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Sample records for underlying process physiologically

  1. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  2. What's the flux? Unraveling how CO2 fluxes from trees reflect underlying physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbore, Susan E. [Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Angert, Alon [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). The Institute of Earth Sciences; Kunert, Norbert [Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Muhr, Jan [Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Chambers, Jeffrey Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Climate Sciences Dept.

    2012-12-18

    We report that the CO2 emitted from a stem is produced by physiological processes, but the challenge remains identifying what portion is produced by local tissues, which will facilitate much-needed mechanistic understanding of factors controlling autotrophic respiration.

  3. The Effect of a New Therapy for Children with Tics Targeting Underlying Cognitive, Behavioral, and Physiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Julie B.; O’Connor, Kieron P.; J.-Nolin, Gabrielle; Valois, Philippe; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette disorder (TD) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, and children with TD tend to present a lower quality of life than neurotypical children. This study applied a manualized treatment for childhood tics disorder, Facotik, to a consecutive case series of children aged 8–12 years. The Facotik therapy was adapted from the adult cognitive and psychophysiological program validated on a range of subtypes of tics. This approach aims to modify the cognitive–behavioral and physiological processes against which the tic occurs, rather than only addressing the tic behavior. The Facotik therapy lasted 12–14 weeks. Each week 90-min session contained 20 min of parental training. The therapy for children followed 10 stages including: awareness training; improving motor control; modifying style of planning; cognitive and behavioral restructuring; and relapse prevention. Thirteen children were recruited as consecutive referrals from the general population, and seven cases completed therapy and posttreatment measures. Overall results showed a significant decrease in symptom severity as measured by the YGTSS and the TSGS. However, there was a discrepancy between parent and child rating, with some children perceiving an increase in tics, possibly due to improvement of awareness along therapy. They were also individual changes on adaptive aspects of behavior as measured with the BASC-2, and there was variability among children. All children maintained or improved self-esteem posttreatment. The results confirm the conclusion of a previous pilot study, which contributed to the adaptation of the adult therapy. In summary, the Facotik therapy reduced tics in children. These results underline that addressing processes underlying tics may complement approaches that target tics specifically. PMID:27563292

  4. The effect of a new therapy for children with tics targeting underlying cognitive, behavioral and physiological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Leclerc

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourette disorder (TD is characterized by motor and vocal tics and children with TD tend to present a lower quality of life than neurotypical children. This study applied a manualized treatment for childhood tics disorder Facotik to a consecutive case series of children aged 8-12 years. The Facotik therapy was adapted from the adult Cognitive and Psychophysiological program validated on a range of subtypes of tics. This approach aims to modify the cognitive-behavioral and physiological processes against which the tic occurs rather than only addressing the tic behavior. The Facotik therapy lasted 12-14 weeks. Each week 90-minute session contained 20 minutes of parental training. The therapy for children followed 10 stages including: awareness training; improving motor control; modifying style of planning; cognitive and behavioral restructuring; and relapse prevention. Thirteen children were recruited as consecutive referrals from the general population and seven cases completed therapy and post-treatment measures. Overall results showed a significant decrease in symptom severity as measured by the YGTSS and the TSGS. However, there was a discrepancy between parent and child rating, with some children perceiving an increase in tics, possibly due to improvement of awareness along therapy. They were also individual changes on adaptive aspects of behavior as measured with the BASC-2, and there was variability among children. All children maintained or improved self-esteem post treatment. The results confirm the conclusion of a previous pilot study which contributed to the adaptation of the adult therapy. In summary, the Facotik therapy reduced tics in children. These results underline that addressing processes underlying tics may complement approaches which target tics specifically.

  5. The Effect of a New Therapy for Children with Tics Targeting Underlying Cognitive, Behavioral, and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Julie B; O'Connor, Kieron P; J-Nolin, Gabrielle; Valois, Philippe; Lavoie, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Tourette disorder (TD) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, and children with TD tend to present a lower quality of life than neurotypical children. This study applied a manualized treatment for childhood tics disorder, Facotik, to a consecutive case series of children aged 8-12 years. The Facotik therapy was adapted from the adult cognitive and psychophysiological program validated on a range of subtypes of tics. This approach aims to modify the cognitive-behavioral and physiological processes against which the tic occurs, rather than only addressing the tic behavior. The Facotik therapy lasted 12-14 weeks. Each week 90-min session contained 20 min of parental training. The therapy for children followed 10 stages including: awareness training; improving motor control; modifying style of planning; cognitive and behavioral restructuring; and relapse prevention. Thirteen children were recruited as consecutive referrals from the general population, and seven cases completed therapy and posttreatment measures. Overall results showed a significant decrease in symptom severity as measured by the YGTSS and the TSGS. However, there was a discrepancy between parent and child rating, with some children perceiving an increase in tics, possibly due to improvement of awareness along therapy. They were also individual changes on adaptive aspects of behavior as measured with the BASC-2, and there was variability among children. All children maintained or improved self-esteem posttreatment. The results confirm the conclusion of a previous pilot study, which contributed to the adaptation of the adult therapy. In summary, the Facotik therapy reduced tics in children. These results underline that addressing processes underlying tics may complement approaches that target tics specifically.

  6. System Theory and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    1963-05-03

    Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.

  7. Physiological mechanisms underlying animal social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Krause, Jens

    2017-08-19

    Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes. Environmental impacts such as hypoxia can influence maximum group sizes and structure in fish schools by altering access to oxygenated water. The nutritional environment determines group cohesion, and the increase in information collected by the group means that individuals should rely more on social information and form more cohesive groups in uncertain environments. Changing environmental contexts require rapid responses by individuals to maintain group coordination, which are mediated by neuroendocrine signalling systems such as nonapeptides and steroid hormones. Brain processing capacity may constrain social complexity by limiting information processing. Failure to evaluate socially relevant information correctly limits social interactions, which is seen, for example, in autism. Hence, functioning of a group relies to a large extent on the perception and appropriate processing of signals from conspecifics. Many if not all physiological systems are mechanistically linked, and therefore have synergistic effects on social behaviour. A challenge for the future lies in understanding these interactive effects, which will improve understanding of group dynamics, particularly in changing environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  9. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Tahir, Muhammad N; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize ( Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L -1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that

  10. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L. under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium (Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L. under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity and water stress (60% field capacity conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing and was repeated after one week, whereas water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41% and enhanced relative water contents (30%, total chlorophyll (53%, carotenoid contents (60%, accumulation of total free amino acids (40% and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%, catalase (30%, peroxidase (27% and ascorbate peroxidase (27% with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15% and increased crude protein (47%, fibre (10%, nitrogen free extract (10% and Se content (36% but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose

  11. Magnesium degradation under physiological conditions - Best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge; Hou, Rui Qing; Nidadavolu, Eshwara P S; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2018-06-01

    This review focusses on the application of physiological conditions for the mechanistic understanding of magnesium degradation. Despite the undisputed relevance of simplified laboratory setups for alloy screening purposes, realistic and predictive in vitro setups are needed. Due to the complexity of these systems, the review gives an overview about technical measures, defines some caveats and can be used as a guideline for the establishment of harmonized laboratory approaches.

  12. Pathways of the Maillard reaction under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Christian; Glomb, Marcus A

    2016-08-01

    Initially investigated as a color formation process in thermally treated foods, nowadays, the relevance of the Maillard reaction in vivo is generally accepted. Many chronic and age-related diseases such as diabetes, uremia, atherosclerosis, cataractogenesis and Alzheimer's disease are associated with Maillard derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and α-dicarbonyl compounds as their most important precursors in terms of reactivity and abundance. However, the situation in vivo is very challenging, because Maillard chemistry is paralleled by enzymatic reactions which can lead to both, increases and decreases in certain AGEs. In addition, mechanistic findings established under the harsh conditions of food processing might not be valid under physiological conditions. The present review critically discusses the relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds as central intermediates of AGE formation in vivo with a special focus on fragmentation pathways leading to formation of amide-AGEs.

  13. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  14. Infrasonic Stethoscope for Monitoring Physiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Dimarcantonio, Albert L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An infrasonic stethoscope for monitoring physiological processes of a patient includes a microphone capable of detecting acoustic signals in the audible frequency bandwidth and in the infrasonic bandwidth (0.03 to 1000 Hertz), a body coupler attached to the body at a first opening in the microphone, a flexible tube attached to the body at a second opening in the microphone, and an earpiece attached to the flexible tube. The body coupler is capable of engagement with a patient to transmit sounds from the person, to the microphone and then to the earpiece.

  15. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  16. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  17. Capturing a DNA duplex under near-physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Xu, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang; Stellacci, Francesco; Thong, John T. L.

    2010-10-01

    We report in situ trapping of a thiolated DNA duplex with eight base pairs into a polymer-protected gold nanogap device under near-physiological conditions. The double-stranded DNA was captured by electrophoresis and covalently attached to the nanogap electrodes through sulfur-gold bonding interaction. The immobilization of the DNA duplex was confirmed by direct electrical measurements under near-physiological conditions. The conductance of the DNA duplex was estimated to be 0.09 μS. We also demonstrate the control of DNA dehybridization by heating the device to temperatures above the melting point of the DNA.

  18. Physiological and biochemical relationship under drought stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Some statistical procedures like correlation, stepwise regression, factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to study the relationship between wheat grain yield and some physiological parameters under drought conditions. Results reveal that the ratio fv/fm of chlorophyll fluorescence is the most.

  19. Physiological and biochemical relationship under drought stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some statistical procedures like correlation, stepwise regression, factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to study the relationship between wheat grain yield and some physiological parameters under drought conditions. Results reveal that the ratio fv/fm of chlorophyll fluorescence is the most effective parameter to ...

  20. Automatic physiological waveform processing for FMRI noise correction and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kelley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI resting state and connectivity studies of brain focus on neural fluctuations at low frequencies which share power with physiological fluctuations originating from lung and heart. Due to the lack of automated software to process physiological signals collected at high magnetic fields, a gap exists in the processing pathway between the acquisition of physiological data and its use in fMRI software for both physiological noise correction and functional analyses of brain activation and connectivity. To fill this gap, we developed an open source, physiological signal processing program, called PhysioNoise, in the python language. We tested its automated processing algorithms and dynamic signal visualization on resting monkey cardiac and respiratory waveforms. PhysioNoise consistently identifies physiological fluctuations for fMRI noise correction and also generates covariates for subsequent analyses of brain activation and connectivity.

  1. Obsolescence : The underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.; Nieboer, N.E.T.; Van der Flier, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of housing properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, namely

  2. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  3. General programmed system for physiological signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier, E; Monge, J; Magnet, C; Sonrel, C

    1975-01-01

    Improvements made to the general programmed signal acquisition and processing system, Plurimat S, are described, the aim being to obtain a less specialized system adapted to the biological and medical field. In this modified system the acquisition will be simplified. The standard processings offered will be integrated to a real advanced language which will enable the user to create his own processings, the loss of speed being compensated by a greater flexibility and universality. The observation screen will be large and the quality of the recording very good so that a large signal fraction may be displayed. The data will be easily indexed and filed for subsequent display and processing. This system will be used for two kinds of task: it can either be specialized, as an integral part of measurement and diagnostic preparation equipment used routinely in clinical work (e.g. vectocardiographic examination), or its versatility can be used for studies of limited duration to gain information in a given field or to study new diagnosis or treatment methods.

  4. Physiological Indices of Pilots' Abilities Under Varying Task Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Lingxiao; Lu, Yanyu; Fu, Shan

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated pilots' ability by examining the effects of flight experience and task demand on physiological reactions, and analyzing the diagnostic meanings underlying correlated parameters. A total of 12 experienced pilots and 12 less experienced pilots performed 4 simulated flight tasks, including normal and emergency situations. Fixation duration (FD), saccade rate (SR), blink rate (BR), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and respiration amplitude (RA) were measured during the tasks. More experienced pilots adapted their SR flexibly to changing task demands and had significantly lower SR than less experienced pilots during emergency tasks (29.6 ± 20.0 vs. 70.1 ± 67.1 saccades/min). BR, HR, and RR were affected by pilot experience but not by task demand. More experienced pilots had lower BR, HR, and RR than less experienced pilots during both normal tasks (BR: 14.3 ± 13.0 vs. 32.9 ± 25.8 blinks/min; HR: 72.7 ± 7.9 vs. 83.2 ± 7.2 bpm; RR: 15.4 ± 2.1 vs. 19.5 ± 5.2 breaths/min) and emergency tasks (BR: 10.2 ± 5.0 vs. 32.3 ± 20.8 blinks/min; HR: 73.3 ± 7.3 vs. 82.2 ± 11.6 bpm; RR: 15.6 ± 1.9 vs. 18.0 ± 3.2 breaths/min). FD and RA were not sensitive to either flight experience or task demand. Physiological reactions have the potential to reflect pilots' ability from different aspects. SR and BR could indicate pilots' differences in information access strategy. HR and RR could reflect a pilot's physical fitness. These findings are useful for understanding a pilot's ability.

  5. The Physiology of Exercise and the Process of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravetz, Patricia

    A physical fitness plan is considered desirable for young people, young adults, and especially older adults. This program for secondary level students focuses on the physiology of exercise and the process of aging, and stresses the need for physical fitness. Specific objectives include the following: (1) to let students become evaluators of their…

  6. Genomic and physiological perspectives on bioremediation processes at the FRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Erick; Leigh, Mary Beth; Hemme, Christopher; Gentry, Terry; Harzman, Christina; Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.; Zhou, Jizhong; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James M.

    2006-04-05

    A suite of molecular and physiological studies, including metal reduction assays, metagenomics, functional gene microarrays and community sequence analyses were applied to investigate organisms involved in bioremediation processes at the ERSP Field Research Center and to understand the effects of stress on the makeup and evolution of microbial communities to inform effective remediation strategies.

  7. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  8. Component processes underlying future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Ortoleva, Claudia; Jumentier, Sabrina; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the component processes underlying the ability to imagine future events, using an individual-differences approach. Participants completed several tasks assessing different aspects of future thinking (i.e., fluency, specificity, amount of episodic details, phenomenology) and were also assessed with tasks and questionnaires measuring various component processes that have been hypothesized to support future thinking (i.e., executive processes, visual-spatial processing, relational memory processing, self-consciousness, and time perspective). The main results showed that executive processes were correlated with various measures of future thinking, whereas visual-spatial processing abilities and time perspective were specifically related to the number of sensory descriptions reported when specific future events were imagined. Furthermore, individual differences in self-consciousness predicted the subjective feeling of experiencing the imagined future events. These results suggest that future thinking involves a collection of processes that are related to different facets of future-event representation.

  9. Methods and systems for the processing of physiological signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnac, B. de; Gariod, R.; Max, J.; Monge, V.

    1975-01-01

    This note is a general survey of the processing of physiological signals. After an introduction about electrodes and their limitations, the physiological nature of the main signals are shortly recalled. Different methods (signal averaging, spectral analysis, shape morphological analysis) are described as applications to the fields of magnetocardiography, electro-encephalography, cardiography, electronystagmography. As for processing means (single portable instruments and programmable), they are described through the example of application to rheography and to the Plurimat'S general system. As a conclusion the methods of signal processing are dominated by the morphological analysis of curves and by the necessity of a more important introduction of the statistical classification. As for the instruments, microprocessors will appear but specific operators linked to computer will certainly grow [fr

  10. Changes in physiological and some nutritional, nutraceuticals, chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory quality of minimally processed cactus pears cvs 'Bianca', 'Gialla' and 'Rossa' stored under passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Amedeo; Continella, Alberto; La Malfa, Stefano; D'Aquino, Salvatore

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the overall quality changes of minimally processed cactus pears cvs 'Bianca', Gialla' and 'Rossa' stored at 4 °C for 10 days. Periodically in-package CO 2 , O 2 and C 2 H 4 were determined and fruit were assessed for overall quality changes (pH, acidity, sugars, phenolics, betacyanins and betaxanthines, antioxidant capacity, colour, firmness, microbiological population and sensory attributes). In a preliminary study three different polymeric films were tested to select the most suitable to design a package with a short lag time to achieve steady-state conditions. Results showed marked differences between measured in-package CO 2 and O 2 values and those calculated based on respiration of peeled fruit and film permeance to CO 2 and O 2 provided by manufactures. The sensory evaluation of packed fruit indicated in film BBT-Bolphane, which created a steady-state in-package partial pressure for CO 2 of 4.3-4.8 kPa and for O 2 of 4.8-5.5 kPa, as the best film. Results of in-package gas composition with the three cultivars were similar to those achieved in cv. 'Gialla' with the preliminary test. All measured qualitative parameters changed slightly over the storage period for all cultivars and followed the same trend, despite significant differences existing among cultivars. This study clearly showed a similar physiological behavior of minimally processed 'Bianca', 'Gialla' and 'Rossa' cactus pears. Storage conditions optimal for one cultivar fit well for the others; thus mixing fruit of different cultivars in a package designed for one specific cultivar does not lead to relevant deviation from expected results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Analog integrated circuits design for processing physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2010-01-01

    Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this paper, techniques for designing the analog front-end circuits with these three characteristics will be reviewed, including subthreshold circuits, bulk-driven MOSFETs, floating gate MOSFETs, and log-domain circuits to reduce power consumption; methods for designing fully integrated low cutoff frequency circuits; as well as chopper stabilization (CHS) and other techniques that can be used to achieve a high signal-to-noise performance. Novel applications using these techniques will also be discussed.

  12. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nigel; O'Quinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI s patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  13. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnesium degradation under physiological conditions – Best practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gonzalez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on the application of physiological conditions for the mechanistic understanding of magnesium degradation. Despite the undisputed relevance of simplified laboratory setups for alloy screening purposes, realistic and predictive in vitro setups are needed. Due to the complexity of these systems, the review gives an overview about technical measures, defines some caveats and can be used as a guideline for the establishment of harmonized laboratory approaches.

  15. Effect of minimal processing on physiology and quality of fresh-cut potatoes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rocculi, Pietro; Romani, Santina; Gomez, Federico; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetable are minimally processed products that have to maintain their quality (appearance, texture, flavour and nutritive value) similar to those of the fresh product. The fundamental principle underlying the quality of these commodities is that they are metabolic active tissues and, as a consequence, show physiological response to preparation procedures as well as to the environment created in the package in which they are enclosed. Minimal processing for fresh-cut potat...

  16. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  17. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalco, R.S.; Snoeck, M.; Quinlivan, R.; Treves, S.; Laforet, P.; Jungbluth, H.; Voermans, N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild

  18. On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidadavolu, Eshwara Phani Shubhakar; Feyerabend, Frank; Ebel, Thomas; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Dahms, Michael

    2016-07-28

    The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion in cell culture media. This is an important consequence as the alloy's degradation is time dependent. Even if two different alloys show similar corrosion rates in a short term experiment, their degradation characteristics might differ with increased immersion times. Furthermore, studies concerning Mg corrosion extrapolate the corrosion rate from a single time point measurement to the order of a year (mm/y), which might not be appropriate because of time dependent degradation behavior. In this work, the above issues are addressed and a new methodology of performing long-term immersion tests in determining the degradation rates of Mg alloys was put forth. For this purpose, cast and extruded Mg-2Ag and powder pressed and sintered Mg-0.3Ca alloy systems were chosen. DMEM Glutamax +10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) +1% Penicillin streptomycin was used as cell culture medium. The advantages of such a method in predicting the degradation rates in vivo deduced from in vitro experiments are discussed.

  19. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:27900193

  1. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed.

  2. Synchronized mammalian cell culture: part I--a physical strategy for synchronized cultivation under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Oscar Platas; Jandt, Uwe; Becker, Max; Bahnemann, Janina; Pörtner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Conventional analysis and optimization procedures of mammalian cell culture processes mostly treat the culture as a homogeneous population. Hence, the focus is on cell physiology and metabolism, cell line development, and process control strategy. Impact on cultivations caused by potential variations in cellular properties between different subpopulations, however, has not yet been evaluated systematically. One main cause for the formation of such subpopulations is the progress of all cells through the cell cycle. The interaction of potential cell cycle specific variations in the cell behavior with large-scale process conditions can be optimally determined by means of (partially) synchronized cultivations, with subsequent population resolved model analysis. Therefore, it is desirable to synchronize a culture with minimal perturbation, which is possible with different yield and quality using physical selection methods, but not with frequently used chemical or whole-culture methods. Conventional nonsynchronizing methods with subsequent cell-specific, for example, flow cytometric analysis, can only resolve cell-limited effects of the cell cycle. In this work, we demonstrate countercurrent-flow centrifugal elutriation as a useful physical method to enrich mammalian cell populations within different phases of a cell cycle, which can be further cultivated for synchronized growth in bioreactors under physiological conditions. The presented combined approach contrasts with other physical selection methods especially with respect to the achievable yield, which makes it suitable for bioreactor scale cultivations. As shown with two industrial cell lines (CHO-K1 and human AGE1.HN), synchronous inocula can be obtained with overall synchrony degrees of up to 82% in the G1 phase, 53% in the S phase and 60% in the G2/M phase, with enrichment factors (Ysync) of 1.71, 1.79, and 4.24 respectively. Cells are able to grow with synchrony in bioreactors over several cell cycles. This

  3. Modeling physiological processes in plankton on enzyme kinetic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Packard

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ecologically important chemical transformations in the ocean are controlled by biochemical enzyme reactions in plankton. Nitrogenase regulates the transformation of N2 to ammonium in some cyanobacteria and serves as the entryway for N2 into the ocean biosphere. Nitrate reductase controls the reduction of NO3 to NO2 and hence new production in phytoplankton. The respiratory electron transfer system in all organisms links the carbon oxidation reactions of intermediary metabolism with the reduction of oxygen in respiration. Rubisco controls the fixation of CO2 into organic matter in phytoplankton and thus is the major entry point of carbon into the oceanic biosphere. In addition to these, there are the enzymes that control CO2 production, NH4 excretion and the fluxes of phosphate. Some of these enzymes have been recognized and researched by marine scientists in the last thirty years. However, until recently the kinetic principles of enzyme control have not been exploited to formulate accurate mathematical equations of the controlling physiological expressions. Were such expressions available they would increase our power to predict the rates of chemical transformations in the extracellular environment of microbial populations whether this extracellular environment is culture media or the ocean. Here we formulate from the principles of bisubstrate enzyme kinetics, mathematical expressions for the processes of NO3 reduction, O2 consumption, N2 fixation, total nitrogen uptake.

  4. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  5. Detection of a novel, integrative aging process suggests complex physiological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Bergeron, Patrick; Poirier, Roxane; Dusseault-Bélanger, Francis; Fülöp, Tamàs; Leroux, Maxime; Legault, Véronique; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women's Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging). The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.); we call the process represented by the axis "integrated albunemia." Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty--but not chronic disease--even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally.

  6. Detection of a novel, integrative aging process suggests complex physiological integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A Cohen

    Full Text Available Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women's Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.; we call the process represented by the axis "integrated albunemia." Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty--but not chronic disease--even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally.

