriate incubation conditions (i.e., very low protein concentrations and short incubation times) is necessary to properly characterize the kinetics of bilirubin glucuronidation in a recombinant UGT1A1 system.

  8. The Requirement of Being a "Fit and Proper" Person for the Legal Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Slabbert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An important requirement for admission as an attorney or advocate is to be a "fit and proper" person. Lawyers are also struck from the respective rolls of advocates or attorneys if they cease to be "fit and proper". This requirement of being a "fit and proper" person is not defined or described in legislation. It is left to the subjective interpretation of and application by seniors in the profession and ultimately the court. In the apartheid years this requirement was applied arbitrarily but today the question may be asked why some lawyers who have been found to be "fit and proper" do not act as such. The pre-admission character screening of lawyers seems not to be effective any more. Post- admission moral development is imperative.

  9. 78 FR 33891 - Safety Advisory: Compressed Gas Cylinders That Have Not Been Tested Properly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Properly AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Safety... otherwise safely discharged. Cylinders that are filled with a material other than an atmospheric gas should...

  10. Possible Solution to Publication Bias Through Bayesian Statistics, Including Proper Null Hypothesis Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, Elly A.; van de Schoot, Rens; Winter, Sonja D.; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper argues that an important cause of publication bias resides in traditional frequentist statistics forcing binary decisions. An alternative approach through Bayesian statistics provides various degrees of support for any hypothesis allowing balanced decisions and proper null

  11. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  12. Optimizing chain life in bucket elevators through proper design and elongation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luglio, J.J. [Rexnord, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Since down time in the bulk solids handling industry is so expensive, bucket elevators must operate with extreme reliability, and, of course, the cost per ton of material conveyed must be minimized. This means balancing initial costs, operating and maintenance costs as well as minimizing the inventory of parts required in order to insure reliability. The elevator must be designed properly for each application. It must also be operated and maintained properly. (orig.)

  13. Impact of Training on Improving Proper Handwashing Practices among Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theruna Huthamaputiran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is among the most effective ways to prevent diseases. In Indonesia, only a quarter of the entire population practice proper handwashing techniques. Of these, children are the most vulnerable group for contracting diseases. Nevertheless, they also are crucial agent for behavior transformation as they are keen and open to new ideas. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if training would have an improvement on a proper hand washing practices among elementary school students. Methods:An observational descriptive study design using random sampling was conducted from September to November 2013 in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, Indonesia using primary data of one hundred elementary school students from four elementary schools. Questionnaires were given after informed consent. A demonstration on hand washing techniques and education on proper hand washing practices was then given. Two weeks later, the same questionnaire was given to measure the influence of the training. The collected data were presented using frequency tabulation. Results: Before the training on proper hand washing practices was conducted, only 86.9% students were practicing it properly. After the training was given, 90.7% of the students were doing it properly. For the hand washing technique, only 66.8% of students knew the correct steps before the intervention was given and 78.7% students did them correctly after the intervention. Conclusions:The training shows an overall improvement on the students’ hand washing practices.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1073

  14. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  15. Research on orbit prediction for solar-based calibration proper satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Qi, Wenwen; Xu, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Utilizing the mathematical model of the orbit mechanics, the orbit prediction is to forecast the space target's orbit information of a certain time based on the orbit of the initial moment. The proper satellite radiometric calibration and calibration orbit prediction process are introduced briefly. On the basis of the research of the calibration space position design method and the radiative transfer model, an orbit prediction method for proper satellite radiometric calibration is proposed to select the appropriate calibration arc for the remote sensor and to predict the orbit information of the proper satellite and the remote sensor. By analyzing the orbit constraint of the proper satellite calibration, the GF-1solar synchronous orbit is chose as the proper satellite orbit in order to simulate the calibration visible durance for different satellites to be calibrated. The results of simulation and analysis provide the basis for the improvement of the radiometric calibration accuracy of the satellite remote sensor, which lays the foundation for the high precision and high frequency radiometric calibration.

  16. A Case of Ruptured Aneurysm of the Proper Esophageal Artery with Symptomatic Mediastinal Hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Sato, Yusuke, E-mail: yusuke@doc.med.akita-u.ac.jp [Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Takahashi, Satoshi [Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Motoyama, Satoru; Yoshino, Kei; Sasaki, Tomohiko; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro [Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Mediastinal aneurysms are rare but potentially life-threatening. Among these, bronchial artery aneurysms are most frequently reported, whereas up to now aneurysms of the proper esophageal artery had never been reported. A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for treatment of a massive mediastinal hematoma. Enhanced computed tomography and selective proper esophageal arteriography revealed a 5-mm aneurysm in the proper esophageal artery that arises from the thoracic aorta at the Th8 level and has an anastomotic branch with the bronchial artery peripherally. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed using a mixture of N-butyl cyanoacrylate and lipiodol (1:3 ratio, 0.3 ml). Post-embolization angiography showed no filling into the aneurysm. The patient recovered with no complications and was discharged on the 25th post-procedure day.

  17. Demographic factors and retrieval of object and proper names after age 70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitit Kavé

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are similarly related to retrieval of object and proper names.The sample included 5,907 individuals above age 70 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study between 2004 and 2012. Participants were asked to name two objects as well as the US President and Vice President. Latent growth curve models examined the associations of age, education, and self-rated health with baseline levels and change trajectories in retrieval.Age and education were more strongly related to retrieval of proper names than to retrieval of object names, both for baseline scores and for change trajectory. Similar effects of self-rated health emerged for both types of stimuli.The results show that examining object names and proper names together as indication of cognitive status in the HRS might overlook important differences between the two types of stimuli, in both baseline performance and longitudinal change.

  18. Predicting Factors of Worker Behavior for Proper Working Posture Based on Planed Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadi Zeydi

    2008-12-01

    Introduction & Objective: Injuries resulting from ignoring proper working posture especially in employees who sitting at workplace for more than of working hours are costly, and create significant pain and discomfort. Decreasing of these injuries is most effectively accomplished through the application of ergonomic design principles. Sometimes, however, barriers (technical and economic preclude ergonomic improvement and, consequently, some organizations rely on the use of proper sitting techniques and maintaining proper working posture as a major control strategy during workday. The problem, however, is that these process performing is inconsistent and managers have a difficult time motivating use of these techniques. The main aim of this study was to understand the factors driving proper working posture among employees. Materials & Methods: This study used the theory of planned behavior to predict upright working posture maintenance among 222 of assembling, machinery and printing line’s employees at a Qazvin Alborz industrial town manufacturing organization. Structural equation modeling, explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to analyze relationships among constructs. Results: Results revealed that attitude (p< 0.05, β= 0.53 and intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.46 were the strongest predictors of proper working posture maintenance behavior. Perceived behavior control, to a lesser degree, were also important influences on intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.34 and behavior (p< 0.05, β= 0.28. Subjective norms did not surface as effective direct predictors of upright working posture maintenance, but did affect behavior and intent via mediating factors (attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, the TPB was supported as an effective model explaining upright working posture maintenance, and had potential application for many other safety-related behaviors. Conclusion: results of this study emphasis on considering factors such as

  19. A generalised Green-Julg theorem for proper groupoids and Banach algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Paravicini, Walther

    2009-01-01

    The Green-Julg theorem states that K_0^G(B) is isomorphic to K_0(L^1(G,B)) for every compact group G and every G-C*-algebra B. We formulate a generalisation of this result to proper groupoids and Banach algebras and deduce that the Bost assembly map is surjective for proper Banach algebras. On the way, we show that the spectral radius of an element in a C_0(X)-Banach algebra can be calculated from the spectral radius in the fibres.

  20. Modal analysis of fluid flows using variants of proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Clarence; Dawson, Scott

    2017-11-01

    This talk gives an overview of several methods for analyzing fluid flows, based on variants of proper orthogonal decomposition. These methods may be used to determine simplified, approximate models that capture the essential features of these flows, in order to better understand the dominant physical mechanisms, and potentially to develop appropriate strategies for model-based flow control. We discuss balanced proper orthogonal decomposition as an approximation of balanced truncation, and explain connections with system identification methods such as the eigensystem realization algorithm. We demonstrate the methods on several canonical examples, including a linearized channel flow and the flow past a circular cylinder. Supported by AFOSR, Grant FA9550-14-1-0289.

  1. THE PROBLEM OF PROPER CARGO SECURING IN ROAD TRANSPORT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CIEŚLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of improper security of cargo in trucks as the cause of about 25% of the accidents that takes place in road transport. Attention was drawn to aspects of legal liability for errors resulting from incorrect load securing according to polish law. Article was enriched with practical examples illustrating the effects of improper cargo securing on transport unit and shows how it had to be prepared properly. When planning the proper transport protection of metal sheets rolled both calculation methods and computer applications were used.

  2. The Riemann problem for the relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-01

    The relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation is studied. The Riemann problem is solved constructively. The delta shock wave arises in the Riemann solutions, provided that the initial data satisfy some certain conditions, although the system is strictly hyperbolic and the first and third characteristic fields are genuinely nonlinear, while the second one is linearly degenerate. There are five kinds of Riemann solutions, in which four only consist of a shock wave and a centered rarefaction wave or two shock waves or two centered rarefaction waves, and a contact discontinuity between the constant states (precisely speaking, the solutions consist in general of three waves), and the other involves delta shocks on which both the rest mass density and the proper energy density simultaneously contain the Dirac delta function. It is quite different from the previous ones on which only one state variable contains the Dirac delta function. The formation mechanism, generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition are clarified for this type of delta shock wave. Under the generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions involving delta shocks for the Riemann problem.

  3. Proper motions in the VVV Survey: Results for more than 15 million stars across NGC 6544

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Ramos, R.; Zoccali, M.; Rojas, F.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Gárate, M.; Huijse, P.; Gran, F.; Soto, M.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Estévez, P. A.; Minniti, D.

    2017-12-01

    Context. In the last six years, the VISTA Variable in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey mapped 562 sq. deg. across the bulge and southern disk of the Galaxy. However, a detailed study of these regions, which includes 36 globular clusters (GCs) and thousands of open clusters is by no means an easy challenge. High differential reddening and severe crowding along the line of sight makes highly hamper to reliably distinguish stars belonging to different populations and/or systems. Aims: The aim of this study is to separate stars that likely belong to the Galactic GC NGC 6544 from its surrounding field by means of proper motion (PM) techniques. Methods: This work was based upon a new astrometric reduction method optimized for images of the VVV survey. Results: PSF-fitting photometry over the six years baseline of the survey allowed us to obtain a mean precision of 0.51 mas yr-1, in each PM coordinate, for stars with Ks< 15 mag. In the area studied here, cluster stars separate very well from field stars, down to the main sequence turnoff and below, allowing us to derive for the first time the absolute PM of NGC 6544. Isochrone fitting on the clean and differential reddening corrected cluster color magnitude diagram yields an age of 11-13 Gyr, and metallicity [Fe/H] =-1.5 dex, in agreement with previous studies restricted to the cluster core. We were able to derive the cluster orbit assuming an axisymmetric model of the Galaxy and conclude that NGC 6544 is likely a halo GC. We have not detected tidal tail signatures associated to the cluster, but a remarkable elongation in the galactic center direction has been found. The precision achieved in the PM determination also allows us to separate bulge stars from foreground disk stars, enabling the kinematical selection of bona fide bulge stars across the whole survey area. Conclusions: Kinematical techniques are a fundamental step toward disentangling different stellar populations that overlap in a studied field. Our results show

  4. Mapping stellar kinematics across the Galactic bar : HST measurements of proper motions in 35 fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozlowski, S.; Wozniak, P. R.; Mao, S.; Smith, M. C.; Sumi, T.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2006-01-01

    We present a proper motion mini-survey of 35 fields in the vicinity of Baade window, (l, b) = (1 degrees, -4 degrees), sampling roughly a 5 x 2.5-deg(2) region of the Galactic bar. Our second epoch observations collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Channel instrument onboard

  5. Improved proper name recall in aging after electrical stimulation of the anterior temporal lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Ross

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that portions of the anterior temporal lobes play a critical role in proper name retrieval. We previously found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes improved retrieval of proper names in young adult. Here we extend that finding to older adults who tend to experience greater proper-naming deficits than young adults. The task was to look at pictures of famous faces or landmarks and verbally recall the associated proper name. Our results show a numerical improvement in face naming after left or right anterior temporal lobe stimulation, but a statistically significant effect only after left-lateralized stimulation. The magnitude of the enhancing effect was similar in older and younger adults but the lateralization of the effect differed depending on age. These results provide evidence that tDCS may be a useful tool for the neurorehabilitation of cognitive function in healthy and pathological cognitive decline.

  6. Deriving proper uniform priors for regression coefficients, Parts I, II, and III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, H.R.N.; Linger, R.O.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is a relatively well-known fact that in problems of Bayesian model selection, improper priors should, in general, be avoided. In this paper we will derive and discuss a collection of four proper uniform priors which lie on an ascending scale of informativeness. It will turn out that these

  7. Corrections to the Hipparcos Proper Motions in Declination for 807 Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović, G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the data on latitude variations obtained from observations with 10 classical photographic zenith tubes (PZT in order to improve the Hipparcos proper motions in declinations $mu_{delta} $ for 807 stars. Part of observing programmes, carried out during the last century for the purpose of studying the Earth's rotation, were realized by using PZT instruments. These observations were performed within in the intervals (tens of years much longer than that of the Hipparcos mission (less than 4 years. In addition, the annual number of observations for every PZT-programme star is several hundreds on the average. Though the accuracy of the star coordinates in the Hipparcos Catalogue is by two orders of magnitude better than that of the star coordinates from the PZT observations, the large number of observations performed a much longer time interval makes it possible to correct the Hipparcos proper motions and to improve their accuracy with respect to the accuracy given in the Hipparcos Catalogue. Long term examinations of latitude and time variations were used to form the Earth Orientation Catalogue (EOC-2, aimed at a more accurate determination of positions and proper motions for the stars included. Our method of calculating the corrections of the proper motions in declination from the latitude variations is different from the method used in obtaining the EOC-2 Catalogue. Comparing the results we have established a good agreement between our $mu_ {delta} $ and the EOC-2 ones for the star sample used in the present paper.

  8. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  9. MEASURING THE UNDETECTABLE: PROPER MOTIONS AND PARALLAXES OF VERY FAINT SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Jester, Sebastian; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2009-01-01

    The near future of astrophysics involves many large solid-angle, multi-epoch, multiband imaging surveys. These surveys will, at their faint limits, have data on a large number of sources that are too faint to be detected at any individual epoch. Here, we show that it is possible to measure in multi-epoch data not only the fluxes and positions, but also the parallaxes and proper motions of sources that are too faint to be detected at any individual epoch. The method involves fitting a model of a moving point source simultaneously to all imaging, taking account of the noise and point-spread function (PSF) in each image. By this method it is possible to measure the proper motion of a point source with an uncertainty close to the minimum possible uncertainty given the information in the data, which is limited by the PSF, the distribution of observation times (epochs), and the total signal-to-noise in the combined data. We demonstrate our technique on multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging of the SDSS Southern Stripe (SDSSSS). We show that with our new technique we can use proper motions to distinguish very red brown dwarfs from very high-redshift quasars in these SDSS data, for objects that are inaccessible to traditional techniques, and with better fidelity than by multiband imaging alone. We rediscover all 10 known brown dwarfs in our sample and present nine new candidate brown dwarfs, identified on the basis of significant proper motion.

  10. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  11. The Nonuse, Misuse, and Proper Use of Pilot Studies in Experimental Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, Erik; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the nonuse, misuse, and proper use of pilot studies in experimental evaluation research. The authors first show that there is little theoretical, practical, or empirical guidance available to researchers who seek to incorporate pilot studies into experimental evaluation research designs. The authors then discuss how pilot…

  12. Translation of proper names in the novel «Hunger games» by S. Collins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalesova N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the aim of the article is to study the methods used when translating proper names in the fantasy novel «Hunger games» by S. Collins. It was found out that the most popular ones are transcription, translation with the use of the traditional variant and semantic translation.

  13. Corrections to the Hipparcos proper motions in declination for 807 stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the data on latitude variations obtained from observations with 10 classical photographic zenith tubes (PZT in order to improve the Hipparcos proper motions in declinations µδ for 807 stars. Part of observing programmes, carried out during the last century for the purpose of studying the Earth's rotation, were realized by using PZT instruments. These observations were performed within in the intervals (tens of years much longer than that of the Hipparcos mission (less than 4 years. In addition, the annual number of observations for every PZT programme star is several hundreds on the average. Though the accuracy of the star coordinates in the Hipparcos Catalogue is by two orders of magnitude better than that of the star coordinates from the PZT observations, the large number of observations performed a much longer time interval makes it possible to correct the Hipparcos proper motions and to improve their accuracy with respect to the accuracy given in the Hipparcos Catalogue. Long term examinations of latitude and time variations were used to form the Earth Orientation Catalogue (EOC-2, aimed at a more accurate determination of positions and proper motions for the stars included. Our method of calculating the corrections of the proper motions in declination from the latitude variations is different from the method used in obtaining the EOC-2 Catalogue. Comparing the results we have established a good agreement between our µδ and the EOC-2 ones for the star sample used in the present paper.

  14. How Students Learn from Multiple Contexts and Definitions: Proper Time as a Coordination Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Olivia; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an empirical analysis of a single classroom episode in which students reveal difficulties with the concept of proper time in special relativity but slowly make progress in improving their understanding. The theoretical framework used is "coordination class theory," which is an evolving model of concepts and conceptual change.…

  15. 76 FR 14543 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ..., Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL78 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement... other than firm-fixed-price contracts (e.g., cost-reimbursement, time-and-material, and labor-hour...-reimbursement contracts and identifies the following three areas that the Defense Acquisition Regulation Council...

  16. Proper survey methods for research of aquatic plant ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper survey methods are essential for objective, quantitative assessment of the distribution and abundance of aquatic plants as part of research and demonstration efforts. For research, the use of the appropriate method is an essential part of the scientific method, to ensure that the experimenta...

  17. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  18. Young children's use of contrast in word learning: the case of proper names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, D.G.; Rhemtulla, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established that contrast can exert a powerful effect on early word learning. This study examined the role of contrast in young children's ability to learn proper names. Preschoolers heard a novel word for an unfamiliar stuffed animal in the presence of a second stuffed animal of

  19. Statistical HR diagrams for one hundred and fifteen thousand proper-motion stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Since regular HR diagrams require apparent magnitudes, colors or spectra, and parallaxes, and such complete data are available for relatively few stars, there may be some advantage in making up diagrams which utilize proper motions instead of parallaxes, and are thus statistically similar to an HR diagram. The reduced proper motion, first used by Hertzsprung, is defined as H=m+5+5log μ, but may also be written as H=M+5log T, where T is the tangential velocity, and is expressed in astronomical units per year. A diagram plotting H against color will thus contain the considerable dispersion in tangential velocity which is a serious disadvantage. However, this is outweighed by two practical advantages. First, the one and the same person who does the proper motion survey can, and does also determine the other two quantities needed. Second, when using data obtained from such a proper motion survey one deals, statistically, with all the stars within a given distance and the results, therefore, are much more representative of the real situation in space than many HR diagrams which often contain an unrealistic preponderance of giants. (Auth.)

  20. The transverse index theorem for proper cocompact actions of Lie groupoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pflaum, M.J.; Posthuma, H.; Tang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Given a proper, cocompact action of a Lie groupoid, we define a higher index pairing between invariant elliptic differential operators and smooth groupoid cohomology classes. We prove a cohomological index formula for this pairing by applying the van Est map and algebraic index theory. Finally we

  1. Vantage Theory and the Use of English Demonstrative Determiners with Proper Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some apparently paradoxical behavior of the English demonstratives "this/these" and "that/those" as determiners of proper nouns and as metaphorical signals of epistemic and affective stance within the proximal-distal opposition. It is argued that the apparent paradoxes are actually cases of shifting perspectives or points of…

  2. Travelling wave solutions and proper solutions to the two-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaosheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the two-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries (2D-BKdV) equation by analysing an equivalent two-dimensional autonomous system, which indicates that under some particular conditions, the 2D-BKdV equation has a unique bounded travelling wave solution. Then by using a direct method, a travelling solitary wave solution to the 2D-BKdV equation is expressed explicitly, which appears to be more efficient than the existing methods proposed in the literature. At the end of the paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the proper solutions of the 2D-BKdV equation is established by applying the qualitative theory of differential equations

  3. PROPER MOTIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE MID-INFRARED WITH SPITZER (IRAC). I. THE NGC 1333 REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Arce, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use two 4.5 μm Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a ∼7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of ∼9-13 km s –1 , which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from ∼10 to 100 km s –1 . The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities ≤20 km s –1 . This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  4. Locale-Specific Categorization of IT Projects for Proper Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to show that not only are the project management techniques important for small-scale projects, but following proper project management techniques is one of the most important requirements. However, there come slight variations in implementing project management techniques in small projects as compared with larger projects. Therefore, proper categorization of projects holds the key to success in many situations. Our paper will show that categorization of a project as small-scale or large-scale should always be locale specific. In this regards, we develop a criteria and evaluate how the projects are categorized as small-scale and large-scale in different parts of the world with focus on IT projects. This research concludes that some methods cannot be used for projects of different scales.

  5. Proper acceleration, the geometric tachyon and the dynamics of a fundamental string near Dp branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ashok; Panda, Sudhakar; Roy, Shibaji

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of our recent observation that the origin of the geometric tachyon, which arises when a Dp brane propagates in the vicinity of a stack of coincident NS5 branes, is due to the proper acceleration generated by the background dilaton field. We show that when a fundamental string (F-string), described by the Nambu-Goto action, is moving in the background of a stack of coincident Dp branes, the geometric tachyon mode can also appear since the overall conformal mode of the induced metric for the string can act as a source for proper acceleration. We also studied the detailed dynamics of the F-string as well as the instability by mapping the Nambu-Goto action of the F-string to the tachyon effective action of the non-BPS D-string. We qualitatively argue that the condensation of the geometric tachyon is responsible for the (F,Dp) bound state formation.

  6. Properly quantized history-dependent Parrondo games, Markov processes, and multiplexing circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleiler, Steven A. [Fariborz Maseeh Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Portland State University, PO Box 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Khan, Faisal Shah, E-mail: faisal.khan@kustar.ac.a [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2011-05-09

    Highlights: History-dependent Parrondo games are viewed as Markov processes. Quantum mechanical analogues of these Markov processes are constructed. These quantum analogues restrict to the original process on measurement. Relationship between these analogues and a quantum circuits is exhibited. - Abstract: In the context of quantum information theory, 'quantization' of various mathematical and computational constructions is said to occur upon the replacement, at various points in the construction, of the classical randomization notion of probability distribution with higher order randomization notions from quantum mechanics such as quantum superposition with measurement. For this to be done 'properly', a faithful copy of the original construction is required to exist within the new quantum one, just as is required when a function is extended to a larger domain. Here procedures for extending history-dependent Parrondo games, Markov processes and multiplexing circuits to their quantum versions are analyzed from a game theoretic viewpoint, and from this viewpoint, proper quantizations developed.

  7. ORTHOGONAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PROPER TRANSFORMATION OF A PERSYMMETRIC MATRIX BASED ON ROTATION OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Demko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical substantiation of the algorithm for synthesis of the proper transformation and finding the eigenvalue formulae of a persymmetric matrix of dimension N = 2 k ( k =1, 4 based on orthogonal rotation operators is given. The proposed algorithm made it possible to improve the author's approach to calculating eigenvalues based on numerical examples for the maximal dimension of matrices 64×64, resulting the possibility to obtain analytical relations for calculating the eigenvalues of the persymmetric matrix. It is shown that the proper transformation has a factorized structure in the form of a product of rotation operators, each of which is a direct sum of elementary Givens and Jacobian rotation matrices. 

  8. Proper motion separation of Be stars in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, K.; García, A.; Sabogal, B.

    2018-01-01

    We present a proper motion investigation of a sample of Be stars candidates towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which has resulted in the identification of two separate populations, in the Galactic foreground and in the Magellanic background. OGLE BVI and 2MASS JHK photometry were used with the SPM4 proper motions to discriminate the different populations located towards the LMC. Two populations with distinctive infrared colours and noticeable different kinematics were found, the bluer sample is consistent with being in the LMC and the redder one with belonging to the Milky Way (MW) disk. This settles the nature of the redder sample which had been described in previous publications as a possible unknown subclass of stars among the Be candidates in the LMC.

  9. Application of group theory to proper vibrations in an electric circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoya, Masahiko; 細谷, 将彦

    2010-01-01

    Group-theoretical analysis is first presented to three-dimensional behavior of an electric circuit. All the modes of proper vibration are found and assigned to each irreducible representation of symmetrical group of the circuit without solving its circuit equations. In order that an electromagnetic radiation from the outside may induce each vibration, a selection rule which is similar to that in infrared absorption must be fulfilled. The circuit may be used as a directive antenna.

  10. Intelligent Decisional Assistant that Facilitate the Choice of a Proper Computer System Applied in Busines

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae MARGINEAN

    2009-01-01

    The choice of a proper computer system is not an easy task for a decider. One reason could be the present market development of computer systems applied in business. The big number of the Romanian market players determines a big number of computerized products, with a multitude of various properties. Our proposal tries to optimize and facilitate this decisional process within an e-shop where are sold IT packets applied in business, building an online decisional assistant, a special component ...

  11. Mass estimates from stellar proper motions: the mass of ω Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Richard; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-03-01

    We lay out and apply methods to use proper motions of individual kinematic tracers for estimating the dynamical mass of star clusters. We first describe a simple projected mass estimator and then develop an approach that evaluates directly the likelihood of the discrete kinematic data given the model predictions. Those predictions may come from any dynamical modelling approach, and we implement an analytic King model, a spherical isotropic Jeans equation model and an axisymmetric, anisotropic Jeans equation model. This maximum likelihood modelling (MLM) provides a framework for a model-data comparison, and a resulting mass estimate, which accounts explicitly for the discrete nature of the data for individual stars, the varying error bars for proper motions of differing signal-to-noise ratio, and for data incompleteness. Both of these two methods are evaluated for their practicality and are shown to provide an unbiased and robust estimate of the cluster mass. We apply these approaches to the enigmatic globular cluster ω Centauri, combining the proper motion from van Leeuwen et al. with improved photometric cluster membership probabilities. We show that all mass estimates based on spherical isotropic models yield (4.55 ± 0.1) × 106 M⊙[D/5.5 ± 0.2 kpc]3, where our modelling allows us to show how the statistical precision of this estimate improves as more proper motion data of lower signal-to-noise ratio are included. MLM predictions, based on an anisotropic axisymmetric Jeans model, indicate for ω Cen that the inclusion of anisotropies is not important for the mass estimates, but that accounting for the flattening is: flattened models imply (4.05 ± 0.1) × 106 M⊙[D/5.5 ± 0.2 kpc]3, 10 per cent lower than when restricting the analysis to a spherical model. The best current distance estimates imply an additional uncertainty in the mass estimate of 12 per cent.

  12. HST Proper Motions of Distant Globular Clusters: Constraining the Formation & Mass of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, S. Tony; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Deason, Alis; Bellini, Andrea; Besla, Gurtina; Watkins, Laura

    2018-04-01

    Proper motions (PMs) are required to calculate accurate orbits of globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present our HST program to create a PM database for 20 GCs at distances of R GC = 10-100 kpc. Targets are discussed along with PM measurement methods. We also describe how our PM results can be used for Gaia as an external check, and discuss the synergy between HST and Gaia as astrometric instruments in the coming years.

  13. On the Set of the Numbers of Conjugates of Noncyclic Proper Subgroups of Finite Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiangtao; Zhang, Cui

    2013-01-01

    Let G be a finite group and (G) the set of the numbers of conjugates of noncyclic proper subgroups of G. We prove that (1) if |(G)| ≤ 2, then G is solvable, and (2) G is a nonsolvable group with |(G)| = 3 if and only if G≅PSL(2,5) or PSL(2,13) or SL(2,5) or SL(2,13)....

  14. Synchronization of RF fields of Indus 2 RF cavities for proper injection and acceleration of beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Nitesh; Bagduwal, Pritam S.; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Indus-2 is a synchrotron light source with designed parameters of 2.5 GeV, 300 mA beam current. Four RF cavities fed from four RF power stations have been used for beam acceleration from 550 MeV to 2.5 GeV and synchrotron loss compensation. Particle should reach the RF cavity at the proper phase for proper acceptance of the beam in ring. At injection if the phase is not proper the acceptance efficiency reduces and the maximum stored current in the ring also gets limited. Equal contribution from four cavities at every value of current and energy level is very important. Improper phase will cause the imbalance of the power among different station hence will limit maximum stored current and reduce life time of the stored beam. Phase optimization was done in two-step, first at injection to have better injection rate and the stations were operated at the sufficient power for control loops to operate. Then at 2 GeV and 2.5 GeV energy so that beam extracts equal power from all four RF stations. Phase synchronization of all four cavities from injection to 2.5 GeV has already been done at 50 mA stored beam current. If phases of RF fields inside four RF cavities is not proper then beam will not see the total RF voltage as summation of all four cavity gap voltages, hence it is a very important parameter to be optimized and maintained during operation. (author)

  15. Determination of Proper Motions of Circumpolar Stars by Using Images from Ukrvo Plate Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Yu.; Andruk, V.; Mazhaev, A.; Kovylianska, O.; Protsyuk, S.; Golovnya, V.

    UkrVO plate archives contain informationobtained at different time periods and in different observatories for the same regions of the sky [3, 5, 6, 7, 8]. It allows us to carry out joint processing of plates and to receive new results for interesting objects. To obtain proper motions of stars in circumpolar areas, we selected 34 photographic plates from the RI NAO archive and 161 plates from the archive of the MAO NAS. A mean epoch difference between the plates from these archives is 55 years. Scanning of the plates and data processing were independently carried out by both observatories. A catalog of equatorial positions for 195 thousand stars up to 15m was compiled in the RI NAO (black dots in Fig. 1). A catalog of equatorial positions for 1050 thousand stars up to 16.5m was compiled in MAO (gray dots in Fig. 1). A comparison of positions for common stars contained in these catalogs was conducted. A catalog of proper motions for 30 thousand common stars up to 15m was compiled using these two input catalogs. The obtained result suggests the advisability of processing of all observations to receive proper motions of stars up to 14-15m in the declination zone of 65° to 90°.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Velocity and proper motion of OB associations (Melnik+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, A. M.; Dambis, A. K.

    2009-11-01

    For every OB-association from the list by Blaha and Humphreys (1989AJ.....98.1598B) we give the mean galactic coordinates l and b, the mean heliocentric distance r, median line-of-sight velocity Vr, the dispersion of line-of-sight velocities dvr, and number of stars with known line-of-sight velocity nvr. The line-of-sight velocities were taken from the catalog by Barbier-Brossat and Figon (1999, Cat. ). We used only the velocities measured with errors of less than 10km/s which corresponds to the quality estimations A, B, and C. We also present median proper motions of OB-associations along l- and b- coordinates, mul and mub. The data obtained for the old reduction (1997, Cat. ) are denoted by the subscript 1, whereas those based on the reduction by van Leewen (2008, Cat. ) are marked by the subscript 2. For each OB association we represent the dispersions of proper motions, dml and dmb, as well as a number of stars nmu with known proper motion. The last column shows the total number of stars with known photometric measurements, Nt, used for determination of the distances for OB-associations. The distances r correspond to the short distance scale for classical Cepheids. They are equal to the distances from the catalog by Blaha and Humphreys (1989AJ.....98.1598B), rBH, multiplied by a factor of 0.8, r=0.8*rBH. (1 data file).

  17. THE PROPER MOTIONS OF THE DOUBLE RADIO SOURCE n IN THE ORION BN/KL REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis; Lizano, Susana; Dzib, Sergio A.; Menten, Karl M.; Gómez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    We have extended the time baseline for observations of the proper motions of radio sources in the Orion BN/KL region from 14.7 to 22.5 years. We present improved determinations for the sources BN and I. In addition, we address the proper motions of the double radio source n, that have been questioned in the literature. We confirm that all three sources are moving away at transverse velocities of tens of kilometers per second from a region in-between them, where they were located about 500 years ago. Source n exhibits a new component that we interpret as due to a one-sided ejection of free–free emitting plasma that took place after 2006.36. We used the highly accurate relative proper motions between sources BN and I to determine that their closest separation took place in the year 1475 ± 6, when they were within ∼100 au or less from each other in the plane of the sky.

  18. THE PROPER MOTIONS OF THE DOUBLE RADIO SOURCE n IN THE ORION BN/KL REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis; Lizano, Susana [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A.; Menten, Karl M. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Gómez, Laura, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdoba 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-01-10

    We have extended the time baseline for observations of the proper motions of radio sources in the Orion BN/KL region from 14.7 to 22.5 years. We present improved determinations for the sources BN and I. In addition, we address the proper motions of the double radio source n, that have been questioned in the literature. We confirm that all three sources are moving away at transverse velocities of tens of kilometers per second from a region in-between them, where they were located about 500 years ago. Source n exhibits a new component that we interpret as due to a one-sided ejection of free–free emitting plasma that took place after 2006.36. We used the highly accurate relative proper motions between sources BN and I to determine that their closest separation took place in the year 1475 ± 6, when they were within ∼100 au or less from each other in the plane of the sky.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLBA Extragalactic Proper Motion Catalog (Truebenbach+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebenbach, A. E.; Darling, J.

    2017-11-01

    We created our catalog of extragalactic radio proper motions using the 2017a Goddard VLBI global solution. The 2017a solution is computed from more than 30 years of dual-band VLBI observations --1979 August 3 to 2017 March 27. We also observed 28 objects with either no redshift or a "questionable" Optical Characteristic of Astrometric Radio Sources (OCARS; Malkin 2016ARep...60..996M) redshift at the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope and/or at Gemini North. We conducted observations on the 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) from 2015 April 18 to 2016 June 30. We chose two objects for additional observations with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-North (GMOS-N) at Gemini North Observatory. 2021+317 was observed on 2016 June 26 and 28, while 0420+417 was observed on 2016 November 8 and 26. We also observed 42 radio sources with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) in the X-band (3.6cm/8.3GHz). Our targets had all been previously observed by VLBI. Our VLBA observations were conducted in two campaigns from 2015 September to 2016 January and 2016 October to November. The final extragalactic proper motion catalog (created primarily from archival Goddard VLBI data, with redshifts obtained from OCARS) contains 713 proper motions with average uncertainties of 24μas/yr. (5 data files).

  20. The SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with large proper motions, with enhancements from the first GAIA release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    The SUPERBLINK survey of stars with proper motion larger than 40 mas/yr is now complete for the entire sky down to magnitude V=20. The SUPERBLINK catalog provides astrometric and photometric data for a little over 2.7 million individual stars, and identifies their counterparts in a variety of large catalogs including ROSAT in the X-ray, GALEX in the ultraviolet, GAIA and SDSS in the optical, and 2MASS and WISE in the infrared. The addition of GAIA data notably yields proper motions to an accuracy of ~2mas/yr for 94% of the entries. Parallaxes with accuracies better than 10% are also now available for about 155,000 of these stars. Besides from identifying local populations of low-mass stars and white dwarfs, the catalog nows begins to map out with some detail the distribution in velocity space of various local stellar populations, including young M dwarfs and old metal-poor M subdwarfs. The catalog also allows one to search for common proper motion pairs, and other kinematic groups like nearby cluster members, moving group members, and local streams. This demonstrates the potential for nearby star research as more complete data becomes available from the GAIA mission.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions in M 11 (Su+ 1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C.-G.; Zhao, J.-L.; Tian, K.-P.

    1997-07-01

    Relative proper motions of 872 stars in the open cluster M 11 region are reduced using 10 plate pairs taken over time baselines of 16~70 years with the double astrograph telescope of Shanghai Observatory. The scale is 30"/mm. The plates were measured with the PDS machines in the Purple Mountain Observatory in Nanjing and the Institute of Technology and Communication in Luoyang, China. The average proper motion accuracy is about 1.1mas/yr with 85% of the data better than 1mas/yr. Membership probabilities of 785 stars within 25' centred on M 11 are determined based on their proper motions. The method used is suggested by Su et al. (1995AcApS..15..217S) with some improvements of Zhao & He (1990A&A...237...54Z), in which the space distribution and magnitude dependencies for cluster stars are taken into account. The results are significantly good. The total integrated membership probabilities for all these stars is 547 and the number of stars with probabilities higher than 0.7 is 541. It can be found after the membership determination that there exists mass segregation in M 11. Some comparisons and discussion are also given. (1 data file).

  2. Radial velocities for the HIPPARCOS-Gaia Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Eilers, A.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion (HTPM) project will determine the proper motions of ~113 500 stars using a ~23-year baseline. The proper motions will be based on space-based measurements exclusively, with the Hipparcos data, with epoch 1991.25, as first epoch and with the first intermediate-release Gaia astrometry, with epoch ~2014.5, as second epoch. The expected HTPM proper-motion standard errors are 30-190 μas yr-1, depending on stellar magnitude. Aims: Depending on the astrometric characteristics of an object, in particular its distance and velocity, its radial velocity can have a significant impact on the determination of its proper motion. The impact of this perspective acceleration is largest for fast-moving, nearby stars. Our goal is to determine, for each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, the radial-velocity standard error that is required to guarantee a negligible contribution of perspective acceleration to the HTPM proper-motion precision. Methods: We employ two evaluation criteria, both based on Monte-Carlo simulations, with which we determine which stars need to be spectroscopically (re-)measured. Both criteria take the Hipparcos measurement errors into account. The first criterion, the Gaussian criterion, is applicable to nearby stars. For distant stars, this criterion works but returns overly pessimistic results. We therefore use a second criterion, the robust criterion, which is equivalent to the Gaussian criterion for nearby stars but avoids biases for distant stars and/or objects without literature radial velocity. The robust criterion is hence our prefered choice for all stars, regardless of distance. Results: For each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, we determine the confidence level with which the available radial velocity and its standard error, taken from the XHIP compilation catalogue, are acceptable. We find that for 97 stars, the radial velocities available in the literature are insufficiently precise for a 68.27% confidence

  3. Not proper ROC curves as new tool for the analysis of differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistoia Vito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most microarray experiments are carried out with the purpose of identifying genes whose expression varies in relation with specific conditions or in response to environmental stimuli. In such studies, genes showing similar mean expression values between two or more groups are considered as not differentially expressed, even if hidden subclasses with different expression values may exist. In this paper we propose a new method for identifying differentially expressed genes, based on the area between the ROC curve and the rising diagonal (ABCR. ABCR represents a more general approach than the standard area under the ROC curve (AUC, because it can identify both proper (i.e., concave and not proper ROC curves (NPRC. In particular, NPRC may correspond to those genes that tend to escape standard selection methods. Results We assessed the performance of our method using data from a publicly available database of 4026 genes, including 14 normal B cell samples (NBC and 20 heterogeneous lymphomas (namely: 9 follicular lymphomas and 11 chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Moreover, NBC also included two sub-classes, i.e., 6 heavily stimulated and 8 slightly or not stimulated samples. We identified 1607 differentially expressed genes with an estimated False Discovery Rate of 15%. Among them, 16 corresponded to NPRC and all escaped standard selection procedures based on AUC and t statistics. Moreover, a simple inspection to the shape of such plots allowed to identify the two subclasses in either one class in 13 cases (81%. Conclusion NPRC represent a new useful tool for the analysis of microarray data.

  4. Disjunctive Information Flow for Communicating Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    The security validation of practical computer systems calls for the ability to specify and verify information flow policies that are dependent on data content. Such policies play an important role in concurrent, communicating systems: consider a scenario where messages are sent to different...... processes according to their tagging. We devise a security type system that enforces content-dependent information flow policies in the presence of communication and concurrency. The type system soundly guarantees a compositional noninterference property. All theoretical results have been formally proved...

  5. Conjunctive and Disjunctive Item Response Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    fed set ofvaluesof a, b, AI , B1 A2 2 . 2 A3 , and 13 , the f ’. g ’a. nd h’a in (7) are fied. Equation (7) must still hold for S - e19029e3,..* . Thus...for Item I Is -- b ?(a:1 , b1 ,O) (1 + ’)(I + e4 (22 where a and pi are arbitrary constants. These constants mst be the sam for all Items In a given...NETHERLIS I E3I1 Focility-Acquisitions 4133 Rugby Avnue 1 Lee Cronbach Bethesda, NO 20014 16 Laburnue Road Atherton, CA 94205 1 Dr. Benjamin A. Fairbank

  6. When Things Don’t Look Right: What Appear to be Proper Motion Discrepancies in the WDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Proper motion data for double stars are included for most of the records in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS). In many cases, the proper motion data agree well with the observed changes in the system over time. But in other cases, the proper motion data do not align well with the observations. It is therefore incumbent on the double star researcher to treat any research based on proper motions with caution to be sure that wrong conclusions are not drawn. Possible reasons for such discrepancies are explored.

  7. A method for determining the radius of an open cluster from stellar proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Néstor; Alfaro, Emilio J.; López-Martínez, Fátima

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method for calculating the radius of an open cluster in an objective way from an astrometric catalogue containing, at least, positions and proper motions. It uses the minimum spanning tree in the proper motion space to discriminate cluster stars from field stars and it quantifies the strength of the cluster-field separation by means of a statistical parameter defined for the first time in this paper. This is done for a range of different sampling radii from where the cluster radius is obtained as the size at which the best cluster-field separation is achieved. The novelty of this strategy is that the cluster radius is obtained independently of how its stars are spatially distributed. We test the reliability and robustness of the method with both simulated and real data from a well-studied open cluster (NGC 188), and apply it to UCAC4 data for five other open clusters with different catalogued radius values. NGC 188, NGC 1647, NGC 6603, and Ruprecht 155 yielded unambiguous radius values of 15.2 ± 1.8, 29.4 ± 3.4, 4.2 ± 1.7, and 7.0 ± 0.3 arcmin, respectively. ASCC 19 and Collinder 471 showed more than one possible solution, but it is not possible to know whether this is due to the involved uncertainties or due to the presence of complex patterns in their proper motion distributions, something that could be inherent to the physical object or due to the way in which the catalogue was sampled.

  8. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Thorstensen, John R.

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV-optical-IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use Hα chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia University, The Ohio State University, and the University of Michigan.

  9. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    We have searched ∼8200 deg 2 for high proper motion (∼0.''5-2.''7 year -1 ) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 ≡ WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 ± 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year -1 proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 ± 8 km s -1 . According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 ± 45 mas (5.8 +2.0 -1.2 pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate (∼10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  10. MERLIN observations of water maser proper motions in VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A. M. S.; Yates, J. A.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-09-01

    MERLIN observations of the 22-GHz water masers in the circumstellar envelope of the supergiant VY CMa show an ellipsoidal distribution with a maximum extent of 700 mas east-west and 400 mas north-south. Comparison with observations made nine years earlier shows that the majority of maser features have survived and show proper motions throughout the region. The mean change in position is 28 mas and the proper motions are generally directed away from the assumed stellar position, and tend to be larger for features at greater projected distances. If the H_2O maser region is modelled as a partially filled thick spherical shell, and VY CMa is at a distance of 1.5 kpc, then the proper motion velocities in the direction of expansion are between 8kms^-1 at a distance of 75 mas from the assumed stellar position and 32kms^-1 at 360 mas. These velocities are consistent with the H_2O maser spectral line velocities which correspond to a maximum expansion velocity of 36kms^-1 at 400 mas from the assumed stellar position. These observations are consistent with radiation pressure on dust providing the force to accelerate the stellar wind as it passes through the H_2O maser shell. The H_2O maser region is elongated in the same direction as the dusty nebula around VY CMa. The water masers illuminate the small-scale dynamics and clumpiness which show the role of dust in driving the outflow. The overall ellipsoidal shape may be due to properties of the dust, such as its behaviour in the stellar magnetic field, or to interaction between the wind and circumstellar material. Maser monitoring also shows the difference between changes on the time-scale of stellar variability (a few years) and possible stages in the evolution of VY CMa to its likely fate as a supernova.

  11. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Julie N. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place NE, Atlanta, GA, 30303 (United States); Thorstensen, John R., E-mail: jskinner@bu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV–optical–IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use H α chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population.

  12. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Thorstensen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV–optical–IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use H α chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population.

  13. The role of proper treatment of maxillary sinusitis in the healing of persistent oroantral fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oroantral communication (OAC is one of the possible complications after extraction of the upper teeth. If not identified and treated properly, a large OAC may develop into oroantral fistula (OAF which means that there is a permanent epithelium-lined communication between antrum and oral cavity. Such fistulas may cause ingress of microorganism from oral cavity into the antrum leading to maxillary sinusitis. Oroantral fistula usually persists if the infection in the maxillary antrum is not eliminated. Therefore, treatment of oroantral fistula should include management of maxillary sinusitis in which surgical closure of oroantral fistula should be done only when the sinusitis has been cured. Purpose: This case report emphasizes on the importance of proper management of maxillary sinusitis in the healing of oroantral fistula. Case: A case of an oroantral fistula following removal of upper left third molar is presented. As the maxillary sinusitis was not identified pre-operatively, two surgical procedures to close the fistula had ended up in dehiscence. Case management: The diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis was finally made and the sinusitis subsequently treated with combination of trans-alveolar sinus wash out, insertion of an acrylic splint, and two series of nasal and sinus physiotherapy procedures. The size of the defect decreased gradually during the treatment of the sinusitis and finally closed up without any further surgical intervention. Conclusion: This case report points out that it is important to detect intraoperatively an antral perforation after any surgery of the maxillary teeth and to close any oroantral communication as early as possible and that it is important to treat properly any pre-existing maxillary sinusitis before any surgical method is done to close the fistula.

  14. Proper knowledge about the growing fat; Himan ni kansuru tadashii chishiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamot, Yoichi

    1999-07-01

    Body fat is substituted for the energy adopted redundantly in the inside of the body, and the deep diabetes which relates to the increase in the fat person and this, high blood pressure, high fat blood diseases, ventilation and so-called life habit sicknesses such as an arteriosclerosis disease have been increasing. It thinks with growing fat when it wants it understood why it grows fat as to something as to that fearfulness about growing fat properly. The health making based on the individual and the weight control can't be missed to get the rich old age, which it lives through the middle age. (NEDO)

  15. On the determination of proper modes in waveguides with wall losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1977-02-01

    Various attempts at determining the proper modes (propagating with exponential attenuation but without change of form) in a straight waveguide with wall losses are discussed. It appears that for a general cross section a stringent treatment would require a quadruple series expansion along lines indicated by C.C. Johnson in 'Field and wave electrodynamics (McGraw-Hill, 1965). For the most usual cross sections, circular and rectangular, valid derivations can however be made using simpler means. Earlier, incomplete, treatments seem to have caused several widely accepted misconceptions, some of which are discussed. Detailed calculations for a rectangular guide are given in a companion note

  16. Geometry and dynamics in Gromov hyperbolic metric spaces with an emphasis on non-proper settings

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Tushar; Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the foundations of the theory of groups and semigroups acting isometrically on Gromov hyperbolic metric spaces. Particular emphasis is paid to the geometry of their limit sets and on behavior not found in the proper setting. The authors provide a number of examples of groups which exhibit a wide range of phenomena not to be found in the finite-dimensional theory. The book contains both introductory material to help beginners as well as new research results, and closes with a list of attractive unsolved problems.

  17. Proper names in the satirical writing 'An ugly dream' by D. M. Forski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Dragan V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the satirical paper 'A Bad Dream', proper names form a significant lexical layer which contributes significantly to achieving a grotesque and satirical portrayal of the everyday reality of the milieu the writer describes in a humorous and sardonic way, condemning his negative and ugly sides. Transforming real names, the author builds very expressive units that become carriers of various meanings. The transformation is accomplished by the procedures of substitutional, permutational, restrictive and proscriptive metaplasm. The writer's creative approach - 'a game of names' - has a indubitable impact in modeling his artistic world.

  18. Combined time-varying forecast based on the proper scoring approach for wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xingying; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with traditional point forecasts, combined forecast have been proposed as an effective method to provide more accurate forecasts than individual model. However, the literature and research focus on wind-power combined forecasts are relatively limited. Here, based on forecasting error...... distribution, a proper scoring approach is applied to combine plausible models to form an overall time-varying model for the next day forecasts, rather than weights-based combination. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, real data of 3 years were used for testing. Simulation results...... demonstrate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of overall forecasts, even compared with a numerical weather prediction....

  19. The Importance of a Proper Selection Area to be Biopsied in Nodular Leukoplakia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular leukoplakia is a non-homogeneous type of oral leukoplakia presenting a white surface with verrucous, nodular, ulcerated or erythematous features with a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared to the homogeneous type. Common sites of involvement include lip commissures, buccal mucosa and soft palate. It is often associated with epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma and requires detailed microscopic assessment and regular follow-up. The importance of a proper selection of the area to be biopsied and the close teamwork between a dentist and oral pathologist is the basis of providing an accurate final diagnosis.

  20. Preconditioned dynamic mode decomposition and mode selection algorithms for large datasets using incremental proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, Yuya

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, we propose a simple and efficient framework of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and mode selection for large datasets. The proposed framework explicitly introduces a preconditioning step using an incremental proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to DMD and mode selection algorithms. By performing the preconditioning step, the DMD and mode selection can be performed with low memory consumption and therefore can be applied to large datasets. Additionally, we propose a simple mode selection algorithm based on a greedy method. The proposed framework is applied to the analysis of three-dimensional flow around a circular cylinder.

  1. GENDERED DOLLARS: Pin Money, Mad Money, and Changing Notions of a Woman’s Proper Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Traflet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives to illuminate the rise and fall of pin money and mad money as uniquely “women’s dollars." 

  2. GENDERED DOLLARS: Pin Money, Mad Money, and Changing Notions of a Woman’s Proper Place

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Traflet

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives t...

  3. Modeling multipulsing transition in ring cavity lasers with proper orthogonal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Edwin; Shlizerman, Eli; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2010-01-01

    A low-dimensional model is constructed via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to characterize the multipulsing phenomenon in a ring cavity laser mode locked by a saturable absorber. The onset of the multipulsing transition is characterized by an oscillatory state (created by a Hopf bifurcation) that is then itself destabilized to a double-pulse configuration (by a fold bifurcation). A four-mode POD analysis, which uses the principal components, or singular value decomposition modes, of the mode-locked laser, provides a simple analytic framework for a complete characterization of the entire transition process and its associated bifurcations. These findings are in good agreement with the full governing equation.

  4. Equity valuation : Under Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, António Rafael Mendes

    2016-01-01

    The present dissertation aims to value Under Armour, an American sportswear company. Since Valuation is not an exact science, during the literature review will be presented several valuation methods. Most of the authors mention DCF Valuation as one of the best but it seems impossible for them to reach a consensus about which one is in fact the best. In order to get Under Armour’s target price, a DCF valuation will be made and accompanied by a Relative Valuation that, when it is properly us...

  5. Maintaining the proper connection between the centrioles and the pericentriolar matrix requires Drosophila centrosomin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Eliana P; Raff, Jordan W

    2007-08-27

    Centrosomes consist of two centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar matrix (PCM), but it is unknown how centrioles and PCM are connected. We show that the centrioles in Drosophila embryos that lack the centrosomal protein Centrosomin (Cnn) can recruit PCM components but cannot maintain a proper attachment to the PCM. As a result, the centrioles "rocket" around in the embryo and often lose their connection to the nucleus in interphase and to the spindle poles in mitosis. This leads to severe mitotic defects in embryos and to errors in centriole segregation in somatic cells. The Cnn-related protein CDK5RAP2 is linked to microcephaly in humans, but cnn mutant brains are of normal size, and we observe only subtle defects in the asymmetric divisions of mutant neuroblasts. We conclude that Cnn maintains the proper connection between the centrioles and the PCM; this connection is required for accurate centriole segregation in somatic cells but is not essential for the asymmetric division of neuroblasts.

  6. Catalogue of Positions and Proper Motions of Stars in the Vicinity of Open Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protsyuk, Yu.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Research Institute Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory (MAO the catalogue of position and proper motions of stars in the 544 square areas of nearly (1×1°around the Galactic open clusters was created using photographic and CCD observations. 293 plates of (5×5°obtained with the MAO Zonal Astrograph (D=116 mm, F=2040 mm in 1962-1993 and more than 20 thousands CCD frames (0.7×0.7° obtained with KT-50 telescope (D=500 mm, F=3000 mm in 2011-2015 were used. Almost 270 thousands FITS files from the IVOA image archives with observational epoch from 1953 to 2010 were downloaded and processed. The created catalogue contains more than 2.3 million stars (7.5-18.5m in the ICRS system with the accuracy of positions on both coordinates ranged from 0.02" to 0.05". Inner accuracy of proper motions is ~0.004"/year.

  7. Catalogue of positions and proper motions of stars in the vicinity of open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovalchuk, O. M.; Mazhaev, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    A catalog of positions and proper motions of stars in 544 square areas of nearly (1 × 1)° around the Galactic open clusters has been created using photographic and CCD observations, at Research Institute "Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory" (RI "MAO"). To this end, 293 plates of (5 × 5)° obtained with the MAO Zonal Astrograph (D=116 mm, F=2040 mm) in 1962-1993 and more than 20 thousand CCD frames (0.7 × 0.7)° obtained with KT-50 telescope (D=500 mm, F=3000 mm) in 2011-2015 have been used. Almost 270 thousand FITS files from the IVOA image archives with observational epoch from 1953 to 2010 have been downloaded and processed. The created catalogue contains more than 2.3 million stars having a magnitude of (7.5-18.5)m in the ICRS system, with accuracy of positions for both coordinates ranging from 0.02" to 0.05". Internal accuracy of proper motions is estimated as ~0.004"/year.

  8. Proper Sterol Distribution Is Required for Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Paula; Liu, Hsing-Yin; Parker, Josie E.; Gallo-Ebert, Christina; Donigan, Melissa; Bata, Adam; Giordano, Caroline; Kelly, Steven L.; Nickels, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus responsible for the majority of systemic fungal infections. Multiple factors contribute to C. albicans pathogenicity. C. albicans strains lacking CaArv1 are avirulent. Arv1 has a conserved Arv1 homology domain (AHD) that has a zinc-binding domain containing two cysteine clusters. Here, we explored the role of the CaAHD and zinc-binding motif in CaArv1-dependent virulence. Overall, we found that the CaAHD was necessary but not sufficient for cells to be virulent, whereas the zinc-binding domain was essential, as Caarv1/Caarv1 cells expressing the full-length zinc-binding domain mutants, Caarv1C3S and Caarv1C28S, were avirulent. Phenotypically, we found a direct correlation between the avirulence of Caarv1/Caarv1, Caarrv1AHD, Caarv1C3S, and Caarv1C28S cells and defects in bud site selection, septa formation and localization, and hyphal formation and elongation. Importantly, all avirulent mutant strains lacked the ability to maintain proper sterol distribution. Overall, our results have established the importance of the AHD and zinc-binding domain in fungal invasion, and have correlated an avirulent phenotype with the inability to maintain proper sterol distribution. PMID:27587298

  9. Proper Sterol Distribution Is Required for Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula McCourt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus responsible for the majority of systemic fungal infections. Multiple factors contribute to C. albicans pathogenicity. C. albicans strains lacking CaArv1 are avirulent. Arv1 has a conserved Arv1 homology domain (AHD that has a zinc-binding domain containing two cysteine clusters. Here, we explored the role of the CaAHD and zinc-binding motif in CaArv1-dependent virulence. Overall, we found that the CaAHD was necessary but not sufficient for cells to be virulent, whereas the zinc-binding domain was essential, as Caarv1/Caarv1 cells expressing the full-length zinc-binding domain mutants, Caarv1C3S and Caarv1C28S, were avirulent. Phenotypically, we found a direct correlation between the avirulence of Caarv1/Caarv1, Caarrv1AHD, Caarv1C3S, and Caarv1C28S cells and defects in bud site selection, septa formation and localization, and hyphal formation and elongation. Importantly, all avirulent mutant strains lacked the ability to maintain proper sterol distribution. Overall, our results have established the importance of the AHD and zinc-binding domain in fungal invasion, and have correlated an avirulent phenotype with the inability to maintain proper sterol distribution.