  7. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  8. Physiological justification for using an unconventional method for processing raw material in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Honcharova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the influence of Spirulina рlatensis, which was previously treated by a non-traditional method, on physiological and biochemical processes in the organism of hydrobionts. To analyze the growth rate of Ukrainian scaly carp and tilapia under the influence of the feeding factor. Methodology. Experimental studies were carried out in the laboratory of biological resources and aquaculture. Following was performed during the experiments: clinical examination of hydrobionts, control of growth rates, survival rate by recording the results in a working journal, physiological studies, analysis of morphological and functional blood indices, which were performed according to generally accepted methods. Findings. It was found that the proposed method of non-traditional processing of feed resource for hydrobionts promoted the activation of metabolic processes, contributed to the improvement of fish development indices. During the process of cultivation of Spirulina рlatensis, the use of plasma-chemically activated water had a positive effect on the dynamics of development. Originality. This article presents for the first time the results of a positive effect of the pretreatment of Spirulina Platensis culture with plasma-chemically activated water for its feeding to hydrobionts. A positive effect of this method of feeding on the functional status of fish organism and the process of adaptation-compensatory mechanisms in ontogenesis has been found. Practical value. The proposed method will provide an opportunity to improve the rate of the development of hydrobionts, physiological and biochemical processes with the maximum utilization of the potential of fish organism at the stages of active growth, and also to reduce the cost of artificial feeds.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  10. Glycinebetaine-induced modulation in some biochemical and physiological attributes of okra under salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, H.M.; Mirza, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Role of glycinebetaine (GB) in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) cv. Subz-pari plants grown under salinity stress was investigated under field conditions. The crop was planted under varying levels (0, 200 and 400 mg NaCl per kg of soil) of salinity stress. Foliar application of 75 mM GB was employed at two phases i.e. after 30 and 60 days of sowing. Imposition of salinity stress significantly increased leaf GB and proline contents but significantly reduced leaf chlorophyll content and physiological characteristics such as rate of photosynthesis (Pn), rate of transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf relative water content (LRWC). Exogenous application of GB significantly increased GB content but decreased proline content of leaves and improved various gas exchange characteristics/physiological parameters. The present results thus indicated that foliar application of GB (75 mM) can modulate various biochemical and gas exchange parameters of okra, grown under salt stress. (author)

  11. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P

  12. Enhanced growth, yield and physiological characteristics of rice under elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzar, A.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan; Said, Mohd Nizam Mohd; Doni, Febri; Zaidan, Mohd Waznul Adly Mohd; Fathurahman, Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is rapidly increasing in the atmosphere. It is an essential element for photosynthesis which attracts attention among scientists on how plants will perform in the rising CO2 level. Rice as one of the most important staple food in the world has been studied on the growth responses under elevated CO2. The present research was carried out to determine the growth and physiology of rice in elevated CO2 condition. This research was carried out using complete randomized design with elevated (800 ppm) and ambient CO2. Results showed that growth parameters such as plant height, tillers and number of leaves per plant were increased by elevated CO2. The positive changes in plant physiology when exposed to high CO2 concentration includes significant change (p<0.05) in yield parameters such as panicle number, grain number per panicle, biomass and 1000 grain weight under the elevated CO2 of 800 ppm.

  13. Legitimate versus illegitimate restrictions – A motivational and physiological approach investigating reactance processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eSittenthaler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Threats to our freedom are part of our daily social interactions. They are accompanied by an aversive state of motivational arousal, called reactance, which leads people to strive to reestablish their threatened freedom. This is especially the case if the threat seems to be illegitimate in nature. However, reactance theory suggests that reactance should also be aroused when people are exposed to legitimate freedom threats. In this article we first aim to show that both illegitimate and legitimate freedom threats evoke reactance. Second, we aim to extend past work on reactance by exploring the underlying process of experiencing a legitimate versus an illegitimate restriction. In the current study (N = 57 participants were restricted in an illegitimate (unexpected and inappropriate or legitimate (unexpected but appropriate way, or were not restricted at all. We assessed participants’ experience of reactance, their behavioral intentions to restore their freedom, their approach motivational states, as well as their physiological arousal (heart rate. Results indicated that when restricted in an illegitimate or a legitimate way, participants indicated the same amount of reactance as well as anger. However, when looking at people’s physiological reactions, important differences between illegitimate and legitimate restrictions become apparent. Illegitimate restrictions led to an immediate arousal, whereas legitimate restrictions led to a time delayed arousal. This suggests that illegitimate restrictions lead to a sudden increase in aversive arousal. Legitimate restrictions, however, seem to be associated with a more cognitive process in which people first need to structure their thoughts and reflect upon the situation before getting into the feeling of reactance in a physiologically arousing sense. Moreover a mediation analysis could show that behavioral intentions to regain one’s freedom result in positive and negative approach motivation. In sum

  14. Tansley Review No. 104, Calcium Physiology and Terrestrial Ecosystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. McLaughlin; R. Wimmer

    1999-01-01

    Calcium occupies a unique position among plant nutrients both chemically and functionally. Its chemical properties allow it to exist in a wide range of binding states and to serve in both structural and messenger roles. Despite its importance in many plant processes, Ca mobility is low, making Ca uptake and distribution rate a limiting process for many key plant...

  15. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ferula flabelliloba Rech. F. & Aell., (Apiaceae, a perennial plant with medicinal value, is one of important soil protective grown in Binalood mountains. Decreased precipitation in the previous years caused plants subjected to drought stress condition. Drought stress limits the growth and productivity of plants more than any other environmental factors. Drought stress can alter plant light absorption and consumption processes and increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS is responsible for lipid peroxidation and associated injury to membranes, nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes. To detoxify ROS, plants develop different types of antioxidants to reduce oxidative damage and confer drought tolerance. ROS scavengers are either non- enzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids and phenolic compound or enzymatic containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The activity of these antioxidants and enzymes allows short-term acclimation to temporary water deficit, but these biochemicals cannot overcome the effects of extreme or prolonged drought. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer formed by low alkaline deacetylation of chitin, an important component of the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crab, crawfish and shrimp. Chitosan can affect plant physiology and gene expression, hence these materials can increase the plant resistant to many unfavorable environmental condition. The biological properties of chitosan have led to use it for various purposes. Chitosan has been used as plant protectant against fungi, bacteria and viruses, to improve soil fertility and to stimulate plant defense system. Thus, it seems that chitosan is a promising material for improving plant growth, especially under drought stress conditions where water deficit limits plant growth and establishment. In the present study, the effects of chitosan as foliar spraying of F. flabelliloba

  16. Coral physiology and microbiome dynamics under combined warming and ocean acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa G Grottoli

    tolerant coral with the thermally tolerant endosymbiont. Our results confirm recent findings that temperature-stress tolerant corals have a more stable microbiome, and demonstrate for the first time that this is also the case under the dual stresses of ocean warming and acidification. We propose that coral with a stable microbiome are also more physiologically resilient and thus more likely to persist in the future, and shape the coral species diversity of future reef ecosystems.

  17. Coral physiology and microbiome dynamics under combined warming and ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G; Dalcin Martins, Paula; Wilkins, Michael J; Johnston, Michael D; Warner, Mark E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Pettay, D Tye; Levas, Stephen; Schoepf, Verena

    2018-01-01

    the thermally tolerant endosymbiont. Our results confirm recent findings that temperature-stress tolerant corals have a more stable microbiome, and demonstrate for the first time that this is also the case under the dual stresses of ocean warming and acidification. We propose that coral with a stable microbiome are also more physiologically resilient and thus more likely to persist in the future, and shape the coral species diversity of future reef ecosystems.

  18. Salt- and pH-Triggered Helix-Coil Transition of Ionic Polypeptides under Physiology Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingsong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Yue; Cai, Zhicheng; Yang, Lijiang; Lu, Hua

    2018-06-11

    Controlling the helix-coil transition of polypeptides under physiological conditions is an attractive way toward smart functional materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of tertiary amine-functionalized ethylene glycol (EG x )-linked polypeptide electrolytes with their secondary structures tunable under physiological conditions. The resultant polymers, denoted as P(EG x DMA-Glu) ( x = 1, 2, and 3), show excellent aqueous solubility (>20 mg/mL) regardless of their charge states. Unlike poly-l-lysine that can form a helix only at pH above 10, P(EG x DMA-Glu) undergo a pH-dependent helix-coil switch with their transition points within the physiological range (pH ∼5.3-6.5). Meanwhile, P(EG x DMA-Glu) exhibit an unusual salt-induced helical conformation presumably owing to the unique properties of EG x linkers. Together, the current work highlights the importance of fine-tuning the linker chemistry in achieving conformation-switchable polypeptides and represents a facile approach toward stimuli-responsive biopolymers for advanced biological applications.

  19. The role of psychological and physiological factors in decision making under risk and in a dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eFooken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability (HRV, which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement. We found that the two elicitation methods provide different individual risk attitude measures which is partly reflected in a different gender effect between the methods. Personality traits explain only relatively little in terms of driving risk attitudes and the difference between methods. We also found that risk taking and the physiological state are related for one of the methods, suggesting that more emotionally involved individuals are more risk averse in the experiment. Finally, we found evidence that personality traits are connected to whether individuals made a decision in the dilemma situation, but risk attitudes and the physiological state were not indicative for the ability to decide in this decision context.

  20. Magnesium alloys as body implants: fracture mechanism under dynamic and static loadings in a physiological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Raman, R K Singh

    2012-02-01

    It is essential that a metallic implant material possesses adequate resistance to cracking/fracture under the synergistic action of a corrosive physiological environment and mechanical loading (i.e. stress corrosion cracking (SCC)), before the implant can be put to actual use. This paper presents a critique of the fundamental issues with an assessment of SCC of a rapidly corroding material such as magnesium alloys, and describes an investigation into the mechanism of SCC of a magnesium alloy in a physiological environment. The SCC susceptibility of the alloy in a simulated human body fluid was established by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) testing using smooth specimens under different electrochemical conditions for understanding the mechanism of SCC. However, to assess the life of the implant devices that often possess fine micro-cracks, SCC susceptibility of notched specimens was investigated by circumferential notch tensile (CNT) testing. CNT tests also produced important design data, i.e. threshold stress intensity for SCC (KISCC) and SCC crack growth rate. Fractographic features of SCC were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The SSRT and CNT results, together with fractographic evidence, confirmed the SCC susceptibility of both smooth and notched specimens of a magnesium alloy in the physiological environment. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A closed-loop hybrid physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Emad; Mahfouf, Mahdi; Linkens, Derek A

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this research study is to derive a comprehensive physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress conditions. The model should describe the behaviour of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, thermoregulation and brain activity in response to physical workload. An experimental testing rig was built which consists of recumbent high performance bicycle for inducing the physical load and a data acquisition system comprising monitors and PCs. The signals acquired and used within this study are the blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, body temperature, and EEG signals. The proposed model is based on a grey-box based modelling approach which was used because of the sufficient level of details it provides. Cardiovascular and EEG Data relating to 16 healthy subject volunteers (data from 12 subjects were used for training/validation and the data from 4 subjects were used for model testing) were collected using the Finapres and the ProComp+ monitors. For model validation, residual analysis via the computing of the confidence intervals as well as related histograms was performed. Closed-loop simulations for different subjects showed that the model can provide reliable predictions for heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration, and the EEG signals. These findings were also reinforced by the residual analyses data obtained, which suggested that the residuals were within the 90% confidence bands and that the corresponding histograms were of a normal distribution. A higher intelligent level was added to the model, based on neural networks, to extend the capabilities of the model to predict over a wide range of subjects dynamics. The elicited physiological model describing the effect of physiological stress on several physiological variables can be used to predict performance breakdown of operators in critical environments. Such a model architecture lends itself naturally to exploitation via feedback control in a 'reverse

  2. Simulation of Plant Physiological Process Using Fuzzy Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1991-01-01

    Qualitative modelling can help us understand and project effects of multiple stresses on trees. It is not practical to collect and correlate empirical data for all combinations of plant/environments and human/climate stresses, especially for mature trees in natural settings. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed to describe ecophysiological processes. This model...

  3. Ion release from magnesium materials in physiological solutions under different oxygen tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Drücker, Heiko; Laipple, Daniel; Vogt, Carla; Stekker, Michael; Hort, Norbert; Willumeit, Regine

    2012-01-01

    Although magnesium as degradable biomaterial already showed clinical proof of concepts, the design of new alloys requires predictive in vitro methods, which are still lacking. Incubation under cell culture conditions to obtain "physiological" corrosion may be a solution. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of different solutions, addition of proteins and of oxygen availability on the corrosion of different magnesium materials (pure Mg, WE43, and E11) with different surface finishing. Oxygen content in solution, pH, osmolality and ion release were determined. Corrosion led to a reduction of oxygen in solution. The influence of oxygen on pH was enhanced by proteins, while osmolality was not influenced. Magnesium ion release was solution-dependent and enhanced in the initial phase by proteins with delayed release of alloying elements. The main corrosion product formed was magnesium carbonate. Therefore, cell culture conditions are proposed as first step toward physiological corrosion.

  4. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54 at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  5. Relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hirut; Abbas, Hamed K; Fisher, Daniel K; Bellaloui, Nacer

    2012-11-20

    Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54) at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  6. Physiological and structural aspects of fruit and vegetable mild processing

    OpenAIRE

    Panarese, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years fruit and vegetable industry has become interested in the application of both osmotic dehydration and vacuum impregnation as mild technologies because of their low temperature and energy requirements. Osmotic dehydration is a partial dewatering process by immersion of cellular tissue in hypertonic solution. The diffusion of water from the vegetable tissue to the solution is usually accompanied by the simultaneous solutes counter-diffusion into the tissue. Vacuum imp...

  7. Measurement of pharyngeal sensory cortical processing: technique and physiologic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein E Bernd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication of different diseases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. Pharyngeal sensory impairment is one of the main features of neurogenic dysphagia. Therefore an objective technique to examine the cortical processing of pharyngeal sensory input would be a helpful diagnostic tool in this context. We developed a simple paradigm to perform pneumatic stimulation to both sides of the pharyngeal wall. Whole-head MEG was employed to study changes in cortical activation during this pharyngeal stimulation in nine healthy subjects. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Our results revealed bilateral activation of the caudolateral primary somatosensory cortex following sensory pharyngeal stimulation with a slight lateralization to the side of stimulation. Conclusion The method introduced here is simple and easy to perform and might be applicable in the clinical setting. The results are in keeping with previous findings showing bihemispheric involvement in the complex task of sensory pharyngeal processing. They might also explain changes in deglutition after hemispheric strokes. The ipsilaterally lateralized processing is surprising and needs further investigation.

  8. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  9. Stability of auditory discrimination and novelty processing in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Tasca, Domenica; Rundo, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Complex higher-order cognitive functions and their possible changes with aging are mandatory objectives of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials (ERPs) allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. N100, Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory ERP components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if N100, MMN and P3a parameters are stable in healthy aged subjects, compared to those of normal young adults. Normal young adults and older participants were assessed using standardized cognitive functional instruments and their ERPs were obtained with an auditory stimulation at two different interstimulus intervals, during a passive paradigm. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests. No significant differences were found for any ERP parameters obtained from the two age groups. This study shows that aging is characterized by a stability of the auditory discrimination and novelty processing. This is important for the arrangement of normative for the detection of subtle preclinical changes due to abnormal brain aging.

  10. Effects of competitive pressure on expert performance: underlying psychological, physiological, and kinematic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Boardley, Ian D; Ring, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Although it is well established that performance is influenced by competitive pressure, our understanding of the mechanisms which underlie the pressure-performance relationship is limited. The current experiment examined mediators of the relationship between competitive pressure and motor skill performance of experts. Psychological, physiological, and kinematic responses to three levels of competitive pressure were measured in 50 expert golfers, during a golf putting task. Elevated competitive pressure increased putting accuracy, anxiety, effort, and heart rate, but decreased grip force. Quadratic effects of pressure were noted for self-reported conscious processing and impact velocity. Mediation analyses revealed that effort and heart rate partially mediated improved performance. The findings indicate that competitive pressure elicits effects on expert performance through both psychological and physiological pathways. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on seed germination and physiological characteristics of Coronilla varia under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Le Yuan; Chen, Nian Lai; Han, Guo Jun; Li, Liang

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L -1 ) of salicylic acid on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of legume forage Coronilla varia (cultivar 'Lvbaoshi') under PEG-6000 (concentration 8% and 12%) simulated drought stress. The results showed that under drought stress, 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination vigour, germination index, vitality index and bud length of C. varia. Under the stress of 12% PEG, the dry mass of C. varia seedlings processed by 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid was significantly higher than that under drought stress. 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid processing significantly increased proline, soluble protein content, the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of C. varia seedlings under drought stress, but cell electrolyte permeability, H2O2 content and O2 - · production rate of seedlings were significantly decreased. 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid produced the best results. When the concentration of salicylic acid was beyond 2.0 mmol·L -1 , no mitigation effect was observed on the seed germination and growth of seedlings under drought stress. It was concluded that salicylic acid at appropriate concentrations could effectively improve osmotic regulation, antioxidation and mitigate the damage of drought stress so as to promote the growth of C. varia seedlings.

  12. Experimental study on physiological responses and thermal comfort under various ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ye; Lian, Zhiwei; Liu, Weiwei; Shen, Qi

    2008-01-28

    This study mainly explored the thermal comfort from the perspective of physiology. Three physiological parameters, including skin temperature (local and mean), electrocardiograph (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG), were investigated to see how they responded to the ambient temperature and how they were related to the thermal comfort sensation. A total of four ambient temperatures (21 degrees C, 24 degrees C, 26 degrees C and 29 degrees C) were created, while the other thermal conditions including the air velocity (about 0.05+/-0.01 m/s) and the air humidity (about 60+/-5 m/s) were kept as stable as possible throughout the experiments. Twenty healthy students were tested with questionnaire investigation under those thermal environments. The statistical analysis shows that the skin temperature (local and mean), the ratio of LF(norm) to HF(norm) of ECG and the global relative power of the different EEG frequency bands will be sensitive to the ambient temperatures and the thermal sensations of the subjects. It is suggested that the three physiological parameters should be considered all together in the future study of thermal comfort.

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  14. Physiological response and productivity of safflower lines under water deficit and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolheiro, Fernanda P A P; Silva, Marcelo A

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment.

  15. Physiological response and productivity of safflower lines under water deficit and rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA P.A.P. BORTOLHEIRO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment.

  16. Physiological and biochemical principles underlying volume-targeted therapy--the "Lund concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The optimal therapy of sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) remains controversial. The volume-targeted therapy ("Lund concept") discussed in this article focuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. The balance between effective transcapillary hydrostatic and osmotic pressures constitutes the driving force for transcapillary fluid exchange. The low permeability for sodium and chloride combined with the high crystalloid osmotic pressure (approximately 5700 mmHg) on both sides of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) counteracts fluid exchange across the intact BBB. Additionally, variations in systemic blood pressure generally are not transmitted to these capillaries because cerebral intracapillary hydrostatic pressure (and blood flow) is physio-logically tightly autoregulated. Under pathophysiological conditions, the BBB may be partially disrupted. Transcapillary water exchange is then determined by the differences in hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure between the intra- and extracapillary compartments. Pressure autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is likely to be impaired in these conditions. A high cerebral perfusion pressure accordingly increases intracapillary hydrostatic pressure and leads to increased intracerebral water content and an increase in ICP. The volume-targeted "Lund concept" has been evaluated in experimental and clinical studies to examine the physiological and biochemical (utilizing intracerebral microdialysis) effects, and the clinical experiences have been favorable.

  17. Anatomic and physiological modifications in seedlings of Coffea arabica cultivar Siriema under drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Ferreira Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weather changes prognostic for the coming years, the understanding of water deficit and physiological responses of plants to drought becomes an important requirement in order to develop technologies such as mechanisms to assist plants to cope with longer drought periods, which will be essential to maintenance of Brazilian and worldwide production. This study aimed to evaluate ecophysiological and anatomical aspects as well as the nitrate reductase activity in Siriema coffee seedlings subjected to four treatments: Daily irrigated, non-irrigated, re-irrigated 24 hours and re-irrigated 48 hours after different stress periods. Non-irrigation promoted a reduction in leaf water potential being accented from the ninth day of evaluation onwards. Re-irrigation promoted a partial recovery of the plant water potential. Non-irrigated plants showed an increase in stomatal resistance and reduction of transpiration and nitrate reductase activity. In the roots, there was a decrease in nitrate reductase activity under water stress. Leaf anatomical modifications were significant only for the adaxial surface epidermis and palisade parenchyma thickness, this latter characteristic being higher in control plants. Stomatal density and polar and equatorial diameter ratios showed the highest values in plants under water stress. In the roots, differences only in the cortex thickness being bigger in the non-irrigated treatment could be observed. Therefore, Siriema coffee plants under water stress show physiological, biochemical and anatomical modifications that contribute to the tolerance of this genotype to these conditions.

  18. Apoptotic factors in physiological and pathological processes of teeth and periodontal tissues – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzedala-Koszel Urszula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a physiological process that occurs in the human body throughout the entire life span. This process can be seen in the tissues of the stomatognathic system. A disorder in such programmed cell death processes leads to the development of pathological lesions. Among these are inflammation, osteolytic lesions and neoplastic hyperplasia. We put forward that future studies should concentrate on how to use the knowledge of apoptotic processes and their inhibitors in therapeutic processes involving the stomatognathic system.

  19. Tracking the sleep onset process: an empirical model of behavioral and physiological dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Prerau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sleep onset process (SOP is a dynamic process correlated with a multitude of behavioral and physiological markers. A principled analysis of the SOP can serve as a foundation for answering questions of fundamental importance in basic neuroscience and sleep medicine. Unfortunately, current methods for analyzing the SOP fail to account for the overwhelming evidence that the wake/sleep transition is governed by continuous, dynamic physiological processes. Instead, current practices coarsely discretize sleep both in terms of state, where it is viewed as a binary (wake or sleep process, and in time, where it is viewed as a single time point derived from subjectively scored stages in 30-second epochs, effectively eliminating SOP dynamics from the analysis. These methods also fail to integrate information from both behavioral and physiological data. It is thus imperative to resolve the mismatch between the physiological evidence and analysis methodologies. In this paper, we develop a statistically and physiologically principled dynamic framework and empirical SOP model, combining simultaneously-recorded physiological measurements with behavioral data from a novel breathing task requiring no arousing external sensory stimuli. We fit the model using data from healthy subjects, and estimate the instantaneous probability that a subject is awake during the SOP. The model successfully tracked physiological and behavioral dynamics for individual nights, and significantly outperformed the instantaneous transition models implicit in clinical definitions of sleep onset. Our framework also provides a principled means for cross-subject data alignment as a function of wake probability, allowing us to characterize and compare SOP dynamics across different populations. This analysis enabled us to quantitatively compare the EEG of subjects showing reduced alpha power with the remaining subjects at identical response probabilities. Thus, by incorporating both

  20. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H2O2 content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23285294

  1. Life under Multiple Extreme Conditions: Diversity and Physiology of the Halophilic Alkalithermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth. PMID:22492435

  2. Custom AFM for X-ray beamlines: in situ biological investigations under physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumí-Audenis, B. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Carlà, F. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Vitorino, M. V. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Panzarella, A. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Porcar, L. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Boilot, M. [ORTEC, Marseille (France); Guerber, S. [CEA, LETI Grenoble (France); Bernard, P. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Rodrigues, M. S. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Sanz, F.; Giannotti, M. I. [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Costa, L., E-mail: luca.costa@esrf.fr [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-30

    The performance of a custom atomic force microscope for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments on hydrated soft and biological samples is presented. A fast atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed that can be installed as a sample holder for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments at solid/gas or solid/liquid interfaces. It allows a wide range of possible investigations, including soft and biological samples under physiological conditions (hydrated specimens). The structural information obtained using the X-rays is combined with the data gathered with the AFM (morphology and mechanical properties), providing a unique characterization of the specimen and its dynamics in situ during an experiment. In this work, lipid monolayers and bilayers in air or liquid environment have been investigated by means of AFM, both with imaging and force spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. In addition, this combination allows the radiation damage induced by the beam on the sample to be studied, as has been observed on DOPC and DPPC supported lipid bilayers under physiological conditions.