  10. Angiographic manifestation and transcatheter arterial embolization of proper esophageal artery in hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Sen; Zhu Xiaohua; Sun Xiwen; Zhi Wenxiang; Jie Bing; You Zhengqian; Yu Dong; Peng Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the angiographic manifestation of the proper esophageal artery (PEA), the high risk factors for the presence of the anomalous PEA in hemoptysis and to evaluate the safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of the PEA using gelatin sponge (GS). Methods: Selective esophageal arteriography was performed in forty-three patients with hemoptysis, including 15 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, 18 cases of bronchiectasis, 7 cases of posttuberculous bronchiectasis and three cases of lung cancer. One case experienced failure of bronchial arterial embolization. The angiographic manifestation of the PEAs was studied. The complications of the procedure and clinical results were observed in the patients who underwent TAE using GS. Results: Thirty-nine PEAs were catheterized selectively in 37 patients (86.0%). Eighteen anomalous PEAs (46.2%) were catheterized selectively in 17 patients (45.9%). The anomalous PEAs showed tortuosity, dilatation, hyperplasia, shunting with pulmonary artery and anastomosis with the bronchial artery. All lesions involved basal segment of inferior pulmonary lobar. Bronchiectasis was the most frequent disease for PEA abnormality. No complications occurred and satisfactory curative effect was achieved with TAE of the anomalous PEAs. Conclusions: It is necessary to perform selective proper esophageal arteriography when the lesion involves basal segment of inferior pulmonary lobar in hemoptysis. Supplemental TAE of the anomalous PEA using GS is safe and valuable in the management of hemoptysis. (authors)

  11. A framework provided an outline toward the proper evaluation of potential screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Wim J; Matheï, Cathy; Buntinx, Frank J; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Screening tests are often introduced into clinical practice without proper evaluation, despite the increasing awareness that screening is a double-edged sword that can lead to either net benefits or harms. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive framework for the evaluation of new screening strategies. Elaborating on the existing concepts proposed by experts, a stepwise framework is proposed to evaluate whether a potential screening test can be introduced as a screening strategy into clinical practice. The principle of screening strategy evaluation is illustrated for cervical cancer, which is a template for screening because of the existence of an easily detectable and treatable precursor lesion. The evaluation procedure consists of six consecutive steps. In steps 1-4, the technical accuracy, place of the test in the screening pathway, diagnostic accuracy, and longitudinal sensitivity and specificity of the screening test are assessed. In steps 5 and 6, the impact of the screening strategy on the patient and population levels, respectively, is evaluated. The framework incorporates a harm and benefit trade-off and cost-effectiveness analysis. Our framework provides an outline toward the proper evaluation of potential screening strategies before considering implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Claudin5a is required for proper inflation of Kupffer's vesicle lumen and organ laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Gyun Kim

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen. Downregulation of cldn5a in zebrafish showed a failure in organ laterality that resulted from malformed KV. In addition, accelerated fluid influx into KV by combined treatment of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine failed to expand the partially-formed KV lumen in cldn5a morphants. However, malformed KV lumen and defective heart laterality in cldn5a morphants were significantly rescued by exogenous cldn5a mRNA, suggesting that the tightness between the luminal epithelial cells is important for KV lumen formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that cldn5a is required for KV lumen inflation and left-right asymmetric organ development.

  13. Claudin5a is required for proper inflation of Kupffer's vesicle lumen and organ laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Bae, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hye Shin; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2017-01-01

    Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a) is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen. Downregulation of cldn5a in zebrafish showed a failure in organ laterality that resulted from malformed KV. In addition, accelerated fluid influx into KV by combined treatment of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine failed to expand the partially-formed KV lumen in cldn5a morphants. However, malformed KV lumen and defective heart laterality in cldn5a morphants were significantly rescued by exogenous cldn5a mRNA, suggesting that the tightness between the luminal epithelial cells is important for KV lumen formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that cldn5a is required for KV lumen inflation and left-right asymmetric organ development.

  14. Multicrack Localization in Rotors Based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Using Fractal Dimension and Gapped Smoothing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicrack localization in operating rotor systems is still a challenge today. Focusing on this challenge, a new approach based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is proposed for multicrack localization in rotors. A two-disc rotor-bearing system with breathing cracks is established by the finite element method and simulated sensors are distributed along the rotor to obtain the steady-state transverse responses required by POD. Based on the discontinuities introduced in the proper orthogonal modes (POMs at the locations of cracks, the characteristic POM (CPOM, which is sensitive to crack locations and robust to noise, is selected for cracks localization. Instead of using the CPOM directly, due to its difficulty to localize incipient cracks, damage indexes using fractal dimension (FD and gapped smoothing method (GSM are adopted, in order to extract the locations more efficiently. The method proposed in this work is validated to be effective for multicrack localization in rotors by numerical experiments on rotors in different crack configuration cases considering the effects of noise. In addition, the feasibility of using fewer sensors is also investigated.

  15. Light-cone gauge versus proper-time gauge for massless spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerstam, B.S.; Stern, A.

    1987-01-01

    Although the light-cone gauge is convenient for many applications in physics, it is known to distort topology. We show that as a consequence, some interesting, possibly physical, features of a quantum theory may be missed when working in the light-cone gauge. We shall illustrate this by examining the description of massless spinning particles in an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions. When quantizing such particles in four space-time dimensions (without introducing Grassmann degrees of freedom), the light-cone gauge yields a purely bosonic spectrum, i.e. the helicity λ is integer-valued. The problem is rectified by going to the proper-time gauge; there λ = 0, ±1/2, ±1, ... Upon using the proper-time gauge to quantize massless particle systems in more than four space-time dimensions, we find the following interesting features: Except for space-time dimension d equal to 5 and 9, (i) wave functions cannot be expressed as global functions of momentum (or position). (This is also true for d=4.) Further, for d ≠ 5 and 9, (ii) the helicity group spin (d-2) and (iii) canonical position operators do not exist, globally. (The result that helicity cannot be globally defined resembles a known property of nonabelian monopoles arising in grand unified theories. There, topological obstructions prevent one from defining the color group, globally.) All of the features (i)-(iii) are missed when working in the light-cone gauge. (orig.)

  16. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in the Elderly: An Unusual Case and Update on Proper Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Galyfos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH is an uncommon medical emergency in the elderly. We present a case of SRSH with an atypical clinical presentation and discuss literature regarding diagnosis and proper management. A 75-year-old female patient was transferred to the emergency department due to acute dyspnoea and confusion. Her medical history revealed a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and no coughing or use of anticoagulants. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the left lower abdomen, although palpation was misleading due to patient’s obesity. Laboratory investigations showed light anaemia. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large rectus sheath hematoma of the left abdominal wall. Despite further deterioration of the patient, conservative management including bed rest, fluid replacement, blood products transfusion, and proper analgesia was successful. No surgical intervention was needed. Prompt diagnosis and management of SRSH plays significant role in the prognosis, especially in elder patients. Independently of size and severity, conservative management remains the first therapeutic choice. Only by failure of supportive management, progressive and large hematoma or uncontrollable hemodynamic patients, interventional management including surgery or less invasive newer techniques is indicated.

  17. The Ultimate Catalog of Omega Centauri: 15-BAND Photometry and Proper Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay

    2011-10-01

    We propose to construct the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster {GC}. The core of Omega Centauri has been imaged nearly 500 times through WFC3's UVIS and IR channels for the purposes of detector calibration. There exist 30 exposures through each of 15 filters, stretching uniformly from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 8-year baseline between this data and a 2002 ACS survey will more than double the accuracy and triple the number of well-measured stars compared to our previous groundbreaking effort. This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage for over 300,000 stars, from the red-giant branch {RGB} down to the white dwarfs {WDs}, provides the best chance yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any GC. A preliminary analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams in different bands already allows us to identify more than 10 distinct sequences.We will make the full catalog of 15-band photometry and proper motions available to the community within 6 months of starting this project. We will then be the first to exploit this tremendous resource. The science we will address includes: {1} identifying all the sequences and tying them together, from the main sequence up to the RGB;{2} continuing the search for a central massive object; {3} examination of the WD sequence for any manifestations of multiple-populations; and{4} searching for cataclysmic variables and He WDs.

  18. Topoisomerase IIbeta is required for proper retinal development and survival of postmitotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase IIbeta (Top2b is an enzyme that modulates DNA supercoiling by catalyzing the passage of DNA duplexes through one another. It is ubiquitously expressed in postmitotic cells and known to function during the development of neuromuscular junctions in the diaphragm and the proper formation of laminar structure in the cerebral cortex. However, due to the perinatal death phenotype of the traditional constitutive and brain-specific Top2b knockout mice, the precise in vivo function of Top2b, especially during postnatal neural development, remains to be determined. Using both the constitutive and retina-specific knockout mouse models, we showed that Top2b deficiency resulted in delayed neuronal differentiation, degeneration of the plexiform layers and outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as dramatic reduction in cell number in the retina. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing revealed that genes involved in neuronal survival and neural system development were preferentially affected in Top2b-deficient retinas. Collectively, our findings have indicated an important function of Top2b in proper development and the maintenance/survival of postmitotic neurons in the retina.

  19. Prehepatocholedochal proper hepatic artery. Rare anatomical variant. Surgical considerations. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeleanu, V; Chicoş, S; Tutunaru, D; Georgescu, C

    2014-01-01

    In classical anatomic variants, the proper hepatic artery (PHA)continues the common hepatic artery (CHA) after the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) detaches itself and divides into the right hepatic artery (RHA) and left hepatic artery (LHA), the proper hepatic artery being located to the left of the hepatocholedochal duct (HCD). This paper presents an abnormal positioning of the PHA placed before the HCD with an increased diameter of about 5-7 mm, which could be confused with the HCD. We present the case of a 57 year-old woman diagnosed with acute lithiasic cholecystitis, associated with hypersplenism and hypertension. The literature mentions manifold anatomical variants of arterial liver vascularization,including PHA. For this reason, this paper presents an overview of similar cases that can be found in medical literature. The aforementioned case is a rare topographic anatomy for the PHA that can easily pass for HCD especially during celioscopy, therefore it is crucial for this to be acknowledged by all surgeons. Celsius.

  20. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGenarro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year −1 at the bright end to 15 mas year −1 at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year −1 for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year −1 for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  1. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices.

  2. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86005-8521 (United States); Hippel, Ted von [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Physical Sciences, 600 South Clyde Morris Boulevard Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [University of Oklahoma, Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Liebert, James W. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Williams, Kurtis A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, P.O. Box 3011, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); DeGenarro, Steven [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Jeffery, Elizabeth, E-mail: jam@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: trudy@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com, E-mail: kurtis.williams@tamuc.edu, E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com, E-mail: ejeffery@byu.edu [BYU Department of Physics and Astronomy, N283 ESC, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup −1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup −1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup −1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year{sup −1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  3. Determination of Proper Austenitization Temperatures for Hot Stamping of AISI 4140 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Shakeri, Amid

    2014-04-01

    High strength steels are desirable materials for use in automobile bodies in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase the safety of car passengers, but steel grades with high strength commonly show poor formability. Recently, steels with controlled microstructures and compositions are used to gain adequate strength after hot stamping while maintaining good formability during processing. In this study, microstructure evolutions and changes in mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel sheets resulting from the hot stamping process at different austenitization temperatures were investigated. To determine the proper austenitization temperatures, the results were compared with those of the cold-worked and cold-worked plus quench-tempered specimens. Comparisons showed that the austenitization temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C are proper for hot stamping of 3-mm-thick AISI 4140 steel sheets due to the resultant martensitic microstructure which led to the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 and 2.1 GPa, respectively. Such conditions resulted in more favorable simultaneous strength and elongation than those of hot-stamped conventional boron steels.

  4. Kinematics of Local, High-Velocity K dwarfs in the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyoung; Lepine, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of 345,480 K stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, based on data from the SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with high proper motions (> 40 mas/yr), combined with data from the 2MASS survey and from the first GAIA release, which together yields proper motions accurate to ~2 mas/yr. All K dwarfs were selected based on their G-K colors, and photometric distances were estimated from a re-calibrated color-magnitude relationship for K dwarfs. We plot transverse velocities VT in various directions on the sky, to examine the local distribution of K dwarfs in velocity space. We have also obtained radial velocity information for a subsample of 10,128 stars, from RAVE and SDSS DR12, which we use to construct spatial velocity (U, V, W) plots. About a third (123,350) of the stars are high-velocity K dwarfs, with motions consistent with the local Galactic halo population. Our kinematic analysis suggests that their velocity-space distribution is very uniform, and we find no evidence of substructure that might arise, e.g., from local streams or moving groups.

  5. COMMON PROPER-MOTION WIDE WHITE DWARF BINARIES SELECTED FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Dhital, Saurav; Kleinman, S. J.; West, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wide binaries made up of two white dwarfs (WDs) receive far less attention than their tight counterparts. However, our tests using the binary population synthesis code StarTrack indicate that, for any set of reasonable initial conditions, there exists a significant observable population of double white dwarfs (WDWDs) with orbital separations of 10 2 -10 5 AU. We adapt the technique of Dhital et al. to search for candidate common proper-motion WD companions separated by 12,000 spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen-atmosphere WDs recently identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using two techniques to separate random alignments from high-confidence pairs, we find nine new high-probability wide WDWDs and confirm three previously identified candidate wide WDWDs. This brings the number of known wide WDWDs to 45; our new pairs are a significant addition to the sample, especially at small proper motions ( –1 ) and large angular separations (>10''). Spectroscopic follow-up and an extension of this method to a larger, photometrically selected set of SDSS WDs may eventually produce a large enough dataset for WDWDs to realize their full potential as testbeds for theories of stellar evolution.

  6. COMMON PROPER-MOTION WIDE WHITE DWARF BINARIES SELECTED FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Agueeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Belczynski, Krzysztof [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Dhital, Saurav [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kleinman, S. J. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Wide binaries made up of two white dwarfs (WDs) receive far less attention than their tight counterparts. However, our tests using the binary population synthesis code StarTrack indicate that, for any set of reasonable initial conditions, there exists a significant observable population of double white dwarfs (WDWDs) with orbital separations of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} AU. We adapt the technique of Dhital et al. to search for candidate common proper-motion WD companions separated by <10' around the >12,000 spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen-atmosphere WDs recently identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using two techniques to separate random alignments from high-confidence pairs, we find nine new high-probability wide WDWDs and confirm three previously identified candidate wide WDWDs. This brings the number of known wide WDWDs to 45; our new pairs are a significant addition to the sample, especially at small proper motions (<200 mas yr{sup -1}) and large angular separations (>10''). Spectroscopic follow-up and an extension of this method to a larger, photometrically selected set of SDSS WDs may eventually produce a large enough dataset for WDWDs to realize their full potential as testbeds for theories of stellar evolution.

  7. A SUBSTELLAR COMMON PROPER-MOTION COMPANION TO THE PLEIAD H II 1348

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geißler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Pham, Alfonse; Larkin, James E.; McElwain, Michael; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2012-01-01

    We announce the identification of a proper-motion companion to the star H II 1348, a K5 V member of the Pleiades open cluster. The existence of a faint point source 1.''1 away from H II 1348 was previously known from adaptive optics imaging by Bouvier et al. However, because of a high likelihood of background star contamination and in the absence of follow-up astrometry, Bouvier et al. tentatively concluded that the candidate companion was not physically associated with H II 1348. We establish the proper-motion association of the pair from adaptive optics imaging with the Palomar 5 m telescope. Adaptive optics spectroscopy with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS on the Keck 10 m telescope reveals that the companion has a spectral type of M8 ± 1. According to substellar evolution models, the M8 spectral type resides within the substellar mass regime at the age of the Pleiades. The primary itself is a known double-lined spectroscopic binary, which makes the resolved companion, H II 1348B, the least massive and widest component of this hierarchical triple system and the first substellar companion to a stellar primary in the Pleiades.

  8. [Piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion under local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Biao; Sun, Hao; Liu, Zhixu; Wang, Xudong

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) under local anesthesia. SARME was performed on adults with maxillary transverse deficiency under local anesthesia with a piezosurgical device. Fourteen patients (six males and eight females) underwent lateral maxillary osteotomies, midpalatal osteotomies, and bilateral pterygomaxillary disjunction. The feelings of patients during the operation were determined through questionnaires. All patients underwent SARME in the out-patient operating room. The surgical procedures were completed under local anesthesia. All patients exhibited satisfactory tolerance. Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery was recently introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional tools of cranio-maxillofacial surgery for its technical characteristics of precision and safety. The device used was unique in that cutting action occurred when the tool was employed on mineralized tissues, but stoped on soft tissues. The results of the questionnaires showed that eight (57.14%) patients felt a mild sensation of ultrasonic vibration, tweleve (85.7 1%) felt mild tolerable pain and tooth soreness during surgery, and eleven (78.57%) felt little fear and hardly heard the ultrasonic sound. Preoperative and postoperative six months later measurements showed an evident effect of expansion. Piezosurgery enabled patients to undergo all the steps of SARME under local anesthesia, but more cases and longer follow-up are needed to verif ' the results.

  9. The meiosis-specific nuclear passenger protein is required for proper assembly of forespore membrane in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaine, Masak; Imada, Kazuki; Numata, Osamu; Nakamura, Taro; Nakano, Kentaro

    2014-10-15

    Sporulation, gametogenesis in yeast, consists of meiotic nuclear division and spore morphogenesis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the four haploid nuclei produced after meiosis II are encapsulated by the forespore membrane (FSM), which is newly synthesized from spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in the cytoplasm of the mother cell as spore precursors. Although the coordination between meiosis and FSM assembly is vital for proper sporulation, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified a new meiosis-specific protein Npg1, and found that it was involved in the efficient formation of spores and spore viability. The accumulation and organization of the FSM was compromised in npg1-null cells, leading to the error-prone envelopment of nuclei. Npg1 was first seen as internuclear dots and translocated to the SPBs before the FSM assembled. Genetic analysis revealed that Npg1 worked in conjunction with the FSM proteins Spo3 and Meu14. These results suggest a possible signaling link from the nucleus to the meiotic SPBs in order to associate the onset of FSM assembly with meiosis II, which ensures the successful partitioning of gametic nuclei. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Necessity of Proper Lashing of Containers on the Ship's Deck as Part of Optimization of the Sea Voyage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radišić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available These days we are witnessing an increase of container trafficin general and at sea in particular. In order to economizetheir business the ship owners are building bigger container vesselswhich can carry up to 8000 TEUs (Maersk line and otherbig carriers are following suit. On the drawing board is the vesselof 12000 TEUs from the mentioned ship owner. Obviously,such large quantity of containers requires highly efficient lashingequipment in order to secure them, particularly thosestowed on the deck Under the deck, almost as a rule all contemporarycontainer ships have cell guides as securing devices.Attention in this work is focused on container lashing systemexposed on the ship's deck and the relevant forces acting on thelash system during transportation at sea. Once containers areloaded on the ship's deck they should be safely secured by oneof the lashing systems in order to prevent damage and that is theprincipal task of the lashing equipment engaged within theframe of the lash system. In order to fulfill its objective theforces acting on the container should be properly calculated.The acting forces, their influence and the way of calculatingthem have been explained for all the major ship movementsand suggestions for optimum lashing equipment are given.

  11. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  12. ORTHOSCOPY (THE PROPER LOOK: TOWARDS A CODE OF ETHICS OF THE EDUCATIONAL INSPECTORATE BASED ON RESPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Giró París

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the ethical dimension of the inspectorate as a result of a closer look, which I have called orthoscopy, or what is the same, a proper look. From the Latin word meaning inspectio we dive inside the phenomenology of sight, the distinction between seeing and looking, the two assumptions orthoscopy addressed: the admiration and collectively practiced habit of looking to end up with a reflection on the subjective moment of the act of looking. Finally we become aware of self-critical time of inspection taking into account that we look at people who watch us, and therefore it is a bidirectional ethical commitment. Inspectors do not carry out their functions just because of what they think their task should be, but mainly because of the expectations that the other members of the educational community have in relation to their functions.

  13. The importance of early-school radioactivity education in cultivating proper reflexive judgement on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, Kojiro

    1999-01-01

    An attempt is made to draw a preliminary conclusion on the effectiveness of early-school education on radioactivity, based on two cases of student responses. The first is the returns of questionnaires circulated at two colleges, which were typical of an engineering college and a liberal-arts college, respectively. The second is the reactions of liberal arts students to observed, unexpected levels of radiation in their environment. Their reaction was dominated by their preoccupation on radiation, rather than by the quantitative data they themselves collected on the spot. Thus classes in early schooldays are considered to play a vital role in cultivating proper judgement they are to rely on as general citizens. (author)

  14. Resistance exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis: Need for immediate intervention and proper counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Maysaa A; Saab, Basem R

    2016-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis results from damage to skeletal muscle. Improper resistance training may result in rhabdomyolysis, which can cause acute kidney injury, serious metabolic abnormalities, compartmental syndrome and even death. Proper counselling for athletes may prevent this condition. We present two patients with unilateral swelling after resistance exercise. The workup revealed rhabdomyolysis. We highlight the importance of counselling to prevent rhabdomyolysis secondary to resistance exercise. Trainers and primary care physicians need to be educated about the main features of rhabdomyolysis and urgently refer trainees suspected of having this condition. Treatment consists mainly of hydration and correction of metabolic abnormalities. Primary care physicians need to counsel patients on ways to prevent rhabdomyolysis. Trainers and primary care physicians should instruct novice trainees who are performing resistance exercise to start low and gradually increase the load. Training with loads of 60-70% of one repetition maximum for 8-12 repetitions and use of one to three sets per exercise is recommended.

  15. Determination of Proper Peaking Time for Ultra Lege detector at Medium Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabidak, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing count losses and pile-up pulse effects in quantitative and qualitative analysis is necessary for accuracy of analysis. Therefore, the optimum peaking time for particular detector systems is important. For this purpose, pure Se and Zn elements were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from a 50 mCi 241 A m annular radioactive source in this study. The characteristic x-rays emitted from pure Se and Zn elements were detected by using an ultra low energy Ge (Ultra-LEGe) detector connecting Tennelec TC 244 spectroscopy amplifier at different peaking time modes. Overall pulse widths were determined by HM 203-7 oscilloscope connecting amplifier. The proper peaking time for ultra low energy germanium detector (Ultra-LEGe) is determined about 4 μs

  16. The importance of early-school radioactivity education in cultivating proper reflexive judgement on radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishina, Kojiro [Aichi Shukutoku Univ., The College of Contemporary Social Studies, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    An attempt is made to draw a preliminary conclusion on the effectiveness of early-school education on radioactivity, based on two cases of student responses. The first is the returns of questionnaires circulated at two colleges, which were typical of an engineering college and a liberal-arts college, respectively. The second is the reactions of liberal arts students to observed, unexpected levels of radiation in their environment. Their reaction was dominated by their preoccupation on radiation, rather than by the quantitative data they themselves collected on the spot. Thus classes in early schooldays are considered to play a vital role in cultivating proper judgement they are to rely on as general citizens. (author)

  17. Maxwell–Lorentz Electrodynamics Revisited via the Lagrangian Formalism and Feynman Proper Time Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai N. Bogolubov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We review new electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related fundamental physical aspects, motivated by the classical A.M. Ampère magnetic and H. Lorentz force laws electromagnetic field expressions. Based on the Feynman proper time paradigm and a recently devised vacuum field theory approach to the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, the formulations of alternative classical electrodynamics models are analyzed in detail and their Dirac type quantization is suggested. Problems closely related to the radiation reaction force and electron mass inertia are analyzed. The validity of the Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic electron mass origin hypothesis is argued. The related electromagnetic Dirac–Fock–Podolsky problem and symplectic properties of the Maxwell and Yang–Mills type dynamical systems are analyzed. The crucial importance of the remaining reference systems, with respect to which the dynamics of charged point particles is framed, is explained and emphasized.

  18. The relation between maturity and sophistication shall be properly dealt with in nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjiang

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies mainly developed in China in terms of safety and economy. The paper also discusses the maturity of the second generation improved technologies and the sophistication of the third generation technologies respectively. Meanwhile, the paper proposes that the advantage and disadvantage of second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies should be carefully taken into consideration and the relationship between the maturity and sophistication should be properly dealt with in the current stage. A two-step strategy shall be taken as a solution to solve the problem of insufficient capacity of nuclear power, trace and develop the third generation technologies, so as to ensure the sound and fast development of nuclear power. (authors)

  19. Ideal asymmetric supercapacitors consisting of polyaniline nanofibers and graphene nanosheets with proper complementary potential windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, P.-J.; Chang, K.-H.; Lee, Y.-F.; Hu, C.-C.; Lin, K.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are synthesized via a chemical method of rapid mixing for the application of asymmetric supercapacitors. The diameter and aspect ratio of PANI nanofibers is found to be controllable by varying the aniline/oxidant concentration ratio. The ideal capacitive responses of PANI nanofibers between 0.2 and 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in concentrated acidic media are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetric (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses coupled with a schematic equivalent-circuit model. The morphologies and textures of nanofibers are examined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM), transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopic analyses. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor, consisting of a PANI nanofiber cathode and a graphene anode, with proper complementary potential windows is demonstrated in this work, which shows the device energy and power densities of 4.86 Wh kg -1 and 8.75 kW kg -1 , respectively.

  20. Proper indoor climate by the adoption of advanced wood burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Skreiberg, Oeyvind

    2014-01-01

    The indoor emission of (ultra)fine particles and overheating from wood-burning stoves are crucial problems in modern houses when wood is used for heating. The main cause for indoor particle emission is the interaction between user and stove when lighting and refilling the stove. The main causes...... for overheating are a high thermal insulation level of the house and high (peak) wattage of the stove. This research aims to understand how low wattage stoves with a computer added device and water jacket will perform on the indoor air quality as proper heating appliances for low energy houses. Two field studies...... were designed to compare the influence of the auto-pilot device and water jacket on the indoor climate. The first experiments were conducted in 8 renovated detached houses using certified stoves while the following experiments were conducted in 4 low energy houses using modern and advanced stoves...

  1. Intelligent Decisional Assistant that Facilitate the Choice of a Proper Computer System Applied in Busines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARGINEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a proper computer system is not an easy task for a decider. One reason could be the present market development of computer systems applied in business. The big number of the Romanian market players determines a big number of computerized products, with a multitude of various properties. Our proposal tries to optimize and facilitate this decisional process within an e-shop where are sold IT packets applied in business, building an online decisional assistant, a special component conceived to facilitate the decision making needed for the selection of the pertinent IT package that fits the requirements of one certain business, described by the decider. The user interacts with the system as an online buyer that visit an e-shop where are sold IT package applied in economy.

  2. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization.

  3. Proper packaging for food and no-food products to avoid injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passali, Desiderio; Gregori, Dario; Foltran, Francesca

    2012-05-14

    This paper aims to present data on proper packaging for food and no-food products to avoid injuries. Data collection was made from the Susy Safe data base and the results of the literature research. Fatal and near fatal foreign bodies injuries may occur at any age, however it is a particular problem for infants and young children due to a variety of predisposing factors. Safety packaging is therefore a landmark and a model for accident prevention. Taken the lack of researches and specificity on this subject, it is warmly suggested that a broader and deeper exploration, both at customer's and public health levels, has to be made, highlighting major risks and complications. Packaging classes are extremely composite, therefore accuracy in data registry must be achieved, since from a preventive point of view it is basilar not only knowing the nature of the foreign body but also having information on its origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemodynamics of a Patient-Specific Aneurysm Model with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suyue; Chang, Gary Han; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) are two of the most-widely studied hemodynamic quantities in cardiovascular systems that have been shown to have the ability to elicit biological responses of the arterial wall, which could be used to predict the aneurysm development and rupture. In this study, a reduced-order model (ROM) of the hemodynamics of a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm is studied. The snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is utilized to construct the reduced-order bases of the flow using a CFD training set with known inflow parameters. It was shown that the area of low WSS and high OSI is correlated to higher POD modes. The resulting ROM can reproduce both WSS and OSI computationally for future parametric studies with significantly less computational cost. Agreement was observed between the WSS and OSI values obtained using direct CFD results and ROM results.

  5. Guidelines for Properly Adjustning Pressure Feedback in Systems with Over-Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben O.; Hansen, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    this problem is to use an over centre valve with a sufficiently low pilot ratio and/or include various damping orifices in the system. Both of these solutions are energy consuming and may decrease the control performance. An alternative approach is to use (electronic) pressure feedback — also referred...... to as active damping — to stabilise the system and damp pressure pulsations. This is not a new method, but the effect and adjustment of the filters is often misunderstood leading to incorrectly adjusted filters and degraded system performance. The focus of the current paper is therefore to explain and derive...... a set of guidelines for how to properly adjust a standard pressure feedback in system with an over centre valve when also considering model uncertainties, un-modelled dynamics and parameter variations. The paper takes its basis in a standard cylinder drive with an inertia load, over centre valve...

  6. Model Reduction Based on Proper Generalized Decomposition for the Stochastic Steady Incompressible Navier--Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Tamellini, L.; Le Maî tre, O.; Nouy, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a proper generalized decomposition method to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with random Reynolds number and forcing term. The aim of such a technique is to compute a low-cost reduced basis approximation of the full stochastic Galerkin solution of the problem at hand. A particular algorithm, inspired by the Arnoldi method for solving eigenproblems, is proposed for an efficient greedy construction of a deterministic reduced basis approximation. This algorithm decouples the computation of the deterministic and stochastic components of the solution, thus allowing reuse of preexisting deterministic Navier-Stokes solvers. It has the remarkable property of only requiring the solution of m uncoupled deterministic problems for the construction of an m-dimensional reduced basis rather than M coupled problems of the full stochastic Galerkin approximation space, with m l M (up to one order of magnitudefor the problem at hand in this work). © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. The Importance Of Proper Evaluation Of The Geological Conditions For The Design Of Industrial Floor Subbase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many problems concerning industrial floors or floors in shopping centres occurred when local geological characterization is not adequately considered by structural designers, material selection is not evaluated properly and in time for future stability, or consolidation of soft organic subsoil laid in active zone is not taken into account during design evaluation. Similar problems occur when flooding effects on subbase layers cause a new settlement of the upper floor structure. Generally speaking, majority of these symptoms of floor damage have their origin in underestimation of the geotechnical risk. At some locations, the selection of support structure and material type is not adequate due to lack of experience and in order to offer the lowest price as a contractor.

  8. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong

    2018-01-01

    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  9. Ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures against it's harmful effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hhalel, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Investigating Coherent Structures in the Standard Turbulence Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliassen, Lene; Andersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The wind turbine design standards recommend two different methods to generate turbulent wind for design load analysis, the Kaimal spectra combined with an exponential coherence function and the Mann turbulence model. The two turbulence models can give very different estimates of fatigue life, especially for offshore floating wind turbines. In this study the spatial distributions of the two turbulence models are investigated using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, which is used to characterize large coherent structures. The main focus has been on the structures that contain the most energy, which are the lowest POD modes. The Mann turbulence model generates coherent structures that stretches in the horizontal direction for the longitudinal component, while the structures found in the Kaimal model are more random in their shape. These differences in the coherent structures at lower frequencies for the two turbulence models can be the reason for differences in fatigue life estimates for wind turbines. (paper)

  11. AN HST PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE LARGE-SCALE JET OF 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sparks, William B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Anderson, Jay; Marel, Roeland van der; Biretta, John; Chiaberge, Marco; Norman, Colin [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Tony Sohn, Sangmo [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Perlman, Eric, E-mail: meyer@stsci.edu [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of −0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer and Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  12. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika; Marvel, Kevin B.; Claussen, Mark J.; Wootten, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of ∼45°. They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions (∼220°) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of ∼190°) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H 2 emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  13. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were documented and disseminated. Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted and information about project results and dissemination were obtained. More than half of all projects were disseminated to professionals as well as to the public and used two-way communication. However, it was generally difficult to obtain an overview of the projects due to dynamic changes in names and scopes. We propose that the funding authorities require designs comprising proper evaluation models that will subsequently allow the investigators to publish their findings. Furthermore, a dissemination plan comprising both peers and other professions should be made mandatory. The investigators should ensure proper documentation and dissemination of changes both during and after the projects in order to ensure transparency, and national or international organisations should establish a database with relevant data fields. not relevant. not relevant.

  14. Mass of the Local Group from Proper Motions of Distant Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2010-09-01

    The Local Group and its two dominant spirals, the Milky Way and M31, have become the benchmark for testing many aspects of cosmological and galaxy formation theories, due to many exciting new discoveries in the past decade. However, it is difficult to put results in a proper cosmological context, because our knowledge of the mass M of the Local Group remains uncertain by a factor 4. In units of 10^{12} solar masses, a spherical infall model for the zero-velocity surface gives M 1.3; the sum of estimates for the Milky Way and M31 masses gives M 2.6; and the Local Group Timing argument for the M31 orbit gives M 5.6. It is possible to discriminate between the proposed masses by calculating the orbits of galaxies at the edge of the Local Group, which requires knowledge of transverse velocity components. We therefore propose to use ACS/WFC to determine the proper motions of the 4 dwarf galaxies near the edge of the Local Group {Cetus, Leo A, Tucana, Sag DIG} for which deep first epoch data {with 5-7 year time baselines} already exist in the HST Archive. Our team has extensive expertise with HST astrometric science, and our past/ongoing work for, e.g., Omega Cen, LMC/SMC and M31 show that the necessary astrometric accuracy is within the reach of HST's demonstrated capabilities. We have developed, tested, and published a new technique that uses compact background galaxies as astrometric reference sources, and we have already reduced the first epoch data. The final predicted transverse velocity accuracy, 36 km/s when averaged over the sample, will be sufficient to discriminate between each of the proposed Local Group masses at 2-sigma significance {4-sigma between the most extreme values}. Our project will yield the most accurate Local Group mass determination to date, and only HST can achieve the required accuracy.

  15. Knowledge of the inhabitants of Lubelskie region on proper eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Weber

    2017-08-01

      Due to the fact that care about health, where proper eating habits are one of its constituents, exerts a strong impact on both social and economic life of a country, it is not just an individual case of each person, but a public matter.  The state of health status is obviously subject to a number of factors. However, the habits and customs with regard to daily habits are of particular importance due to the significance of food for the physical existence of each human body. These habits are formed in childhood and youth, however they undergo modifications throughout the whole life. Quite frequently the possessed knowledge is not a sufficient motivation to make great changes in the manner of eating, thus it does not change the eating habits. The aim of the paper is to determine the level of knowledge of clinic patients, selected at random, on proper eating habits. Materials and methods The research was conducted during the period of January-February 2016 year in a Lublin clinic. The investigation comprised 148 respondents. The method used in the research was a diagnostic survey, and the selected technique was a questionnaire conducted among the respondents, using a birth certificate, an interview and an anthropometric study. The study included 148 persons, who were further divided into two groups: students and workers. The respondents were the inhabitants of Lublin and nearby villages. The survey findings underwent a static programme analysis in Statistica 9.1 software (StatSoft, Poland. Conclusions The identification of nutritional knowledge and dietary behaviours of consumers as well as determination of the level and diversity of their nutritional awareness should become the basis for the preparation of guidelines on the content of broadcasts in order to promote healthy eating habits among consumers of different groups.

  16. Do medical French students know how to properly score a mini mental state examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandorena, Intza; Chauvelier, Sophie; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Piccoli, Matthieu; Coulon, Joséphine; Hugonot-Diener, Laurence; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Duron, Emmanuelle

    2017-06-01

    The mini mental state examination (MMSE) is a validated tool to assess global cognitive function. Training is required before scoring. Inaccurate scoring can lead to inappropriate medical decisions. In France, MMSE is usually scored by medical students. To assess if medical French students know how to properly score a mini mental state examination. Two « physician-patient » role playings performed by 2 specialized physicians, were performed in front of University Paris V medical students. Role playing A: Scoring of a MMSE according to a script containing five tricks; Role playing B: Find the 5 errors committed in a pre-filled MMSE form, according to the second script. One hundred and five students (64.4% of women, 49.5% in fifth medical school year) anonymously participated. Eighty percent of students had already scored a MMSE and 40% had been previously trained to MMSE scoring. Forty five percent of students previously scored an MMSE, without previously being trained. In test A, 16% of students did not commit any errors, 45.7% one error and 38.1% two errors. In test B, the proportion of students who provided 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 good answers was 3.3%, 29.7%, 29.7%, 25.3%, 7.7% and 4.4% respectively. No association between medical school year, previous training to MMSE scoring and performances at both tests were found. French students do not properly score MMSE. MMSE scoring is not enough or accurately taught (by specialists). The university will provide on line the tests and a short filmed teaching course performed by neuropsychological specialists.

  17. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 1 University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Marvel, Kevin B. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009 (United States); Claussen, Mark J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Array Operations Center, P.O. Box 0, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Wootten, Alwyn, E-mail: bwilking@umsl.edu, E-mail: bmg5333@truman.edu, E-mail: gibbe@umsl.edu, E-mail: marvel@aas.org, E-mail: mclausse@nrao.edu, E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of {approx}45 Degree-Sign . They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions ({approx}220 Degree-Sign ) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of {approx}190 Degree-Sign ) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  18. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants with cylindrical symmetry: 1. Properly working devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnorr Jörg

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active Magnetic Resonance Imaging implants are constructed as resonators tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system with a specific field strength. The resonating circuit may be embedded into or added to the normal metallic implant structure. The resonators build inductively coupled wireless transmit and receive coils and can amplify the signal, normally decreased by eddy currents, inside metallic structures without affecting the rest of the spin ensemble. During magnetic resonance imaging the resonators generate heat, which is additional to the usual one described by the specific absorption rate. This induces temperature increases of the tissue around the circuit paths and inside the lumen of an active implant and may negatively influence patient safety. Methods This investigation provides an overview of the supplementary power absorbed by active implants with a cylindrical geometry, corresponding to vessel implants such as stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters. The knowledge of the overall absorbed power is used in a finite volume analysis to estimate temperature maps around different implant structures inside homogeneous tissue under worst-case assumptions. The "worst-case scenario" assumes thermal heat conduction without blood perfusion inside the tissue around the implant and mostly without any cooling due to blood flow inside vessels. Results The additional power loss of a resonator is proportional to the volume and the quality factor, as well as the field strength of the MRI system and the specific absorption rate of the applied sequence. For properly working devices the finite volume analysis showed only tolerable heating during MRI investigations in most cases. Only resonators transforming a few hundred mW into heat may reach temperature increases over 5 K. This requires resonators with volumes of several ten cubic centimeters, short inductor circuit paths with only a few 10 cm and a quality

  19. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants with cylindrical symmetry: 1. Properly working devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Martin H J; Vollmann, Wolfgang; Schnorr, Jörg; Grönemeyer, Dietrich H W

    2005-04-08

    Active Magnetic Resonance Imaging implants are constructed as resonators tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system with a specific field strength. The resonating circuit may be embedded into or added to the normal metallic implant structure. The resonators build inductively coupled wireless transmit and receive coils and can amplify the signal, normally decreased by eddy currents, inside metallic structures without affecting the rest of the spin ensemble. During magnetic resonance imaging the resonators generate heat, which is additional to the usual one described by the specific absorption rate. This induces temperature increases of the tissue around the circuit paths and inside the lumen of an active implant and may negatively influence patient safety. This investigation provides an overview of the supplementary power absorbed by active implants with a cylindrical geometry, corresponding to vessel implants such as stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters. The knowledge of the overall absorbed power is used in a finite volume analysis to estimate temperature maps around different implant structures inside homogeneous tissue under worst-case assumptions. The "worst-case scenario" assumes thermal heat conduction without blood perfusion inside the tissue around the implant and mostly without any cooling due to blood flow inside vessels. The additional power loss of a resonator is proportional to the volume and the quality factor, as well as the field strength of the MRI system and the specific absorption rate of the applied sequence. For properly working devices the finite volume analysis showed only tolerable heating during MRI investigations in most cases. Only resonators transforming a few hundred mW into heat may reach temperature increases over 5 K. This requires resonators with volumes of several ten cubic centimeters, short inductor circuit paths with only a few 10 cm and a quality factor above ten. Using MR sequences, for which the MRI

  20. Impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment between the International Celestial Reference Frame and the Gaia reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.-C.; Malkin, Z.; Zhu, Z.

    2018-03-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is currently realized by the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of extragalactic sources with the zero proper motion assumption, while Gaia will observe proper motions of these distant and faint objects to an accuracy of tens of microarcseconds per year. This paper investigates the difference between VLBI and Gaia quasar proper motions and it aims to understand the impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frame. We use the latest time series data of source coordinates from the International VLBI Service analysis centres operated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSF2017) and Paris observatory (OPA2017), as well as the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution containing 2191 high-probability optical counterparts of the ICRF2 sources. The linear proper motions in right ascension and declination of VLBI sources are derived by least-squares fits while the proper motions for Gaia sources are simulated taking into account the acceleration of the Solar system barycentre and realistic uncertainties depending on the source brightness. The individual and global features of source proper motions in GSF2017 and OPA2017 VLBI data are found to be inconsistent, which may result from differences in VLBI observations, data reduction and analysis. A comparison of the VLBI and Gaia proper motions shows that the accuracies of the components of rotation and glide between the two systems are 2-4 μas yr- 1 based on about 600 common sources. For the future alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frames at different wavelengths, the proper motions of quasars must necessarily be considered.

  1. UCAC3 PROPER MOTION SURVEY. II. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS IN UCAC3 WITH 0.''40 yr–1 > μ ≥ 0.''18 yr–1 BETWEEN DECLINATIONS –47° and 00°

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Boyd, Mark R.; Henry, Todd J.; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2012-01-01

    We present 474 new proper motion stellar systems in the southern sky having no previously known components, with 0.''40 yr –1 >μ ≥ 0.''18 yr –1 between declinations –47° and 0°. In this second paper utilizing the U.S. Naval Observatory third CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3) we complete our sweep of the southern sky for objects in the proper motion range targeted by this survey with R magnitudes ranging from 9.80 to 19.61. The new systems contribute a ∼16% increase in the number of new stellar systems for the same region of sky reported in previous SuperCOSMOS Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) surveys. Among the newly discovered stellar systems are 16 multiples, plus an additional ten components that are new common proper motion companions to previously known objects. A comparison of UCAC3 proper motions to those from Hipparcos, Tycho-2, Southern Proper Motion, and SuperCOSMOS indicates that all proper motions are consistent to ∼10 mas yr –1 , with the exception of SuperCOSMOS. Distance estimates are derived for all stellar systems having SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey B J , R 59F , and I IVN plate magnitudes and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) infrared photometry. We find five new red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc. These discoveries support results from previous proper motion surveys suggesting that more nearby stellar systems are to be found, particularly in the fainter, slower moving samples. In this second paper utilizing the UCAC3 we complete our sweep of the southern sky for objects in the proper motion range targeted by this survey with R magnitudes ranging from 9.80 to 19.61.

  2. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Jones

    Full Text Available 'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when' was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting' were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti

  3. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE... changes and a new certification under § 27.140 is required, an importer is required to submit a new... under paragraph (b)(1) of this section available to the public on the TTB Internet Web site at www.ttb...

  4. Report: Policies Needed for Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Based on Duncan Hunter Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #12-P-0320, March 6, 2012. EPA did not comply with several key revisions to the FAR as amended by the interim rule, Proper Use and Management of Cost Reimbursement Contracts (FAR Case 2008-030).

  5. Adaptation of Proper Nouns in Czech-American Periodicals at the End of the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Burdová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of adaptation of proper nouns in chosen periodicals of the end of the 19th century that were published in the USA by Czech immigrants. Based on the analysis of periodicals collected from the Library of the Naprstek Museum of Prague there originated a list of proper nouns that has been studied from various points of view, namely the phonetics and phonology, morphology including the word-class competition (Cedar Rapidský - Cedar Rapids), translatedan...

  6. Report of the consultants meeting on proper use of reference and control materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in analytical laboratories as a basis of a complete quality system needs still to be developed in many Member States. To support the dissemination of information in this field a consultants meeting on 'Proper Use of Reference and Quality Control Materials' was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 13 to 17 August 2001. The experts convened with the objective to prepare a TECDOC to advise analytical laboratories in Member States on the correct use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) for Quality Control purposes and give practical recommendations to expand this concept to in-house Quality Control Materials (QCMs). In view of the existing literature in this field an urgent need for a practical guidebook for the preparation and application of cost effective and matrix matching QCMs was identified and the experts tried to fill this gap from their relevant experience. One and a half days of lecturing was followed by intensive discussion and brain storming to create a list of key words, which were structured in a logical order to provide a frame for the projected document. Responsibilities were assigned and deadlines fixed for the submission of the full text. (author)

  7. PARALLAXES AND PROPER MOTIONS OF ULTRACOOL BROWN DWARFS OF SPECTRAL TYPES Y AND LATE T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, Kenneth A.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Wright, Edward L.; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    We present astrometric measurements of 11 nearby ultracool brown dwarfs of spectral types Y and late-T, based on imaging observations from a variety of space-based and ground-based telescopes. These measurements have been used to estimate relative parallaxes and proper motions via maximum likelihood fitting of geometric model curves. To compensate for the modest statistical significance (∼ tan , assumed similar to that implied by previous observations of T dwarfs. Our estimated distances are therefore somewhat dependent on that assumption. Nevertheless, the results have yielded distances for five of our eight Y dwarfs and all three T dwarfs. Estimated distances in all cases are ∼> 3 pc. In addition, we have obtained significant estimates of V tan for two of the Y dwarfs; both are –1 , consistent with membership in the thin disk population. Comparison of absolute magnitudes with model predictions as a function of color shows that the Y dwarfs are significantly redder in J – H than predicted by a cloud-free model.

  8. Model Reduction Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Predictive Control of Distributed Reactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Marquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the application of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD to reduce the order of distributed reactor models with axial and radial diffusion and the implementation of model predictive control (MPC based on discrete-time linear time invariant (LTI reduced-order models. In this paper, the control objective is to keep the operation of the reactor at a desired operating condition in spite of the disturbances in the feed flow. This operating condition is determined by means of an optimization algorithm that provides the optimal temperature and concentration profiles for the system. Around these optimal profiles, the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs, that model the reactor are linearized, and afterwards the linear PDEs are discretized in space giving as a result a high-order linear model. POD and Galerkin projection are used to derive the low-order linear model that captures the dominant dynamics of the PDEs, which are subsequently used for controller design. An MPC formulation is constructed on the basis of the low-order linear model. The proposed approach is tested through simulation, and it is shown that the results are good with regard to keep the operation of the reactor.

  9. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Andrea; Campolmi, Piero; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Conti, Rossana; Bruscino, Nicola; Gola, Massimo; Ermini, Stefano; Massi, Daniela; Moretti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea). Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication. PMID:25147796

  10. Risk factors for proper oral language development in children: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques; Joly, Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of literature production related to risk factors for proper oral language development in children. We used the terms "child language," "risk factors," and "randomized controlled trial" in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed), Lilacs, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to February 2014. Randomized controlled trials involving the study of some risk factors related to child language were included. Works with individuals who were not from the age group 0-12 years and presented no reliable definition of risk factors were excluded. The research findings were classified according to their theme and categorized methodological aspects. We observed the lack of a standardized list of risk factors for language available for health professionals. The main risk factor mentioned was family dynamics, followed by interaction with parents, immediate social environment, and encouragement given to the child in the first years of life. It was also observed that organic hazards such as brain injury, persistent otitis media, and cardiac surgery, besides the type of food and parental counseling, may be related to language disorders. More randomized controlled trials involving the evaluation of risk factors for child language and the creation of further studies involving children above 6 years of age and males are needed.

  11. Automatic WSDL-guided Test Case Generation for PropEr Testing of Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Sagonas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With web services already being key ingredients of modern web systems, automatic and easy-to-use but at the same time powerful and expressive testing frameworks for web services are increasingly important. Our work aims at fully automatic testing of web services: ideally the user only specifies properties that the web service is expected to satisfy, in the form of input-output relations, and the system handles all the rest. In this paper we present in detail the component which lies at the heart of this system: how the WSDL specification of a web service is used to automatically create test case generators that can be fed to PropEr, a property-based testing tool, to create structurally valid random test cases for its operations and check its responses. Although the process is fully automatic, our tool optionally allows the user to easily modify its output to either add semantic information to the generators or write properties that test for more involved functionality of the web services.

  12. Intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst: proper surgical management may lead to satisfactory outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Chun; Liu, Fengqiang

    2018-03-12

    Intraparenchymal epidermoid cysts (IECs) are rare lesions, thus the preoperative diagnosis and proper surgical management are still a challenge. We searched the database at our institution and performed a search of English literature in PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords used were as follows: "intraparenchymal"; "intracerebral"; "intraaxial"; "epidermoid cyst"; "brainstem"; "cholesteatoma"; "pearly tumor". Only cases that were true intraparenchymally located and contained adequate clinical information were included. Six cases of IECs were recorded at our institution. Total removal was achieved in all the six patients with good outcomes. 29 cases meeting the above criteria were found in the literature. Including ours, a total of 35 patients were analyzed. Females were more frequently affected (F/M ratio, 1.9:1). Most of them were located in the brainstem (42.9%) and temporal lobe (22.9%). While in children, all were located in the brainstem. 45.2% showed subtle peripheral enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and all appeared hyperintense on Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI). In the subgroup of cerebral lobes and cerebellums, total resection was achieved in 89.5%, and they all showed good outcomes. While in the subgroup of brainstem, 46.7% (seven cases) underwent total resection and 50% (three cases) of them died postoperatively. MRI with DWI is helpful in the preoperative diagnosis. Total resection should be achieved for the IECs located in cerebral lobes and cerebellums, while subtotal resection is a wise and safe strategy for the IECs located in the brainstem.

  13. The Development of a Proper Laser Displacement Monitoring System for Medium and Short Span Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Health Monitoring System (HMS for a Medium and Short Span (MSS bridge is different to one for a long span bridge, because of factors such assize, scale and importance. Therefore a proper HMS needs to be developed to meet the economic and applicability requirements of the large number of MSS bridges. Approximately 90 % of existing bridges in China are categorized as MSS bridges and most are beginning to deteriorate. Furthermore, there is not a suitable HMS that can assess the condition of the bridge in accordance with a growth market where traffic volumes are likely to increase. Indeed, the artificial patrolling system currently in use is unable to monitor bridges in the long-term and highlight problems within a sufficient time scale. Having discussed the necessity of a HMS for MSS bridges, this paper proposes a suitable system that uses displacement monitoring in addition to the necessary precision. Displacement was chosen as the main monitoring indicator for intuitive, convenient and direct viewing, as its critical characteristic is that it is both economical and straightforward to use. Specific details regarding the laser displacement sensor and the development of a wireless data acquisition and transmission system are also provided. The reliability of the displacement monitoring sensor and data processing system is confirmed through different stages of an installation test.

  14. A Study on Determination of Proper Pressurizer Level for Kori Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Sup; Song, Dong Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    1. Determination of Proper Pressurizer Level. To determine operation level of pressurizer, LOFTRAN code is used with conservative model and assumption. 2. Performance Analysis. To simulate the plant, RETRAN computer code is used with realistic model and assumptions. The control and protection systems are fully credited. The turbine trip event is simulated at the condition of 47.62% of pressurizer level at full power. After that the same event as that with 55% of pressurizer level is simulated. And the FSAR requirements of pressurizer are verified with the new level setpoints. 3. Safety Analysis. As safety analyses, Loss of Normal Feedwater/Station Blackout which is significantly affected by the initial pressurizer water level is performed. Turbine Trip accident is also analyzed to verify if the peak primary side pressure is within the limit. LOFTRAN code is used with conservative mode and assumption. 3. Steam Generator Replacement. Relating to the steam generator replacement planed in 1998, safety analysis in terms of pressurizer level setpoint change. 4. Limit Condition for Operation. The LCO of pressurizer level is changed from 60% to 67.4% which is included pressurizer level uncertainty. (author). 13 refs., figs., tabs.

  15. A Note on the Problem of Proper Time in Weyl Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, R.; Dahia, F.; Romero, C.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the question of whether or not a general Weyl structure is a suitable mathematical model of space-time. This is an issue that has been in debate since Weyl formulated his unified field theory for the first time. We do not present the discussion from the point of view of a particular unification theory, but instead from a more general standpoint, in which the viability of such a structure as a model of space-time is investigated. Our starting point is the well known axiomatic approach to space-time given by Elhers, Pirani and Schild (EPS). In this framework, we carry out an exhaustive analysis of what is required for a consistent definition for proper time and show that such a definition leads to the prediction of the so-called "second clock effect". We take the view that if, based on experience, we were to reject space-time models predicting this effect, this could be incorporated as the last axiom in the EPS approach. Finally, we provide a proof that, in this case, we are led to a Weyl integrable space-time as the most general structure that would be suitable to model space-time.

  16. Prostate cancer as a chronic disease: cost-effectiveness and proper follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttilla, A.; Bortolami, A.; Evangelista, L.

    2015-01-01

    In western countries, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-dermatological malignant disease in men. Bone metastases more often develop in patients with advanced PCa; the associated complications present a substantial disease and economic burden. Although the introduction of new therapeutic strategies have provided some advantages in terms of overall survival and quality of life in patients with metastatic PCa, the skeletal related events and side effects due to the therapies are associated with an important impact on the health care costs. In particular, the number of hospital admission, clinical consultation and the introduction of new expensive diagnostic modalities have changed the management of metastatic patients. However, the National and International guidelines suggest to follow patients with metastatic PCa by using clinical assessment, biochemical evaluation and, when necessary, diagnostic imaging. The aims of the present review were: 1) to summarize the information regarding the clinical and economic burden of metastasis; 2) to evaluate the quality of life; and 3) to suggest a proper follow-up in advanced PCa patients.