  3. Analysis of natural variation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) reveals physiological responses underlying drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H₂O₂ content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system.

  4. Survival, physical and physiological changes of Taenia hydatigena eggs under different conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Thevenet, Paula; Alvarez, Hector Manuel; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2017-06-01

    Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance mechanism in eggs belonging to Taeniidae family. The findings shown herein have provided a basis to better comprehend basic biology and epidemiology of the cysticercosis caused by T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  6. The changes in the ecology and physiology of soil invertebrates under influences of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.

    2006-01-01

    The soil biota is important in building and maintaining soil structure and fertility. Invertebrates are ideal as potential bio indicators of the environmental impact of radioactive contamination: they are widely distributed, often abundant and generally thought of as having low dispersive capacity. They can use as test organisms to detect the side-effects of radioactive contamination. The long-term analysis of ecological and physiological after-effects and biodiversity changes had been studied in the zone of radioactive contamination. Material was collected in the Gomel Region (Belarus), 30 km away from the CNPP in 1986-2004 applying usual pedobiological techniques (soil samples and Barber's pitfall traps) at reference points subjected to radioactive contamination. Soil samples were collected at 0 to 25 cm depth. Samples were taken in locations, which had received considerable radionuclide contaminations. These sites differed in contamination by the composition of fall-out, the forms of radionuclide content in soils, their intake into trophic chains and accumulation in animal and plant organisms. The impacts have been investigated at the: 1) organism and population levels , in terms of individual life histories (birth rate, growth, mortality) or species selection; 2) at the community level: to species diversity and to effects on trophic structure. The invertebrates were determined to species or genera, including juvenile stages. Radioactive contamination caused a distinct decrease in species number; the dominance structure of the community changed. The saprophagous are especially sensitive to environmental disturbances. An initial sharp reduction of animal biodiversity and simplification of the community structure of soil fauna were observed, followed by a long-term process of returning to the initial parameters. Changes in hemolymph, necroses of epithelium and cell structure in connective tissue were registered. The most drastic after-effects were manifested in

  7. Convergence of macrostates under reproducible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    I show that whenever a system undergoes a reproducible macroscopic process the mutual distinguishability of macrostates, as measured by their relative entropy, diminishes. This extends the second law which regards only ordinary entropies, and hence only the distinguishability between macrostates and one specific reference state (equidistribution). The new result holds regardless of whether the process is linear or nonlinear. Its proof hinges on the monotonicity of quantum relative entropy under arbitrary coarse grainings, even those that cannot be represented by trace-preserving completely positive maps.

  8. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  9. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The release of the majority of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel under permanent disposal conditions will be controlled by the rate of dissolution of the UO 2 fuel matrix. In this manuscript the mechanism of the coupled anodic (fuel dissolution) and cathodic (oxidant reduction) reactions which constitute the overall fuel corrosion process is reviewed, and the many published observations on fuel corrosion under disposal conditions discussed. The primary emphasis is on summarizing the overall mechanistic behaviour and establishing the primary factors likely to control fuel corrosion. Included are discussions on the influence of various oxidants including radiolytic ones, pH, temperature, groundwater composition, and the formation of corrosion product deposits. The relevance of the data recorded on unirradiated UO 2 to the interpretation of spent fuel behaviour is included. Based on the review, the data used to develop fuel corrosion models under the conditions anticipated in Yucca Mountain (NV, USA) are evaluated

  10. The morphology, physiology and nutritional quality of lettuce grown under hypobaria and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome) under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions. Plants were grown under two levels of total pressures (101 and 30 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) for 20 days. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) not only significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce plants by decreasing biomass, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, water content, the contents of minerals and organic compounds (vitamin C, crude protein and crude fat), but also destroyed the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast. The activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of glutathione and the total antioxidant capacity significantly decreased due to hypoxia. Hypobaria (30 kPa) did not markedly enhance the biomass, but it increased leaf area, root/shoot ratio and relative water content. Hypobaria also decreased the contents of total phenols, malondialdehyde and total carbohydrate and protected the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast under hypoxia. Furthermore, the activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of minerals and organic compounds markedly increased under hypobaria. This study demonstrates that hypobaria (30 kPa) does not increase the growth of lettuce plants, but it enhances plant's stress resistance and nutritional quality under hypoxia.

  11. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb 14 C-DDT, 14 C-phenanthrene (Phe), 14 C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 14 C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms. Highlights: • PVC and PE (200–250 μm) were able to sorb phenanthrene, DDT, PFOA and DEHP. • Desorption rates were faster using a gut surfactant compared to seawater alone. • Desorption rates were further enhanced at lower pH and higher temperature. • Plastic-POPs were ranked according to their potential to cause “harm”. -- Desorption rates of sorbed POPs from plastics were substantially enhanced under gut conditions specific of warm blooded organisms, suggesting potential transfer following ingestion

  12. On the interpretation of the independent components underlying the abdominal phonogram: a study of their physiological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-González, A; James, C J

    2012-01-01

    Recorded by positioning a sensitive acoustic sensor over the maternal womb, the abdominal phonogram is a signal that contains valuable information for foetal surveillance (e.g. heart rate), which is hidden by maternal and environmental sources. To recover such information, previous work used single-channel independent component analysis (SCICA) to separate the abdominal phonogram into statistically independent components (ICs) that, once acquired, must be objectively associated with the real sources underlying the abdominal phonogram—either physiological or environmental. This is a typical challenge for blind source separation methodologies and requires further research on the signals of interest to find a suitable solution. Here, we have conducted a joint study on 75 sets of ICs by means of statistical, spectral, complexity and time-structure analysis methods. As a result, valuable and consistent characteristics of the components separated from the abdominal phonogram by SCICA have been revealed: (1) the ICs are spectrally disjoint and sorted according to their frequency content, (2) only the ICs with lower frequency content present strong regular patterns and (3) such regular patterns are driven by well-known physiological processes given by the maternal breathing rate, the maternal heart rate and the foetal heart rate. This information was so promising that it has been used in current work for automatic classification of ICs and recovery of the traces of the physiological sources underlying the abdominal phonogram. Future work will look for the extraction of information useful for surveillance (e.g. heart rate), not only about foetal well-being, but also about maternal condition. (paper)

  13. Diversity of Physiological Traits In jerusalem Artichoke genotypes under Non-stress and Drought Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttanaprasert, R.; Banterng, P.; Vorasoot, N.; Kesmala, T.; Patanothai, A.; Jogloy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological traits such as SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), specific leaf area (SLA) and harvest index (HI) play an important role in crop yield. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of drought stress on HI, SCMR and SLA and explore genetic variability for these physiological traits in Jerusalem artichoke (JA) (Helianthus tuberosus L.). Field experiments were conducted in the dry period of 2010/11 and 2011/12 in the Northeast of Thailand using a strip plot design with four replications. A horizontal factor was three different water regimes (W1:100 percent Crop water requirement (ETcrop), W2: 75 percent ETcrop and W3: 45 percent ETcrop) and a vertical factor was 40 JA genotypes. Measurements on HI, relative water content (RWC), SLA and SCMR were conducted at 40, 60 and 70 days after transplantation. Drought stress significantly reduced RWC and SLA but significantly increased SCMR. High variations in SCMR (32-59) and SLA (78-213 cm/sup 2/ g/sup -1/) were found among genotypes. The correlations between HI and SCMR (r = 0.56 to 0.78, p<=0.01) were positive and significant, whereas the respective ones between HI and SLA (r = -0.60 to -0.76, p<=0.01) were negative and significant as those between SCMR and SLA (r = -0.73 to -0.90, p<=0.01). These findings suggested that SCMR was linked with SLA and HI in JA. SCMR could be used as a physiological trait for indirect selection for HI and productivity under various water regimes in JA. (author)

  14. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Saulou-Bérion

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins, for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes. The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA. The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq and chaperone (dnaJ, and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB. Interestingly, as these

  15. Biochemical and physiological characterization of three rice cultivars under different daytime temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alefsi David Sanchez-Reinoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high daytime temperatures is one of the main limiting factors in rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Colombia. Thus, the objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of three different daytime temperatures (25, 35, and 40 °C on the physiological responses of three Colombian rice cultivars (F60, F733, and F473, thereby contributing to the knowledge of rice acclimation mechanisms. For 10 d, eight plants of each of the three cultivars were subjected daily to 5 h periods of 35 and 40 °C. The control treatment corresponded to normal growth conditions (25 °C. Thermal stress was assessed based on a series of physiological and biochemical parameters. The 35 °C treatment produced photosynthetic and respiratory differences in all three cultivars. At 40 °C, 'F60' displayed the lowest photosynthetic rate and the highest respiratory rate. Although this cultivar experienced particularly strong electrolyte leakage and changes in proline when subjected to the high-temperature treatments, similar trends were observed in 'F733' and 'F473'. At 40 °C, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA was lower in 'F473' than in the other cultivars. These results may explain the poor agronomic performance of 'F60' in the field under daytime heat stress. The methodologies employed in the present work may be useful in Colombian rice breeding programs, particularly for the selection of heat-tolerant breeding stocks.

  16. Threshold Research on Highway Length under Typical Landscape Patterns Based on Drivers’ Physiological Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriately landscaped highway scenes may not only help improve road safety and comfort but also help protect ecological environment. Yet there is very little research data on highway length threshold with consideration of distinctive landscape patterns. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to quantitatively analyze highway landscape’s effect on driving behavior based on drivers’ physiological performance and quantify highway length thresholds under three typical landscape patterns, namely, “open,” “semiopen,” and “vertical” ones. The statistical analysis was based on data collected in a driving simulator and electrocardiograph. Specifically, vehicle-related data, ECG data, and supplemental subjective stress perception were collected. The study extracted two characteristic indices, lane deviation and LF/HF, and extrapolated the drivers’ U-shaped physiological response to landscape patterns. Models on highway length were built based on LF/HF’s variation trend with highway length. The results revealed that the theoretical highway length threshold tended to increase when the landscape pattern was switched to open, semiopen, and vertical ones. And the reliability and accuracy of the results were validated by questionnaires and field operational tests. Findings from this research will assist practitioners in taking active environmental countermeasures pertaining to different roadside landscape patterns.

  17. The use of physiological solutions or media in calcium phosphate synthesis and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, A Cuneyt

    2014-05-01

    This review examined the literature to spot uses, if any, of physiological solutions/media for the in situ synthesis of calcium phosphates (CaP) under processing conditions (i.e. temperature, pH, concentration of inorganic ions present in media) mimicking those prevalent in the human hard tissue environments. There happens to be a variety of aqueous solutions or media developed for different purposes; sometimes they have been named as physiological saline, isotonic solution, cell culture solution, metastable CaP solution, supersaturated calcification solution, simulated body fluid or even dialysate solution (for dialysis patients). Most of the time such solutions were not used as the aqueous medium to perform the biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphates, and their use was usually limited to the in vitro testing of synthetic biomaterials. This review illustrates that only a limited number of research studies used physiological solutions or media such as Earle's balanced salt solution, Bachra et al. solutions or Tris-buffered simulated body fluid solution containing 27mM HCO3(-) for synthesizing CaP, and these studies have consistently reported the formation of X-ray-amorphous CaP nanopowders instead of Ap-CaP or stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) at 37°C and pH 7.4. By relying on the published articles, this review highlights the significance of the use of aqueous solutions containing 0.8-1.5 mMMg(2+), 22-27mM HCO3(-), 142-145mM Na(+), 5-5.8mM K(+), 103-133mM Cl(-), 1.8-3.75mM Ca(2+), and 0.8-1.67mM HPO4(2-), which essentially mimic the composition and the overall ionic strength of the human extracellular fluid (ECF), in forming the nanospheres of X-ray-amorphous CaP. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Express Type 1 Fimbriae Only in Surface Adherent Populations Under Physiological Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Kristian; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Khandige, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    were correlated with the ability to adhere to and invade cultured human bladder cells. RESULTS:  Although inactive during planktonic growth in urine, T1F expression occurs when UPEC settles on and infects bladder epithelial cells or colonizes catheters. As a result, UPEC in these sessile populations...... with increased expression during surface growth adaptation and infection of uroepithelial cells. This leads to separation of UPEC into low-expression planktonic populations and high-expression sessile populations....... enhances bladder cell adhesion and invasion potential. Only T1F-negative UPEC are subsequently released to the urine, thus limiting T1F expression to surface-associated UPEC alone. CONCLUSION:  Our results demonstrate that T1F expression is strictly regulated under physiological growth conditions...

  19. Speaking under pressure: low linguistic complexity is linked to high physiological and emotional stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; McCoy, Shannon; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Cosley, Brandon; Vartan, Arbi; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Moskowitz, Judith T; Epel, Elissa S

    2014-03-01

    What can a speech reveal about someone's state? We tested the idea that greater stress reactivity would relate to lower linguistic cognitive complexity while speaking. In Study 1, we tested whether heart rate and emotional stress reactivity to a stressful discussion would relate to lower linguistic complexity. In Studies 2 and 3, we tested whether a greater cortisol response to a standardized stressful task including a speech (Trier Social Stress Test) would be linked to speaking with less linguistic complexity during the task. We found evidence that measures of stress responsivity (emotional and physiological) and chronic stress are tied to variability in the cognitive complexity of speech. Taken together, these results provide evidence that our individual experiences of stress or "stress signatures"-how our body and mind react to stress both in the moment and over the longer term-are linked to how complex our speech under stress. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Physiological-metabolic variables of caloric stress in cows under silvopastoral and prairie without trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan Hernandez, Wilson Andres; Cajas-Giron, Yasmin Socorro; Mahecha-Ledesma, Lilliana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in physiological and metabolic parameters were assessed as indicators of caloric stress of cows under grazing were investigated. The study was developed at the Centro de Investigacion Corpoica Turipana, Region Caribe, Cerete, Colombia, during the years 2011-2012. Temperature (T) and relative humidity (H), and in animals: rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (TP), respiratory rate (RF) and acid-base status were determined. The variables were measured in the morning (6:00 h) and in the afternoon (13:00 h). Effect of treatment on environmental temperature was found with 7 and 6% less temperature in p-Arbur-Arbor and p-Arbor, respectively, compared with the grass treatment. There was an effect of time (p [es

  1. Planting spacing and NK fertilizing on physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya under semiarid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monteiro Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nutritional requirements of papaya (Carica papaya L. increase continuously throughout the crop cycle, especially for potassium and nitrogen, which are the most required nutrients and act on plant vital functions such as photosynthetic activity, respiration, transpiration and stomatal regulation. An experiment was conducted from November 2010 to December 2012 to evaluate physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya cv. Caliman-01 as a function of planting spacing and NK fertilizing. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 4 × 4, using 2 planting spacing [simple rows (3.8 × 2.0 m and double rows (3.8 × 2.0 × 1.8 m], 4 nitrogen doses (320, 400, 480 and 560 g of N per plant-1 and 4 potassium doses (380, 475, 570 and 665 g of K2O per plant-1 with 4 replications of 3 plants each. The following variables were evaluated: leaf area index (LAI, leaf chlorophyll index (a, b and total index, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (Int.PAR, in µmol∙m-2∙s-1, efficiency use of photosynthetically active radiation (Ef.PAR and fruit yield. The fruit production and physiological characteristics of papaya cv. Caliman-01 depend on planting spacing. Under the soil, climate and plant conditions of this study, 665 g of K2O and 320 g of N per plant under double spacing could be recommended for the production of papaya cv. Caliman-01.

  2. Physiological and Proteomic Analysis in Chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under Silicon Efficiency and Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L. were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs such as photosystems I (PSI and II (PSII to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome

  3. Physiological aspects of seedling development of coffee grown under colored screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrique, Paola de Castro; Alves, Jose Donizeti; Livramento, Darlan Einstein do; Goulart, Patricia de Fatima Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological aspects of the development of coffee seedlings grown under colored screens with different spectral characteristics. Seedlings of Catucai Amarelo 2SL, in the stage known as 'orelha de onca', were arranged in a randomized block design, with five replicates, under structures individually covered with blue, white, gray, black or red screens with 50% shade. Four months after, evaluations were done for seedling growth, pigment content of the leaves, total soluble sugars and starch contents of the leaves and roots. The red screen was the most effective in promoting growth in four out of the seven studied traits: plant height, leaf area and leaf dry weight and total dry matter. For the other characteristics, there was no difference among the screens. The pigment analysis showed that, except for the gray screen, the other ones did not differ for this trait. In leaves, the red screen promoted higher levels of carbohydrates and starch. At the root, carbohydrate contents were higher under the red and black screens. Among the five screen colors, the red one was the most efficient in the production of coffee seedlings with higher vigor and quality, with outstanding carbohydrate contents and biomass. (author)

  4. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, K.; Ilyas, N.; Batool, N.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring signaling molecule and growth regulator that enhances plant growth particularly in stress conditions. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of different levels of SA on maize growth under drought and salt stress conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in two cultivar of maize D-1184 and TG-8250. Varying levels of salicylic acid, i.e. 5mM, 10mM and 15mM were applied through foliar method. Exogenous applications of salicylic acid were done after 20 days of germination of the maize plants. Salicylic acid significantly affects root and shoot dry matter under drought and salt stress. Foliar application of SA significantly increased proline concentration (11 percentage and 12 percentage), amino acid accumulation (25 percentage and 18 percentage), relative water (17 percentage and 14 percentage) and Chlorophyll content. Overall, it can be concluded that SA at lower concentration is effective to minimize the effect of stress conditions. Maize cultivar TG-8250 showed better tolerance under drought and salt stress condition as compared to D-1184 cultivar. (author)

  5. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  6. The aquadeb project (phase i): Analysing the physiological flexibility processes by using dynamic energy budgets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alunno-Bruscia, M.; v.d. Veer, H.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within

  7. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  8. From good to bad : Intravital imaging of the hijack of physiological processes by cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J.E.; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2017-01-01

    Homeostasis of tissues is tightly regulated at the cellular, tissue and organismal level. Interestingly, tumor cells have found ways to hijack many of these physiological processes at all the different levels. Here we review how intravital microscopy techniques have provided new insights into our

  9. Non-linear effects of drought under shade: reconciling physiological and ecological models in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Milena; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Quero, José Luis; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The combined effects of shade and drought on plant performance and the implications for species interactions are highly debated in plant ecology. Empirical evidence for positive and negative effects of shade on the performance of plants under dry conditions supports two contrasting theoretical models about the role of shade under dry conditions: the trade-off and the facilitation hypotheses. We performed a meta-analysis of field and greenhouse studies evaluating the effects of drought at two or more irradiance levels on nine response variables describing plant physiological condition, growth, and survival. We explored differences in plant response across plant functional types, ecosystem types and methodological approaches. The data were best fit using quadratic models indicating a humped-back shape response to drought along an irradiance gradient for survival, whole plant biomass, maximum photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance and maximal photochemical efficiency. Drought effects were ameliorated at intermediate irradiance, becoming more severe at higher or lower light levels. This general pattern was maintained when controlling for potential variations in the strength of the drought treatment among light levels. Our quantitative meta-analysis indicates that dense shade ameliorates drought especially among drought-intolerant and shade-tolerant species. Wet tropical species showed larger negative effects of drought with increasing irradiance than semiarid and cold temperate species. Non-linear responses to irradiance were stronger under field conditions than under controlled greenhouse conditions. Non-linear responses to drought along the irradiance gradient reconciliate opposing views in plant ecology, indicating that facilitation is more likely within certain range of environmental conditions, fading under deep shade, especially for drought-tolerant species.

  10. Passing thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: performance retention under physiological fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolton, J M; Masters, R S W; Maxwell, J P

    2007-06-01

    Heuristics of evolutionary biology (e.g., survival of the fittest) dictate that phylogenetically older processes are inherently more stable and resilient to disruption than younger processes. On the grounds that non-declarative behaviour emerged long before declarative behaviour, Reber (1992) argues that implicit (non-declarative) learning is supported by neural processes that are evolutionarily older than those supporting explicit learning. Reber suggested that implicit learning thus leads to performance that is more robust than explicit learning. Applying this evolutionary framework to motor performance, we examined whether implicit motor learning, relative to explicit motor learning, conferred motor output that was resilient to physiological fatigue and durable over time. In Part One of the study a fatigued state was induced by a double Wingate Anaerobic test protocol. Fatigue had no affect on performance of participants in the implicit condition; whereas, performance of participants in the explicit condition deteriorated significantly. In Part Two of the study a convenience sample of participants was recalled following a one-year hiatus. In both the implicit and the explicit condition retention of performance was seen and, contrary to the findings in Part One, so was resilience to fatigue. The resilient performance in the explicit condition after one year may have resulted from forgetting (the decay of declarative knowledge) or from consolidation of declarative knowledge as implicit memories. In either case, implicit processes were left to more effectively support motor performance.

  11. Cholesterol as a modifying agent of the neurovascular unit structure and function under physiological and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Ewelina; Steliga, Aleksandra; Lietzau, Grażyna; Kowiański, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules. In physiological conditions maintaining the optimal cholesterol concentration is important for the energetic metabolism, composition of cell membranes and myelination. However, a growing body of evidence indicates the consequences of the cholesterol homeostasis dysregulation in several pathophysiological processes. There is a causal relationship between hypercholesterolemia and 1) development of type 2 diabetes due to long-term high-fat diet consumption, 2) significance of the oxidative stress consequences for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and neurodegenerative diseases, 3) insulin resistance on progression of the neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the cholesterol influence upon functioning of the NVU under physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. PhysioSpace: relating gene expression experiments from heterogeneous sources using shared physiological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lenz

    Full Text Available Relating expression signatures from different sources such as cell lines, in vitro cultures from primary cells and biopsy material is an important task in drug development and translational medicine as well as for tracking of cell fate and disease progression. Especially the comparison of large scale gene expression changes to tissue or cell type specific signatures is of high interest for the tracking of cell fate in (trans- differentiation experiments and for cancer research, which increasingly focuses on shared processes and the involvement of the microenvironment. These signature relation approaches require robust statistical methods to account for the high biological heterogeneity in clinical data and must cope with small sample sizes in lab experiments and common patterns of co-expression in ubiquitous cellular processes. We describe a novel method, called PhysioSpace, to position dynamics of time series data derived from cellular differentiation and disease progression in a genome-wide expression space. The PhysioSpace is defined by a compendium of publicly available gene expression signatures representing a large set of biological phenotypes. The mapping of gene expression changes onto the PhysioSpace leads to a robust ranking of physiologically relevant signatures, as rigorously evaluated via sample-label permutations. A spherical transformation of the data improves the performance, leading to stable results even in case of small sample sizes. Using PhysioSpace with clinical cancer datasets reveals that such data exhibits large heterogeneity in the number of significant signature associations. This behavior was closely associated with the classification endpoint and cancer type under consideration, indicating shared biological functionalities in disease associated processes. Even though the time series data of cell line differentiation exhibited responses in larger clusters covering several biologically related patterns, top scoring

  13. Conservation physiology can inform threat assessment and recovery planning processes for threatened species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Walton, Sarah; Delle Palme, Caleigh A.

    2017-01-01

    threat assessments and work with partners to develop recovery plans. Here we argue that conservation physiology has much to offer for the threat assessment process and outline the ways in which this can be operationalized. For instance, conservation physiology is effective at revealing causal...... role in the conservation activities of bodies like the IUCN that are engaged in threat assessment and recovery of endangered organisms. Although we focus on activities at the international scale, these same concepts are relevant and applicable to national and regional bodies...