  17. Nuclear envelope expansion is crucial for proper chromosomal segregation during a closed mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Ai; Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Li, Juan-Juan; Jeffery, Linda; Yamatsugu, Kenzo; Elemento, Olivier; Nurse, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Here, we screened a 10,371 library of diverse molecules using a drug-sensitive fission yeast strain to identify compounds which cause defects in chromosome segregation during mitosis. We identified a phosphorium-ylide-based compound Cutin-1 which inhibits nuclear envelope expansion and nuclear elongation during the closed mitosis of fission yeast, and showed that its target is the β-subunit of fatty acid synthase. A point mutation in the dehydratase domain of Fas1 conferred in vivo and in vitro resistance to Cutin-1. Time-lapse photomicrography showed that the bulk of the chromosomes were only transiently separated during mitosis, and nucleoli separation was defective. Subsequently sister chromatids re-associated leading to chromosomal mis-segregation. These segregation defects were reduced when the nuclear volume was increased and were increased when the nuclear volume was reduced. We propose that there needs to be sufficient nuclear volume to allow the nuclear elongation necessary during a closed mitosis to take place for proper chromosome segregation, and that inhibition of fatty acid synthase compromises nuclear elongation and leads to defects in chromosomal segregation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Ideal asymmetric supercapacitors consisting of polyaniline nanofibers and graphene nanosheets with proper complementary potential windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, P.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, K.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Lee, Y.-F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hu, C.-C., E-mail: cchu@che.nthu.edu.t [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are synthesized via a chemical method of rapid mixing for the application of asymmetric supercapacitors. The diameter and aspect ratio of PANI nanofibers is found to be controllable by varying the aniline/oxidant concentration ratio. The ideal capacitive responses of PANI nanofibers between 0.2 and 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in concentrated acidic media are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetric (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses coupled with a schematic equivalent-circuit model. The morphologies and textures of nanofibers are examined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM), transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopic analyses. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor, consisting of a PANI nanofiber cathode and a graphene anode, with proper complementary potential windows is demonstrated in this work, which shows the device energy and power densities of 4.86 Wh kg{sup -1} and 8.75 kW kg{sup -1}, respectively.

  19. Proper Motions and Structural Parameters of the Galactic Globular Cluster M71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadelano, M.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Miocchi, P.; Lanzoni, B.; Pallanca, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Massari, D. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2017-02-20

    By exploiting two ACS/ HST data sets separated by a temporal baseline of ∼7 years, we have determined the relative stellar proper motions (PMs; providing membership) and the absolute PM of the Galactic globular cluster M71. The absolute PM has been used to reconstruct the cluster orbit within a Galactic, three-component, axisymmetric potential. M71 turns out to be in a low-latitude disk-like orbit inside the Galactic disk, further supporting the scenario in which it lost a significant fraction of its initial mass. Since large differential reddening is known to affect this system, we took advantage of near-infrared, ground-based observations to re-determine the cluster center and density profile from direct star counts. The new structural parameters turn out to be significantly different from the ones quoted in the literature. In particular, M71 has a core and a half-mass radii almost 50% larger than previously thought. Finally, we estimate that the initial mass of M71 was likely one order of magnitude larger than its current value, thus helping to solve the discrepancy with the observed number of X-ray sources.

  20. Low-order modelling of shallow water equations for sensitivity analysis using proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokagoa, Jean-Marie; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a reduced-order model (ROM) of the shallow water equations (SWEs) for use in sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo type applications. Since, in the real world, some of the physical parameters and initial conditions embedded in free-surface flow problems are difficult to calibrate accurately in practice, the results from numerical hydraulic models are almost always corrupted with uncertainties. The main objective of this work is to derive a ROM that ensures appreciable accuracy and a considerable acceleration in the calculations so that it can be used as a surrogate model for stochastic and sensitivity analyses in real free-surface flow problems. The ROM is derived using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method coupled with Galerkin projections of the SWEs, which are discretised through a finite-volume method. The main difficulty of deriving an efficient ROM is the treatment of the nonlinearities involved in SWEs. Suitable approximations that provide rapid online computations of the nonlinear terms are proposed. The proposed ROM is applied to the simulation of hypothetical flood flows in the Bordeaux breakwater, a portion of the 'Rivière des Prairies' located near Laval (a suburb of Montreal, Quebec). A series of sensitivity analyses are performed by varying the Manning roughness coefficient and the inflow discharge. The results are satisfactorily compared to those obtained by the full-order finite volume model.

  1. Transportin-SR is required for proper splicing of resistance genes and plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportin-SR (TRN-SR is a member of the importin-β super-family that functions as the nuclear import receptor for serine-arginine rich (SR proteins, which play diverse roles in RNA metabolism. Here we report the identification and cloning of mos14 (modifier of snc1-1, 14, a mutation that suppresses the immune responses conditioned by the auto-activated Resistance (R protein snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1. MOS14 encodes a nuclear protein with high similarity to previously characterized TRN-SR proteins in animals. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MOS14 interacts with AtRAN1 via its N-terminus and SR proteins via its C-terminus. In mos14-1, localization of several SR proteins to the nucleus was impaired, confirming that MOS14 functions as a TRN-SR. The mos14-1 mutation results in altered splicing patterns of SNC1 and another R gene RPS4 and compromised resistance mediated by snc1 and RPS4, suggesting that nuclear import of SR proteins by MOS14 is required for proper splicing of these two R genes and is important for their functions in plant immunity.

  2. OB Stars and Cepheids From the Gaia TGAS Catalogue: Test of their Distances and Proper Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobylev Vadim V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider young distant stars from the Gaia TGAS catalog. These are 250 classical Cepheids and 244 OB stars located at distances up to 4 kpc from the Sun. These stars are used to determine the Galactic rotation parameters using both trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of the TGAS stars. In this case the considered stars have relative parallax errors less than 200%. Following the well-known statistical approach, we assume that the kinematic parameters found from the line-of-sight velocities Vr are less dependent on errors of distances than the found from the velocity components Vl. From values of the first derivative of the Galactic rotation angular velocity ′0, found from the analysis of velocities Vr and Vl separately, the scale factor of distances is determined.We found that from the sample of Cepheids the scale of distances of the TGAS should be reduced by 3%, and from the sample of OB stars, on the contrary, the scale should be increased by 9%.

  3. S1P transporter SPNS2 regulates proper postnatal retinal morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Bian, Ganlan; Ren, Pan; Xiang, Jie; Song, Jun; Yu, Caiyong; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ling; Chen, Kun; Liu, Fangfang; Zhang, Kun; Wu, Chunfeng; Sun, Ruixia; Hu, Dan; Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian

    2018-02-08

    Spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) is the membrane transporter of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and it participates in several physiologic processes by activating different S1P receptors (S1PRs). However, its functions in the nervous system remain largely unclear. We explored the important role of SPNS2 in the process of retinal morphogenesis using a spns2-deficient rat model. In the absence of the functional SPNS2 transporter, we observed progressively aggravating laminar disorganization of the epithelium at the postnatal stage of retinal development. Disrupted cell polarity, delayed cell-cycle exit of retinal progenitor cells, and insufficient migration of newborn neurons were proposed in this study as potential mechanisms accounting for this structural disorder. In addition, we analyzed the expression profiles of spns2 and s1prs, and proposed that SPNS2 regulated retinal morphogenesis by establishing the S1P level in the eye and activating S1PR3 signaling. These data indicate that SPNS2 is indispensable for normal retinal morphogenesis and provide new insights on the role of S1P in the developing retina using an established in vivo model.-Fang, C., Bian, G., Ren, P., Xiang, J., Song, J., Yu, C., Zhang, Q., Liu, L., Chen, K., Liu, F., Zhang, K., Wu, C., Sun, R., Hu, D., Ju, G., Wang, J. S1P transporter SPNS2 regulates proper postnatal retinal morphogenesis.

  4. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, D K; Brison, R J

    2015-04-01

    Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12-0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  5. An adaptive proper orthogonal decomposition method for model order reduction of multi-disc rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulin; Lu, Kuan; Hou, Lei; Chen, Yushu

    2017-12-01

    The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is a main and efficient tool for order reduction of high-dimensional complex systems in many research fields. However, the robustness problem of this method is always unsolved, although there are some modified POD methods which were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, a new adaptive POD method called the interpolation Grassmann manifold (IGM) method is proposed to address the weakness of local property of the interpolation tangent-space of Grassmann manifold (ITGM) method in a wider parametric region. This method is demonstrated here by a nonlinear rotor system of 33-degrees of freedom (DOFs) with a pair of liquid-film bearings and a pedestal looseness fault. The motion region of the rotor system is divided into two parts: simple motion region and complex motion region. The adaptive POD method is compared with the ITGM method for the large and small spans of parameter in the two parametric regions to present the advantage of this method and disadvantage of the ITGM method. The comparisons of the responses are applied to verify the accuracy and robustness of the adaptive POD method, as well as the computational efficiency is also analyzed. As a result, the new adaptive POD method has a strong robustness and high computational efficiency and accuracy in a wide scope of parameter.

  6. Proper use of common image file formats in handling radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, N; Perandini, S; Comai, A; D'Onofrio, M; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2009-04-01

    This paper highlights the differences among the most common file formats used for storing digital radiological images. It promotes the proper use of these formats to guarantee easy manipulation in handling the most typical practical applications in daily radiological practice. The authors provide a simple yet exhaustive introduction to the concept of "file format" and describe the algorithms and main features of the most common formats (BMP, JPEG, GIF, DICOM, TIF, PNG) and Portable Network Graphics (PNG).The different formats are compared in terms of dimension, quality, portability and with reference to the following specific needs: electronic communications, publication on the World Wide Web, presentation of electronic posters, video presentations for teaching and manuscript publishing. We also illustrate how to handle the various formats with the programmes supplied with standard software installations.The large number of digital applications of image file formats calls for a simplification in daily radiological practice. We recommend the use of JPEG and PNG for electronic communications; PNG and GIF for publication on the worldwide web; JPEG and PNG for electronic poster presentations; DICOM, PNG and JPEG for teaching presentations; TIF and PNG for printing on paper.

  7. The first allwise proper motion discovery: Wisea J070720.50+170532.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F.; Oza, Apurva; Nelson, M. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [STScI, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fumagalli, Michele [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: wright@astro.ucla.edu [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    While quality checking a new motion-aware co-addition of all 12.5 months of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data, we found that the source WISE J070720.48+170533.0 moved 0.''9 in six months. Backtracking this motion allowed us to identify this source as 2MASS J07071961+1705464, with several entries in the USNO B catalog. An astrometric fit to these archival data gives a proper motion of μ = 1793 ± 2 mas yr{sup –1} and a parallax of piv = 35 ± 42 mas. Photometry from WISE, 2MASS, and the POSS can be fit reasonably well by a blackbody with T = 3658 K and an angular radius of 4.36 × 10{sup –11} radians. No clear evidence of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption is seen in the near-infrared. An optical spectrum shows broad deep CaH bands at 638 and 690 nm, broad deep Na D at 598.2 nm, and weak or absent TiO, indicating that this source is an ultra-subdwarf M star with a radial velocity v {sub rad} ≈ –21 ± 18 km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun. Given its apparent magnitude, the distance is about 39 ± 9 pc and the tangential velocity is probably ≈330 km s{sup –1}, but a more precise parallax is needed to be certain.

  8. Invert emulsion: Method of preparation and application as proper formulation of entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Yacoub A

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the technique used for preparing the invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) then, selecting the most proper formulation of invert emulsion for being used as a carrier formulation of entomopathogenic fungi. It also describes the method used for testing the efficacy of the formulated fungi as biocontrol agents of targeted insects. Detailed examples demonstrating the efficacy of formulated strains of entomopathogenic fungi against certain species of insect pests were included in the present article. The techniques and methods described in this article are reproducible and helpful in enhancing the effectiveness of formulated fungi against wide range of targeted insects in comparison with the unformulated form of these fungi. Also, these techniques and methods can be used effectively in crop protection and in the integrated pest management programs. Finally, it is important to indicate that the ingredients used for preparation of the invert emulsion have no environmental side-effects or health risks since these ingredients are safe to use and can be used in manufacturing of cosmetics or as food additives.•Description of method used for preparation of invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) and selecting the most stable and non-viscous emulsion.•Description of technique used for introducing the entomopathogenic fungi into the selected stable and non-viscous invert emulsion.•Description of method for testing the efficacy of introduced entomopathogenic fungus into the selected invert emulsion against targeted insects with detailed examples on the efficacy testing.

  9. Report of the consultants meeting on proper use of reference and control materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Quality control in analytical laboratories as a basis of a complete quality system needs still to be developed in many Member States. To support the dissemination of information in this field a consultants meeting on 'Proper Use of Reference and Quality Control Materials' was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 13 to 17 August 2001. The experts convened with the objective to prepare a TECDOC to advise analytical laboratories in Member States on the correct use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) for Quality Control purposes and give practical recommendations to expand this concept to in-house Quality Control Materials (QCMs). In view of the existing literature in this field an urgent need for a practical guidebook for the preparation and application of cost effective and matrix matching QCMs was identified and the experts tried to fill this gap from their relevant experience. One and a half days of lecturing was followed by intensive discussion and brain storming to create a list of key words, which were structured in a logical order to provide a frame for the projected document. Responsibilities were assigned and deadlines fixed for the submission of the full text. (author)

  10. Evolution of surgical interventions for hydrocephalus: patient preferences and the need for proper information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. O. Eghwrudjakpor MBBS, DMS, FICS

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hydrocephalus has undergone remarkable transformation since it was first documented over two thousand years ago. Currently, the focus of hydrocephalus research is on minimally invasive techniques of treatment. This article reviews the evolution of hydrocephalus therapy, and examines current attitudes towards modern methods. We relied on journal publications, as well as literature on hydrocephalus obtained from the Internet (Google, Yahoo and PUBMED search making use of the following search terms: “hydrocephalus: history; treatment; complications”, “cerebrospinal fluid shunt”, “endoscopic third ventriculostomy: indications of; complications of; advantages; disadvantages; successes; failure”. Numerous medical and surgical approaches have been adopted in the treatment of hydrocephalus in the past. However, the breakthrough that ushered in the modern era of hydrocephalus treatment was the introduction of valve-regulated systems in the middle of the last century. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy has evolved to become an alternative to traditional shunts. Cerebrospinal fluid shunt procedures are very effective in the treatment of hydrocephalus and have radically transformed the outcome of the disorder. However, they have a number of limitations. The alternative to shunts, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, is relatively safe, effective and durable. It does not, however, succeed in every patient; and also has some potentially devastating complications. Preoperative counseling is imperative to ensure that patients are properly guided.

  11. Development of Boundary Condition Independent Reduced Order Thermal Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Arun; Ghia, Karman; Ghia, Urmila

    2008-11-01

    Compact Thermal Models (CTM) to represent IC packages has been traditionally developed using the DELPHI-based (DEvelopment of Libraries of PHysical models for an Integrated design) methodology. The drawbacks of this method are presented, and an alternative method is proposed. A reduced-order model that provides the complete thermal information accurately with less computational resources can be effectively used in system level simulations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), a statistical method, can be used to reduce the order of the degree of freedom or variables of the computations for such a problem. POD along with the Galerkin projection allows us to create reduced-order models that reproduce the characteristics of the system with a considerable reduction in computational resources while maintaining a high level of accuracy. The goal of this work is to show that this method can be applied to obtain a boundary condition independent reduced-order thermal model for complex components. The methodology is applied to the 1D transient heat equation.

  12. Managing pediatric dental patients: issues raised by the law and changing views of proper child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Donald C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine legal issues regarding the management of pediatric dental patients and changing views of proper child care. Standards of care in pediatric dentistry are not static. They change in response to research, patterns of reimbursement, patient and parental expectations of reasonable care, and consensus among practitioners. The law pertaining to accountability for pediatric dental patient treatment largely reflects standards of care established by the pediatric dentistry profession. However, the law can also reflect changes in public expectations of reasonable care that can effectively outrun the discipline's efforts to reflect new knowledge or changing public concerns. A major impetus for considering the care of children in all settings has been the increasing recognition of suboptimal children's care, as well as concerns that children have either been abused or neglected in a number of settings. Too often, practices towards children have been untested and based only on the assumption that what is done is "for the child's own good." Pediatric dentists can respond to changing standards of reasonable care for pediatric dental patients, as expressed in legal decisions. They can also usefully consider how attention to child maltreatment has sensitized parents to be better consumers of services on their children's behalf. Rather than reacting only to public pressures for better means of behavior management, the challenge is to exceed expectations via new research and thoughtful anticipation of improvements that can be made.

  13. Dexterity test data contribute to proper glovebox over-glove use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Lawton, Cindy M.; Castro, Armanda M.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Apel, D.M.; Neal, G.E.; Castro, J.M.; Michelotti, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). The glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. The Glovebox Glove Integrity Program, which controls glovebox gloves from procurement to disposal at TA-55, manages this vulnerability. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Proper selection of over-gloves is one of these measures. Line management owning glovebox processes have the responsibility to approve the appropriate personal protective equipment/glovebox glove/over-glove combination. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to prevent unplanned glovebox glove openings must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk to the worker. In this study, the causes of unplanned glovebox glove openings, the benefits of over-glove features, the effect of over-gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the pollution prevention benefits, and the recommended over-gloves for a task are presented.

  14. The role of vasculature in bone development, regeneration and proper systemic functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowska, Joanna; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Niedźwiedzki, Łukasz; Walocha, Jerzy A; Niedźwiedzki, Tadeusz

    2017-08-01

    Bone is a richly vascularized connective tissue. As the main source of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors delivered to the bone cells, vasculature is indispensable for appropriate bone development, regeneration and remodeling. Bone vasculature also orchestrates the process of hematopoiesis. Blood supply to the skeletal system is provided by the networks of arteries and arterioles, having distinct molecular characteristics and localizations within the bone structures. Blood vessels of the bone develop through the process of angiogenesis, taking place through different, bone-specific mechanisms. Impaired functioning of the bone blood vessels may be associated with the occurrence of some skeletal and systemic diseases, i.e., osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis or diabetes mellitus. When a disease or trauma-related large bone defects appear, bone grafting or bone tissue engineering-based strategies are required. However, a successful bone regeneration in both approaches largely depends on a proper blood supply. In this paper, we review the most recent data on the functions, molecular characteristics and significance of the bone blood vessels, with a particular emphasis on the role of angiogenesis and blood vessel functioning in bone development and regeneration, as well as the consequences of its impairment in the course of different skeletal and systemic diseases.

  15. Proper joint analysis of summary association statistics requires the adjustment of heterogeneity in SNP coverage pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Wheeler, William; Song, Lei; Yu, Kai

    2017-07-07

    As meta-analysis results published by consortia of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) become increasingly available, many association summary statistics-based multi-locus tests have been developed to jointly evaluate multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to reveal novel genetic architectures of various complex traits. The validity of these approaches relies on the accurate estimate of z-score correlations at considered SNPs, which in turn requires knowledge on the set of SNPs assessed by each study participating in the meta-analysis. However, this exact SNP coverage information is usually unavailable from the meta-analysis results published by GWAS consortia. In the absence of the coverage information, researchers typically estimate the z-score correlations by making oversimplified coverage assumptions. We show through real studies that such a practice can generate highly inflated type I errors, and we demonstrate the proper way to incorporate correct coverage information into multi-locus analyses. We advocate that consortia should make SNP coverage information available when posting their meta-analysis results, and that investigators who develop analytic tools for joint analyses based on summary data should pay attention to the variation in SNP coverage and adjust for it appropriately. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Comparing and improving proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the complexity of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, Moritz; Nowak, Wolfgang; Wöhling, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Physically-based modeling is a wide-spread tool in understanding and management of natural systems. With the high complexity of many such models and the huge amount of model runs necessary for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis, overall run times can be prohibitively long even on modern computer systems. An encouraging strategy to tackle this problem are model reduction methods. In this contribution, we compare different proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, Siade et al. (2010)) methods and their potential applications to groundwater models. The POD method performs a singular value decomposition on system states as simulated by the complex (e.g., PDE-based) groundwater model taken at several time-steps, so-called snapshots. The singular vectors with the highest information content resulting from this decomposition are then used as a basis for projection of the system of model equations onto a subspace of much lower dimensionality than the original complex model, thereby greatly reducing complexity and accelerating run times. In its original form, this method is only applicable to linear problems. Many real-world groundwater models are non-linear, tough. These non-linearities are introduced either through model structure (unconfined aquifers) or boundary conditions (certain Cauchy boundaries, like rivers with variable connection to the groundwater table). To date, applications of POD focused on groundwater models simulating pumping tests in confined aquifers with constant head boundaries. In contrast, POD model reduction either greatly looses accuracy or does not significantly reduce model run time if the above-mentioned non-linearities are introduced. We have also found that variable Dirichlet boundaries are problematic for POD model reduction. An extension to the POD method, called POD-DEIM, has been developed for non-linear groundwater models by Stanko et al. (2016). This method uses spatial interpolation points to build the equation system in the

  17. Septins from the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis are required for proper morphogenesis but dispensable for virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alvarez-Tabarés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Septins are a highly conserved family of GTP-binding proteins involved in multiple cellular functions, including cell division and morphogenesis. Studies of septins in fungal cells underpin a clear correlation between septin-based structures and fungal morphology, providing clues to understand the molecular frame behind the varied morphologies found in fungal world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ustilago maydis genome has the ability to encode four septins. Here, using loss-of-function as well as GFP-tagged alleles of these septin genes, we investigated the roles of septins in the morphogenesis of this basidiomycete fungus. We described that septins in U. maydis could assemble into at least three different structures coexisting in the same cell: bud neck collars, band-like structures at the growing tip, and long septin fibers that run from pole to pole near the cell cortex. We also found that in the absence of septins, U. maydis cells lost their elongated shape, became wider at the central region and ended up losing their polarity, pointing to an important role of septins in the morphogenesis of this fungus. These morphological defects were alleviated in the presence of an osmotic stabilizer suggesting that absence of septins affected the proper formation of the cell wall, which was coherent with a higher sensitivity of septin defective cells to drugs that affect cell wall construction as well as exocytosis. As U. maydis is a phytopathogen, we analyzed the role of septins in virulence and found that in spite of the described morphological defects, septin mutants were virulent in corn plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated a major role of septins in morphogenesis in U. maydis. However, in contrast to studies in other fungal pathogens, in which septins were reported to be necessary during the infection process, we found a minor role of septins during corn infection by U. maydis.

  18. Significance of proper oral hygiene for health condition of mouth and teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević Agima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper mouth and teeth hygiene has influence on the prevention of a great number of diseases and very often some of them are not related only to oral cavity. Most frequent diseases of mouth and teeth such as caries and periodontal diseases are caused, among other factors, by poor oral hygiene. They are also more frequent in young population. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and hygienic habit on oral health in children aged 11-15 years. Methods. This crosssectional study was conducted by the dental teams in dentist surgeries in Tivat Health Center between May and September 2009. The sample consisted of patients 11 to 15 years of age. A questionnaire and dental examination of mouth and teeth were used as research instruments. The examinations were conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology and criteria. The data obtained from the interviews were correlated with those obtained from the clinical examinations. Results. The results show that the majority of respondents brush their teeth twice a day and visit the dentist once in every six months. The research also shows that 57% respondents have caries of deciduous teeth and over 63% respondents of permanent teeth. Gingivitis was found in 14% and orthodontic anomalies in 44.7% respondents. A half of respondents who brush their teeth rarely have problems with gingivitis. There is a highly statistically significant difference between the occurrence of gingivitis and the frequency of teeth brushing. Conclusion. There is a significant difference between mouth and oral hygiene and sex as well as other sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. The study showed the correlation between occurrence of caries and the gingivitis and frequency of teeth brushing and dental visits.

  19. [Significance of proper oral hygiene for health condition of mouth and teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljaljević, Agima; Matijević, Snezana; Terzić, Natasa; Andjelić, Jasmina; Mugosa, Boban

    2012-01-01

    Proper mouth and teeth hygiene has influence on the prevention of a great number of diseases and very often some of them are not related only to oral cavity. Most frequent diseases of mouth and teeth such as caries and periodontal diseases are caused, among other factors, by poor oral hygiene. They are also more frequent in young population. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and hygienic habit on oral health in children aged 11-15 years. This cross-sectional study was conducted by the dental teams in dentist surgeries in Tivat Health Center between May and September 2009. The sample consisted of patients 11 to 15 years of age. A questionnaire and dental examination of mouth and teeth were used as research instruments. The examinations were conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology and criteria. The data obtained from the interviews were correlated with those obtained from the clinical examinations. The results show that the majority of respondents brush their teeth twice a day and visit the dentist once in every six months. The research also shows that 57% respondents have caries of deciduous teeth and over 63% respondents of permanent teeth. Gingivitis was found in 14% and orthodontic anomalies in 44.7% respondents. A half of respondents who brush their teeth rarely have problems with gingivitis. There is a highly statistically significant difference between the occurrence of gingivitis and the frequency of teeth brushing. There is a significant difference between mouth and oral hygiene and sex as well as other sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. The study showed the correlation between occurrence of caries and the gingivitis and frequency of teeth brushing and dental visits.

  20. Spatiotemporal multiscaling analysis of impurity transport in plasma turbulence using proper orthogonal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatani, S.; Benkadda, S.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2009-01-01

    The spatiotemporal multiscale dynamics of the turbulent transport of impurities is studied in the context of the collisional drift wave turbulence. Two turbulence regimes are considered: a quasihydrodynamic regime and a quasiadiabatic regime. The impurity is assumed to be a passive scalar advected by the corresponding ExB turbulent flow in the presence of diffusion. Two mixing scenarios are studied: a freely decaying case, and a forced case in which the scalar is forced by an externally imposed gradient. The results of the direct numerical simulations are analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) techniques. The multiscale analysis is based on a space-time separable POD of the impurity field. The low rank spatial POD eigenfunctions capture the large scale coherent structures and the high rank eigenfunctions capture the small scale fluctuations. The temporal evolution at each scale is dictated by the corresponding temporal POD eigenfunctions. Contrary to the decaying case in which the POD spectrum decays fast, the spectrum in the forced case is relatively flat. The most striking difference between these two mixing scenarios is in the temporal dynamics of the small scale structures. In the decaying case the POD reveals the presence of 'bursty' dynamics in which successively small (high POD rank) scales are intermittently activated during the mixing process. On the other hand, in the forced simulations the temporal dynamics exhibits stationary fluctuations. Spatial intermittency or 'patchiness' in the mixing process characterizes the distribution of the passive tracer in the decaying quasihydrodynamic regime. In particular, in this case the probability distribution function of the low rank POD spatial reconstruction error is non-Gaussian. The spatiotemporal POD scales exhibit a diffusive-type scaling in the quasiadiabatic regime. However, this scaling seems to be absent in the quasihydrodynamic regime that shows no scaling (in the decaying case) or two

  1. From dust to treasure: building a proper self-image through astronomy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoying

    2015-08-01

    Self-image is how we perceive ourselves. It is the impression built up over time from how we see ourselves and how the others see ourselves. As a teacher in a small college in China since 2013, I have found that most of my undergraduate students’ self-image is not “so healthy”, even some of them “de-valuate” themselves. After I got my PhD degree in astronomy, I have taught the astronomy introduction course in my college for three semesters. Since last semester, I decide not only to aim to warm up my students’ enthusiasm for astronomy, but also to try to help them build a proper self-image through astronomical teaching. In the course, solar system, planet formation, habitable planet, life on the planet are first few lectures to make students understand what a low probability that a habitable planet supporting life is formed. In a following lecture: from dust to treasure, I illustrate how precious each of us on earth, which are results of several billion years of evolution. At the same time, psychological survey and discussion are carried out during the course, helping students better understand themselves. Students are divided into groups to finish assignments via discussion and team work. In the final exam, each group present what they have learnt in a 10-15 min show, such as drama, musical, debate, crosstalk, dance etc.. I will present the structure of my course, the technique I use to teach, the most recent results of a survey of students’ self-image, and the students’ thought of the course in this meeting.