  14. Physiological and proteomic analyses of Saccharum spp. grown under salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Melro Murad

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is the world most productive sugar producing crop, making an understanding of its stress physiology key to increasing both sugar and ethanol production. To understand the behavior and salt tolerance mechanisms of sugarcane, two cultivars commonly used in Brazilian agriculture, RB867515 and RB855536, were submitted to salt stress for 48 days. Physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, water potential, dry root and shoot mass and malondialdehyde (MDA content of leaves were determined. Control plants of the two cultivars showed similar values for most traits apart from higher root dry mass in RB867515. Both cultivars behaved similarly during salt stress, except for MDA levels for which there was a delay in the response for cultivar RB867515. Analysis of leaf macro- and micronutrients concentrations was performed and the concentration of Mn(2+ increased on day 48 for both cultivars. In parallel, to observe the effects of salt stress on protein levels in leaves of the RB867515 cultivar, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis was performed. Four proteins were differentially expressed between control and salt-treated plants. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was down-regulated, a germin-like protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed increased expression levels under salt stress, and heat-shock protein 70 was expressed only in salt-treated plants. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism and defense-related responses and we suggest that they may be involved in protection mechanisms against salt stress in sugarcane.

  15. Associative bacteria influence maize (Zea mays L.) growth, physiology and root anatomy under different nitrogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzavara, Anderson Kikuchi; Paiva, Pedro Henrique Godoy; Gabriel, Lorrant Cavanha; de Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Milani, Karina; Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Bianchini, Edmilson; Pimenta, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Dias-Pereira, Jaqueline; Stolf-Moreira, Renata

    2018-05-15

    Despite the great diversity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with potential to partially replace the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture, few PGPB are explored for the production of commercial inoculants, reinforcing the importance of identifying positive plant-bacteria interactions. Aiming to better understand the influence of PGPB inoculation in plant development, two PGPB species with distant phylogenetic relationship were inoculated in maize. Maize seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. or Azospirillum brasilense. After germinating, the plants were subjected to two nitrogen treatments: full (N+) and limiting (N-) nitrogen supply. Then, anatomical, biometric and physiological analyses were performed. Both PGPB species modified the anatomical pattern of roots, as verified by the higher metaxylem vessel elements (MVE) number. Bacillus sp. also increased the MVE area in maize roots. Under N+ condition, both PGPB decreased the leaf protein content and led to the development of shorter roots; however, Bacillus sp. increased root and shoot dry weight, whereas A. brasilense increased photosynthesis rate and leaf nitrate content. In plants subjected to N limitation (N-), photosynthesis rate and photosystem II efficiency increased in those inoculated with Bacillus sp., whilst A. brasilense led to higher ammonium, amino acids and total soluble sugars contents in the leaves, compared to control. Plant developmental and metabolical patterns were switched by the inoculation, regardless the inoculant bacteria used, producing similar as well as distinct modifications on the parameters studied. These results indicatie that even non-diazotrophic inoculant strains can improve the plant N-status as result of the morpho-anatomical and physiological modifications produced by the PGPB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  17. [Effects of exogenous silicon on physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Hai; Wang, Ya-Kun; Lu, Xiao-Min; Jia, Shuang-Shuang

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exogenous silicon on growth and physiological characteristics of hydroponically cultured cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress. The results showed that the growth, especially the aerial part growth of cucumber seedlings cultured with ammonium were significantly inhibited than those with nitrate, especially after treatment for 10 d, the aerial part fresh mass of cucumber seedlings were reduced 6.17 g per plant. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also promoted in cucumber seedlings under ammonium, and the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly increased in cucumber leaves. With the exogenous silicon treatment, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly improved, the ability to remove reactive oxygen species was enhanced, the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly reduced in cucumber leaves, decreasing the reactive oxygen damage to the cell membrane, and the ratio of electrolyte leakage and the content of MDA in cucumber leaves. Also, with exogenous silicon treatment, the plasma membrane and activity of vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATP was significantly increased, transport capacity of intracellular proton was improved, and the level of ammonium in cucumber body was significantly reduced, thereby reducing the toxicity of ammonium. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could relieve ammonium stress, by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity, H(+)-ATP activity, and decreasing the ammonium content in cucumber seedlings.

  18. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  19. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández-Reiriz

    Full Text Available Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F and slow (S growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h(-1 than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h(-1. The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals.

  20. Physiological behaviors and recovery responses of four galician grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of four pot grown Galician grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albariño, Brancellao, Godello and Treixadura were examined under different levels of water stress in greenhouse. After extreme stress, gas exchange recovery responses were evaluated. Average ΨPD for control and stressed plants were -0.4MPa and -1.45MPa respectively. All varieties showed gradual declining of all gas exchange parameters (gs, E and A with increasing of stress periods. Under stressed conditions, Albariño and Godello showed higher CO2 assimilation rate. At the end of stress period leaf defoliation was found in Albariño and Brancellao. Gas exchange recovery was higher for both Godello and Treixadura. A better response of auxiliary bud recovery was present in Albariño than in Brancellao. Close correlations between water stress and gas exchange parameters were found and it varies on genotype. Albariño, Godello and Treixadura followed same diurnal patterns of gas exchange rate for control and stressed plant respectively. Diurnal pattern of CO2 assimilation rate of all tested varieties followed gs and E. Only Brancellao showed treatment effect on mid-day Fv/Fm. Among four varieties photoinhibition was only found in Brancellao. At stressed condition physiological responses of grapevines were genotype depended.

  1. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1999-09-01

    Under the oxidizing conditions likely to be encountered in the Yucca Mountain Repository, fuel dissolution is a corrosion process involving the coupling of the anodic dissolution of the fuel with the cathodic reduction of oxidants available within the repository. The oxidants potentially available to drive fuel corrosion are environmental oxygen, supplied by the transport through the permeable rock of the mountain and molecular and radical species produced by the radiolysis of available aerated water. The mechanism of these coupled anodic and cathodic reactions is reviewed in detail. While gaps in understanding remain, many kinetic features of these reactions have been studied in considerable detail, and a reasonably justified mechanism for fuel corrosion is available. The corrosion rate is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than the properties of the fuel. Thus, with the exception of increase in rate due to an increase in surface area, pre-oxidation of the fuel has little effect on the corrosion rate

  2. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Under the oxidizing conditions likely to be encountered in the Yucca Mountain Repository, fuel dissolution is a corrosion process involving the coupling of the anodic dissolution of the fuel with the cathodic reduction of oxidants available within the repository. The oxidants potentially available to drive fuel corrosion are environmental oxygen, supplied by the transport through the permeable rock of the mountain and molecular and radical species produced by the radiolysis of available aerated water. The mechanism of these coupled anodic and cathodic reactions is reviewed in detail. While gaps in understanding remain, many kinetic features of these reactions have been studied in considerable detail, and a reasonably justified mechanism for fuel corrosion is available. The corrosion rate is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than the properties of the fuel. Thus, with the exception of increase in rate due to an increase in surface area, pre-oxidation of the fuel has little effect on the corrosion rate.

  3. Local adaptation to altitude underlies divergent thermal physiology in tropical killifishes of the genus Aphyosemion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J McKenzie

    Full Text Available In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ∼350 m or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m. We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ∼350 mg were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ∼14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ∼7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another.

  4. Cognitive Processes Underlying the Artistic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Wah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the field of aesthetics, for centuries philosophers and more recently scientists have been concerned with understanding the artistic experience focusing on emotional responses to the perception of artworks. By contrast, in the last decades, evolutionary biology has been concerned with explaining the artistic experience by focusing on the cognitive processes underlying this experience. Up until now, the cognitive mechanisms that allow humans to experience objects and events as art remain largely unexplored and there is still no conventional use of terms for referring to the processes which may explain why the artistic experience is characteristically human and universal to human beings (Dissanayake, 1992, p. 24; Donald, 2006, p. 4. In this paper, I will first question whether it is productive to understand the artistic experience in terms of perception and emotion, and I will subsequently propose a possible alternative explanation to understand this experience. Drawing upon the work of Ellen Dissanayake (1992, 2000, 2015, Merlin Donald (2001, 2006, 2013, Antonio Damasio (1994, 2000, 2003, 2010, Barend van Heusden (2004, 2009, 2010, and Alejandra Wah (2014, I will argue that this experience is characterized by particular degrees of imagination and consciousness.

  5. Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Olivares, Alberto; Martínez-Yáñez, Rosario; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Domingues, Pedro M.; Mascaró, Maite; Sánchez, Ariadna; Pascual, Cristina; Rosas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22–30°C) and sub-tropical (15–24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species. PMID:28620313

  6. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hidenori [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshiya [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Hanazonocho, Kuzuha, Hirakatashi, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Tatsuo, E-mail: nakamura@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very rapid generation of human iPS cells under optimized conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five chemical inhibitors under hypoxia boosted reprogramming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. -- Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1 month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly

  7. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Very rapid generation of human iPS cells under optimized conditions. ► Five chemical inhibitors under hypoxia boosted reprogramming. ► We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. -- Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1 month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly generating bona fide human iPS cells and facilitates the application of i

  8. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  9. Optimal physiological structure of small neurons to guarantee stable information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S. Y.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Wei, D. Q.; Luo, X. S.; Tang, W. Y.; Zeng, S. W.; Wang, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    Spike is the basic element for neuronal information processing and the spontaneous spiking frequency should be less than 1 Hz for stable information processing. If the neuronal membrane area is small, the frequency of neuronal spontaneous spiking caused by ion channel noise may be high. Therefore, it is important to suppress the deleterious spontaneous spiking of the small neurons. We find by simulation of stochastic neurons with Hodgkin-Huxley-type channels that the leakage system is critical and extremely efficient to suppress the spontaneous spiking and guarantee stable information processing of the small neurons. However, within the physiological limit the potassium system cannot do so. The suppression effect of the leakage system is super-exponential, but that of the potassium system is quasi-linear. With the minor physiological cost and the minimal consumption of metabolic energy, a slightly lower reversal potential and a relatively larger conductance of the leakage system give the optimal physiological structure to suppress the deleterious spontaneous spiking and guarantee stable information processing of small neurons, dendrites and axons.

  10. Physiological aspects underlying the improved outplanting performance of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings associated with ectomycorrhizal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Majada, Juan; Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Gonzalez-Murua, Carmen; Ortega, Unai; Alonso-Graña, Manuel; Arana, Orats; Duñabeitia, Miren K

    2013-11-01

    Mycorrhizal inoculation of conifer roots is a key strategy to optimize establishment and performance of forest tree species under both natural and cultivated conditions and also to mitigate transplantation shock. However, despite being a common practice, inoculation in outdoor nursery conditions has been poorly studied. Here, we have evaluated effectiveness of four fungal species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius quieticolor, Pisolithus arhizus, and Suillus luteus) in the production of mycorrhizal Pinus pinaster seedlings in an outdoor commercial nursery and their ability to improve seedling physiology and field performance. All inoculated seedlings showed a significant increase in growth at the end of the nursery stage and these differences remained after 3 years of growth in the field. Differences observed in the content of malondialdehyde, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic compounds from needles of mycorrhizal and control seedlings may reflect a different sensitivity to photo-oxidative damage. We conclude that ectomycorrhizal inoculation improves adaptability to changeable growing conditions of an outdoor nursery and produces a higher quality nursery stock, thereby enhancing seedling performance after planting.

  11. A modular open platform for systematic functional studies under physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Christopher B.; Smets, Martha; Schmidtmann, Elisabeth; Leidescher, Susanne; Markaki, Yolanda; Hofweber, Mario; Qin, Weihua; Manzo, Massimiliano; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Thanisch, Katharina; Bauer, Christina; Rombaut, Pascaline; Herzog, Franz; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Bultmann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Any profound comprehension of gene function requires detailed information about the subcellular localization, molecular interactions and spatio-temporal dynamics of gene products. We developed a multifunctional integrase (MIN) tag for rapid and versatile genome engineering that serves not only as a genetic entry site for the Bxb1 integrase but also as a novel epitope tag for standardized detection and precipitation. For the systematic study of epigenetic factors, including Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Tet1, Tet2, Tet3 and Uhrf1, we generated MIN-tagged embryonic stem cell lines and created a toolbox of prefabricated modules that can be integrated via Bxb1-mediated recombination. We used these functional modules to study protein interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics as well as gene expression and specific mutations during cellular differentiation and in response to external stimuli. Our genome engineering strategy provides a versatile open platform for efficient generation of multiple isogenic cell lines to study gene function under physiological conditions. PMID:26007658

  12. Growth, physiological response and phytoremoval capability of two willow clones exposed to ibuprofen under hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, Valentina; Zacchini, Massimo; Pietrini, Fabrizio

    2013-11-15

    Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most widespread pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem, despite the high removal rate that occurs in wastewater treatment plants. Phytoremediation represents a technology to improve the performance of existing wastewater treatment. This study was conducted under hydroponics to evaluate the ability of Salicaceae plants to tolerate and reduce IBU concentration in contaminated water. To this end, we combined growth, physiological and biochemical data to study the effects of different IBU concentrations on two clones of Salix alba L. Data demonstrated that clone SS5 was more tolerant and showed a higher ability to reduce IBU concentration in the solution than clone SP3. The high tolerance to IBU shown by SS5 was likely due to several mechanisms including the capacity to maintain an elevated photosynthetic activity and an efficient antioxidative defence. These results illustrate the remarkable potential of willow to phytoremediate IBU-contaminated waters in natural and constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  14. Highly stable and degradable multifunctional microgel for self-regulated insulin delivery under physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjie; Lü, Shaoyu; Gao, Chunmei; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhu

    2013-06-01

    The response to glucose, pH and temperature, high drug loading capacity, self-regulated drug delivery and degradation in vivo are simultaneously probable by applying a multifunctional microgel under a rational design in a colloid chemistry method. Such multifunctional microgels are fabricated with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and 3-acrylamidephenylboronic acid (AAPBA) through a precipitation emulsion method and cross-linked by reductive degradable N,N'-bis(arcyloyl)cystamine (BAC). This novel kind of microgel with a narrow size distribution (~250 nm) is suitable for diabetes because it can adapt to the surrounding medium of different glucose concentrations over a clinically relevant range (0-20 mM), control the release of preloaded insulin and is highly stable under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 37 °C). When synthesized multifunctional microgels regulate drug delivery, they gradually degrade as time passes and, as a result, show enhanced biocompatibility. This exhibits a new proof-of-concept for diabetes treatment that takes advantage of the properties of each building block from a multifunctional micro-object. These highly stable and versatile multifunctional microgels have the potential to be used for self-regulated therapy and monitoring of the response to treatment, or even simultaneous diagnosis as nanobiosensors.The response to glucose, pH and temperature, high drug loading capacity, self-regulated drug delivery and degradation in vivo are simultaneously probable by applying a multifunctional microgel under a rational design in a colloid chemistry method. Such multifunctional microgels are fabricated with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and 3-acrylamidephenylboronic acid (AAPBA) through a precipitation emulsion method and cross-linked by reductive degradable N,N'-bis(arcyloyl)cystamine (BAC). This novel kind of microgel with a narrow size

  15. Silicon induced improvement in morpho-physiological traits of maize (zea mays l.) under water deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Ahmad, R.; Basra, S.M.A.; Murtaza, G.

    2014-01-01

    Current water scarcity is an emerging issue in semi-arid regions like Pakistan and cause of deterioration in productivity of crops to reduce crop yield all over the world. Silicon is known to be better against the deleterious effects of drought on plant growth and development. A pot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Si nutrition (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) on the growth of a relatively drought tolerant (P-33H25) and sensitive (FH-810) maize hybrids. Two levels of soil water content were used viz. 100 and 60% of field capacity. Water deficit condition in soil significantly reduced morphological and physiological attributes of maize plants. Silicon application significantly improved the plant height, leaf area per plant, primary root length, dry matter of shoot and roots and plant dry matter, water relation and gas exchange characteristics of both maize cultivars under water deficit condition. Poor growth of drought stressed plants was significantly improved with Si application. The silicon fertilized (100 mg/kg) drought stressed plants of hybrid P-33H25 produced maximum (21.68% more) plant dry matter as compared to plants that were not provided with silicon nutrition. Nonetheless, silicon application (150 mg/kg) resulted in maximum increase (26.03%) in plant dry weight of hybrid FH-810 plants that were grown under limited moisture supply i.e., 60% FC. In conclusion silicon application to drought stressed maize plants was better to improve the growth and dry matter could be attributed to improved osmotic adjustment, photosynthetic rate and lowered transpiration. (author)

  16. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonin, Leonid; Chang, Huang-Ming; Diaz, Marta; Catala, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants' introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs like archetypes than

  17. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Ivonin

    Full Text Available Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants' introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs

  18. Traces of Unconscious Mental Processes in Introspective Reports and Physiological Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonin, Leonid; Chang, Huang-Ming; Diaz, Marta; Catala, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants’ introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs like archetypes

  19. Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: time course and mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical consulting Psychology 2002, 20, 267-274. [44...RTO-MP-HFM-181 14 - 1 Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots...practical tool using different techniques in order to improve regulation of emotions before, during and after actions [3]. This psychological training is

  20. Sporulation environment influences spore properties in Bacillus: evidence and insights on underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric

    2018-05-17

    Bacterial spores are resistant to physical and chemical insults, which make them a major concern for public health and for industry. Spores help bacteria to survive extreme environmental conditions that vegetative cells cannot tolerate. Spore resistance and dormancy are important properties for applications in medicine, veterinary health, food safety, crop protection, and other domains. The resistance of bacterial spores results from a protective multilayered structure and from the unique composition of the spore core. The mechanisms of sporulation and germination, the first stage after breaking of dormancy, and organization of spore structure have been extensively studied in Bacillus species. This review aims to illustrate how far the structure, composition and properties of spores are shaped by the environmental conditions in which spores form. We look at the physiological and molecular mechanisms underpinning how sporulation media and environment deeply affect spore yield, spore properties like resistance to wet heat and physical and chemical agents, germination, and further growth. For example, spore core water content decreases as sporulation temperature increases, and resistance to wet heat increases. Controlling the fate of Bacillus spores is pivotal to controlling bacterial risks and process efficiencies in, for example, the food industry, and better control hinges on better understanding how sporulation conditions influence spore properties.

  1. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined effects of drought stress and npk foliar spray on growth, physiological processes and nutrient uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, R.N.; Waraocj, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supplemental foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) spray, alone or in various combinations, on physiological processes and nutrients uptake in wheat under water deficit conditions. The study comprised of two phases; during the first phase, ten local wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were evaluated for their response to PEG-6000 induced osmotic stress. One drought tolerant (Bhakkar-2002) and sensitive (Shafaq-2006) genotype selected from screening experiments were used in the second phase to determine the individual and combined effects of N, P and K foliar spray on physiological mechanisms in wheat under drought stress. The results revealed that limited water supply significantly reduced germination, growth and uptake of N, P and K. Supplemental foliar fertilisation of these macronutrients alone or in different combinations significantly improved the water relations, gas exchange characteristics and nutrient contents in both the genotypes. Bhakkar-2002 maintained higher turgor, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and accumulated more N, P and K in shoot than Shafaq-2006. The foliar spray of NPK in combination was effective in improving wheat growth under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. (author)

  3. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teama, F.E.I.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  4. Involvement of microRNAs in physiological and pathological processes in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriegova Eva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, at least 900 different microRNA (miRNA genes have been discovered in the human genome. These short, single-stranded RNA molecules originate from larger precursor molecules that fold to produce hairpin structures, which are subsequently processed by ribonucleases Drosha/Pasha and Dicer to form mature miRNAs. MiRNAs play role in the posttranscriptional regulation of about one third of human genes, mainly via degradation of target mRNAs. Whereas the target mRNAs are often involved in the regulation of diverse physiological processes ranging from developmental timing to apoptosis, miRNAs have a strong potential to regulate fundamental biological processes also in the lung compartment. However, the knowledge of the role of miRNAs in physiological and pathological conditions in the lung is still limited. This review, therefore, summarizes current knowledge of the mechanism, function of miRNAs and their contribution to lung development and homeostasis. Besides the involvement of miRNAs in pulmonary physiological conditions, there is evidence that abnormal miRNA expression may lead to pathological processes and development of various pulmonary diseases. Next, the review describes current state-of-art on the miRNA expression profiles in smoking-related diseases including lung cancerogenesis, in immune system mediated pulmonary diseases and fibrotic processes in the lung. From the current research it is evident that miRNAs may play role in the posttranscriptional regulation of key genes in human pulmonary diseases. Further studies are, therefore, necessary to explore miRNA expression profiles and their association with target mRNAs in human pulmonary diseases.

  5. Characteristics of a Dairy Process under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    set of physical property models for diary products were developed and built into PRO/II system. Milk products viscosity and process system pressure drop were employed as the process characteristic parameters to determine a process operation window. The flexibility of the operation window vertexes...... was evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temperatures through vertex enumeration method. The quantitative analysis of the dairy process established a framework in developing of different flexible units, such as integrated milk and milk-based product productions, multi...

  6. Nitrate reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide and ammonia by gut bacteria under physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tiso

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in

  7. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  8. Evolutionary History Underlies Plant Physiological Responses to Global Change Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, K. M.; Medeiros, J. S.; Sale, K. R.; Ward, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing family and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Ancient plant specimens preserved within packrat middens are invaluable in this context since they allow for comparisons between co-occurring plant lineages. Here we used modern and ancient plant specimens preserved within packrat middens from the Snake Range, NV to investigate the physiological responses of a mixed montane conifer community to global change since the last glacial maximum. We used a conceptual model to infer relative changes in stomatal conductance and maximum photosynthetic capacity from measures of leaf carbon isotopes, stomatal characteristics, and leaf nitrogen content. Our results indicate that most of the sampled taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or photosynthetic capacity from glacial to modern times. However, plant families differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses. Additionally, leaf-level responses were more similar within plant families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time.

  9. The surface properties of nanoparticles determine the agglomeration state and the size of the particles under physiological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantz, C.; Koshkina, O.; Lang, T.; Galla, H.J.; Kirkpatrick, C.J.; Stauber, R.H.; Maskos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent widespread application of nanomaterials to biological systems, a careful consideration of their physiological impact is required. This demands an understanding of the complex processes at the bio-nano interface. Therefore, a comprehensive and accurate characterization of the

  10. Mapping Cardiac Physiology and Parenting Processes in Maltreating Mother–Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Loke, Eric; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth A.; Woehrle, Petra L.; Van Epps, John J.; Gowda, Anjali; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) lies on an extreme end of the continuum of parenting-at-risk, and while CM has been linked with a variety of behavioral indicators of dysregulation in children, less is known about how physiological markers of regulatory capacity contribute to this association. The present study examined patterns of mother and child physiological regulation and their relations with observed differences in parenting processes during a structured interaction. Abusing, neglecting, and non-CM mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children completed a resting baseline and moderately challenging joint task. The structural analysis of social behavior was used to code mother–child interactions while simultaneous measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia were obtained. Results indicated that physically abusive mothers were more likely to react to children’s positive bids for autonomy with strict and hostile control, than either neglecting or non-CM mothers. CM exposure and quality of maternal responding to children’s autonomous bids were uniquely associated with lower parasympathetic tone in children. Results provide evidence of neurodevelopmental associations between early CM exposure, the immediate interactive context of parenting, and children’s autonomic physiology. PMID:21842991

  11. The underlying event in hard scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p T > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data

  12. Learning objects as coadjuvants in the human physiology teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Lara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in the academic environment of biomedical area has gained much importance, both for their ability to complement the understanding of the subject obtained in the classroom, is the ease of access, or makes more pleasure the learning process, since these tools are present in everyday of the students and use a simple language. Considering that, this study aims to report the experience of building learning objects in human physiology as a tool for learning facilitation, and discuss the impact of this teaching methodology

  13. No evidence for a bone phenotype in GPRC6A knockout mice under normal physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    GPRC6A is a seven transmembrane receptor mediating signaling by a wide range of L-alpha-amino-acids, a signaling augmented by the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. GPRC6A transcripts are detected in numerous mammalian tissues, but the physiological role of the receptor is thus far elusive. Analogou...

  14. What are you hiding? : The underlying and contributing mechanisms of physiological memory detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    klein Selle, N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion that physiological and behavioral measures can be used to detect concealed memories is intriguing, to say the least. Although years of research on the Concealed Information Test (CIT) have proven the validity of this method, it also raised new questions. The present dissertation focused

  15. Physiological reactions in goat breeds maintained under shade, sun and partially shaded areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Dias Medeiros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Medeiros L.F.D., Rodrigues V.C., Vieira D.H., Souza S.L.G. de, Neto O.C., Figueiredo N. de, Pinto C.F.D., Miranda A.L. & Violento C.B. [Physiological reactions in goat breeds maintained under shade, sun and partially shaded areas.] Reações fisiológicas de cabras em diferentes ambientes e coeficiente de tolerância ao calor em cabritos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:286-296, 2015. Departamento de Reprodução e Avaliação Animal, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23851-970, Brasil. E-mail: diasmedeiros@yahoo.com.br The experiment was carried out to measure the effects of thermal stress on the rectal temperature (RT and respiratory frequency (RF, in animals of Boer and Saanen breeds, under the conditions of hot and humid climate of city of Rio de Janeiro, Baixada Fluminense, South East Region of Brazil; also the heat tolerance coefficient (HTC of Amakiri e Funcho was applied on pure and crossbreeds kids. The goats were divided into three groups, each group consisting of four females from each breed group. Each group was subjected to different surroundings, constituted by three experimental treatment: treatment A, with a sun protected enclosed area; treatment B, a sun exposed area without covering; and treatment C, area with a 50% covered section and a 50% sun exposed area, which permitted free circulation of the goats. A Balanced Latin Square was used. The RT and RF of the goats, in the afternoon periods (l5h00, were higher, than in the morning periods (09h00. The animals kept in the sun presented much higher results, especially in the afternoon periods, than the animals in the other two confinement areas. There were no differences in the RT and RF of the groups maintained in the shade or in partially covered area. There were differences in the RT and RF measurements between the two breeds, in the morning periods and in the afternoon periods

  16. Working under the PJVA gas processing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.

    1996-01-01

    The trend in the natural gas industry is towards custom processing. New gas reserves tend to be smaller and in tighter reservoirs than in the past. This has resulted in plants having processing and transportation capacity available to be leased to third parties. Major plant operators and owners are finding themselves in the business of custom processing in a more focused way. Operators recognize that the dilution of operating costs can result in significant benefits to the plant owners as well as the third party processor. The relationship between the gas processor and the gas producer as they relate to the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA) Gas Processing Agreement were discussed. Details of the standard agreement that clearly defines the responsibilities of the third party producer and the processor were explained. In addition to outlining obligations of the parties, it also provides a framework for fee negotiation. It was concluded that third party processing can lower facility operating costs, extend facility life, and keep Canadian gas more competitive in holding its own in North American gas markets

  17. Obsolescence – understanding the underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of built properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, i.e. between

  18. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  19. Ecto-ATPase inhibition: ATP and adenosine release under physiological and ischemic in vivo conditions in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Pedata, Felicita

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) ATP and adenosine act as transmitters and neuromodulators on their own receptors but it is still unknown which part of extracellular adenosine derives per se from cells and which part is formed from the hydrolysis of released ATP. In this study extracellular concentrations of adenosine and ATP from the rat striatum were estimated by the microdialysis technique under in vivo physiological conditions and after focal ischemia induced by medial cerebral artery occlusion. Under physiological conditions, adenosine and ATP concentrations were in the range of 130 nmol/L and 40 nmol/L, respectively. In the presence of the novel ecto-ATPase inhibitor, PV4 (100 nmol/L), the extracellular concentration of ATP increased 12-fold to ~360 nmol/L but the adenosine concentration was not altered. This demonstrates that, under physiological conditions, adenosine is not a product of extracellular ATP. In the first 4h after ischemia, adenosine increased to ~690 nmol/L and ATP to ~50 nmol/L. In the presence of PV4 the extracellular concentration of ATP was in the range of 450 nmol/L and a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine (to ~270 nmol/L) was measured. The contribution of extracellular ATP to extracellular adenosine was maximal in the first 20 min after ischemia onset. Furthermore we demonstrated, by immunoelectron microscopy, the presence of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2 on plasma and vesicle membranes isolated from the rat striatum. These results are in favor that adenosine is transported in vesicles and is released in an excitation-secretion manner under in vivo physiological conditions. Early after ischemia, extracellular ATP is hydrolyzed by ecto-nucleotidases which significantly contribute to the increase in extracellular adenosine. To establish the contribution of extracellular ATP to adenosine might constitute the basis for devising a correct putative purinergic strategy aimed at protection from ischemic damage

  20. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  1. Kaolin modulates ABA and IAA dynamics and physiology of grapevine under Mediterranean summer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Luzio, A; Pinto, G; Meijón, M; Pintó-Marijuan, M; Cotado, A; Correia, C; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2018-01-01

    The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven to be an effective short-term climate change mitigation strategy for Mediterranean vineyards. In this work, we address the hypothesis that kaolin could improve both the hormonal dynamics and physiological responses of grapevines growing in Douro Region, northern Portugal. For this purpose, the leaf water potential, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were monitored, as well as the abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) quantification and immunolocalization were assessed. The study revealed a slight decrease in ABA and an increase in IAA in the kaolin treatment, which in turn were associated with the improvement of physiological performance. A month after spraying, kaolin improves the water potential respectively, 30% and 17% in the predawn and midday periods. Besides, plants treated with kaolin showed higher values of stomatal conductance, net CO 2 assimilation rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. Kaolin also ameliorates the effective PSII efficiency (67%), as well as the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the photosynthetic electron transport rate (>73%). These results were consistent with the higher photochemical quenching and the lower non-photochemical quenching observed in treated leaves and with the better performance obtained by the JIP test parameters. Physiological and hormonal analysis confirmed that kaolin effectively enhance grapevine summer stress tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of hydroxocobalamin on carboxyhemoglobin measured under physiologic and pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R; Bon Homme, M; Hoffman, R S; Lugassy, D

    2014-08-01

    Pre-hospital administration of hydroxocobalamin (B12a) is used for empiric treatment of cyanide poisoning because cyanide poisoning is difficult to identify and requires immediate treatment. B12a interferes with the accuracy of several blood laboratory tests. This study aimed to explore how B12a affects carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) measurements in human blood at both physiologic and pathologic COHb levels. Several clinically relevant concentrations of B12a were added to human blood samples containing physiologic (∼ 3%) and pathologic (30% and 50%) COHb levels. We then measured the COHb levels of the samples using two different co-oximeters, the Radiometer ABL 700 and the Rapidpoint 500, and compared to their actual baseline COHb levels. B12a had minimal effects on the COHb measured at both physiologic and pathologic levels when measured on the Radiometer. In contrast, the Rapidpoint B12a caused a dose-dependent decrease in the COHb measured, especially of pathologic COHb levels (∼ 30 and 50%). The magnitude of B12a interference on measured COHb is dependent upon the specific co-oximeter used, the actual COHb level and the serum B12a concentration. These errors may potentially influence clinical decision making and thus affect patient outcomes. Our findings emphasize the importance of measuring COHb levels on blood samples collected prior to B12a administration.

  3. Evaluation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer of the stability of nonviral gene delivery vectors under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaka, Keiji; Harada, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2002-01-01

    The stability in physiological medium of polyplex- and lipoplex-type nonviral gene vectors was evaluated by detecting the conformational change of complexed plasmid DNA (pDNA) labeled simultaneously with fluorescein (energy donor) and X-rhodamine (energy acceptor) through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon mixing with cationic components, such as LipofectAMINE, poly(L-lysine), and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-PLys), the fluorescence spectrum of doubly labeled pDNA underwent a drastic change due to the occurrence of FRET between the donor-acceptor pair on pDNA taking a globular conformation (condensed state) through complexation. The measurement was carried out also in the presence of 20% serum, under which conditions FRET from condensed pDNA was clearly monitored without interference from coexisting components in the medium, allowing evaluation of the condensed state of pDNA in nonviral gene vectors under physiological conditions. Serum addition immediately induced a sharp decrease in FRET for the LipofectAMINE/pDNA (lipoplex) system, which was consistent with the sharp decrease in the transfection efficiency of the lipoplex system in serum-containing medium. In contrast, the PEG-PLys/pDNA polyplex (polyion complex micelle) system maintained appreciable transfection efficiency even in serum-containing medium, and FRET efficiency remained constant for up to 12 h, indicating the high stability of the polyion complex micelle under physiological conditions.

  4. Motivational Processes Underlying Substance Abuse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher P.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a syndrome of dysregulated motivation, evidenced by intense drug craving and compulsive drug-seeking behavior. In the search for common neurobiological substrates of addiction to different classes of drugs, behavioral neuroscientists have attempted to determine the neural basis for a number of motivational concepts and describe how they are changed by repeated drug use. Here, we describe these concepts and summarize previous work describing three major neural systems that play distinct roles in different conceptual aspects of motivation: (1) a nigrostriatal system that is involved in two forms of instrumental learning, (2) a ventral striatal system that is involved in Pavlovian incentive motivation and negative reinforcement, and (3) frontal cortical areas that regulate decision making and motivational processes. Within striatal systems, drug addiction can involve a transition from goal-oriented, incentive processes to automatic, habit-based responding. In the cortex, weak inhibitory control is a predisposing factor to, as well as a consequence of, repeated drug intake. However, these transitions are not absolute, and addiction can occur without a transition to habit-based responding, occurring as a result of the overvaluation of drug outcomes and hypersensitivity to incentive properties of drug-associated cues. Finally, we point out that addiction is not monolithic and can depend not only on individual differences between addicts, but also on the neurochemical action of specific drug classes. PMID:26475159

  5. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Van Der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.l.m.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main sci...

  6. Activation of TRPM7 channels by small molecules under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, T; Schäfer, S; Linseisen, M; Sytik, L; Gudermann, T; Chubanov, V

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) is a cation channel covalently linked to a protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates key cellular processes such as Mg(2+) homeostasis, motility, and proliferation. TRPM7 is involved in anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, and tumor growth. The goal of this work was to identify small molecule activators of the TRPM7 channel and investigate their mechanism of action. We used an aequorin bioluminescence-based assay to screen for activators of the TRPM7 channel. Valid candidates were further characterized using patch clamp electrophysiology. We identified 20 drug-like compounds with various structural backbones that can activate the TRPM7 channel. Among them, the δ opioid antagonist naltriben was studied in greater detail. Naltriben's action was selective among the TRP channels tested. Naltriben activates TRPM7 currents without prior depletion of intracellular Mg(2+) even under conditions of low PIP2. Moreover, naltriben interfered with the effect of the TRPM7 inhibitor NS8593. Finally, our experiments with TRPM7 variants carrying mutations in the pore, TRP, and kinase domains indicate that the site of TRPM7 activation by this small-molecule ligand is most likely located in or near the TRP domain. In conclusion, we identified the first organic small-molecule activators of TRPM7 channels, thus providing new experimental tools to study TRPM7 function in native cellular environments.

  7. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  8. Urban pollution of sediments: Impact on the physiology and burrowing activity of tubificid worms and consequences on biogeochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigneret, M., E-mail: mathilde.pigneret@univ-lyon1.fr [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Mermillod-Blondin, F.; Volatier, L.; Romestaing, C. [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Maire, E.; Adrien, J. [MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, INSA de Lyon, 25 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Guillard, L.; Roussel, D.; Hervant, F. [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-10-15

    In urban areas, infiltration basins are designed to manage stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces and allow the settling of associated pollutants. The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of these structures is highly organic and multicontaminated (mainly heavy metals and hydrocarbons). Only few aquatic species are able to maintain permanent populations in such an extreme environment, including the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Nevertheless, the impact of urban pollutants on these organisms and the resulting influence on infiltration basin functioning remain poorly studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how polluted sediments could impact the survival, the physiology and the bioturbation activity of L. hoffmeisteri and thereby modify biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface. To this end, we conducted laboratory incubations of worms, in polluted sediments from infiltration basins or slightly polluted sediments from a stream. Analyses were performed to evaluate physiological state and burrowing activity (X-ray micro-tomography) of worms and their influences on biogeochemical processes (nutrient fluxes, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} degassing rates) during 30-day long experiments. Our results showed that worms exhibited physiological responses to cope with high pollution levels, including a strong ability to withstand the oxidative stress linked to contamination with heavy metals. We also showed that the presence of urban pollutants significantly increased the burrowing activity of L. hoffmeisteri, demonstrating the sensitivity and the relevance of such a behavioural response as biomarker of sediment toxicity. In addition, we showed that X-ray micro-tomography was an adequate technique for accurate and non-invasive three-dimensional investigations of biogenic structures formed by bioturbators. The presence of worms induced stimulations of nutrient fluxes and organic matter recycling (between + 100% and 200% of CO

  9. Physiological seed quality of varieties of Ocimum produced under conditions of Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aceneth Durán Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ocimum with over 150 species is characterized by high morphological variability and Chemotypes of great value in the industries of perfumery, cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical features. In order to evaluate the physiological quality of the seeds, in the Experimental Center and the Laboratory of Plant Physiology at the National University of Colombia at Palmira, germination and viability tests were performed with 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium, TTZ. In trials, using a factorial design with five varieties of seeds, three treatments and three replications, the effect of imbibing the seeds for five minutes in Potassium nitrate 0.2% KNO3 and gibberellic acid GA3 250 ppm and 500 ppm respectively as first irrigation and a control (water was evaluated. The results showed that the seeds from the species O. selloi had the highest percentage (90% of viability in TTZ and germination (46.2%. The seeds soaked in 0.2% KNO3 showed the highest values of seed germination in three of the five varieties tested. The best responses were obtained with germination seeds O.selloi species (70% and O. micranthum (58%, followed by Ocimum sp. (26%. The results showed the presence of varying levels of latency, which was partially overcome by the application of potassium nitrate (KNO 3 0.2%.

  10. Physiological and transcriptional responses and cross protection of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 under acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Renhui; Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Tao, Xueying; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Acid tolerance responses (ATR) in Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 were investigated at physiological and molecular levels. A comparison of composition of cell membrane fatty acids (CMFA) between acid-challenged and unchallenged cells showed that acid adaptation evoked a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids in acid-challenged than in unchallenged cells. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis in acid-adapted cells at different pH values (ranging from 3.0 to 4.0) indicated that several genes were differently regulated, including those related to proton pumps, amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and class I and class III stress response pathways. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and production of alkali was significantly upregulated. Upon exposure to pH 4.5 for 2 h, a higher survival rate (higher viable cell count) of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 was achieved following an additional challenge to 40 mM hydrogen peroxide for 60 min, but no difference in survival rate of cells was found with further challenge to heat, ethanol, or salt. Therefore, we concluded that the physiological and metabolic changes of acid-treated cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 help the cells resist damage caused by acid, and further initiated global response signals to bring the whole cell into a state of defense to other stress factors, especially hydrogen peroxide. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological quality of soybean seeds under different yield environments and plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Baron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yield potential of agricultural fields associated with plant spatial arrangement could determine the physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds from different yield environments and plant densities. Experiments were carried out in Boa Vista das Missões-RS, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 growing season. Yield environments were delineated by overlapping yield maps from the 2008, 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two yield environments (low and high and five plant densities, with four replicates. Two varieties were tested: Brasmax Ativa RR (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 plants m-1 and Nidera 5909 RR (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-1. After harvested, the seeds were analysed as following: first count index, germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, electrical conductivity, accelerate aging test, root length, hypocotyl length and seedling length. The spatial variability of seed vigor in the production field could be reduced by adjusting plant density, but the adjustment should consider the variety. Harvest according to yield environment is a strategy to separate lots of seeds with higher vigor, originated from high-yield environments.

  12. Physiological Responses of Water-Polo Players Under Different Tactical Strategie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of defense tactical strategy on physiological responses characterizing playing intensity in water-polo game. In the first part of the study, fourteen players were assigned to defending (n = 7 and offending (n = 7 groups and participated in nine 4-min plays applying three different defending systems: press, static-zone and zone-press, in front of the defense court of one goalpost. In the second part, 18 players participated in nine different real full court water-polo games consisting of 3X15min of live-time playing periods. Both in defense court plays and real games, the three defense systems were played in a counterbalanced order and heart rate (HR was continuously recorded. Additionally, in defense court plays, blood lactate concentration (La was measured at the end of each 4-min period. Mean HR within defense court plays was higher in press (153 ± 10 beats.min-1 than in static-zone (140 ± 11 beats.min-1 and zone-press (143 ± 16 beats.min-1, p 0.05. Defenders and offenders showed similar HR and La responses across the tactical modes. In conclusion, defense tactical strategies affect physiological responses within a part of the game but do not affect the overall playing intensity of a real water-polo game. Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders.

  13. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  14. Oxidative stress under ambient and physiological oxygen tension in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Cuddapah, Suresh; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) levels range from 2–9% in vivo. However, cell culture experiments are performed at atmospheric O2 levels (21%). Oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells cultured at higher than physiological levels is implicated in multitude of deleterious effects including DNA damage, genomic instability and senescence. In addition, oxidative stress activates redox sensitive transcription factors related to inflammatory signaling and apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, several chromatin-modifying enzymes are affected by ROS, potentially impacting epigenetic regulation of gene expression. While primary cells are cultured at lower O2 levels due to their inability to grow at higher O2, the immortalized cells, which display no such apparent growth difficulties, are typically cultured at 21% O2. This review will provide an overview of issues associated with increased oxygen levels in in vitro cell culture and point out the benefits of using lower levels of oxygen tension even for immortalized cells. PMID:27034917

  15. Proton-coupled electron transfer promotes the reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by uric acid under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The hypervalent muscle pigment ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O, is not reduced by urate monoanions at physiological conditions despite a strong driving force of around 30 kJ mol1 while for low pH, uric acid was found to reduce protonated ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O,H+, efficiently in a bimolecular...... reaction with k1 ¼ 1.1 0.1 103 L mol1 s1, DH‡ ¼ 66.1 0.1 kJ mol1 and DS‡ ¼ 35.2 0.2 J mol1 K1. For intermediate pH, like for anaerobic muscles and for meat, proton-oupled electron transfer occurs in a transition state, {MbFe(IV)]O/H+/urate}‡, which is concluded to be formed from uric acid and Mb...... in uric acid concentration may serve as an inherent protection against radical formation by ferrylmyoglobin...

  16. [The physiological classification of human thermal states under high environmental temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A F; Kuznets, E I

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the physiological classification of human thermal states in a hot environment. A review of the basic systems of classifications of thermal states is given, their main drawbacks are discussed. On the basis of human functional state research in a broad range of environmental temperatures the system of evaluation and classification of human thermal states is proposed. New integral one-dimensional multi-parametric criteria for evaluation are used. For the development of these criteria methods of factor, cluster and canonical correlation analyses are applied. Stochastic nomograms capable of identification of human thermal state for different intensity of influence are given. In this case evaluation of intensity is estimated according to one-dimensional criteria taking into account environmental temperature, physical load and time of man's staying in overheating conditions.

  17. Physiological changes in largemouth bass exposed to paper mill effluents under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report here on studies designed to asses the effects of paper mill effluents on non-reproductive functions of free-ranging and captive Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) This was accomplished by conducting an outdoor tank study, in which fish were exposed to well water or to 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% full strength effluent for 28 or 56 days, and by sampling largemouth bass from sites within the St. Johns River, Florida, upstream and downstream from a paper mill plant. Blood and plasma samples from fish from the tank study and from fish sampled from the ambient sites were analyzed for over 20 variables. We also determined liver and spleen weights and examined them histologically. The most significant finding from the tank study was an increase in the concentration of albumin and hepatosomatic index for bass exposed to ???20% effluents for 56 days. Spleenosomatic index and number of melanomacrophage centers were decreased in bass from effluent-dominated sites (Palatka and Rice Creek), whereas concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, glucose, and creatinine were elevated in fish from these sites, compared to fish from reference streams. Fish from Rice Creek also had fewer red blood cells, and male bass from Palatka had lower concentrations of cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of albumin and hepatic concentrations of glutathione were elevated in males from Palatka, and both females and males from Rice Creek had higher concentrations of globulin. These results indicate a complex pattern of effects of paper mill effluents on several physiological functions. However, despite the myriad of treatment and site-related effects, most physiological parameters fell within normal ranges when compared to reports on largemouth bass and other freshwater species.

  18. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity in an ecological context: linking physiological mechanisms to evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    Hormones are chemical signaling molecules that regulate patterns of cellular physiology and gene expression underlying phenotypic traits. Hormone-signaling pathways respond to an organism's external environment to mediate developmental stage-specific malleability in phenotypes, so that environmental variation experienced at different stages of development has distinct effects on an organism's phenotype. Studies of hormone-signaling are therefore playing a central role in efforts to understand how plastic phenotypic responses to environmental variation are generated during development. But, how do adaptive, hormonally mediated phenotypes evolve if the individual signaling components (hormones, conversion enzymes, membrane transporters, and receptors) that comprise any hormone-signaling pathway show expressional flexibility in response to environmental variation? What relevance do these components hold as molecular targets for selection to couple or decouple correlated hormonally mediated traits? This article explores how studying the endocrine underpinnings of phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant context can provide insights into these, and other, crucial questions into the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution, including how plasticity itself evolves. These issues are discussed in the light of investigations into how thyroid hormones mediate morphological plasticity in Death Valley's clade of pupfishes (Cyprinodon spp.). Findings from this work with pupfish illustrate that the study of hormone-signaling from an ecological perspective can reveal how phenotypic plasticity contributes to the generation of phenotypic novelty, as well as how physiological mechanisms developmentally link an organism's phenotype to its environmental experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Modeling physiological processes that relate toxicant exposure and bacterial population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Klanjscek

    Full Text Available Quantifying effects of toxicant exposure on metabolic processes is crucial to predicting microbial growth patterns in different environments. Mechanistic models, such as those based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB theory, can link physiological processes to microbial growth.Here we expand the DEB framework to include explicit consideration of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Extensions considered are: (i additional terms in the equation for the "hazard rate" that quantifies mortality risk; (ii a variable representing environmental degradation; (iii a mechanistic description of toxic effects linked to increase in ROS production and aging acceleration, and to non-competitive inhibition of transport channels; (iv a new representation of the "lag time" based on energy required for acclimation. We estimate model parameters using calibrated Pseudomonas aeruginosa optical density growth data for seven levels of cadmium exposure. The model reproduces growth patterns for all treatments with a single common parameter set, and bacterial growth for treatments of up to 150 mg(Cd/L can be predicted reasonably well using parameters estimated from cadmium treatments of 20 mg(Cd/L and lower. Our approach is an important step towards connecting levels of biological organization in ecotoxicology. The presented model reveals possible connections between processes that are not obvious from purely empirical considerations, enables validation and hypothesis testing by creating testable predictions, and identifies research required to further develop the theory.