  2. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  3. Proper Consumption of Sugary Drinks and its Association with Adolescent Girls’ Knowledge and Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the nutritional behaviors from consumption of traditional nutriments to intakes of high energy, concerned in powering the increasing problem in adolescents and children's obesity. The current study intended to evaluate Proper consumption of sugary drinks and its association with adolescent girls’ knowledge and skill in Shahr-e-kord city, Iran.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on girl's students in Shahr-e-kord city. Using random sampling method and based on sampling size formula, a total of 308 of the girls students were randomly selected from the schools and were registered into the study. Then they received a research-made questionnaire containing questions about the knowledge, skill and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 by ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The mean age of the participating adolescent girls was 13.86 ± 1.3 years old. The mean score for knowledge was 36.53 ± 21.87 and the mean score for the skill of preparing and consumption of sugar free drinks was 35.77 ± 24.67. The average amount of daily consumption of sugary drinks among studied adolescent girls was 2.95 glasses.There was a direct significant association between students’ knowledge and skill (P = 0.002, r = 0.182, There was also a significant reverse association between adolescents’ skill(P = 0. 006 r = -0.228 and knowledge (P = 0. 05 r = -0.322 with consumption of sugary drinks.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, to increase the consumption of valuable foods and improving adolescents’ nutritional habits, more attention should be paid to the health education and promotion and by using effective relevant patterns and theories.

  4. On the unsteady wake dynamics behind a circular disk using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianzhi; Liu, Minghou; Gu, Hailin; Yao, Mengyun [Department of Thermal Science and Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wu, Guang, E-mail: mhliu@ustc.edu.cn [Technical Services Engineer, ANSYS, Inc (United States)

    2017-02-15

    In the present work, the wakes behind a circular disk at various transitional regimes are numerically explored using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The Reynolds numbers considered in this study (Re = 152, 170, 300 and 3000) cover four transitional states, i.e. the reflectional-symmetry-breaking (RSB) mode, the standing wave (SW) mode, a weakly chaotic state, and a higher-Reynolds-number state. Through analysis of the spatial POD modes at different wake states, it is found that a planar-symmetric vortex shedding mode characterized by the first mode pair is persistent in all the states. When the wake develops into a weakly chaotic state, a new vortex shedding mode characterized by the second mode pair begins to appear and completely forms at the higher-Reynolds-number state of Re = 3000, i.e. planar-symmetry-breaking vortex shedding mode. On the other hand, the coherent structure at Re = 3000 extracted from the first two POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the SW mode, while the coherent structure reconstructed from the first four POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the RSB mode. The present results indicate that the dynamics or flow instabilities observed at transitional RSB and SW modes are still preserved in a higher-Reynolds-number regime. (paper)

  5. 'What is not written does not exist': the importance of proper documentation of medication use history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Carina Carvalho; Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante; de Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo Dias; de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies (UMDs). In a case-controlled study, we investigated potential risk factors for UMDs at hospital admission and found that 150 (42%) of the 358 patients evaluated had one or more UMDs. We were surprised to find that there was no record of a patient and/or relative interview on previous use of medication in 117 medical charts of adult patients (44.8%). Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 (53.6%) paediatric patients, there was no record of parents and/or relatives interviews about prior use of medications. One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients (52.4%) and seventy-two medical charts of paediatric patients (74.2%) had no record about medication allergies and intolerances. In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history. As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders. Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data. Therefore, it is crucial to the improvement of medication use safety that documentation of all drug-related information-even if not directly related to the actual event-become routine practice in health-care organizations, since 'what is not written does not exist'.

  6. On-screen-display (OSD) menu detection for proper stereo content reproduction for 3D TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Bucha, Victor V.; Rychagov, Michael N.

    2011-03-01

    Modern consumer 3D TV sets are able to show video content in two different modes: 2D and 3D. In 3D mode, stereo pair comes from external device such as Blue-ray player, satellite receivers etc. The stereo pair is split into left and right images that are shown one after another. The viewer sees different image for left and right eyes using shutter-glasses properly synchronized with a 3DTV. Besides, some devices that provide TV with a stereo content are able to display some additional information by imposing an overlay picture on video content, an On-Screen-Display (OSD) menu. Some OSDs are not always 3D compatible and lead to incorrect 3D reproduction. In this case, TV set must recognize the type of OSD, whether it is 3D compatible, and visualize it correctly by either switching off stereo mode, or continue demonstration of stereo content. We propose a new stable method for detection of 3D incompatible OSD menus on stereo content. Conventional OSD is a rectangular area with letters and pictograms. OSD menu can be of different transparency levels and colors. To be 3D compatible, an OSD is overlaid separately on both images of a stereo pair. The main problem in detecting OSD is to distinguish whether the color difference is due to OSD presence, or due to stereo parallax. We applied special techniques to find reliable image difference and additionally used a cue that usually OSD has very implicit geometrical features: straight parallel lines. The developed algorithm was tested on our video sequences database, with several types of OSD with different colors and transparency levels overlaid upon video content. Detection quality exceeded 99% of true answers.

  7. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 WIDE BINARIES IDENTIFIED IN SDSS WITHOUT PROPER MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhital, Saurav [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); West, Andrew A.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: dhitals@erau.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ∼1–20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  8. Tycho- Gaia Astrometric Solution Parallaxes and Proper Motions for Five Galactic Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Laura L.; Van der Marel, Roeland P., E-mail: lwatkins@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    We present a pilot study of Galactic globular cluster (GC) proper motion (PM) determinations using Gaia data. We search for GC stars in the Tycho- Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) catalog from Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1), and identify five members of NGC 104 (47 Tucanae), one member of NGC 5272 (M3), five members of NGC 6121 (M4), seven members of NGC 6397, and two members of NGC 6656 (M22). By taking a weighted average of member stars, fully accounting for the correlations between parameters, we estimate the parallax (and, hence, distance) and PM of the GCs. This provides a homogeneous PM study of multiple GCs based on an astrometric catalog with small and well-controlled systematic errors and yields random PM errors similar to existing measurements. Detailed comparison to the available Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) measurements generally shows excellent agreement, validating the astrometric quality of both TGAS and HST . By contrast, comparison to ground-based measurements shows that some of those must have systematic errors exceeding the random errors. Our parallax estimates have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than previous studies, but nevertheless imply distances consistent with previous estimates. By combining our PM measurements with literature positions, distances, and radial velocities, we measure Galactocentric space motions for the clusters and find that these also agree well with previous analyses. Our analysis provides a framework for determining more accurate distances and PMs of Galactic GCs using future Gaia data releases. This will provide crucial constraints on the near end of the cosmic distance ladder and provide accurate GC orbital histories.

  9. Presynaptic dystroglycan-pikachurin complex regulates the proper synaptic connection between retinal photoreceptor and bipolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Araki, Fumiyuki; Chaya, Taro; Kajimura, Naoko; Irie, Shoichi; Terada, Koji; Muranishi, Yuki; Tsujii, Toshinori; Ueno, Shinji; Koyasu, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Mineo; Amano, Shiro; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2012-05-02

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a key component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the neuromuscular junction postsynapse. In the mouse retina, the DGC is localized at the presynapse of photoreceptor cells, however, the function of presynaptic DGC is poorly understood. Here, we developed and analyzed retinal photoreceptor-specific DG conditional knock-out (DG CKO) mice. We found that the DG CKO retina showed a reduced amplitude and a prolonged implicit time of the ERG b-wave. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that bipolar dendrite invagination into the photoreceptor terminus is perturbed in the DG CKO retina. In the DG CKO retina, pikachurin, a DG ligand in the retina, is markedly decreased at photoreceptor synapses. Interestingly, in the Pikachurin(-/-) retina, the DG signal at the ribbon synaptic terminus was severely reduced, suggesting that pikachurin is required for the presynaptic accumulation of DG at the photoreceptor synaptic terminus, and conversely DG is required for pikachurin accumulation. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of pikachurin induces formation and clustering of a DG-pikachurin complex on the cell surface. The Laminin G repeats of pikachurin, which are critical for its oligomerization and interaction with DG, were essential for the clustering of the DG-pikachurin complex as well. These results suggest that oligomerization of pikachurin and its interaction with DG causes DG assembly on the synapse surface of the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Our results reveal that the presynaptic interaction of pikachurin with DG at photoreceptor terminals is essential for both the formation of proper photoreceptor ribbon synaptic structures and normal retinal electrophysiology.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL PROPER-MOTION MEASUREMENTS OF THE CYGNUS EGG NEBULA: THE PRESENCE OF EQUATORIAL OUTFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Tomasino, Rachael L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 6900, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Ferguson, Brian A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of differential proper-motion analyses of the Egg Nebula (RAFGL 2688, V1610 Cyg) based on the archived two-epoch optical data taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. First, we determined that the polarization characteristics of the Egg Nebula are influenced by the higher optical depth of the central regions of the nebula (i.e., the 'dustsphere' of {approx}10{sup 3} AU radius), causing the nebula to illuminate in two steps-the direct starlight is first channeled into bipolar cavities and then scattered off to the rest of the nebula. We then measured the amount of motion of local structures and the signature concentric arcs by determining their relative shifts over the 7.25 yr interval. Based on our analysis, which does not rely on the single-scattering assumption, we concluded that the lobes have been excavated by a linear expansion along the bipolar axis for the past {approx}400 yr, while the concentric arcs have been generated continuously and moving out radially at about 10 km s{sup -1} for the past {approx}5500 yr, and there appears to be a colatitudinally increasing trend in the radial expansion velocity field of the concentric arcs. Numerical investigations into the mass-loss modulation by the central binary system exist, which predict such a colatitudinally increasing expansion velocity field in the spiral-shock trails of the mass-loss ejecta. Therefore, the Egg Nebula may represent a rare edge-on case of the binary-modulated circumstellar environs, corroborating the previous theoretical predictions.

  11. Reduced verbal fluency for proper names in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Eric M; Delis, Dean C; Paul, Brianna M; Filoteo, J Vincent

    2011-02-01

    There has been an increasing interest within neuropsychology in comparing verbal fluency for different grammatical classes (e.g., verb generation vs. noun generation) in neurological populations, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, to our knowledge, few studies have compared verbal fluency for common nouns and proper names in PD. Common nouns and proper names differ in terms of their semantic characteristics, as categories of common nouns are organized hierarchically based on semantics, while categories of proper nouns lack a well-defined semantic organization. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that the retrieval of these distinct grammatical classes are subserved by somewhat distinct neural systems. Given that verbal fluency deficits are among the first impairments to emerge in PD, and that such deficits are predictors of future cognitive decline, it is important to examine all aspects of verbal fluency in this population. For the current study, we compared the performance of a group of 32 nondemented PD patients with 32 healthy participants (HP) on verbal fluency tasks for common nouns (animals) and proper names (boys' first names). A significant interaction between verbal fluency task and diagnostic status emerged, as the PD group performed significantly worse on only the proper name fluency task. This finding may reflect the absence of well-defined semantic organization that structures the verbal search for first names, thus placing a greater onus on strategic or "executive" verbal retrieval processes.

  12. UCAC3 Proper Motion Survey. I. Discovery of New Proper Motion Stars in UCAC3 With 0.40/yr mu 0.18/yr Between Declinations -90 deg and -47 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    overlooked during previous SCR and other searches. The Two-Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ) was used to probe for and reduce systematic errors in UCAC CCD...of 50–200 mas, when compared to 2MASS data. For a detailed description of the derived UCAC3 proper motions see Zacharias et al. (2010). An effort was...meeting the declination and proper motion survey limits, all stars (1) must be in the 2MASS catalog with an e2mpho ( 2MASS photometry error) less than

  13. Rheological evaluation of polymers for EOR. Proper procedures for a laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchaki, S.; Hincapie-Reina, R.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Some discrepancies exist in the literature concerning polymer EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) evaluation. Laboratory investigations are essentials for every particular flooding project, with proper preliminary lab evaluation techniques in order to study the polymer behavior and rheological properties at different reservoir conditions. Different research has been shown variation in procedures during polymer preparation and filtration; affecting the result in the field. Experience from field observation indicates that even high molecular weight (MW) polymers have filtration ratio (F.R) less than 1,5; in that way polymer solutions that are still in range cannot show a good approximation to the field behavior. To deal with the discrepancies, specific procedures based in rheological polymer characterization were adapted. Two different polymers were used for rheology study using a rotational rheometer analyzing some solutions at different conditions. Additionally rheological measurements was used to characterize the apparent viscosity of polymer as a shear rate function, salinity, temperature and polymer concentration, defining additional useful values for simulation evaluations and additionally Newtonian, non-Newtonian, shear viscosity and MW impact were also investigated. Quality control of the solutions was not limited to the conventional indicator 'filtrations ratio', but it was showed how important it is to consider two qualities check indicators, filterability ratio and filterability plot, simultaneously. Results indicated how stable the N-vinyl Pyrrolidone (NVP) Superpusher SAV301 could be in comparison to the Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide polymer (HPAM) Flopaam 3630S. Despite the high viscosity results from HPAM Flopaam 3630S due to its high MW, the polymer is overly sensitive to factors like temperature, salinity and concentration. Quite the contrary was for polymer solutions with Superpusher SAV301; constant viscosity over a wide shear rate range which is the

  14. Rule of lymph node metastasis and proper target of postoperative radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zefen; Zhou Zongmei; Lv Jima; Liang Jun; Ou Guangfei; Jin Jing; Song Yongwen; Zhang Shiping; Yin Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the rule of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal carcinoma, and to study the proper radiation target. Methods: From September 1986 to December 1997,549 patients with esophageal carcinoma who had undergone radical resection were divided into surgery alone group (S,275 patients) or surgery plus radiotherapy group(S + R,274 patients). Radiotherapy was begun 3 to 4 weeks after operation. The radiation target included both supra-clavicular areas and the entire mediastinum. The total dose was 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks for the supra-clavicular areas and 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks for the entire mediastinum. Results: The 5-year overall survival of patients with lymph node metastasis in one anatomic site and two anatomic sites was 31.5% and 13.9% (P=0.013), respectively. For patients with > 2 positive nodes metastasis receiving surgery alone, the corresponding 5-year survival was 24.8% and 4.9% (P=0.046), respectively. The median number of dissected lymph nodes of the upper-, middle-and lower-segment esophageal carcinoma was 13, 17 and 20, respectively. The rate of metastatic lymph node in the para-esophagus region was the highest(61.5%-64.9%), which was not different among the different primary sites (P=0.922). The anastomotic stoma recurrence rate of the upper-segment esophageal carcinoma was higher than that of the middle- or lower-segment carcinomas (16.7%, 3.1%, and 7.7%, χ 2 =9.02,P<0.05). Conclusions: For the thoracic esophageal carcinoma, the number of anatomic sites of lymph node metastasis is an important factor affecting the survival. The lower rate of lymph node metastasis of the upper segment esophageal carcinoma may be corrected with the less lymph node dissected. The rate of lymph node metastasis in para-esophageal region is not related with the lesion segment. The anastomotic stoma is an important radiotherapy target for upper segment esophageal carcinoma. (authors)

  15. Properly placed shade trees reduce summertime electricity bills in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffery H. Donovan; David R. Butry

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that shade trees can reduce home cooling costs is hardly surprising. Anybody who has sat under a tree on a warm summer day understands the shade benefit of trees. However, quantifying the effect a shade tree has on home energy use and carbon footprint, and identifying the optimal location for a shade tree, is less straightforward. Past studies that have...

  16. FIRST RESULTS FROM Pan-STARRS1: FAINT, HIGH PROPER MOTION WHITE DWARFS IN THE MEDIUM-DEEP FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonry, J. L.; Flewelling, H. A.; Deacon, N. R.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hodapp, K. W.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stubbs, C. W.; Kilic, M.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey has obtained multi-epoch imaging in five bands (Pan-STARRS1 g{sub P1}, r{sub P1}, i{sub P1}, z{sub P1}, and y{sub P1}) on 12 'Medium-Deep fields', each of which spans a 3.{sup 0}3 circle. For the period between 2009 April and 2011 April these fields were observed 50-200 times. Using a reduced proper motion diagram, we have extracted a list of 47 white dwarf (WD) candidates whose Pan-STARRS1 astrometry indicates a non-zero proper motion at the 6{sigma} level, with a typical 1{sigma} proper motion uncertainty of 10 mas yr{sup -1}. We also used astrometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (when available) and USNO-B to assess our proper motion fits. None of the WD candidates exhibits evidence of statistically significant parallaxes, with a typical 1{sigma} uncertainty of 8 mas. Twelve of these candidates are known WDs, including the high proper motion (1.''7 yr{sup -1}) WD LHS 291. We confirm seven more objects as WDs through optical spectroscopy. Based on the Pan-STARRS1 colors, ten of the stars are likely to be cool WDs with 4170 K proper motion WDs that are part of the old thick disk and halo.

  17. EROS 2 proper motion survey a field brown dwarf and an L dwarf companion to LHS 102

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Forveille, T; Afonso, C; Alard, C; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Bauer, F; Beaulieu, J P; Borsenberger, J; Bouquet, A; Char, S; Charlot, X; Couchot, F; Coutures, C; Derue, F; Ferlet, R; Fouqué, P; Glicenstein, J F; Gould, A; Graff, D S; Gros, M H; Haïssinski, J; Hamilton, J C; Hardin, D P; De Kat, J; Kim, A; Lasserre, T; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Mansoux, B; Marquette, J B; Martín, E L; Maurice, E; Milshtein, A I; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Spiro, Michel; Vidal-Madjar, A; Virgoux, L; Zylberajch, S

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of two L dwarfs (the new spectral class defined for dwarfs cooler than the M type) in a two-epoch CCD proper motion survey of 413 square degrees, complemented by infrared photometry from DENIS. One of them has a strong lithium line and is therefore a brown dwarf. The other is a common proper motion companion to the mid-M dwarf LHS 102 (GJ 1001), which has a well determined trigonometric parallax. LHS 102B is thus the coolest L dwarf of known distance and luminosity. Its infrared absolute photometry are very well reproduced by the Allard et al DUSTY models.

  18. On the classical Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics, the electron inertia problem, and the Feynman proper time paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prykarpatsky, A.K.; Bogolubov, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The classical Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Lorentz-type force equations are rederived in the framework of the Feynman proper time paradigm and the related vacuum field theory approach. The classical Ampere law origin is rederived, and its relationship with the Feynman proper time paradigm is discussed. The electron inertia problem is analyzed in detail within the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and the related pressure-energy compensation principle of stochastic electrodynamics. The modified Abraham-Lorentz damping radiation force is derived and the electromagnetic electron mass origin is argued

  19. Self-inflicted skin lesions: the importance of a proper diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitre Dimitrov; Radomir Reszke; Jacek Szepietowski

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Patients with self-inflicted skin lesions (SISL) are most often referred to dermatologists. Since psychological and psychiatric conditions might be the underlying reasons for the behavior of these patients, the psychology-associated component should always be kept in mind when approaching such individuals. Objective. To discuss distinctive aspects of the approach towards patients with SISL and emphasize the most relevant issues concerning the management of psychodermatose...

  20. Beyond Firewalls: Professional Certification Ensures Your Staff Will Understand Information Security in Its Proper Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetcov, Eric

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to security, many people do not know what they do not know. Consider for example, an administrator who leaves her password taped under her keyboard, or a teacher who doesn't change his password (ever!) or can't be bothered to log out or lock the computer, all the firewalls and antivirus programs in the world will not protect a…

  1. Polycomb-group histone methyltransferase CLF is required for proper somatic recombination in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Chen; Wang-Bin Zhou; Ying-Xiang Wang; Ai-Wu Dong; Yu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a key process during meiosis in reproductive cells and the DNA damage repair process in somatic cells. Although chromatin structure is thought to be crucial for HR, only a smal number of chromatin modifiers have been studied in HR regulation so far. Here, we investigated the function of CURLY LEAF (CLF), a Polycomb-group (PcG) gene responsible for histone3 lysine 27 trimethy-lation (H3K27me3), in somatic and meiotic HR in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although fluorescent protein reporter assays in pol en and seeds showed that the frequency of meiotic cross-over in the loss-of-function mutant clf-29 was not significantly different from that in wild type, there was a lower frequency of HR in clf-29 than in wild type under normal conditions and under bleomycin treatment. The DNA damage levels were compara-ble between clf-29 and wild type, even though several DNA damage repair genes (e.g. ATM, BRCA2a, RAD50, RAD51, RAD54,and PARP2) were expressed at lower levels in clf-29. Under bleomycin treatment, the expression levels of DNA repair genes were similar in clf-29 and wild type, thus CLF may also regulate HR via other mechanisms. These findings expand the current knowledge of PcG function and contribute to general interests of epigenetic regulation in genome stability regulation.

  2. Nonlinear Model of Vibrating Screen to Determine Permissible Spring Deterioration for Proper Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Springs of vibrating screens are prone to fatigue induced failure because they operate in a heavy duty environment, with abrasive dust and under heavy cyclic loads. If a spring breaks, the stiffness at supporting positions changes, and therefore the amplitude of motion and the static and dynamic angular inclination of deck motion also change. This change in the amplitude and in the inclination of motion produces a reduction in separation efficiency. Available models are useful to determine motion under nominal operating conditions when angular displacement is not significant. However in practice there is significant angular motion during startup, during shutdown, or under off-design operating conditions. In this article, a two-dimensional three-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model that considers significant angular motion and damping is developed. The proposed model allows the prediction of vibrating screen behavior when there is a reduction in spring stiffness. Making use of this model for an actual vibrating screen in operation in industry has permitted determining a limit for spring’s failure before separation efficiency is affected. This information is of practical value for operation and maintenance staff helping to determine whether or not it is necessary to change springs, and hence optimizing stoppage time.

  3. A bivariate contaminated binormal model for robust fitting of proper ROC curves to a pair of correlated, possibly degenerate, ROC datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuetong; Chakraborty, Dev P

    2017-06-01

    . A limited simulation validation of the method was performed. CORCBM and CORROC2 were applied to two datasets containing nine readers each contributing paired interpretations. CORCBM successfully fitted the data for all readers, whereas CORROC2 failed to fit a degenerate dataset. All fits were visually reasonable. All CORCBM fits were proper, whereas all CORROC2 fits were improper. CORCBM and CORROC2 were in agreement (a) in declaring only one of the nine readers as having significantly different performances in the two modalities; (b) in estimating higher correlations for diseased cases than for nondiseased ones; and (c) in finding that the intermodality correlation estimates for nondiseased cases were consistent between the two methods. All CORCBM fits yielded higher area under curve (AUC) than the CORROC2 fits, consistent with the fact that a proper ROC model like CORCBM is based on a likelihood-ratio-equivalent decision variable, and consequently yields higher performance than the binormal model-based CORROC2. The method gave satisfactory fits to four simulated datasets. CORCBM is a robust method for fitting paired ROC datasets, always yielding proper ROC curves, and able to fit degenerate datasets. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Definition of a proper institutional and legal framweork to promote energy efficiency in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Alfonso; Juarez, Maria

    2010-09-15

    There is no lower cost energy source than the avoided energy from unnecessary consumption either more expensive energy than scarce energy resources in a growing economy. Under this concept energy efficiency has been established as one of the main pillars of energy policy in Uruguay since 2005. A recently approved Law provides 4-axis of action to promote energy efficiency: building of institutional structure and long-term framework necessary for nationwide development, ensuring consumers access to adequate information, facilitating the access to finance and economic resources to encourage energy efficiency projects and, removing tax and administrative barriers to energy efficiency.

  5. Promoting Proper Education for Sustainability: An Exploratory Study of ICT Enhanced Problem Based Learning in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Kihoza, Patrick; Suhonen, Jarkko; Vesisenaho, Mikko; Tukiaianen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of education is to create responsible citizens who can adequately understand the problems faced by their societies and who can then act to help solve them. Such behaviour can be fostered through proper education that facilitates expert knowledge about social issues, nurtures the ability to think critically and grows the skills…

  6. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one,…

  7. Proper-time resolution function for measurement of time evolution of B mesons at the KEK B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, H.; Aihara, H.; Higuchi, T.; Kawai, H.; Nakadaira, T.; Tanaka, J.; Tomura, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Hazumi, M.; Sakai, Y.; Sumisawa, K.; Kawasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    The proper-time resolution function for the measurement of the time evolution of B mesons with the Belle detector at KEKB is studied in detail. The obtained resolution function is applied to the measurement of B meson lifetimes, the B0B-bar 0 oscillation frequency and time-dependent CP asymmetries

  8. Mason Bee Habitations: Teaching Proper "Making" Skill through Authentic Engineering Design Contests. Resources in Technology and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Nate; Strimel, Greg J.; Croly, Michael; Grubbs, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    To be technologically and engineering literate, people should be able to "make" or produce quality solutions to engineering design challenges while recognizing and understanding how to avoid hazards in a broad array of situations when properly using tools, machines, and materials (Haynie, 2009; Gunter, 2007; ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007).…

  9. Uncertainties in repository performance from spatial variability of hydraulic conductivities - statistical estimation and stochastic simulation using PROPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovius, L.; Norman, S.; Kjellbert, N.

    1990-02-01

    An assessment has been made of the impact of spatial variability on the performance of a KBS-3 type repository. The uncertainties in geohydrologically related performance measures have been investigated using conductivity data from one of the Swedish study sites. The analysis was carried out with the PROPER code and the FSCF10 submodel. (authors)

  10. Impact of the Educational Use of Facebook Group on the High School Students' Proper Usage of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal, Hasan; Kokoc, Mehmet; Cakir, Ozlem

    2017-01-01

    This study examines impact of the educational use of Facebook group on the high school students' proper usage of language. The study included thirty students who attend 11th grade in a high school in Trabzon, Turkey. Firstly, preliminary data about Facebook usage of students were obtained to understand the factors that motivate students to use…

  11. Tailoring Stress Incontinence Surgery : “How to install proper diagnostic work-up and individualised treatment”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwert, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis a different principle to determine the value of diagnostic parameters and to install the proper, individualized, surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence is presented. The aim of the first part of this thesis was to evaluate the value of urodynamic investigation (UDI) in the

  12. How can dairies maximize their profits and properly remunerate their dairy farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cedric Möller Meneghini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current pricing process of raw milk in Brazil discourages producers from improving milk composition, which affects both yield and quality of dairy products. Furthermore, small and medium-sized dairies face great difficulties when it comes to planning production. Thus, a linear programming model was developed to price the raw milk and determine the optimal mix (combination of quantities of dairy products that maximizes total contribution margin (TCM under daily scenarios of high (January and low (July raw milk supplies (summer and winter, respectively by comparing optimal solutions with actual results. The TCM of optimal and actual mixes were higher in January due to the greater availability of raw material. Packaging was a limiting factor in the production of cheese in optimal mixes. The relationship between unit contribution margin (UCM and the required amount of raw materials per product unit and resource availability is crucial to defining the mix of dairy products and TCM of the dairy. Casein and raw milk volume showed shadow prices. Under both scenarios, the calculated prices of raw milk were higher than the prices charged by the dairy and were higher in January. The proposed model remunerates the producers based on the quantity and quality of raw milk. The dairy can maximize its TCM by better planning its mix of products with the use of linear programming.