  20. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.M.A; Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  1. Response of sunflower hybrids to different nitrogen levels for physiological and agronomical traits under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, D.; Abbasi, F.M.; Ahmed, H.; Qamar, M.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower occupies main position among oil seed crops in Pakistan. Mostly indigenous sunflower hybrids are cultivated which give low achene and fodder yields. The issue related with these hybrids ascribed to lack of information about use of inputs and cultural practices. Judicious nitrogen use and suitable high yielding hybrid play key role in increasing sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N = 0 kgha , N = 60 kgha , N = 0 1 2 -1 -1 -1 -1 80 kgha , N3 = 120 kgha , N4 = 180 kgha and N5 = 240 kgha ) on two sunflower hybrids, SMH-0907 and SMH-0917 to optimize the N levels for obtaining maximum yield on sustainable basis. Both hybrids were kept in the main plot while N levels in the sub plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. -1 The results showed that the number of achene head , 100-achene weight and achene yield increased with increased N application. The increased levels of N -1 also enhanced the achene yield. The maximum achene yield (3170.8 kg ha ) was -1 -1 recorded at 180 kg N ha followed by 240 kg N ha . Minimum achene yield (2115 kg -1 ha ) was observed in control treatment (N ). Polynomial regression line showed 0-1 that the rate of yield increase was higher up to 180 kg N ha and become slow-1 thereafter. The hybrid SMH-0907 produced more achene (2736 kg ha ) as compared -1 to the hybrid SMH-0917 (2694 kg ha ). Results revealed that economized application of different doses of N can boost up the yield in both sunflower hybrids SMH-0907 and SMH-0917. These findings could be helpful in rationalizing most valuable inputs

  2. Analysis of physiological (pao/sub 2/, pulse and blood pressure) changes during modified ect under general anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.; Shah, H.A.; Shah, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    To study the changes in physiological parameters i e PAO2, pulse and blood pressure changes during ECT under GA. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychiatry and Department of Anaesthesiology, Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad from Sep 2009 to Feb 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients with depression were given four separate ECT sessions each. All patients were anaesthetized using propofol 180-200 mg I/V and suxamethonium 50 mg i e 0.75-1 mg per kg I/V without atropine. They were stratified according to physiological changes including PAO2, pulse and blood pressure at 1, 2 and 5 min after ECT. Oxygen saturation was measured using a pulse oximeter, which measures saturations in the range of 65-100%. Results: Age range was 19-65 years; mean 46 years (SD+-13). Mean diastolic BP before ECT was 84.72 that decreased post ECT ie 78.02 and 77.46 and 74.44 at interval of 1, 2 and 5 minute respectively. Post-ECT pulse and PAO2 behaved similarly. Post ECT systolic BP decreased at 1 and 5 minutes. Pulse rate decreased after ECT. Conclusion: ECT under propofol is one of the most effective and safe modality of treatment for psychiatric patients under the supervision of qualified psychiatrists and anaesthesiologists and it gives more stable hemodynamic changes. (author)

  3. Influence of microclimatic conditions under high tunnels on the physiological and productive responses in blueberry 'O'Neal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Retamal-Salgado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production under tunnels has spread in recent years. However, there is little information on the productive and physiological responses of blueberry grown under high tunnels. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of high tunnel microclimate on the physiological and productive responses of blueberries. A total of 1296 plants of highbush blueberry 'O'Neal' were grown in high tunnels, leaving the same amount of plants under open fields (control. Environmental temperature (T, °C and relative humidity (RH, %, diffuse and total photosynthetically active radiation (PARdiffuse and PARtotal, /under tunnel, while levels of PARdiffuse increased more than 150%. The g s ranged between 42% and 99% higher in the high tunnel compared to the control, and was positive and statistically related (r² = 0.69** to PARdiffuse variations. Blueberries under high tunnel recorded an accumulated yield 44% higher, while harvest started 14 d earlier compared to control. The results suggest that high tunnels in blueberries increases fruit yield and improves precocity due to higher temperatures during the flowering stage and fruit set. Particular light conditions under tunnels would favor higher leaf stomatal conductance in this crop.

  4. Physiological Responses, Growth Rate and Blood Metabolites Under Feed Restriction and Thermal Exposure in Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Hooda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the cumulative effect of thermal stress and feed restriction in kids. Twelve kids of Alpine x Beetle cross were divided into two groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 was put on restricted feeding and exposed at 40, 42 and 44oC. Body weights of both groups were similar before thermal exposure and feed restriction. Body weight of group 1 increased significantly and were higher than group 2 throughout the experiment. Body weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were comparable in both groups after removal of thermal stress and switching over to ad libitum feeding (42-63 days. Body weights of group 2 remained lower than group 1, the losses in body weights of group 2 could not be compensated and there was approximately 25% loss in body weight at the end of experiment. Physiological responses of group 2 were significantly lower before exposure to high temperature but increased significantly after exposure at temperature 40, 42 and 44oC and the increase was in commensurate with the increase in exposure temperature. Blood glucose, total protein, albumin and serum enzymes decreased significantly on exposure at higher temperature and differences were higher in feed restricted group. T3, T4 and cortisol concentration were similar in both groups before feed restriction and thermal stress. T3, T4 concentration decreased while cortisol concentration increased significantly after exposure to high temperature. Variations in plasma enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT were not significant before feed restriction and thermal stress. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase decreased whereas that of SGOT and SGPT increased significantly on exposure at temperature 40oC and subsequent changes at temperature 42 and 44oC were not significant. The study indicated that animals of group 2 experienced more stress as observed by significant alteration in body

  5. Evaluation of Foliar Spraying of Zinc and Calcium Fertilizers on Yield and Physiological Traits of Safflower under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jamshidi

    2017-10-01

    number per head, head weight and chlorophyll contents decreased and the activity of catalases, ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed significant increase in the plant. Based on the results we concluded that, decrease in seed yield and plant growth by lead exposure can be in relation to this toxicity and oxidative stress. Also the present results revealed that the increase in the activity of catalases, ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde content prevent the occurrence of oxidative damage under Pb stress. The results showed that lead and zinc interaction effects were significant on grain yield, chlorophyll b and malondialdehyde. The foliar application of zinc improved catalases enzymatic activity, decreased membrane lipid peroxidation and prevented destruction of chlorophyll and maintained yield in stress lead. The optimization of zinc under Pb stress could alleviate Pb-induced toxic effects by enhancing biochemical reactions and physiological processes in safflower plant. The variance analysis showed that only lead and calcium interaction effects on chlorophyll a were significant. Content of chlorophyll a increased at non-stress conditions along with the foliar treatment of calcium (10 mM compared to the control. Conclusions The lead toxicity led to decline in growth and dry matter accumulation and the reduction of chlorophyll synthesis in plants and finally the reduction of the safflower yield. In the lead stress condition, the foliar application of zinc sulfate can be affected in the activation of plant defense systems and prevented the destruction of chlorophyll. Calcium successfully prevented occurrence of chlorosis and increased chlorophyll content. Based on the results, it seems that the application of zinc can have a greater impact on improving safflower growth than calcium fertilizer in lead stress. So in areas contaminated by heavy metals lead, zinc sulfate fertilizer can be as a solution to keep growing and production plants.

  6. Note: A micro-perfusion system for use during real-time physiological studies under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltas, Jeff; Long, Zac; Huff, Alison; Maloney, Ryan; Ryan, Jordan; Urayama, Paul

    2014-10-01

    We construct a micro-perfusion system using piston screw pump generators for use during real-time, high-pressure physiological studies. Perfusion is achieved using two generators, with one generator being compressed while the other is retracted, thus maintaining pressurization while producing fluid flow. We demonstrate control over perfusion rates in the 10-μl/s range and the ability to change between fluid reservoirs at up to 50 MPa. We validate the screw-pump approach by monitoring the cyanide-induced response of UV-excited autofluorescence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pressurization.

  7. CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TREMOR RESULTING FROM SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCREASING FATIGUE DURING PROLONGED MILITARY TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tomczak; J. Gajewski; J Mazur–Różycka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the changes of the characteristics of physiological postural tremor under conditions of increasing fatigue and lack of sleep during prolonged military training (survival).The subjects of the study were 15 students of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. The average age was 19.9±1.3 years. During the 36-hour-long continuous military training (survival) the subjects were deprived of sleep. Four tremor measurements were carried out for each of the subjects: ...

  8. Target Detection, Identification, and Marksmanship Under Various Types of Physiological Strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tikuisis, Peter

    2006-01-01

    .... Using a small arms trainer (SAT), target detection, identification, and engagement were tested under a variety of conditions including heat and cold exposure, fatiguing exercise, and sleep deprivation, with caffeine intervention...

  9. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, Saqib Saleem; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to global food security. Biochar amendment could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crop in the season. However, its long-term residual effect on reducing Na+ uptake in latter crops remains unknown. A pot experiment with wheat was conducted...... in a greenhouse. The soil used was from an earlier experiment on potato where the plants were irrigated with tap water (S0), 25 mM (S1) and 50 mM (S2) NaCl solutions and with 0 and 5% (w/w) biochar amendment. At onset of the experiment, three different EC levels at S0, S1 and S2 were established in the non...... by transient Na+ binding due to its high adsorption capacity, decreasing osmotic stress by enhancing soil moisture content, and by releasing mineral nutrients (particularly K+, Ca++, Mg++) into the soil solution. Growth, physiology and yield of wheat were affected positively with biochar amendment...

  10. Physiological Responses Underlying the Perception of Effort during Moderate and Heavy Intensity Cycle Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C. Cochrane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patterns of responses for physiological and perceptual variables during cycle ergometry at a constant rate of perceived exertion (RPE within the moderate and heavy exercise intensity domains. Nineteen (mean age 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 43.4 ± 2.0 mL·kg−1·min−1 V ˙ O 2 Peak moderately trained cyclists performed an incremental test to exhaustion and two 60 min constant RPE rides at the RPE corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (RPEGET and 15% above the GET (RPEGET+15%. Oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, minute ventilation ( V ˙ E , breathing frequency ( ℱ b , and power output (PO were monitored throughout the rides. Polynomial regression analyses showed V ˙ O2, RER, HR, and V ˙ E (correlation = −0.85 to −0.98 tracked the decreases in PO required to maintain a constant RPE. Only ℱ b tracked RPE during the moderate and heavy intensity rides. Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that V ˙ O2 during the 60 min rides at RPEGET was not different (p > 0.05 from V ˙ O2 at GET from the incremental test to exhaustion. Thus, monitoring intensity using an RPE associated with the GET is sustainable for up to 60 min of cycling exercise and a common mechanism may mediate ℱ b and the perception of effort during moderate and heavy intensity cycle ergometry.

  11. Physiological performance of sesame seeds under the water stress at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Silva de Medeiros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. shows great economic potential because it can be explored by the national as well as the international market. It can be grown in the second season when it is subject to less favorable weather conditions such as drought during the sowing and emergence. Given this the objective was to evaluate the effect of water stress induced by polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 6000 at different temperatures in order to asses the physiological quality of sesame seeds. In this work, were used PEG 6000 with different osmotic potentials (0.0 control and (-0.2, –0.4, –0.6, –0.8, –1.0 –1,2 and –1.4 MPa at temperatures of 25, 30 and 35 °C. For determine the effect of the treatments it was evaluated seed germination and vigor (first count and length of the primary root and shoot, in a completely randomized, with four replications. The sesame seeds are affected by water stress, with significant reductions in germination and vigor. A temperature of 30 °C favored the germination performance in less restrictive water potentials.

  12. Attentional and physiological processing of food images in functional dyspepsia patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seon; Preissl, Hubert; Giel, Katrin; Schag, Kathrin; Enck, Paul

    2018-01-23

    The food-related behavior of functional dyspepsia has been attracting more interest of late. This pilot study aims to provide evidence of the physiological, emotional, and attentional aspects of food processing in functional dyspepsia patients. The study was performed in 15 functional dyspepsia patients and 17 healthy controls after a standard breakfast. We measured autonomic nervous system activity using skin conductance response and heart rate variability, emotional response using facial electromyography, and visual attention using eyetracking during the visual stimuli of food/non-food images. In comparison to healthy controls, functional dyspepsia patients showed a greater craving for food, a decreased intake of food, more dyspeptic symptoms, lower pleasantness rating of food images (particularly of high fat), decreased low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability, and suppressed total processing time of food images. There were no significant differences of skin conductance response and facial electromyography data between groups. The results suggest that high level cognitive functions rather than autonomic and emotional mechanisms are more liable to function differently in functional dyspepsia patients. Abnormal dietary behavior, reduced subjective rating of pleasantness and visual attention to food should be considered as important pathophysiological characteristics in functional dyspepsia.

  13. Formation process of Malaysian modern architecture under influence of nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    宇高, 雄志; 山崎, 大智

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the Formation Process of Malaysian Modern Architecture under Influence of Nationalism,through the process of independence of Malaysia. The national style as "Malaysian national architecture" which hasengaged on background of political environment under the post colonial situation. Malaysian urban design is alsodetermined under the balance of both of ethnic culture and the national culture. In Malaysia, they decided to choosethe Malay ethnic culture as the national culture....

  14. Tumor image signatures and habitats: a processing pipeline of multimodality metabolic and physiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Kim, Michelle M; Aryal, Madhava P; Parmar, Hemant; Piert, Morand; Lawrence, Theodore S; Cao, Yue

    2018-01-01

    To create tumor "habitats" from the "signatures" discovered from multimodality metabolic and physiological images, we developed a framework of a processing pipeline. The processing pipeline consists of six major steps: (1) creating superpixels as a spatial unit in a tumor volume; (2) forming a data matrix [Formula: see text] containing all multimodality image parameters at superpixels; (3) forming and clustering a covariance or correlation matrix [Formula: see text] of the image parameters to discover major image "signatures;" (4) clustering the superpixels and organizing the parameter order of the [Formula: see text] matrix according to the one found in step 3; (5) creating "habitats" in the image space from the superpixels associated with the "signatures;" and (6) pooling and clustering a matrix consisting of correlation coefficients of each pair of image parameters from all patients to discover subgroup patterns of the tumors. The pipeline was applied to a dataset of multimodality images in glioblastoma (GBM) first, which consisted of 10 image parameters. Three major image "signatures" were identified. The three major "habitats" plus their overlaps were created. To test generalizability of the processing pipeline, a second image dataset from GBM, acquired on the scanners different from the first one, was processed. Also, to demonstrate the clinical association of image-defined "signatures" and "habitats," the patterns of recurrence of the patients were analyzed together with image parameters acquired prechemoradiation therapy. An association of the recurrence patterns with image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" was revealed. These image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" can be used to guide stereotactic tissue biopsy for genetic and mutation status analysis and to analyze for prediction of treatment outcomes, e.g., patterns of failure.

  15. Age Modulates Physiological Responses during Fan Use under Extreme Heat and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Poh, Paula Y S; Ngo, Hai; Jay, Ollie; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-11-01

    We examined the effect of electric fan use on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses of nine young (26 ± 3 yr) and nine aged (68 ± 4 yr) adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. While resting at a temperature of 42°C, relative humidity increased from 30% to 70% in 2% increments every 5 min. On randomized days, the protocol was repeated without or with fan use. HR, core (Tcore) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured continuously. Whole-body sweat loss was measured from changes in nude body weight. Other measures of cardiovascular (cardiac output), thermoregulatory (local cutaneous and forearm vascular conductance, local sweat rate), and perceptual (thermal and thirst sensations) responses were also examined. When averaged over the entire protocol, fan use resulted in a small reduction of HR (-2 bpm, 95% confidence interval [CI], -8 to 3), and slightly greater Tcore (+0.05°C; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.23) and Tsk (+0.03°C; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.42) in young adults. In contrast, fan use resulted in greater HR (+5 bpm; 95% CI, 0-10), Tcore (+0.20°C; 95% CI, 0.00-0.41), and Tsk (+0.47°C; 95% CI, 0.18-0.76) in aged adults. A greater whole-body sweat loss during fan use was observed in young (+0.2 kg; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.6) but not aged (0.0 kg; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.2) adults. Greater local sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance were observed with fan use in aged adults. Other measures of cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses were unaffected by fan use in both groups. During extreme heat and humidity, fan use elevates physiological strain in aged, but not young, adults.

  16. Physiological characteristics of Plantago major under SO2 exposure as affected by foliar iron spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohasseli, Vahid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is considered as a main air pollutant in industrialized areas that can damage vegetation. In the present study, we investigated how exposure to SO 2 and foliar application of iron (Fe) would affect certain physiological characteristics of Plantago major. The plant seedlings exposed or unexposed to SO 2 (3900 μg m -3 ) were non-supplemented or supplemented with Fe (3 g L -1 ) as foliar spray. Plants were exposed to SO 2 for 6 weeks in 100 × 70 × 70 cm chambers. Fumigation of plants with SO 2 was performed for 3 h daily for 3 days per week (alternate day). Lower leaf Fe concentration in the plants exposed to SO 2 at no added Fe treatment was accompanied with incidence of chlorosis symptoms and reduced chlorophyll concentration. No visible chlorotic symptoms were observed on the SO 2 -exposed plants supplied with Fe that accumulated higher Fe in their leaves. Both at with and without added Fe treatments, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was higher in the plants fumigated with SO 2 in comparison with those non-fumigated with SO 2 . Foliar application of Fe was also effective in increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and POD. Exposure to SO 2 led to reduced cellulose but enhanced lignin content of plant leaf cell wall. The results obtained showed that foliar application of Fe was effective in reducing the effects of exposure to SO 2 on cell wall composition. In contrast to SO 2 , application of Fe increased cellulose while decreased lignin content of the leaf cell wall. This might be due to reduced oxidative stress induced by SO 2 in plants supplied with Fe compared with those unsupplied with Fe.

  17. Physiological and biochemical responses of Salix integra Thunb. under copper stress as affected by soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yini; Ma, Chuanxin; Chen, Guangcai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    To explore the joint effect of copper (Cu) and flooding on Salix integra Thunb. (S. integra), the physiological and biochemical parameters of the seedlings grown in Cu amended soil (50, 150, 450 mg kg -1 ) with or without the flooding for 60 days were evaluated. The results suggested that the flooding significantly inhibited the root growth in terms of root length and root tips. The Cu exposures of 50 and 150 mg kg -1 notably enhanced the root growth as compared to the control. Majority of Cu was accumulated in S. integra roots, while flooding significantly reduced the Cu content, except the 150 mg kg -1 Cu treatment, but the iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) content on the root surface were both markedly increased relative to non-flooded control. The malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents in leaves showed a dose-response upon Cu exposure. Soil flooding enhanced the GSH level, which displayed 4.50-49.59% increases compared to its respective non-flooded treatment, while no difference was evident on MDA contents between the flooding and the non-flooded treatments. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were boosted while the catalase (CAT) was suppressed with increasing Cu exposure dose, and soil flooding reduced the POD and CAT activities. The elevated Cu level caused the evident increases of root calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) concentrations and decreases of root phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Soil flooding increased the concentrations of Fe, S, Na, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) in S. integra root. Taken together, our results suggested S. integra has high tolerance to the joint stress from Cu and flooding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social and reproductive physiology and behavior of the Neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alonso

    Full Text Available In this work we describe for the first time the social and reproductive behavior of the Neotropical fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840 [Perciformes: Cichlidae], endemic to the Paraná River basin, using a comprehensive-integral approach, including morphological and physiological features. This substrate breeding fish has biparental care of the fry and presents a dominance hierarchy that determines access to breeding territories among males, and to males with territories among females. Gregarious behavior associated with a pale body color, was observed before reproductive behaviors started. Afterwards, a dominance hierarchy was established through aggressive interactions. Territorial individuals had bright body color patterns and non territorial an opaque grey one. Black ventral coloration was associated with reproductive individuals. Courtship displays, which were similar to threatening displays, had the common effect of increasing the visible area of the individual. The dominant male was always the largest one suggesting that size is probably a major factor determining the hierarchy establishment and that these intra-sexually selected traits may have been reinforced by inter-sexual selection. Reproductive males had higher pituitary levels of β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH and somatolactin (SL than non reproductive ones, while no differences were found among females. No differences were found among male gonadosomatic indexes. Non reproductive individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels for both sexes. It is possible that dominant reproductive individuals may be inhibiting reproduction of subordinate fish through physical contact, increasing their cortisol levels and diminishing FSH and SL pituitary content. However, this was not reflected as an inhibition at the gonadal level in our experimental design.

  19. Halophytic Companion Plants Improve Growth and Physiological Parameters of Tomato Plants Grown under Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, S.; Cullu, M. A.; Kaya, C.; Dikilitas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium. Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses. Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. SC2121) grown with or without halophytic companion plants (SalsolasodaL. and Portulacaoleracea L.) were investigated in pot experiment. Treatments consist of four soil type (collected from Harran plain-Turkey) with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity (EC): 0.9, 4.2, 7.2, and 14.1 dS m/sup -1/. The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight (4.2dS m/sup -1/), moderate (7.2 dS m/sup -1/) and high (14.1 dS m/sup -1/) salinity as compared to non-saline soil (0.9 dS m/sup -1/), respectively. Leaf content of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) enzyme activity increased with increasing level of salinity. In tomato plants grown in consociation with Salsolasoda, salinity induced DM decrease was only 6, 12 and 28% in soils with slight, moderate and high salinity as compared to non-saline soil, respectively. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. (author)

  20. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells in different physiological stages under Cordyceps sinensis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yang Li

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis (CS has been commonly used as herbal medicine and a health supplement in China for over two thousand years. Although previous studies have demonstrated that CS has benefits in immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, the precise mechanism by which CS affects immunomodulation is still unclear. In this study, we exploited duplicate sets of loop-design microarray experiments to examine two different batches of CS and analyze the effects of CS on dendritic cells (DCs, in different physiology stages: naïve stage and inflammatory stage. Immature DCs were treated with CS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or LPS plus CS (LPS/CS for two days, and the gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays. The results of two loop-design microarray experiments showed good intersection rates. The expression level of common genes found in both loop-design microarray experiments was consistent, and the correlation coefficients (Rs, were higher than 0.96. Through intersection analysis of microarray results, we identified 295 intersecting significantly differentially expressed (SDE genes of the three different treatments (CS, LPS, and LPS/CS, which participated mainly in the adjustment of immune response and the regulation of cell proliferation and death. Genes regulated uniquely by CS treatment were significantly involved in the regulation of focal adhesion pathway, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, and hematopoietic cell lineage pathway. Unique LPS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus pathway, and complement and coagulation cascades pathway. Unique LPS/CS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These results could provide useful information in further study of the pharmacological mechanisms of CS. This study also demonstrates that with a rigorous experimental design, the biological effects

  1. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells in different physiological stages under Cordyceps sinensis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Yang; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Wang, Shu-Chi; Cheng, Hung-Tsu; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Shu, Wun-Yi; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ying; Fang, Shih-Hua; Hsu, Ian C

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS) has been commonly used as herbal medicine and a health supplement in China for over two thousand years. Although previous studies have demonstrated that CS has benefits in immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, the precise mechanism by which CS affects immunomodulation is still unclear. In this study, we exploited duplicate sets of loop-design microarray experiments to examine two different batches of CS and analyze the effects of CS on dendritic cells (DCs), in different physiology stages: naïve stage and inflammatory stage. Immature DCs were treated with CS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or LPS plus CS (LPS/CS) for two days, and the gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays. The results of two loop-design microarray experiments showed good intersection rates. The expression level of common genes found in both loop-design microarray experiments was consistent, and the correlation coefficients (Rs), were higher than 0.96. Through intersection analysis of microarray results, we identified 295 intersecting significantly differentially expressed (SDE) genes of the three different treatments (CS, LPS, and LPS/CS), which participated mainly in the adjustment of immune response and the regulation of cell proliferation and death. Genes regulated uniquely by CS treatment were significantly involved in the regulation of focal adhesion pathway, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, and hematopoietic cell lineage pathway. Unique LPS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus pathway, and complement and coagulation cascades pathway. Unique LPS/CS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These results could provide useful information in further study of the pharmacological mechanisms of CS. This study also demonstrates that with a rigorous experimental design, the biological effects of a complex

  2. Time course of physiological, biochemical, and gene expression changes under short-term salt stress in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity-imposed limitations on plant growth are manifested through osmotic and ionic imbalances. However, because salinity-induced responses vary considerably among crop plants, monitoring of such responses at an early stage has relevance. In this study, physiological (seed germination, seed vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and biochemical attributes (osmoprotectants, K+/Na+ ratio were analyzed for a time-course assessment of salt responses in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. with an emphasis on early monitoring. The results showed strong correlations for total soluble sugars at germination phase (24 h, proline content in the seedling establishment phase (48 h and various physiological parameters including seed vigor index (R2 = 0.901, shoot length (R2 = 0.982, and fresh weight (R2 = 0.980 at 72 h (adaptation under stress. In addition, transcriptional changes were observed under NaCl treatment for key genes belonging to the family of selective ion transporters (NHX, HKT and abscisic acid synthesis (AAO-3. The status of mitochondrial respiration was also examined as a probe for salinity tolerance at an early stage. The results suggested that although all the analyzed parameters showed correlations (negative or positive with salt stress magnitude, their critical response times differed, with most of the studied biochemical, physiological, or molecular markers providing valuable information only after radicle emergence, whereas mitochondrial respiration via alternative oxidase was useful for the early detection of salt responses.

  3. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J.; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    , results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits

  4. Non-linear effects of drought under shade: reconciling physiological and ecological models in plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Gomez-Aparicio, L.; Quero, J.L.; Valladares, F.

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of shade and drought on plant performance and the implications for species interactions are highly debated in plant ecology. Empirical evidence for positive and negative effects of shade on the performance of plants under dry conditions supports two contrasting theoretical

  5. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-02-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  6. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-Yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg-1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  7. Silicon Regulates Potential Genes Involved in Major Physiological Processes in Plants to Combat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si, the quasi-essential element occurs as the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Biological importance of Si in plant kingdom has become inevitable particularly under stressed environment. In general, plants are classified as high, medium, and low silicon accumulators based on the ability of roots to absorb Si. The uptake of Si directly influence the positive effects attributed to the plant but Si supplementation proves to mitigate stress and recover plant growth even in low accumulating plants like tomato. The application of Si in soil as well as soil-less cultivation systems have resulted in the enhancement of quantitative and qualitative traits of plants even under stressed environment. Silicon possesses several mechanisms to regulate the physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant metabolism in plants to combat abiotic and biotic stresses. Nevertheless, very few reports are available on the aspect of Si-mediated molecular regulation of genes with potential role in stress tolerance. The recent advancements in the era of genomics and transcriptomics have opened an avenue for the determination of molecular rationale associated with the Si amendment to the stress alleviation in plants. Therefore, the present endeavor has attempted to describe the recent discoveries related to the regulation of vital genes involved in photosynthesis, transcription regulation, defense, water transport, polyamine synthesis, and housekeeping genes during abiotic and biotic stress alleviation by Si. Furthermore, an overview of Si-mediated modulation of multiple genes involved in stress response pathways such as phenylpropanoid pathway, jasmonic acid pathway, ABA-dependent or independent regulatory pathway have been discussed in this review.

  8. Kinetics of isomerization and inversion of aspartate 58 of αA-crystallin peptide mimics under physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Aki

    Full Text Available Although proteins consist exclusively of L-amino acids, we have reported that aspartyl (Asp 58 and Asp 151 residues of αA-crystallin of eye lenses from elderly cataract donors are highly inverted and isomerized to D-β, D-α and L-β-Asp residues through succinimide intermediates. Of these Asp isomers, large amounts of D-β- and L-β-isomers are present but the amount of D-α-isomer is not significant. The difference in abundance of the Asp isomers in the protein may be due to the rate constants for the formation of the isomers. However, the kinetics have not been well defined. Therefore, in this study, we synthesized a peptide corresponding to human αA-crystallin residues 55 to 65 (T(55VLD(58SGISEVR(65 and its isomers in which L-α-Asp at position 58 was replaced with L-β-, D-β- and D-α-Asp and determined the rate of isomerization and inversion of Asp residues under physiological conditions (37°C, pH7.4. The rate constant for dehydration from L-α-Asp peptide to L-succinimidyl peptide was 3 times higher than the rate constant for dehydration from L-β-Asp peptide to L-succinimidyl peptide. The rate constant for hydrolysis from L-succinimidyl peptide to L-β-Asp peptide was about 5 times higher than the rate constant for hydrolysis from L-succinimidyl peptide to L-α-Asp peptide. The rate constant for dehydration from L-α-Asp peptide to L-succinimidyl peptide was 2 times higher than the rate constant for dehydration from D-α-Asp peptide to D-succinimidyl peptide. The rate constants for hydrolysis from L-succinimidyl peptide to L-β-Asp peptide and for hydrolysis from D-succinimidyl peptide to D-β-Asp peptide were almost equal. Using these rate constants, we calculated the change in the abundance ratios of the 4 Asp isomers during a human lifespan. This result is consistent with the fact that isomerized Asp residues accumulate in proteins during the ageing process.

  9. Physiological characteristics under the influence of heat stress working in the hot environment, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Yoshino, Kenji; Takano, Ken-ichi

    1987-01-01

    There is a possibility that physical and mental stress appears under hot environmental condition for the cause of wearing protection suits on reactor maintenance work. It is important to reduce heat stress rapidly and effectively. This paper mentioned following about the results of static state and simulation work done by testees with or without protection suits under 25 kinds of temperatures and wind velocities in a artificial climate chamber. (1) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and subjective symptoms without protection suits. (2) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures without protection suits. (3) investigation of the parts of body affecting subjective symptoms. (4) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures at working with protection suits. (5) working out countermeasures of recovery from heat stress with the index of skin temperatures and subjective symptoms. (author)

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    OpenAIRE

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO; LÚCIA HELENA PEREIRA NÓBREGA; GISLAINE PICOLLO DE LIMA; MÁRCIA SANTORUM; WALTER BOLLER; LORIVAN FORMIGHIERI

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial ...

  11. Physiological behaviors and recovery responses of four Galician grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ) cultivars under water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.; Berrios, J.

    2012-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of four pot grown Galician grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albariño, Brancellao, Godello and Treixadura) were examined under different levels of water stress in greenhouse. After extreme stress, gas exchange recovery responses were evaluated. Average ΨPD for control and stressed plants were -0.4MPa and -1.45MPa respectively. All varieties showed gradual declining of all gas exchange parameters (gs, E and A) with increasing of stress perio...

  12. Dynamic behavior of tripolar hip endoprostheses under physiological conditions and their effect on stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Christian; Kaehler, Michael; Herrmann, Sven; Woernle, Christoph; Bader, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Tripolar systems have been implanted to reduce the risk of recurrent dislocation. However, there is little known about the dynamic behavior of tripolar hip endoprostheses under daily life conditions and achieved joint stability. Hence, the objective of this biomechanical study was to examine the in vivo dynamics and dislocation behavior of two types of tripolar systems compared to a standard total hip replacement (THR) with the same outer head diameter. Several load cases of daily life activities were applied to an eccentric and a concentric tripolar system by an industrial robot. During testing, the motion of the intermediate component was measured using a stereo camera system. Additionally, their behavior under different dislocation scenarios was investigated in comparison to a standard THR. For the eccentric tripolar system, the intermediate component demonstrated the shifting into moderate valgus-positions, regardless of the type of movement. This implant showed the highest resisting torque against dislocation in combination with a large range of motion. In contrast, the concentric tripolar system tended to remain in varus-positions and was primarily moved after stem contact. According to the results, eccentric tripolar systems can work well under in vivo conditions and increase hip joint stability in comparison to standard THRs. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The psycho-physiological responses of partners in the process of divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Kričaj Korelc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to establish whether the partners who are in the process of separating and those, who evaluate their partnership as successful, differ from each other in emotional, behavioural and somatic responses, and whether there are differences between them in personal strenght, tackling and in different styles of defensive behaviour. According to that, the author followed a psycho-physiological integrational model of disease existence and biopsychosocial model of health and disease. The results showed that the separating partners of both gender experience subjectively stronger emotional states with negative hedonic note and manifest more mood and adaptable emotional disturbances in quality and quantity as a reaction to the stressful events. They also respond strongly with somatic disturbances without organic basis or defined physical causes. Partners in separation also engage more nonadaptive and risk taking behaviors. In addition their use of all disposable strategies of coping is more vigorous and frequent. Obtained results also show some specific cross gender features and differences in receiving and responding to the separation of a matrimony.

  14. Progression Analysis and Stage Discovery in Continuous Physiological Processes Using Image Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrucci Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an image computing-based method for quantitative analysis of continuous physiological processes that can be sensed by medical imaging and demonstrate its application to the analysis of morphological alterations of the bone structure, which correlate with the progression of osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of the analysis is to quantitatively estimate OA progression in a fashion that can assist in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Ultimately, the texture analysis will be able to provide an alternative OA scoring method, which can potentially reflect the progression of the disease in a more direct fashion compared to the existing clinically utilized classification schemes based on radiology. This method can be useful not just for studying the nature of OA, but also for developing and testing the effect of drugs and treatments. While in this paper we demonstrate the application of the method to osteoarthritis, its generality makes it suitable for the analysis of other progressive clinical conditions that can be diagnosed and prognosed by using medical imaging.

  15. Influence training process program for coach physiological quality of players 10–12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lebedev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of sport shows with proper evidence-based construction training process, not all young athletes can achieve high-level sports technics that puts them at further sporting destiny. Purpose: identify the dynamics of psychophysiologic рreparations young players aged 10–12 years. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of the literature; pedagogical testing laboratory method; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: significant difference in evaluating the capacity for predicting the situation in the field: between 10 and 11 years – on 0.16 points (t=3,57; p<0,001 and between 11 and 12 at 0.27 points (t=2,99; p<0,05. In 11-year-old young players improved 0.79 points relative to 10-year (t=2,30; p<0,05, and 12 years 1.09 points respectively to 11 years (t=4,12; p<0,001. Retrieved changes in terms Tapping test from 10 to 12 years (t=3,15; p<0.01, due to a higher physical activity (both in terms of employment and volume load. Conclusions: with age, physiological indicators improved significantly.

  16. Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Cobley, James N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hormonal regulation of apoptosis in the ovary under normal physiological and pathological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Karin Annemarie

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis plays an important role in normal reproductive function. Since apoptosis attributes to the exhaustion of the oocyte/follicle reserve, either directly through germ cell death or indirectly through follicular atresia, this process has been proposed to be the major

  18. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Tomioka, Rie; Kurata, Rie; Fukao, Yoichiro; Aoyama, Takashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    The plasma membrane-associated Ca(2+)-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1-PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels.

  19. The shouted voice: A pilot study of laryngeal physiology under extreme aerodynamic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Galant, Camille; Amy de La Bretèque, Benoit; Meynadier, Yohann; Giovanni, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to study the behavior of the larynx during shouted voice production, when the larynx is exposed to extremely high subglottic pressure. The study involved electroglottographic, acoustic, and aerodynamic analyses of shouts produced at maximum effort by three male participants. Under a normal speaking voice, the voice sound pressure level (SPL) is proportional to the subglottic pressure. However, when the subglottic pressure reached high levels, the voice SPL reached a maximum value and then decreased as subglottic pressure increased further. Furthermore, the electroglottographic signal sometimes lost its periodicity during the shout, suggesting irregular vocal fold vibration.

  20. Physiological characteristics and metabolomics of transgenic wheat containing the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xueli; Xu, Weigang; Zhang, Jianzhou; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Mingzhong; Hu, Lin; Wang, Huiwei; Dong, Haibin; Li, Yan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two transgenic wheat lines, PC27 and PC51, containing the maize PEPC gene and its wild-type (WT) were used as experimental material to study the effects of high temperature on their photosynthetic physiological characteristics and metabolome. The results showed that transgenic wheat lines had higher photosynthetic rate (P n ) than WT under non-stress treatment (NT) and high temperature stress treatment (HT), and more significantly under HT. The change trends of F v /F m , Ф PSII , and q P were similar to P n , whereas that of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was the opposite. Compared with WT, no differences in chlorophyll content between the transgenic wheat and WT were observed under NT, but two transgenic lines had relatively higher contents than WT under HT. The change trends of Chlorophyll a/b radio, the decreased values of F m , W k , and V j , and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme were consistent with the chlorophyll content. Compared with WT, transgenic wheat lines exhibited lower rate of superoxide anion production, H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde content under HT, and no significant differences were observed under NT. The expression pattern of the ZmPEPC gene and wheat endogenous photosynthesis-related genes were in agreement with that of P n . Compared with WT, about 13 different metabolites including one organic acid, six amino acids, four sugars, and two polyols were identified under NT; 25 different metabolites including six organic acids, 12 amino acids, four sugars, and three polyols were identified under HT. Collectively, our results indicate that ZmPEPC gene can enhance photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activity, upregulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, delay degradation of chlorophyll, change contents of proline and other metabolites in wheat, and ultimately improves its heat tolerance.

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Seed Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jafarian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water deficit is the major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity around the world. In all agricultural regions, yields of rain-fed crops are periodically reduced by drought. Among various strategies, pre-sowing treatment and priming of seeds are easy, low cost, low risk and effective approaches to overcome the environmental stress problems. Various priming strategies include osmopriming, halopriming, hormonal priming or hydropriming, etc. Hydrogen peroxide, a stress signal molecule, was evaluated as seed treatment to produce the metabolic changes, which could lead to improved drought tolerance in wheat. The interaction of signals conferring stress tolerance in accomplishing better crop growth and yield is a priority area of research. Here we report some anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes induced by Hydrogen peroxide during seed treatment and their involvement in conferring drought tolerance upon wheat. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted out at the research farm of agricultural collage of Ilam university during 2014-2015 cropping season. This study was aimed to investigate the priming seed with hydrogen peroxide on two wheat genotypes (Cross Sabalan (bread wheat and Saji (durum wheat, under dryland farming system condition. Experimental design was factorial, arranged in randomized complete block, with three replications. Two main factors were wheat genotypes and four soaking treatments of seeds with different concentration (zero, 25, 50 and 80 Mm of Hydrogen Peroxide. Seeds of each genotype were sown at 6 rows of 3 m length with lines space of 20 cm in depth 5 cm. At heading stage physiological traits were measured on selected leaves and then samples were taken to determine leaf area, Leaf rolling, number and length of Stomata on the epidermis, RWC, electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments concentrations (Chla, b and carotenoid and antioxidant enzyme contents (catalase, ascorbate

  2. Stability of prebiotic, laminaran oligosaccharide under food processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamidah, A.

    2018-04-01

    Prebiotic stability tests on laminaran oligosaccharide under food processing conditions were urgently performed to determine the ability of prebiotics deal with processing. Laminaran, oligosaccharide is produced from enzymatic hydrolysis. To further apply this prebiotic, it is necessary to test its performance on food processing. Single prebiotic or in combination with probiotic can improve human digestive health. The effectiveness evaluation of prebiotic should be taken into account in regards its chemical and functional stabilities. This study aims to investigate the stability of laminaran, oligosaccharide under food processing condition.

  3. Maize water status and physiological traits as affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger; Sepehri, Mozhgan

    2018-05-01

    Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Seedlings of inoculated and non-inoculated maize (Zea mays L., cv. single cross 704) were cultivated in growth chambers filled with moistened siliceous sand at a matric suction of 20 hPa. Drought stress was induced using PEG 6000 solution with osmotic potentials of 0, - 0.3 and - 0.5 MPa. Mechanical stress (i.e., penetration resistances of 1.05, 4.23 and 6.34 MPa) was exerted by placing weights on the surface of the sand medium. After 30 days, leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC), root and shoot fresh weights, root volume (RV) and diameter (RD), leaf proline content, leaf area (LA) and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were measured. The results show that exposure to individual drought and mechanical stresses led to higher RD and proline content and lower plant biomass, RV and LA. Moreover, increasing drought and mechanical stress severity increased APX activity by about 1.9- and 3.1-fold compared with the control. When plants were exposed to combined stresses, mechanical stress played the dominant role in controlling plant responses. P. indica-inoculated plants are better adapted to individual and combined stresses. The inoculated plants had greater RV, LA, RWC, LWP and proline content under stressful conditions. In comparison with non-inoculated plants, inoculated plants showed lower CAT and APX activities which means that they experienced less oxidative stress induced by stressful conditions.

  4. Influence of priming on the physiological traits of corn seed germination under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Roghayyeh KHATAMI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of drought stress and priming on germination of corn seeds (cultivar SC704 as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were drought stress in four levels including 0,-3,-6 and -9 bar and priming as control, hydro, osmo, vitamin and hormone priming. Results showed that interaction of two factors was significant on radicle and plumule dry weight, seedling vigor and germination rate. Osmo-priming remained the radicle dry weight and seedling vigor index same to control but germination rate decreased in this treatment about 38% to control. Drought stress at any severity caused seed reservoirs were not use inefficiently. In conclusion, osmo and hormone primings were the best treatments for seed invigoration under severe drought stress.

  5. Water-soluble triazabutadienes that release diazonium species upon protonation under physiologically relevant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Flora W; Jewett, John C

    2015-03-23

    Triazabutadienes are an understudied structural motif that have remarkable reactivity once rendered water-soluble. It is shown that these molecules readily release diazonium species in a pH-dependent manner in a series of buffer solutions with pH ranges similar to those found in cells. Upon further development, we expect that this process will be well suited to cargo-release strategies and organelle-specific bioconjugation reactions. These compounds offer one of the mildest ways of generating diazonium species in aqueous solutions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A physiological approach to oceanic processes and glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep L. Pelegrí

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One possible path for exploring the Earth’s far-from-equilibrium homeostasis is to assume that it results from the organisation of optimal pulsating systems, analogous to that in complex living beings. Under this premise it becomes natural to examine the Earth’s organisation using physiological-like variables. Here we identify some of these main variables for the ocean’s circulatory system: pump rate, stroke volume, carbon and nutrient arterial-venous differences, inorganic nutrients and carbon supply, and metabolic rate. The stroke volume is proportional to the water transported into the thermocline and deep oceans, and the arterial-venous differences occur between recently-upwelled deep waters and very productive high-latitudes waters, with atmospheric CO2 being an indicator of the arterial-venous inorganic carbon difference. The metabolic rate is the internal-energy flux (here expressed as flux of inorganic carbon in the upper ocean required by the system’s machinery, i.e. community respiration. We propose that the pump rate is set externally by the annual cycle, at one beat per year per hemisphere, and that the autotrophic ocean adjusts its stroke volume and arterial-venous differences to modify the internal-energy demand, triggered by long-period astronomical insolation cycles (external-energy supply. With this perspective we may conceive that the Earth’s interglacial-glacial cycle responds to an internal organisation analogous to that occurring in living beings during an exercise-recovery cycle. We use an idealised double-state metabolic model of the upper ocean (with the inorganic carbon/nutrients supply specified through the overturning rate and the steady-state inorganic carbon/nutrients concentrations to obtain the temporal evolution of its inorganic carbon concentration, which mimics the glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 pattern.

  7. Seed Germination and Physiological Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to highlight the germination of sunflower seeds affected by the presence of saline stress and the identification of tolerant genotypes. The biological material was represented by sunflower cvs. (Helianthus annuus L.: Coril, Select, Santiago and Fundulea-206. To simulate the saline conditions, germination solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl were used with concentrations corresponding to the osmotic pressures -6 and -10 atm and the control seed hydration was performed with distilled water. Determination of seed germination, growth of seedling, percentage of plumules dry matter, chlorophyll content and free proline were performed. The experimental data obtained suppose the existence in the assimilation apparatus of sunflowers seedling subjected to stress a competitive chlorophyll/free proline biosynthesis processes. The experimental results regarding the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth revealed important differences between genotypes. The radicle growth in the germination process were strongly affected by saline excess, with significant differences between cultivars. Saline stress results in significant reductions in the amount of chlorophyll, and high levels of free proline. It can be observed that with the increase of the stress level the percentage of the dry matter increases, indicating an accentuated water deficit.

  8. Mechanical measurement of hydrogen bonded host-guest systems under non-equilibrium, near-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Teresa; Cerrón, Fernando; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Ibarra, Borja; Pérez, Emilio M

    2017-09-01

    Decades after the birth of supramolecular chemistry, there are many techniques to measure noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, under equilibrium conditions. As ensembles of molecules rapidly lose coherence, we cannot extrapolate bulk data to single-molecule events under non-equilibrium conditions, more relevant to the dynamics of biological systems. We present a new method that exploits the high force resolution of optical tweezers to measure at the single molecule level the mechanical strength of a hydrogen bonded host-guest pair out of equilibrium and under near-physiological conditions. We utilize a DNA reporter to unambiguously isolate single binding events. The Hamilton receptor-cyanuric acid host-guest system is used as a test bed. The force required to dissociate the host-guest system is ∼17 pN and increases with the pulling rate as expected for a system under non-equilibrium conditions. Blocking one of the hydrogen bonding sites results in a significant decrease of the force-to-break by 1-2 pN, pointing out the ability of the method to resolve subtle changes in the mechanical strength of the binding due to the individual H-bonding components. We believe the method will prove to be a versatile tool to address important questions in supramolecular chemistry.

  9. The effect of nitrate and phosphate availability on Emiliania huxleyi (NZEH physiology under different CO2 scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica eRouco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and calcification of the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi is affected by ocean acidification and macronutrients limitation and its response varies between strains. Here we investigated the physiological performance of a highly calcified E. huxleyi strain, NZEH, in a multiparametric experiment. Cells were exposed to different CO2 levels (ranging from 250 to 1314 µatm under three nutrient conditions [nutrient replete (R, nitrate limited (-N and phosphate limited (-P]. We focused on calcite and organic carbon quotas and on nitrate and phosphate utilization by analyzing the activity of nitrate reductase (NRase and alkaline phosphatase (APase, respectively. Particulate inorganic (PIC and organic (POC carbon quotas increased with increasing CO2 under R conditions but a different pattern was observed under nutrient limitation. The PIC:POC ratio decreased with increasing CO2 in nutrient limited cultures. Coccolith length increased with CO2 under all nutrient conditions but the coccosphere volume varied depending on the nutrient treatment. Maximum APase activity was found at 561 µatm of CO2 (pH 7.92 in -P cultures and in R conditions, NRase activity increased linearly with CO2. These results suggest that E. huxleyi’s competitive ability for nutrient uptake might be altered in future high-CO2 oceans. The combined dataset will be useful in model parameterizations of the carbon cycle and ocean acidification.