  13. Proper surface channelling of low energy argon ions incident on a nickel (110) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, I.N.; Berg, J.A. van den; Armour, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    The scattering behaviour of 6 keV argon ions from a nickel (110) surface has been investigated for specular reflection under grazing incidence conditions. The occurrence of an anomalously high energy loss has been confirmed and the transition from chain scattering at large scattering angles to a distinctly different type of scattering at small angles has been investigated. The characteristics of the low angle scattering phenomena, which dominate the observed spectra at scattering angles below about 18 0 , may be explained in terms of a surface hyperchannelling model in which the incident ions are confined to move within the shallow 'potential valleys' between two atomic rows in the surface. The critical angle for occurrence of this phenomena which is distinctly different from surface semichannelling has been evaluated with Lindhard's standard string potential. The experimentally measured critical angles are in good agreement with the calculated ones. (author)

  14. Increasing the rewriting speed of optical rewritable e-paper by selecting proper liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yu; Sun Jiatong; Kwok Hoi Sing; Murauski Anatoli; Chigrinov Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The effect of interaction between liquid crystal (LC) and photoalignment material on the speed of optical rewriting process is investigated. The theoretical analysis shows that a smaller frank elastic constant K 22 of liquid crystal corresponds to a larger twist angle, which gives rise to a larger rewriting speed. Six different LC cells with the same boundary conditions (one substrate is covered with rubbed polyimide (PI) and the other with photo sensitive rewritable sulfuric dye 1(SD1)) are tested experimentally under the same illumination intensity (450 nm, 80 mW/cm 2 ). The results demonstrate that with a suitable liquid crystal, the LC optical rewriting speed for e-paper application can be obviously improved. For two well known LC materials E7 (K 22 is larger) and 5CB (K 22 is smaller), they require 11 s and 6 s corresponding to change alignment direction for generating image information. (general)

  15. Finding the proper methodology for geodiversity assessment: a recent approach in Brazil and Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, D.; Santos, L.; Silva, J.; Pereira, P.; Brilha, J.; França, J.; Rodrigues, C.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of geodiversity is a quite new topic. A first set of assessment methodologies was developed during the last years, although with no fully satisfactory results. This is mainly because the whole concept of geodiversity does not tend to be considered, but also because the results are difficult to apply practically. Several major key-points remain unsolved, including the criteria to be used, the scale-factor to be dealt with, the influence of the size of the area under analysis in the type of criteria and indicators, and the graphic presentation of the results. A methodology for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was defined and tested at various scales. It was applied to the Xingu River Basin, Amazon, Brazil (about 510,000 km2), Paraná state, Brazil (about 200,000 km2), and Portugal mainland (about 89,000 km2). This method is intended to assess all geodiversity components and to avoid overrating any particular component, such as lithology or relief, a common weakness of other methods. The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales that range according to the areas under analysis, with the final Geodiversity Index being the sum of five partial indexes calculated on the grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, namely geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, palaeontology and soils. Another partial index covers singular occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters and springs. Partial indexes were calculated using GIS software by counting all the occurrences present in the selected maps for each grid square. The Geodiversity Index can take the form of a GIS automatically generated isoline map, allowing an easy interpretation by those without or with little geological background. The map can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management and use of

  16. Data re-arranging techniques leading to proper variable selections in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kůs, Václav; Bouř, Petr

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a new data based approach to homogeneity testing and variable selection carried out in high energy physics experiments, where one of the basic tasks is to test the homogeneity of weighted samples, mainly the Monte Carlo simulations (weighted) and real data measurements (unweighted). This technique is called ’data re-arranging’ and it enables variable selection performed by means of the classical statistical homogeneity tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, or Pearson’s chi-square divergence test. P-values of our variants of homogeneity tests are investigated and the empirical verification through 46 dimensional high energy particle physics data sets is accomplished under newly proposed (equiprobable) quantile binning. Particularly, the procedure of homogeneity testing is applied to re-arranged Monte Carlo samples and real DATA sets measured at the particle accelerator Tevatron in Fermilab at DØ experiment originating from top-antitop quark pair production in two decay channels (electron, muon) with 2, 3, or 4+ jets detected. Finally, the variable selections in the electron and muon channels induced by the re-arranging procedure for homogeneity testing are provided for Tevatron top-antitop quark data sets.

  17. How to deal properly with a natural catastrophe database – analysis of flood losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kron

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Global reinsurer Munich Re has been collecting data on losses from natural disasters for almost four decades. Together with EM-Dat and sigma, Munich Re's NatCatSERVICE database is currently one of three global databases of its kind, with its more than 30 000 datasets. Although the database was originally designed for reinsurance business purposes, it contains a host of additional information on catastrophic events. Data collection poses difficulties such as not knowing the exact extent of human and material losses, biased reporting by interest groups, including governments, changes over time due to new findings, etc. Loss quantities are often not separable into different causes, e.g., windstorm and flood losses during a hurricane, or windstorm, hail and flooding during a severe storm event. These difficulties should be kept in mind when database figures are analysed statistically, and the results have to be treated with due regard for the characteristics of the underlying data. Comparing events at different locations and on different dates can only be done using normalised data. For most analyses, and in particular trend analyses, socio-economic changes such as inflation or growth in population and values must be considered. Problems encountered when analysing trends are discussed using the example of floods and flood losses.

  18. IoT Smart Home Adoption: The Importance of Proper Level Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The word “smart” has been used in various fields and is widely accepted to mean intelligence. Smart home service, one of the representative emerging technologies in the IoT era, has changed house equipment into being more intelligent, remote controllable, and interconnected. However, the intelligence and controllability of a smart home service are contradictory concepts, under certain aspects. In addition, the level of intelligence or controllability of a smart home service that users want may differ according to the user. As potential users of smart home services have diversified in recent years, providing the appropriate functions and features is critical to the diffusion of the service. Thus, this study examines the smart home service features that current users require and empirically evaluates the relationship between the critical factors and the adoption behavior with 216 samples from Korea. The moderating effect of personal characteristics on behavior is also tested. The results of the analysis provide various theoretical and practical implications.

  19. How to deal properly with a natural catastrophe database - analysis of flood losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, W.; Steuer, M.; Löw, P.; Wirtz, A.

    2012-03-01

    Global reinsurer Munich Re has been collecting data on losses from natural disasters for almost four decades. Together with EM-Dat and sigma, Munich Re's NatCatSERVICE database is currently one of three global databases of its kind, with its more than 30 000 datasets. Although the database was originally designed for reinsurance business purposes, it contains a host of additional information on catastrophic events. Data collection poses difficulties such as not knowing the exact extent of human and material losses, biased reporting by interest groups, including governments, changes over time due to new findings, etc. Loss quantities are often not separable into different causes, e.g., windstorm and flood losses during a hurricane, or windstorm, hail and flooding during a severe storm event. These difficulties should be kept in mind when database figures are analysed statistically, and the results have to be treated with due regard for the characteristics of the underlying data. Comparing events at different locations and on different dates can only be done using normalised data. For most analyses, and in particular trend analyses, socio-economic changes such as inflation or growth in population and values must be considered. Problems encountered when analysing trends are discussed using the example of floods and flood losses.

  20. Hydrogen-related challenges for the steelmaker: the search for proper testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, R. G.

    2017-06-01

    The modern steelmaker of advanced high-strength steels has always been challenged with the conflicting targets of increased strength while maintaining or improving ductility. These new steels help the transportation sector, including the automotive sector, to achieve the goals of increased passenger safety and reduced emissions. With increasing tensile strengths, certain steels exhibit an increased sensitivity towards hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The ability to characterize the material's sensitivity in an as-delivered condition has been developed and accepted (SEP1970), but the complexity of the stress states that can induce an embrittlement together with the wide range of applications for high-strength steels make the development of a standardized test for HE under in-service conditions extremely challenging. Some proposals for evaluating the material's sensitivity give an advantage to materials with a low starting ductility. Despite this, newly developed materials can have a higher original elongation with only a moderate reduction in elongation due to hydrogen. This work presents a characterization of new materials and their sensitivity towards HE. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  1. Rationale, design features, and baseline characteristics: The Heart Institute of Japan-PRoper level of lipid lOwering with Pitavastatin and Ezetimibe in acute coRonary syndrome (HIJ-PROPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Watanabe, Erisa; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Arashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Matsui, Kunihiko; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2017-03-01

    In contrast to current guidelines in Western countries, moderate reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is recommended for Japanese patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia even in secondary prevention. HIJ-PROPER (Heart Institute of Japan-PRoper level of lipid lOwering with Pitavastatin and Ezetimibe in acute coRonary syndrome) is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint multicenter trial designed to assess whether closely controlled LDL-C lowering with a standard statin dose plus ezetimibe, targeting LDL-C of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and dyslipidemia. We recruited patients with ACS and dyslipidemia who had undergone coronary angiography. Participants are randomly allocated to either intensive LDL-C lowering treatment (target LDL-C of acute MI in 61.5%. This study is expected to report its findings in August 2016. HIJ-PROPER will determine whether targeting LDL-C of <70mg/dL with pitavastatin plus ezetimibe can improve cardiovascular outcomes in Japanese patients with ACS and dyslipidemia in comparison to targeting LDL-C of 90-100mg/dL with standard pitavastatin monotherapy. UMIN000002742. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation patterns of proper point defects in thermo-regulating coatings based on ZnO for space vehicles under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.M.; Sharafutdinova, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The expansion of the band of the induced absorption of zinc oxide powders and thermo-regulating coatings based on ZnO for space vehicles is carried out after the 30 keV electron irradiation. Singularities of the growth of the intensity of individual components as a function of the accelerated electron flow are studied. It is found that power and exponential dependences with one or two components are characteristic for different color centers and different thermo-regulating coatings. The kinetics of the accumulation of free electrons is characterized by the maximum value of the electron flows at which the generation of color centers on pre-radiation defects is realized by the radiolysis of the pigment lattice

  3. The Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society ; Are We Reimbursed Properly for Spinal Neurosurgical Practices under the Korean Resource Based Relative Value Scale Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woo-Keun; Kim, Joo Han; Moon, Hong Joo; Park, Youn-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The Korean Resource Based Relative Value Scale (K-RBRVS) was introduced in 2001 as an alternative of the previous medical fee schedule. Unfortunately, most neurosurgeons are unfamiliar with the details of the K-RBRVS and how it affects the reimbursement rates for the surgical procedures we perform. We summarize the K-RBRVS in brief, and discuss on how the relative value (RV) of the spinal neurosurgical procedures have changed since the introduction in 2001. Methods We analyzed the change of spinal procedure RVs since 2001, and compared it with the change of values in the brain neurosurgical procedures. RVs of 88 neurospinal procedures on the list of K-RBRVS were analyzed, while 24 procedures added during annual revisions were excluded. Results During the past 15 years, RVs for spinal procedures have increased 62.8%, which is not so different with the cumulative increase of consumer prices during this time period or the increase rate of 92.3% for brain surgeries. When comparing the change of RVs in more complex procedures between spinal and brain neurosurgery, the increase rate was 125.3% and 133%, respectively. Conclusion More effort of the society of spinal surgeons seems to be needed to get adequate reimbursement, as there have been some discrimination compared to brain surgeons in the increase of RVs. And considering the relative underestimation of spinal neurosurgeons’ labor, more objective measures of neurospinal surgeons’ work and productivity should be developed for impartial reimbursement. PMID:28061492

  4. Proper Methodology and Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Slavery Data: An Examination of the Global Slavery Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Guth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Slavery Index aims to, among other objectives, recognize the forms, size, and scope of slavery worldwide as well as the strengths and weaknesses of individual countries. An analysis of the Index’s methods exposes significant and critical weaknesses and raises questions into its replicability and validity. The Index may prove more valuable in the future if proper methods are implemented, but the longer improper methods are used the more damage is done to the public policy debate on slavery by advancing data and policy that is not based on sound methodology. To implement proper methods, a committee of sophisticated methodologists needs to develop measurement tools and constantly analyze and refine these methods over the years as data is collected.

  5. Heating with wood. A guide to clean and proper heating; Heizen mit Holz. Ein Ratgeber zum richtigen und sauberen Heizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Anja [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Kemper, Bernd-Michael [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg (LUBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    When correctly used, wood is an eco-friendly fuel. By using well-processed wood from local sources in a properly handled modern fireplace, you can enjoy the cosy warmth from your wood-burning stove or boiler without causing significant environmental damage. The environment and your neighbours will be grateful for this. This brochure is intended to give you tips on how to properly operate a wood-based heating system - in technical terms referred to as a small combustion installation. Especially the burning of poor quality wood in old and insufficiently maintained stoves and unfavourable combustion conditions will result in the emission of unnecessarily high levels of greenhouse gases having adverse effects on the climate, and pollutants detrimental to your health. Particularly in urban agglomerations and valleys, the air quality is affected by wood heating systems due to low chimneys. Often, neighbours will feel annoyed.

  6. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly...The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study Stanley Horowitz, Assistant Division...Graduate School of Engineering and Management, Air Force Institute of Technology Cost and Price Collaboration Venkat Rao, Professor, Defense

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Velocities and proper motions of Galactic Cepheids (Mel'nik+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'Nik, A. M.; Rautiainen, P.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    For every classical Cepheid we give its designation in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS) (Samus at al., 2007, Cat. B/gcvs) or in the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) (Pojmanski 2002, II/264), its type (see GCVS description), fundamental period PF, intensity-mean V-band magnitude , J2000 equatorial coordinates, Galactic coordinates l and b, and heliocentric distance r. Table 1 also gives the Cepheid line-of-sight velocities Vr (the so-called γ-velocities), their uncertainties e_Vr and the references (1-6) to the sources from which they are taken. The proper motions of Cepheids were adopted from the new reduction of Hipparcos data (ESA 1997, Cat. I/239) by van Leeuwen (2007, Cat. I/311). Table 1 presents proper motions pml and pmb, their uncertainties e_pml and e_pmb and the corresponding Hipparcos catalog number HIP. (1 data file).

  8. Local conditions for the Pauli potential in order to yield self-consistent electron densities exhibiting proper atomic shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finzel, Kati, E-mail: kati.finzel@liu.se [Linköpings University, IFM Department of Physics, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-01-21

    The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia-PS1-SDSS (GPS1) proper motion catalog (Tian+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.-J.; Gupta, P.; Sesar, B.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Liu, C.; Goldman, B.; Platais, I.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Waters, C. Z.

    2018-02-01

    In order to construct proper motions, we analyze and model catalog positions from four different imaging surveys, as discussed below. Gaia DR1 is based on observations collected between 2014 July 25 and 2015 September 16. PS1 observations were collected between 2010 and 2014. The SDSS DR9 data used here were obtained in the years between 2000 and 2008. The images from 2MASS were taken between 1997 and 2001. (1 data file).

  10. Watershed Controls on the Proper Scale of Economic Markets for Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.; Doyle, M. W.; Yates, A.

    2010-12-01

    Markets for tradable discharge permits (TDPs) are an increasingly popular policy instrument for obtaining cost-effective nutrient reduction targets across watersheds. Such markets are also an emerging, dynamic coupling between economic institutions and stream hydrology/biogeochemistry as trading markets become explicit determinants for the spatial distribution of stream nutrient loads. A central problem in any environmental market program is setting the size of the market, as there are distinct trade-offs for large versus small markets. While the overall cost-effectiveness of permit trading increases with the size of the market, the potential for localized and highly damaging nutrient concentrations, or “hotspots”, also increases. Smaller market size reduces the potential for hot spots by dispersing the location of trades, but this may increase the net costs of water quality compliance significantly through both the restriction of possible trading partners and price manipulation by market participants. This project couples a microeconomic model for TDPs (based on possible configurations of mutually exclusive trading zones within the basin) with a semi-distributed water quality model to examine watershed controls on the configuration and scale of such markets. Our results show a wide variation in total annual cost of pollution abatement based on choice of market design -- often with large differences in cost between very similar configurations. This framework is also applied to a 10-member trading program among wastewater treatment plants in the Neuse River, NC, in order to assess (1) the optimum market design for the Upper Neuse basin and (2) how these costs compare with expected costs under alternative market structures (e.g., trading ratio system) and (3) the cost improvements over traditional command-and-control regulatory frameworks. We find that the optimal zone configuration is almost always a lower cost option when compared to a trading ratio scheme and

  11. KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN KAWASAN INDUSTRI SESUAI PROPER KLHK PERINGKAT HIJAU (STUDI KASUS DI KAWASAN INDUSTRI JABABEKA BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmy Wikaningrum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management in industrial estate is the strategic policy model which is needed to be developed referring to the Indonesian Government Decree number 24 year 2009, that state almost all of the new industrial developments should be located in industrial estate. The complexity in this environmental management was approached by “green rating” of PROPER’s criteria regulated by Ministry of Environment & Forestry (KLHK. PROPER is the assessment program of company performance rating in environmental management. Green rating is classified by PROPER in terms of beyond compliance performance. The result of the case study in Jababeka Industrial Estate (KIJA Bekasi, based on its environmental situational analysis year 2014 by multidimensional scaling (MDS method, showed that only the management dimension had a sustainability performance. The results of prospective analysis on leverage factors of MDS showed that the key factors of the environmental management model were (1 DRKPL (summary document of environmental management performance, (2 implementation of water conservation and reducing water pollution program, (3funding for water conservation, (4 monitoring and evaluation of community development program, (5 implementation of 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle programs of hazardous waste, (6 technology of 3R, and (7 benchmarking. Based on the key parameters and referred to the possibilities conditions, three scenarios have been developed to approach the implementative policy. The moderate scenario was recommended to be the right policy in term of consideration of technology, funding availability, time of implementation and organization skills.Keywords: environmental management, industrial estate, jababeka, proper KLHK

  12. Animals′ Role in Proper Behaviour: Cheŵa Women′s Instructions in South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F Zubieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common role of animals in the Cheŵa culture of south-central Africa is twofold: they are regarded as an important source of food, and they also provide raw materials for the creation of traditional medicines. Animals, however, also have a nuanced symbolic role that impacts the way people behave with each other by embodying cultural protocols of proper — and not so proper — behaviour. They appear repeatedly in storytelling and proverbs to reference qualities that people need to avoid or pursue and learn from the moral of the story in which animals interplay with each other, just as humans do. For example, someone who wants to prevent the consequences of greed is often advised to heed hyena stories and proverbs. My contribution elaborates on Brian Morris's instrumental work in south-central Africa, which has permitted us to elucidate the symbolism of certain animals and the perception of landscape for Indigenous populations in this region. I discuss some of the ways in which animals have been employed to teach and learn proper behaviour in a particular sacred ceremony of the Cheŵa people which takes place in celebration of womanhood: Chinamwali.

  13. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice–wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-01-01

    In the Tailake region of China, heavy nitrogen (N) loss of rice–wheat rotation systems, due to high fertilizer-N input with low N use efficiency (NUE), was widely reported. To alleviate the detrimental impacts caused by N loss, it is necessary to improve the fertilizer management practices. Therefore, a 3 yr field experiments with different N managements including organic combined chemical N treatment (OCN, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , 20% organic fertilizer), control–released urea treatment (CRU, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , 70% resin-coated urea), reduced chemical N treatment (RCN, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer), and site-specific N management (SSNM, 333 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer) were conducted in the Taihu Lake region with the ‘farmer’s N’ treatment (FN, 510 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer) as a control. Grain yield, plant N uptake (PNU), NUE, and N losses via runoff, leaching, and ammonia volatilization were assessed. In the rice season, the FN treatment had the highest N loss and lowest NUE, which can be attributed to an excessive rate of N application. Treatments of OCN and RCN with a 22% reduced N rate from FN had no significant effect on PNU nor the yield of rice in the 3 yr; however, the NUE was improved and N loss was reduced 20–32%. OCN treatment achieved the highest yield, while SSNM has the lowest N loss and highest NUE due to the lowest N rate. In wheat season, N loss decreased about 28–48% with the continuous reduction of N input, but the yield also declined, with the exception of OCN treatment. N loss through runoff, leaching and ammonia volatilization was positively correlated with the N input rate. When compared with the pure chemical fertilizer treatment of RCN under the same N input, OCN treatment has better NUE, better yield, and lower N loss. 70% of the urea replaced with resin-coated urea had no significant effect on yield and NUE improvement, but

  14. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Oishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis in the mandibular first molar (M1 region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in periodontal ligament (PDL tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2. The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model.

  15. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p < 0.05; Two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni) with no mineralized nodule formation. Under in-vitro conditions, Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Atomic density effects on temperature characteristics and thermal transport at grain boundaries through a proper bin size selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Truong Quoc; Kim, BoHung, E-mail: muratbarisik@iyte.edu.tr, E-mail: bohungk@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Namgu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Barisik, Murat, E-mail: muratbarisik@iyte.edu.tr, E-mail: bohungk@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2016-05-21

    This study focuses on the proper characterization of temperature profiles across grain boundaries (GBs) in order to calculate the correct interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) and reveal the influence of GB geometries onto thermal transport. The solid-solid interfaces resulting from the orientation difference between the (001), (011), and (111) copper surfaces were investigated. Temperature discontinuities were observed at the boundary of grains due to the phonon mismatch, phonon backscattering, and atomic forces between dissimilar structures at the GBs. We observed that the temperature decreases gradually in the GB area rather than a sharp drop at the interface. As a result, three distinct temperature gradients developed at the GB which were different than the one observed in the bulk solid. This behavior extends a couple molecular diameters into both sides of the interface where we defined a thickness at GB based on the measured temperature profiles for characterization. Results showed dependence on the selection of the bin size used to average the temperature data from the molecular dynamics system. The bin size on the order of the crystal layer spacing was found to present an accurate temperature profile through the GB. We further calculated the GB thickness of various cases by using potential energy (PE) distributions which showed agreement with direct measurements from the temperature profile and validated the proper binning. The variation of grain crystal orientation developed different molecular densities which were characterized by the average atomic surface density (ASD) definition. Our results revealed that the ASD is the primary factor affecting the structural disorders and heat transfer at the solid-solid interfaces. Using a system in which the planes are highly close-packed can enhance the probability of interactions and the degree of overlap between vibrational density of states (VDOS) of atoms forming at interfaces, leading to a reduced ITR. Thus, an

  17. Dual chromatin recognition by the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinji; Bicocca, Vincent T.; Gessaman, Jordan D.; Rountree, Michael R.; Yokoyama, Ayumi; Yu, Eun Y.; Selker, Jeanne M. L.; Selker, Eric U.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, histone deacetylation, and highly repeated sequences are prototypical heterochromatic features, but their interrelationships are not fully understood. Prior work showed that H3K9 methylation directs DNA methylation and histone deacetylation via HP1 in Neurospora crassa and that the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation. The complex consists of the chromodomain proteins HP1 and chromodomain protein 2 (CDP-2), the histone deacetylase HDA-1, and the AT-hook motif protein CDP-2/HDA-1–associated protein (CHAP). We show that the complex is required for proper chromosome segregation, dissect its function, and characterize interactions among its components. Our analyses revealed the existence of an HP1-based DNA methylation pathway independent of its chromodomain. The pathway partially depends on CHAP but not on the CDP-2 chromodomain. CDP-2 serves as a bridge between the recognition of H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) by HP1 and the histone deacetylase activity of HDA-1. CHAP is also critical for HDA-1 localization to heterochromatin. Specifically, the CHAP zinc finger interacts directly with the HDA-1 argonaute-binding protein 2 (Arb2) domain, and the CHAP AT-hook motifs recognize heterochromatic regions by binding to AT-rich DNA. Our data shed light on the interrelationships among the prototypical heterochromatic features and support a model in which dual recognition by the HP1 chromodomain and the CHAP AT-hooks are required for proper heterochromatin formation. PMID:27681634

  18. Spin symmetry in the relativistic symmetrical well potential including a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2010-01-01

    In the case of exact spin symmetry, we approximately solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials by using a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term, and obtain the corresponding energy equation and spinor wave functions for the bound states. We find that there exist only positive-energy bound states in the case of spin symmetry. Also, the energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. The special case for equally scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials is studied briefly.

  19. Key Aspects of the Proper Formulation of the Model in Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Mining Exploitation on Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florkowska Lucyna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling is an important tool used to analyse various aspects of the impact of underground mining on existing and planned buildings. The interaction between the building and the soil is a complex matter and in many cases a numerical simulation is the only way of making calculations which will take into consideration the co–existence of a number of factors which have a significant influence on the solution. The complexity of the matter also makes it a difficult task to elaborate a proper mathematical model – it requires both a thorough knowledge of geologic conditions of the subsoil and the structural characteristics of the building.

  20. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    standard practice is to deflate costs to constant dollars (the dependent variable in the analogous regression) using a previously determined price ...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5489 March 2016 The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in...DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

  1. Characterization of the Praesepe Star Cluster by Photometry and Proper Motions With 2MASS, PPMXL, and Pan-STARRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-20

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRAESEPE STAR CLUSTER BY PHOTOMETRY AND PROPER MOTIONS WITH 2MASS , PPMXL, AND Pan-STARRS P. F. Wang1... 2MASS ) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, covering a sky area of 100 deg2, Adams et al. (2002) extended the lower main sequence to 0.1M, and...incompleteness is caused by the detection limits of USNO-B1 and 2MASS . Recently, Khalaj & Baumgardt (2013) used SDSS and PPMXL data to characterize

  2. Proper Plugin Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    lunch buddies who kept me sane for so many years. Pittsburgh was a scary place to move to seven years ago, and now I am sad to leave it. I’ve made so...42 4.2 Venn diagram of warnings reported by each variant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4.3 Translating relationship effects...ANALYZING PROGRAMS 47 Sound Warnings True/True Pragmatic Warnings True/Unknown Complete Warnings True/False Unknown/Unknown Unknown/False Unknown/True

  3. Perceiving prospects properly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 7 (2016), s. 1601-1631 ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : evolution * perception bias * prospect theory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  4. Perceiving prospects properly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 7 (2016), s. 1601-1631 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-34759S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00703S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : evolution * perception bias * prospect theory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  5. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    to suffer from the same deficiencies. The PPV are universal and can be applied to all situations in which the assessment of performance is desired: prediction-, classification-, time series forecasting-, modeling validation. The key element of PPV is the Theory of Sampling (TOS), which allow insight......) is critically necessary for the inclusion of the sampling errors incurred in all 'future' situations in which the validated model must perform. Logically, therefore, all one data set re-sampling approaches for validation, especially cross-validation and leverage-corrected validation, should be terminated...

  6. Spatacsin and spastizin act in the same pathway required for proper spinal motor neuron axon outgrowth in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elodie; Yanicostas, Constantin; Rastetter, Agnès; Alavi Naini, Seyedeh Maryam; Maouedj, Alissia; Kabashi, Edor; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni; Soussi-Yanicostas, Nadia

    2012-12-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are rare neurological conditions caused by degeneration of the long axons of the cerebrospinal tracts, leading to locomotor impairment and additional neurological symptoms. There are more than 40 different causative genes, 24 of which have been identified, including SPG11 and SPG15 mutated in complex clinical forms. Since the vast majority of the causative mutations lead to loss of function of the corresponding proteins, we made use of morpholino-oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated gene knock-down to generate zebrafish models of both SPG11 and SPG15 and determine how invalidation of the causative genes (zspg11 and zspg15) during development might contribute to the disease. Micro-injection of MOs targeting each gene caused locomotor impairment and abnormal branching of spinal cord motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction. More severe phenotypes with abnormal tail developments were also seen. Moreover, partial depletion of both proteins at sub-phenotypic levels resulted in the same phenotypes, suggesting for the first time, in vivo, a genetic interaction between these genes. In conclusion, the zebrafish orthologues of the SPG11 and SPG15 genes are important for proper development of the axons of spinal motor neurons and likely act in a common pathway to promote their proper path finding towards the neuromuscular junction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WD+dMs from the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey (Skinner+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. N.; Morgan, D. P.; West, A. A.; Lepine, S.; Thorstensen, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    To select for nearby WD+dMs, we used the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey (Lepine et al. 2002, J/AJ/124/1190; Lepine & Shara 2005, Cat. I/298), an ongoing all-sky survey that identifies and characterizes stars with proper motions μ>40 mas/yr. For this study, we used the 2011 July version of SUPERBLINK, which listed 2270481 stars, and was estimated to be >90% complete to V=19.0. We selected WD+dMs based on a combination of V magnitudes derived from the DSS plates (see Lepine & Shara 2005, Cat. I/298), near-UV magnitudes from GALEX, and Ks magnitudes from 2MASS. Using the UV-optical-IR color selection outlined in Skinner et al. (2014AJ....148..115S), we selected targets for spectroscopic follow-up (see bottom panel of Figure 1). We acquired optical spectroscopy of 178 newly identified WD+dM candidates, with the Boller and Chivens CCD spectrograph (CCDS), using both the Hiltner 2.4 m and McGraw-Hill 1.3 m telescopes located at the MDM Observatory. (3 data files).

  8. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL DEGWY, S.A.; HAMDY, A.; HAMED, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  9. The psychologist who is not a psychologist: a deconstructive reading of Wolfgang Giegerich's idea of psychology proper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlan, Stanton

    2016-04-01

    This paper represents an archetypal and deconstructive reading of the work of Wolfgang Giegerich. In an attempt to extend and philosophically develop Jung's late-life view of the objective psyche, Giegerich, via Hegel, defines psychology proper as fundamentally separate from the everyday person and the 'human, all-too-human' aspects of the soul. It is argued that, in so doing, Giegerich removes the human person from being the primary focus of his psychology and creates instead a hierarchy of ideas and values privileging syntax over semantics, the logical over the empirical, and thinking over imagination. This bypasses the emotionality of the everyday person/patient and also renders psychology proper unable to address the day-to-day practice of the analyst. Giegerich attempts to rectify this problem by re-incorporating what he had previously rejected, making his theory more complex than is apparent in his binary oppositions. In the end, however, it remains a question to what extent Giegerich is successful in avoiding a binary scission (Saban 2015) or a tendency to regularly de-emphasize the human aspect of the soul (Hoedl 2015) in his need to continue to heroically push off from the ego seeking total freedom from neurosis and from our humanity. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. Phase field theory of proper displacive phase transformations: Structural anisotropy and directional flexibility, a vector model, and the transformation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Weifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Khachaturyan, Armen G., E-mail: khach@jove.rutgers.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A phase field theory of proper displacive transformations is developed to address the microstructure evolution and its response to applied fields in decomposing and martensitic systems. The theory is based on the explicit equation for the non-equilibrium free energy function of the transformation strain obtained by a consistent separation of the total strain into transformation and elastic strains. The transformation strain is considered to be a relaxing long-range order parameter evolving in accordance with the system energetics rather than as a fixed material constant used in the conventional Eshelby theory of coherent inclusions. The elastic strain is defined as a coherency strain recovering the crystal lattice compatibility. The obtained free energy function of the transformation strain leads to the concepts of structural anisotropy and directional flexibility of low symmetry phases. The formulated vector model of displacive transformation makes apparent a similarity between proper displacive transformation and ferromagnetic/ferroelectric transformation and, in particular, a similarity between the structural anisotropy and magnetic/polar anisotropy of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric materials. It even predicts the feasibility of a glass-like structural state with unlimited directional flexibility of the transformation strain that is conceptually similar to a ferromagnetic glass. The thermodynamics of the equilibrium between low symmetry phases and the thermodynamic conditions leading to the formation of adaptive states are formulated.

  11. Biocompatible KMnF3 nanoparticular contrast agent with proper plasma retention time for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jun; Song, Xiao-xia; Xu, Xian-zhu; Tang, Qun

    2014-04-18

    Nanoparticular MRI contrast agents are rapidly becoming suitable for use in clinical diagnosis. An ideal nanoparticular contrast agent should be endowed with high relaxivity, biocompatibility, proper plasma retention time, and tissue-specific or tumor-targeting imaging. Herein we introduce PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles as a new type of T1 contrast agent. Studies showed that the nanoparticular contrast agent revealed high bio-stability with bovine serum albumin in PBS buffer solution, and presented excellent biocompatibility (low cytotoxicity, undetectable hemolysis and hemagglutination). Meanwhile the new contrast agent possessed proper plasma retention time (circulation half-life t1/2 is approximately 2 h) in the body of the administrated mice. It can be delivered into brain vessels and maintained there for hours, and is mostly cleared from the body within 48 h, as demonstrated by time-resolved MRI and Mn-biodistribution analysis. Those distinguishing features make it suitable to obtain contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance angiography. Moreover, through the process of passive targeting delivery, the T1 contrast agent clearly illuminates a brain tumor (glioma) with high contrast image and defined shape. This study demonstrates that PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles represent a promising biocompatible vascular contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and can potentially be further developed into an active targeted tumor MRI contrast agent.

  12. LocZ Is a New Cell Division Protein Involved in Proper Septum Placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holečková, Nela; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT How bacteria control proper septum placement at midcell, to guarantee the generation of identical daughter cells, is still largely unknown. Although different systems involved in the selection of the division site have been described in selected species, these do not appear to be widely conserved. Here, we report that LocZ (Spr0334), a newly identified cell division protein, is involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that locZ is not essential but that its deletion results in cell division defects and shape deformation, causing cells to divide asymmetrically and generate unequally sized, occasionally anucleated, daughter cells. LocZ has a unique localization profile. It arrives early at midcell, before FtsZ and FtsA, and leaves the septum early, apparently moving along with the equatorial rings that mark the future division sites. Consistently, cells lacking LocZ also show misplacement of the Z-ring, suggesting that it could act as a positive regulator to determine septum placement. LocZ was identified as a substrate of the Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP, which regulates cell division in S. pneumoniae. Interestingly, homologues of LocZ are found only in streptococci, lactococci, and enterococci, indicating that this close phylogenetically related group of bacteria evolved a specific solution to spatially regulate cell division. PMID:25550321

  13. 41 CFR 301-52.17 - Within how many calendar days after I submit a proper travel claim must my agency reimburse my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Within how many calendar days after I submit a proper travel claim must my agency reimburse my allowable expenses? 301-52.17... REIMBURSEMENT 52-CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT § 301-52.17 Within how many calendar days after I submit a proper travel...

  14. Guidance For The Proper Characterization And Classification Of Low Specific Activity Materials And Surface Contaminated Objects For Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Blackford, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D and D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D and D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D and D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 (3): a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 (3) is now thirteen

  15. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE OUTER KNOTS OF THE HH 80/81/80N RADIO-JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain)

    2015-11-20

    The radio-knots of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 80/81/80N jet extend from the HH 80 object to the recently discovered Source 34 and has a total projected jet size of 10.3 pc, constituting the largest collimated radio-jet system known so far. It is powered by the bright infrared source IRAS 18162−2048 associated with a massive young stellar object. We report 6 cm JVLA observations that, compared with previous 6 cm VLA observations carried out in 1989, allow us to derive proper motions of the HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N radio knots located about 2.5 pc away in projection from the powering source. For the first time, we measure proper motions of the optically obscured HH 80N object providing evidence that this knot, along with HH 81 and HH 80 are associated with the same radio-jet. We also confirm the presence of Source 34, located further north of HH 80N, previously proposed to belong to the jet.We derived that the tangential velocity of HH 80N is 260 km s{sup −1} and has a direction in agreement with the expected direction of a ballistic precessing jet. The HH 80 and HH 81 objects have tangential velocities of 350 and 220 km s{sup −1}, respectively, but their directions are somewhat deviated from the expected jet path. The velocities of the HH objects studied in this work are significantly lower than those derived for the radio knots of the jet close to the powering source (600–1400 km s{sup −1}) suggesting that the jet is slowing down due to a strong interaction with the ambient medium. As a result, since HH 80 and HH 81 are located near the edge of the cloud, the inhomogeneous and low density medium may contribute to skew the direction of their determined proper motions. The HH 80 and HH 80N emission at 6 cm is, at least in part, probably synchrotron radiation produced by relativistic electrons in a magnetic field of 1 mG. If these electrons are accelerated in a reverse adiabatic shock, we estimate a jet total density of ≲1000 cm{sup −3}. All of these

  16. Triggering sporulation in Bacillus subtilis with artificial two-component systems reveals the importance of proper Spo0A activation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, Monika; Narula, Jatin; Devi, Seram Nganbiton; Dao, Hoang-Anh; Igoshin, Oleg A; Fujita, Masaya

    2013-10-01

    Sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by the phosphorylated form of the master regulator Spo0A which controls transcription of a multitude of sporulation genes. In this study, we investigated the importance of temporal dynamics of phosphorylated Spo0A (Spo0A∼P) accumulation by rewiring the network controlling its phosphorylation. We showed that simultaneous induction of KinC, a kinase that can directly phosphorylate Spo0A, and Spo0A itself from separately controlled inducible promoters can efficiently trigger sporulation even under nutrient rich conditions. However, the sporulation efficiency in this artificial two-component system was significantly impaired when KinC and/or Spo0A induction was too high. Using mathematical modelling, we showed that gradual accumulation of Spo0A∼P is essential for the proper temporal order of the Spo0A regulon expression, and that reduction in sporulation efficiency results from the reversal of that order. These insights led us to identify premature repression of DivIVA as one possible explanation for the adverse effects of accelerated accumulation of Spo0A∼P on sporulation. Moreover, we found that positive feedback resulting from autoregulation of the native spo0A promoter leads to robust control of Spo0A∼P accumulation kinetics. Thus we propose that a major function of the conserved architecture of the sporulation network is controlling Spo0A activation dynamics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of a new welding process used to joint grids thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos, E-mail: DPNcarlosschettino@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (DPN/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Producao Nuclear; Silva, Marcio Adriano Coelho da, E-mail: marcio.adriano@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (GEACON/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Analise Tecnica do Combustivel

    2011-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate structurally the new welding process used to join the grids to the guide thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. This new process is an increase of the number of welding points, 4 to 8, between grids and guide thimbles, giving more stiffness to the whole structure. A finite element model of the fuel assembly design was generated in the program ANSYS 12.1. To build this model were used elements BEAM-4 and several spring type elements. The analysis covered specific loads and displacements, simulating the boundaries conditions found during small deflection acting on the entire structure. The method used to development this analysis was the simulation of a finite element model performing a fuel assembly with four weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles, and then the results of it was compare with another model, with eight weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles. The behavior of the structure under the acting displacement and the related results of the analysis, mainly the stiffness, were satisfied. The results of this analysis were used to prove that the new grid to guide thimble welding process improve the dimensional stability when submitted to loads and displacements required on the fuel assembly design. The performed analysis provided INB to get more information of extreme importance, for the continuity of the development of new process of manufacturing and to improve the design of the current fuel assemblies used in reactors. (author)

  18. [comment t[Comment on] “What is AGU's proper role in society?”] AGU's role in society: Duty to the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshire, Howard

    Bravo to William Kaula and Don Anderson for their forthright opinion, “What Is AGU's Proper Role in Society?” (Eos, April 9, 1991). In hearing preliminaries about Mission to Planet Earth at the Geological Society of America's meeting in Phoenix in 1987, I was turned off by what seemed to me to be endless self-serving proposals to probe the Earth “with our steely knives,” but with hardly a mention of how we could use the information to assist the nation in making rational decisions about the future human occupancy of Earth. I concur with Kaula and Anderson that it is not only the duty of individual scientists to speak out on controversial issues of public concern, but also the duty of professional societies to influence the public policy decision-making process in areas where our special expertise is relevant.It does not matter that opinions within the professional societies differ. Opinions within the nation differ, too. But to take no position at all because of these differences of opinion is dereliction of our duty to the public that supports us. AGU already has a mechanism for presenting a Union-endorsed position on public issues (which could serve as a model for other professional societies whose best effort is to hide under the bed). This mechanism needs to be used more aggressively so that our expert knowledge (both of facts and hypotheses) is brought to bear on matters of critical human concern.

  19. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecília

    2017-01-19

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  20. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancarlos-González Abel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases’ conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases’ conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors. In this way, a general “virtual chart” solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  1. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancarlos-González, Abel; Pineda-Sanchez, Manuel; Puche-Panadero, Ruben; Sapena-Bano, Angel; Riera-Guasp, Martin; Martinez-Roman, Javier; Perez-Cruz, Juan; Roger-Folch, Jose

    2017-12-01

    AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases' conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD) allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases' conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors). In this way, a general "virtual chart" solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  2. Evaluation of a new welding process used to joint grids thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos; Silva, Marcio Adriano Coelho da

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate structurally the new welding process used to join the grids to the guide thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. This new process is an increase of the number of welding points, 4 to 8, between grids and guide thimbles, giving more stiffness to the whole structure. A finite element model of the fuel assembly design was generated in the program ANSYS 12.1. To build this model were used elements BEAM-4 and several spring type elements. The analysis covered specific loads and displacements, simulating the boundaries conditions found during small deflection acting on the entire structure. The method used to development this analysis was the simulation of a finite element model performing a fuel assembly with four weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles, and then the results of it was compare with another model, with eight weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles. The behavior of the structure under the acting displacement and the related results of the analysis, mainly the stiffness, were satisfied. The results of this analysis were used to prove that the new grid to guide thimble welding process improve the dimensional stability when submitted to loads and displacements required on the fuel assembly design. The performed analysis provided INB to get more information of extreme importance, for the continuity of the development of new process of manufacturing and to improve the design of the current fuel assemblies used in reactors. (author)

  3. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  4. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U.

    1999-01-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  5. First-principles supercell calculations of small polarons with proper account for long-range polarization effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokott, Sebastian; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    We present a density functional theory (DFT) based supercell approach for modeling small polarons with proper account for the long-range elastic response of the material. Our analysis of the supercell dependence of the polaron properties (e.g., atomic structure, binding energy, and the polaron level) reveals long-range electrostatic effects and the electron–phonon (el–ph) interaction as the two main contributors. We develop a correction scheme for DFT polaron calculations that significantly reduces the dependence of polaron properties on the DFT exchange-correlation functional and the size of the supercell in the limit of strong el–ph coupling. Using our correction approach, we present accurate all-electron full-potential DFT results for small polarons in rocksalt MgO and rutile TiO2.

  6. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U. [University of Dhaka (Bangladesh). Physics Dept.

    1999-06-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  7. Release of the herpes simplex virus 1 protease by self cleavage is required for proper conformation of the portal vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth G.; Baines, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    We identify an NLS within herpes simplex virus scaffold proteins that is required for optimal nuclear import of these proteins into infected or uninfected nuclei, and is sufficient to mediate nuclear import of GFP. A virus lacking this NLS replicated to titers reduced by 1000-fold, but was able to make capsids containing both scaffold and portal proteins suggesting that other functions can complement the NLS in infected cells. We also show that Vp22a, the major scaffold protein, is sufficient to mediate the incorporation of portal protein into capsids, whereas proper portal immunoreactivity in the capsid requires the larger scaffold protein pU L 26. Finally, capsid angularization in infected cells did not require the HSV-1 protease unless full length pU L 26 was expressed. These data suggest that the HSV-1 portal undergoes conformational changes during capsid maturation, and reveal that full length pU L 26 is required for this conformational change.

  8. A low-cost, goal-oriented ‘compact proper orthogonal decomposition’ basis for model reduction of static systems

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-01-01

    A novel model reduction technique for static systems is presented. The method is developed using a goal-oriented framework, and it extends the concept of snapshots for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to include (sensitivity) derivatives of the state with respect to system input parameters. The resulting reduced-order model generates accurate approximations due to its goal-oriented construction and the explicit 'training' of the model for parameter changes. The model is less computationally expensive to construct than typical POD approaches, since efficient multiple right-hand side solvers can be used to compute the sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a parameterized aerospace structure problem. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Predicted space motions for hypervelocity and runaway stars: proper motions and radial velocities for the Gaia Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bromley, Benjamin C., E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We predict the distinctive three-dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10 kpc, unbound stars are rare; proper motions alone rarely isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. At large distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g ≲ 20 stars with Gaia should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  10. A low-cost, goal-oriented ‘compact proper orthogonal decomposition’ basis for model reduction of static systems

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin

    2010-12-10

    A novel model reduction technique for static systems is presented. The method is developed using a goal-oriented framework, and it extends the concept of snapshots for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to include (sensitivity) derivatives of the state with respect to system input parameters. The resulting reduced-order model generates accurate approximations due to its goal-oriented construction and the explicit \\'training\\' of the model for parameter changes. The model is less computationally expensive to construct than typical POD approaches, since efficient multiple right-hand side solvers can be used to compute the sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a parameterized aerospace structure problem. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Can a Proper T-Cell Development Occur in an Altered Thymic Epithelium? Lessons From EphB-Deficient Thymi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Muñoz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the effects of distinct Eph tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands, ephrins on the structure, immunophenotype, and development of thymus and their main cell components, thymocytes (T and thymic epithelial cells (TECs, have been studied. In recent years, the thymic phenotype of mutant mice deficient in several Ephs and ephrins B has been determined. Remarkably, thymic stroma in these animals exhibits important defects that appear early in ontogeny but little alterations in the proportions of distinct lymphoid cell populations. In the present manuscript, we summarize and extend these results discussing possible mechanisms governing phenotypical and functional thymocyte maturation in an absence of the critical T–TEC interactions, concluding that some signaling mediated by key molecules, such as MHCII, CD80, β5t, Aire, etc. could be sufficient to enable a proper maturation of thymocytes, independently of morphological alterations affecting thymic epithelium.

  12. Measurement of the X-Ray Proper Motion in the South-East Rim of RXJ1713.7-3946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Fabio; Katsuda, Saturo; Ballet, Jean; Petre, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We report on the first proper motion measurement in the supernova remnant RX J1713.73946 using the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope on a 13 yr time interval. This expansion measurement is carried out in the south-east region of the remnant, where two sharp filament structures are observed. For the outermost filament, the proper motion is 0.75(+0.05-0.06) +/- 0.069 syst arcsec/ yr which is equivalent to a shock speed of approx. 3500 km/s at a distance of 1 kpc. In contrast with the bright north-west region, where the shock is interacting with the border of the cavity, the shock in the south-east region is probably expanding in the original ambient medium carved by the progenitor and can be used to derive the current density at the shock and the age of the remnant. In the case where the shock is evolving in a wind profile (p varies as r(sup -s), s = 2) or in a uniform medium (s = 0), we estimate an age of approx. 2300 yr and approx.1800 yr respectively for an ejecta power-law index of n = 9. The specific case of an ejecta power-law index of n = 7, and s = 0, yields an age of approx. 1500 yr, which would reconcile RX J1713.73946 with the historical records of SN 393. In all scenarios, we derive similar upstream densities of the order of 0.01/cu cm, compatible with the lack of thermal X-rays from the shocked ambient medium.

  13. Rho-associated kinase activity is required for proper morphogenesis of the inner cell mass in the mouse blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeno, Arlene May A; Tamashiro, Dana Ann A; Alarcon, Vernadeth B

    2013-11-01

    The blastocyst consists of the outer layer of trophectoderm and pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM), the precursor of the placenta and fetus, respectively. During blastocyst expansion, the ICM adopts a compact, ovoidal shape, whose proper morphology is crucial for normal embryogenesis. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), an effector of small GTPase RHO signaling, mediates the diverse cellular processes of morphogenesis, but its role in ICM morphogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ROCK is required for cohesion of ICM cells and formation of segregated tissues called primitive endoderm (PrE) and epiblast (Epi) in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst. Blastocyst treatment with ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and Fasudil caused widening or spreading of the ICM, and intermingling of PrE and Epi. Widening of ICM was independent of trophectoderm because isolated ICMs as well as colonies of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) also spread upon Y-27632 treatment. PrE, Epi, and trophectoderm cell numbers were similar between control and treated blastocysts, suggesting that ROCK inhibition affected ICM morphology but not lineage differentiation. Rock1 and Rock2 knockdown via RNA interference in mESC also induced spreading, supporting the conclusion that morphological defects caused by the pharmacological inhibitors were due to ROCK inactivation. When blastocysts were transferred into surrogates, implantation efficiencies were unaffected by ROCK inhibition, but treated blastocysts yielded greater fetal loss. These results show that proper ICM morphology is dependent on ROCK activity and is crucial for fetal development. Our studies have wider implication for improving efficiencies of human assisted reproductive technologies that diminish pregnancy loss and promote successful births.

  14. The importance of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning demonstrated using layered single and double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies is demonstrated through the consideration of layered single and double hydroxides. New yet fundamental information is provided and it is evident that the crystal chemistry of the double hydroxide phases is much more straightforward than is apparent from the literature. Atomistic modelling techniques and Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data are widely used but often result in crystal structures that are not realistic, presumably because the authors neglect to check the crystal-chemical plausibility of their structure. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies. It is achieved by using such reasoning to generate new yet fundamental information about layered double hydroxides (LDH), a large, much-studied family of compounds. LDH phases are derived from layered single hydroxides by the substitution of a fraction (x) of the divalent cations by trivalent. Equations are derived that enable calculation of x from the a parameter of the unit cell and vice versa, which can be expected to be of widespread utility as a sanity test for extant and future structure determinations and computer simulation studies. The phase at x = 0 is shown to be an α form of divalent metal hydroxide rather than the β polymorph. Crystal-chemically sensible model structures are provided for β-Zn(OH) 2 and Ni- and Mg-based carbonate LDH phases that have any trivalent cation and any value of x, including x = 0 [i.e. for α-M(OH) 2 ·mH 2 O phases

  15. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Hirose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chiasma is a structure that forms between a pair of homologous chromosomes by crossover recombination and physically links the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasmata are essential for the attachment of the homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles (bipolar attachment and their subsequent segregation to the opposite poles during meiosis I. However, the overall function of chiasmata during meiosis is not fully understood. Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast. Analysis of cells lacking chiasmata and the cohesin protector Sgo1 showed that loss of chiasmata causes frequent bipolar attachment of sister chromatids during anaphase. Furthermore, high time-resolution analysis of centromere dynamics in various types of chiasmate and achiasmate cells, including those lacking the DNA replication checkpoint factor Mrc1 or the meiotic centromere protein Moa1, showed the following three outcomes: (i during the pre-anaphase stage, the bipolar attachment of sister chromatids occurs irrespective of chiasma formation; (ii the chiasma contributes to the elimination of the pre-anaphase bipolar attachment; and (iii when the bipolar attachment remains during anaphase, the chiasmata generate a bias toward the proper pole during poleward chromosome pulling that results in appropriate chromosome segregation. Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I.

  16. Multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimum position and proper field of view of a photosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulos, L.; Tsangrassoulis, A.; Topalis, F.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for the determination of proper FOV and position of a photosensor is proposed. • Model takes into account illuminance ratio, energy savings and lighting adequacy. • A multiple criteria decision method (ELECTRE) is used to estimate best solution. • A number of simulations were performed in order to clarify the calculation procedure. • An experimental procedure was performed in order to verify the simulation procedure. - Abstract: The lack of knowledge concerning the commissioning of a daylight responsive system constitutes a serious impediment to their widespread use. Furthermore, installation details and tools regarding their photosensor position and field of view (FOV) are insufficient. This paper presents a decision making method capable to estimate the best position of a photosensor on the ceiling and its proper FOV based on multiple criteria analysis. The criteria used are (a) the correlation of the lighting levels between the working plane and the ceiling, (b) the corresponding energy savings and (c) the lighting adequacy which is defined as the percentage for occupied time with total illuminance exceeding design illuminance (i.e 500 lux EN 12464-1, 2011) and is strongly affected by the control algorithm. A number of simulations with variable FOV and position of photosensors were performed in order to clarify the calculation procedure of the proposed methodology. Three different typical room geometries have been used with variable window sizes and orientation. Furthermore a prototype photosensor with variable FOV through the use of a telescopic cylinder was constructed and placed in a scale room (1:10) in order to verify the results of simulations. The verification was based on a set of experimental procedures concerning measurements of the spatial response of the prototype photosensor (for various FOVs) and measurements of ceiling/workplane illuminance inside the scaled room for various combinations of position and

  17. Study of the proper contribution of independent power producing business in the long-range power supply and demand plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S.B. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The independent power producing business has expanded its size and process through the Long-range Power Supply and Demand Plan of 1993, 1995, and it is high time that full-scale competition in the power generation market began to emerge. This report assesses the marginal costs of independent and general power producing businesses on a theoretical basis on the proper size of independent power producing business, and presents the methods to compare these. But, since there follows several problems in applying this theoretical model, a practical standard to decide the proper level of independent power production amount is presented. That is, while not much burdening the existing industrial structure, I search for ways to present the amount of independent power production and the methods of power generation to make sure that the competition effect is maximized when full-scale competition started. However, in the long-term, the allotment of independent power production itself could be a violation to the basic spirit of competition. A more desirable way is to allow independent power producers and the Korea Power Corp. to freely compete on all types of power generation and facilities. The supply plan should be also operated smoothly and flexibly since the types of power generation and the amounts reflect the result of competition not the predetermined ones. Therefore, a long-range power supply and demand plan should be converted from a planning-oriented concept to a market-oriented base with the structural overhaul of the power generation industry for the effective resources distribution of power supply facilities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. A Simple Network to Remove Interference in Surface EMG Signal from Single Gene Affected Phenylketonuria Patients for Proper Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhusmita; Basu, Mousumi; Pattanayak, Deba Narayan; Mohapatra, Sumant Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Recently Autosomal Recessive Single Gene (ARSG) diseases are highly effective to the children within the age of 5-10 years. One of the most ARSG disease is a Phenylketonuria (PKU). This single gene disease is associated with mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, Gene 612349). Through this mutation process, PAH of the gene affected patient can not properly manufacture PAH as a result the patients suffer from decreased muscle tone which shows abnormality in EMG signal. Here the extraction of the quality of the PKU affected EMG (PKU-EMG) signal is a keen interest, so it is highly necessary to remove the added ECG signal as well as the biological and instrumental noises. In the Present paper we proposed a method for detection and classification of the PKU affected EMG signal. Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is implemented for extraction of the features of the PKU affected EMG signal. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) network is used for the classification of the signal. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) and Modified Genetic Algorithm (MGA) are used to train the ANFIS network. Simulation result shows that the proposed method gives better performance as compared to existing approaches. Also it gives better accuracy of 98.02% for the detection of PKU-EMG signal. The advantages of the proposed model is to use MGA and MPSO to train the parameters of ANFIS network for classification of ECG and EMG signal of PKU affected patients. The proposed method obtained the high SNR (18.13 ± 0.36 dB), SNR (0.52 ± 1.62 dB), RE (0.02 ± 0.32), MSE (0.64 ± 2.01), CC (0.99 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02). From authors knowledge, this is the first time a composite method is used for diagnosis of PKU affected patients. The accuracy (98.02%), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.59%) helps for proper clinical treatment. It can help for readers

  19. Modelling Seasonal GWR of Daily PM2.5 with Proper Auxiliary Variables for the Yangtze River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, regional haze episodes have frequently occurred in eastern China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Satellite derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD has been used to retrieve the spatial coverage of PM2.5 concentrations. To improve the retrieval accuracy of the daily AOD-PM2.5 model, various auxiliary variables like meteorological or geographical factors have been adopted into the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR model. However, these variables are always arbitrarily selected without deep consideration of their potentially varying temporal or spatial contributions in the model performance. In this manuscript, we put forward an automatic procedure to select proper auxiliary variables from meteorological and geographical factors and obtain their optimal combinations to construct four seasonal GWR models. We employ two different schemes to comprehensively test the performance of our proposed GWR models: (1 comparison with other regular GWR models by varying the number of auxiliary variables; and (2 comparison with observed ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. The result shows that our GWR models of “AOD + 3” with three common meteorological variables generally perform better than all the other GWR models involved. Our models also show powerful prediction capabilities in PM2.5 concentrations with only slight overfitting. The determination coefficients R2 of our seasonal models are 0.8259 in spring, 0.7818 in summer, 0.8407 in autumn, and 0.7689 in winter. Also, the seasonal models in summer and autumn behave better than those in spring and winter. The comparison between seasonal and yearly models further validates the specific seasonal pattern of auxiliary variables of the GWR model in the YRD. We also stress the importance of key variables and propose a selection process in the AOD-PM2.5 model. Our work validates the significance of proper auxiliary variables in modelling the AOD-PM2.5 relationships and

  20. Leadership in Force XXI: Is the Army's Current Leadership Model and Leader Development Doctrine Properly Addressing the Challenges Brought About by the Transition to Force XXI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Carl

    1999-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research paper is to answer the question, Is the Army's current leadership model and leader development doctrine properly addressing the challenges brought about by the transition to Force XXI...