  10. The effect of nitrate and phosphate availability on Emiliania huxleyi (NZEH) physiology under different CO2 scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, Mónica; Branson, Oscar; Lebrato, Mario; Iglesias-Rodríguez, M Débora

    2013-01-01

    Growth and calcification of the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi is affected by ocean acidification and macronutrients limitation and its response varies between strains. Here we investigated the physiological performance of a highly calcified E. huxleyi strain, NZEH, in a multiparametric experiment. Cells were exposed to different CO2 levels (ranging from 250 to 1314 μatm) under three nutrient conditions [nutrient replete (R), nitrate limited (-N), and phosphate limited (-P)]. We focused on calcite and organic carbon quotas and on nitrate and phosphate utilization by analyzing the activity of nitrate reductase (NRase) and alkaline phosphatase (APase), respectively. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon quotas increased with increasing CO2 under R conditions but a different pattern was observed under nutrient limitation. The PIC:POC ratio decreased with increasing CO2 in nutrient limited cultures. Coccolith length increased with CO2 under all nutrient conditions but the coccosphere volume varied depending on the nutrient treatment. Maximum APase activity was found at 561 μatm of CO2 (pH 7.92) in -P cultures and in R conditions, NRase activity increased linearly with CO2. These results suggest that E. huxleyi's competitive ability for nutrient uptake might be altered in future high-CO2 oceans. The combined dataset will be useful in model parameterizations of the carbon cycle and ocean acidification.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoparticles under physiological conditions: effect of culture media components and particle surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatisson, Julien; Quevedo, Ivan R; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products has increased substantially over the last few years. Some research has been conducted in order to determine whether or not such materials are cytotoxic, but questions remain regarding the role that physiological media and sera constituents play in ENP aggregation or stabilization. In this study, several characterization methods were used to evaluate the particle size and surface potential of 6 ENPs suspended in a number of culture media and in the presence of different culture media constituents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed for size determinations. Results were interpreted on the basis of ENP surface potentials evaluated from particle electrophoretic mobilities (EPM). Measurements made after 24h of incubation at 37°C showed that the cell culture medium constituents had only moderate impact on the physicochemical properties of the ENP, although incubation in bovine serum albumin destabilized the colloidal system. In contrast, most of the serum proteins increased colloidal stabilization. Moreover, the type of ENP surface modification played a significant role in ENP behavior whereby the complexity of interactions between the ENPs and the medium components generally decreased with increasing complexity of the particle surface. This investigation emphasizes the importance of ENP characterization under conditions that are representative of cell culture media or physiological conditions for improved assessments of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant growth regulator interactions in physiological processes for controlling plant regeneration and in vitro development of Tulbaghia simmleri

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumari, A.; Baskaran, P.; Plačková, Lenka; Omámiková, Hana; Nisler, Jaroslav; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 223, APR (2018), s. 65-71 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Endogenous hormone * Exogenous hormone application * In vitro regeneration * Ornamental and medicinal plant * Physiological process * Tulbaghia simmleri Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  13. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  14. Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning in an Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Course with a Diverse Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), a pedagogical technique initially developed for college chemistry courses, has been implemented for 2 yr in a freshman-level anatomy and physiology course at a small private college. The course is populated with students with backgrounds ranging from no previous college-level science to junior and…

  15. Microfluidic device to study cell transmigration under physiological shear stress conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2011-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies relies on studies of cell transmigration in in vitro systems. Migration has traditionally been studied using two methods, the Boyden chamber and a shear flow chamber assay. Though, commonly applied in cell transmigration studies, they are far from imitating a...... of the developed microfluidic migration assay. The presented device is inexpensive, easy to fabricate and disposable, having a potential to be applied in basic research as well as in the drug development process.......The development of new drug therapies relies on studies of cell transmigration in in vitro systems. Migration has traditionally been studied using two methods, the Boyden chamber and a shear flow chamber assay. Though, commonly applied in cell transmigration studies, they are far from imitating...

  16. Physiology of ‘Paluma’ guava under irrigation with saline water and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Manoel da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water in irrigation causes osmotic and toxic effects and nutritional imbalance in plants, leading to morphophysiological modifications in the leaves and compromising the production of photosynthetic pigments, which negatively reflects in the growth and development of the crops. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation water salinity on the content of photosynthetic pigments and leaf morphophysiology of guava seedlings cv. ‘Paluma’ under nitrogen (N fertilization. A randomized block design was used, testing five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity - ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7, and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (541.1, 773.0, 1,004.9, and 1,236.8 mg of N dm-3 of soil in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates and five plants per plot. The contents of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of the guava seedlings cv. ‘Paluma’ were inhibited by the increase in irrigation water salinity at 190 days after emergence, and the salt stress was lessened with the N dose of 1,004.9 mg dm-3 up to an ECw level of 1.2 dS m-1. Leaf morphophysiology of guava seedlings was not compromised by irrigation water salinity up to 1.5 dS m-1, and the highest values were obtained in plants fertilized with 541.1 mg of N dm-3.

  17. Competitive endothelial adhesion between Plasmodium falciparum isolates under physiological flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the microvasculature of major organs involves a sequence of events that is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe falciparum malaria. Plasmodium falciparum infections are commonly composed of multiple subpopulations of parasites with varied adhesive properties. A key question is: do these subpopulations compete for adhesion to endothelium? This study investigated whether, in a laboratory model of cytoadherence, there is competition in binding to endothelium between pRBC infected with P. falciparum of variant adhesive phenotypes, particularly under flow conditions. Methods Four different P. falciparum isolates, of known adherence phenotypes, were matched in pairs, mixed in different proportions and allowed to bind to cultured human endothelium. Using in vitro competitive static and flow-based adhesion assays, that allow simultaneous testing of the adhesive properties of two different parasite lines, adherence levels of paired P. falciparum isolates were quantified and analysed using either non-parametric Wilcoxon's paired signed rank test or Student paired test. Results Study findings show that P. falciparum parasite lines show marked differences in the efficiency of adhesion to endothelium. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum variants will compete for adhesion to endothelia and variants can be ranked by their efficiency of binding. These findings suggest that variants from a mixed infection will not show uniform cytoadherence and so may vary in their ability to cause disease.

  18. Molecular and physiological responses of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to pgpr and sa under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the efficacy of PGPR (Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) and its modulation by salicylic acid. Two hybrids of sunflower (Hysun and Parsun) were inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. prior to sowing. Salt stress (20 dSm-1) was applied 28 d after sowing followed by foliar spray of salicylic acid (100 micro M) after 4 h of salt treatment. Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculation alone and in combination with salicylic acid alleviated the effects of salt stress on both the sunflower hybrids. The salt tolerance in these treatments was mediated by an increase in relative water content, carotenoids, proline, ABA, induction of new polypeptide bands and yield of sunflower hybrids. In response to salt stress four new polypeptide bands were synthesized in both Hysun, whereas, a group of six polypeptide bands were observed in Parsun. Application of salicylic acid alone and in combination with Azospirillum found to induce four new polypeptide bands in Hysun and Parsun. It is inferred that synthesis of new proteins in response to the combined application of salicylic acid and Azospirillum under salt stress, may play an important role as stress proteins in tolerance of sunflower hybrids to salt stress. (author)

  19. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

  20. Phenotypic and Physiological Evaluation of Two and Six Rows Barley under Different Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mahmoud; Badran, Mohamed; Abouzied, Hanaa; Ali, Heba; Elbasyoni, Ibrahim

    2018-05-04

    In recent years, barley has attracted more interest as a food and feed source because of its high soluble dietary fiber and β-glucan content compared with other small grains. Twenty-five barley genotypes (20 imported genotypes and five check cultivars) were grown in three environments for two successive seasons: 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The first environment was in El-Nubaria, Alexandria, Egypt during 2015/2016, while the second and third environments were in El-Bostan, Elbhera, Egypt during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with the three replicates. The primary objectives of the current study were to evaluate the performance of 20 imported barley genotypes under several environmental conditions. The imported materials were superior to the local commercial cultivars for several traits, including grain yield. Therefore, the superior genotypes will be further evaluated and used in barley breeding programs. Our future work will focus on creating several crosses among the selected superior genotypes to improve yield and other important traits, while applying marker-assisted selection.

  1. Processes underlying treatment success and failure in assertive community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Laura G; McGrew, John H; Salyers, Michelle P

    2012-02-01

    Processes underlying success and failure in assertive community treatment (ACT), a widely investigated treatment model for persons with severe mental illness, are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine processes in ACT by (1) understanding how consumers and staff describe the processes underlying treatment success and failure and (2) comparing processes identified by staff and consumers. Investigators conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 staff and 23 consumers from four ACT teams. Both staff and consumers identified aspects of the ACT team itself as the most critical in the process of consumer success. For failure, consumers identified consumer characteristics as most critical and staff identified lack of social relationships. Processes underlying failure were not viewed as merely the opposite of processes underlying success. In addition, there was notable disagreement between staff and consumers on important processes. Findings overlap with critical ingredients identified in previous studies, including aspects of the ACT team, social involvement and employment. In contrast to prior studies, there was little emphasis on hospitalizations and greater emphasis on not abusing substances, obtaining wants and desires, and consumer characteristics.

  2. Dispute settlement process under GATT/WTO diplomatic or judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper probes the mechanisms of the dispute resolution process under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT). It tries to analyse the evolution of the dispute process which was initially based on diplomatic procedures and gives an account of its evolution and ...

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial flow and 3.0 mm, 15 mm and 3.0 mm for a combine with tangential flow and three cylinder rotations on the quality of soybean seeds harvested at two moisture contents. Soybean seeds of cultivar 'ND 4910' were harvested at 16.6% moisture (mid - morning and 13.7% moisture in the afternoon. The seeds quality was evaluated by germination tests, germination speed index (GSI, germination rate, moisture content, percentage of purity and vigor by tetrazolium test. Despite the combine, the results showed that the mechanical injury has most reduced seeds quality, at 16.6% moisture content, concave opening of 30 mm (axial and 10 mm (tangential and cylinder rotation of 1100 rpm (axial and 1000 (tangential, both with the highest rotations used. The combine with tangential flow had the highest degree of seeds purity. When seeds moisture content at harvest was close to 13.7%, there was the highest seed injury, while, at 16.6%, there was the highest number of crushed soybeans, regardless the combine adjustment.

  4. Physiological and metabolomic analysis of Punica granatum (L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catola, Stefano; Marino, Giovanni; Emiliani, Giovanni; Huseynova, Taravat; Musayev, Mirza; Akparov, Zeynal; Maserti, Bianca Elena

    2016-02-01

    Punica granatum has a noticeable adaptation to drought stress. The levels of the green leaf volatile trans-2-hexenal increased in response to drought stress suggesting a possible role of this compound in drought stress response in pomegranate. Punica granatum (L.) is a highly valued fruit crop for its health-promoting effects and it is mainly cultivated in semi-arid areas. Thus, understanding the response mechanisms to drought stress is of great importance. In the present research, a metabolomics analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of drought stress on volatile organic compounds extracted from the leaves of pomegranate plants grown under water shortage conditions. The time course experiment (7 days of water deprivation and 24-h recovery) consisted of three treatments (control, drought stress, and rehydration of drought-stressed plants). Plant weights were recorded and control plants were irrigated daily at pot capacity to provide the lost water. Fraction of transpirable soil water has been evaluated as indicator of soil water availability in stressed plants. The levels of proline, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation as well as of the photosynthetic parameters such as photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (g s), photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II, and photochemical quenching were monitored after the imposition of drought stress and recovery as markers of plant stress. Constitutive carbon volatile components were analyzed in the leaf of control and drought-stressed leaves using Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction sampling coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. A total of 12 volatile compounds were found in pomegranate leaf profiles, mainly aldehydes, alcohols, and organic acids. Among them, the trans-2-hexenal showed a significant increase in water-stressed and recovered leaves respect to the well-watered ones. These data evidence a possible role of the oxylipin pathway in the response to water stress in pomegranate

  5. Physiological differences and changes in global DNA methylation levels in Agave angustifolia Haw. albino variant somaclones during the micropropagation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Aké, Fátima; Castillo-Castro, Eduardo; Pool, Felipe Barredo; Espadas, Francisco; Santamaría, Jorge M; Robert, Manuel L; De-la-Peña, Clelia

    2016-12-01

    Global DNA methylation changes caused by in vitro conditions are associated with the subculturing and phenotypic variation in Agave angustifolia Haw. While the relationship between the development of albinism and in vitro culture is well documented, the role of epigenetic processes in this development leaves some important questions unanswered. During the micropropagation of Agave angustifolia Haw., we found three different phenotypes, green (G), variegated (V) and albino (A). To understand the physiological and epigenetic differences among the somaclones, we analyzed several morphophysiological parameters and changes in the DNA methylation patterns in the three phenotypes during their in vitro development. We found that under in vitro conditions, the V plantlets maintained their CAM photosynthetic capacity, while the A variant showed no pigments and lost its CAM photosynthetic ability. Epigenetic analysis revealed that global DNA methylation increased in the G phenotype during the first two subcultures. However, after that time, DNA methylation levels declined. This hypomethylation correlated with the appearance of V shoots in the G plantlets. A similar correlation occurred in the V phenotype, where an increase of 2 % in the global DNA methylation levels was correlated with the generation of A shoots in the V plantlets. This suggests that an "epigenetic stress memory" during in vitro conditions causes a chromatin shift that favors the generation of variegated and albino shoots.

  6. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  7. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  8. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  9. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  10. Effect of a puzzle on the process of students' learning about cardiac physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Lais Tono; Miranda, Aline Soares; Moura, Maria José Costa Sampaio; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using a puzzle to learn about cardiac physiology. Students were divided into control and game groups. In class 1, the control group had a 2-h theoretical class about cardiac physiology, including a detailed description of the phases of the cardiac cycle, whereas the game group had a 50-min theoretical class without the description of the cardiac cycle. In class 2, the control group did an assessment exercise before an activity with the cardiac puzzle and the game group answered questions after the above-mentioned activity. While solving the puzzle, the students had to describe the cardiac cycle by relating the concepts of heart morphology and physiology. To evaluate short-term learning, the number of wrong answers and grades in the assessment exercise were compared between the control and game groups. To evaluate medium-term learning, we compared the grades obtained by students of the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology that formed part of the academic exam. In the assessment exercise, the game group presented a lower number of errors and higher score compared with the control group. In the academic exam, applied after both groups had used the puzzle, there was no difference in the scores obtained by the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology. These results showed a positive effect of the puzzle on students' learning about cardiac physiology compared with those not using the puzzle. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  11. Physiological and biochemical response to Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Edrees Ibrahim Teama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus on some the physiological and biochemical traits in growing Baladi goats under hot summer conditions. Thirty-four growing male goats (4-5 months old were randomly divided into two equal groups. Animals in group 1 were fed a concentrate feed mixture (CFM, which was the control group. Goats in group 2 (the experimental group were offered Omega-3 plus (1,000 mg/animal day-1 (30% fish oil, containing 18% eicosapentaenoic acid and 12% docosahexaenoic acid + 100 mg wheat germ oil (0.22% tocopherols daily in addition to the basal diet for four months (the experimental period during the hot summer season. Body weight (BW changes of both groups were recorded monthly during the experiment. Blood samples were collected monthly, and total protein, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes (AST and ALT, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 were estimated. A significant increase in the live BW of growing goats was recorded as a result of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus. Total protein, IgG, and T3 levels were higher than those obtained with control. In contrast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST levels were significantly reduced. The serum concentration of creatinine and T4 levels was indistinguishable from those of control. Addition of Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions increases their daily weight gain and improves their general physiological and biochemical status by decreasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST. It is thus suggested that Omega-3 plus should be used as a supplement in the growth period of goats.

  12. Comparative Physiological and Molecular Analyses of Two Contrasting Flue-Cured Tobacco Genotypes under Progressive Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental factor that limits crop growth and productivity. Flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum is one of the most important commercial crops worldwide and its productivity is vulnerable to drought. However, comparative analyses of physiological, biochemical and gene expression changes in flue-cured tobacco varieties differing in drought tolerance under long-term drought stress are scarce. In this study, drought stress responses of two flue-cured tobacco varieties, LJ851 and JX6007, were comparatively studied at the physiological and transcriptional levels. After exposing to progressive drought stress, the drought-tolerant LJ851 showed less growth inhibition and chlorophyll reduction than the drought-sensitive JX6007. Moreover, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lower levels of H2O2, Malondialdehyde (MDA, and electrolyte leakage after drought stress were found in LJ851 when compared with JX6007. Further analysis showed that LJ851 plants had much less reductions than the JX6007 in the net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance during drought stress; indicating that LJ851 had better photosynthetic performance than JX6007 during drought. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis revealed that LJ851 exhibited significantly increased transcripts of several categories of drought-responsive genes in leaves and roots under drought conditions. Together, these results indicated that LJ851 was more drought-tolerant than JX6007 as evidenced by better photosynthetic performance, more powerful antioxidant system, and higher expression of stress defense genes during drought stress. This study will be valuable for the development of novel flue-cured tobacco varieties with improved drought tolerance by exploitation of natural genetic variations in the future.

  13. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States); Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sun, Youping [Texas AgriLife Research Center at El Paso, Texas A& M University System, 1380 A & M Circle, El Paso, TX 79927 (United States); Barrios, Ana C. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Niu, Genhua [Texas AgriLife Research Center at El Paso, Texas A& M University System, 1380 A & M Circle, El Paso, TX 79927 (United States); Margez, Juan P. Flores- [Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Departamento de Química y Biología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Anillo envolvente PRONAF y Estocolmo, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32310, México (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0–500 mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO{sub 2}) under greenhouse condition. After 52 days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65–111% with increasing nano-CeO{sub 2} concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5–250 mg/kg nano-CeO{sub 2} led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25–28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250 mg/kg nano-CeO{sub 2}. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. - Highlights: • Ce translocation to leaves was facilitated by higher organic matter (OM) in soil. • Lower soil OM increased leaf cover area in nano-CeO{sub 2} exposed plants. • Nano-CeO{sub 2} effects on metabolic processes were more

  14. [Effects of silicon supply on diurnal variations of physiological properties at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Lou, Yun-sheng; Meng, Yan; Wang, Wei-qing; Cui, He-yang

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) supply on diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B. (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B (elevated by 20%, E), and four Si supply levels, i.e. Sio (control, 0 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si, (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 . hm2), Si3 (slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results showed that, compared with ambient UV-B radiation, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) , intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3%, 5.5%, 10.4%, 20.3% and 6.3%, respectively, in the treatment without Si supply (Si, level), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8%-5.5%, 0.7%-4.8%, 4.0%-8.7%, 7.4%-20.2% and 0.7%-5.9% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1, Si2 and Si3 levels) , respectively. Namely, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters, but silicon supply could obviously mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, compared with control (Si0 level), silicon supply increased Pn, Ci, gs and WUE by 16.9%-28.0%, 3.5%-14.3%, 16.8% - 38.7% and 29.0% - 51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9% - 10.8% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1 , Si2 and Si3 levels). That is, silicon supply could mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation through significantly increasingnP., CigsgK and WUE, but decreasing T,. However, the difference existed in ameliorating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among the treatments of silicon supply, with the sequence of Si3>Si2>1i >Si0. This study suggested that fertilizing slag was

  15. Biometric and physiological parameters of Heliconia bihai grown in coastal region under different levels of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reivany Eduardo Morais Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluate the effect of different levels of light intensity on the physiology, vegetative and reproductive development of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw Two grown under coastal zone of Ceara State. Plants of this species were grown under full and 30%, 40% and 50% reduction sunlight intensity. It was evaluated the number of leaves and tillers per plant; amount of stalks; leaf area, water and carbohydrate content in the leaf next to the inflorescence arising and next to the inflorescence at harvest stage. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of plants were measured for six consecutive months. Significant difference were attained for leaf area and water content in leaves close to the inflorescence at harvest stage, with lower values, and carbohydrate contents in leaves, with higher values in plants grown in full sun. The treatments with lower levels of solar radiation had higher amounts of stalks and higher vegetative growth, the reduction in vegetative growth of the plants under full sun was due to the lower photosynthetic rate and lower translocation of assimilates.

  16. Identification of drought-responsive miRNAs and physiological characterization of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqiong; Zhao, Shanshan; Zhu, Chen; Chang, Xiaojun; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Zhong; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2017-11-21

    Drought stress is one of the major natural challenges in the main tea-producing regions of China. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is a traditional beverage plant whose growth status directly affects tea quality. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key functions in plant growth and development. Although some miRNAs have been identified in C. sinensis, little is known about their roles in the drought stress response of tea plants. Physiological characterization of Camellia sinensis 'Tieguanyin' under drought stress showed that the malondialdehyde concentration and electrical conductivity of leaves of drought-stressed plants increased when the chlorophyll concentration decreased under severe drought stress. We sequenced four small-RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from leaves of plants subjected to four different treatments, normal water supply (CK); mild drought stress (T1); moderate drought stress (T2) and severe drought stress (T3). A total of 299 known mature miRNA sequences and 46 novel miRNAs were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the most highly enriched pathways under drought stress were D-alanine metabolism, sulfur metabolism, and mineral absorption pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to validate the expression patterns of 21 miRNAs (2 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated under drought stress). The observed co-regulation of the miR166 family and their targets ATHB-14-like and ATHB-15-like indicate the presence of negative feedback regulation in miRNA pathways. Analyses of drought-responsive miRNAs in tea plants showed that most of differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. The results of study revealed that the expressions of phase-specific miRNAs vary with morphological, physiological, and

  17. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  18. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Rats Fed Detoxified Jojoba Meal Through Radiation Processing and Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The present of toxic cyano glucosides makes the jojoba meal, rich in protein, unacceptable for animal's feed. Irradiation jojoba meal at 25, 50, and 75 kGy, heat, microwave, fermented raw and fermented irradiated jojoba meal at 75 kGy were investigated for inactivation of glucosinolates. Raw jojoba meal contains 0.702%. Proceeding jojoba meal by above mentioned methods reducing the activity of glucosinolates by 8.26, 13.96, 20.66, 11.97, 5.27, 10.26 and 24.79%, respectively. The present study has investigated the effect of supplementation of 38.5% of raw jojoba meal and processed meals in the food of growing male Albino rats for four weeks on mortality rate, body and organs weight evaluation as well as the effect on blood chemistry. The present work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of jojoba meal at 75 kGy and the fermentation process by using Fusarium moniliforme reduced the bioactive antinutrional factors, glucosinolate compounds, present naturally in the meal under investigation. Also, the results confirm that the glucosinolates content of jojoba meal after irradiation process at 75 kGy is still high and has considerable biological effects on the animals fed such meals, during the experimental period (four weeks). Therefore, it seems that higher radiation dose is required to minimize glucosinolates in jojoba meal. (authors)

  19. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...... significance, should be documented under physiological conditions. However, previous studies were mostly carried out outside of an incubator or under suboptimal environmental conditions. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed description of an optical coherence tomography (OCT......) system integrated into an examination incubator to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development under physiological environmental conditions. We demonstrate the suitability of this OCT examination incubator unit for use in cardiovascular development studies by examples of proof...

  20. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  1. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics of longan (Dimocarpus longana) seedlings under acid rain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-fu; Wang, Ming-yuan; Yang, Chen; Zhu, Ai-jun

    2013-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic regulation substances of longan (Dimocarpus longana 'Fuyan') seedlings under acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. Under the acid rain stress, the seedling leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents decreased obviously, while the leaf malondialdedyde content had a remarkable increase, suggesting the toxic effect of the acid rain on the seedlings. Exogenous nitric oxide had dual nature on the physiological characteristics of longan seedlings under acid rain stress. Applying 0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP improved the SOD, POD and CAT activities and the chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents significantly, and decreased the malondialdedyde content. Low concentrations SNP reduced the oxidative damage caused by the acid rain stress, and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP had the best effect. Under the application of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP, the total chlorophyll, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents and the SOD, POD and CAT activities increased by 76.0%, 107.0%, 216.1%, 150. 0%, 350.9% and 97.1%, respectively, and the malondialdedyde content decreased by 46.4%. It was suggested that low concentration (0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1)) SNP could alleviate the toxic effect of acid rain stress on longan seedlings via activating the leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and reducing oxidative stress, while high concentration SNP (1.0 mmol x L(-1)) lowered the mitigation effect.

  2. Fast "Feast/Famine" Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions: A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A; Sousa, Andre; Heijnen, Joseph J; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2014-05-15

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that leads to repetitive cycles with moderate changes in substrate availability in an aerobic glucose cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a few cycles, the feast/famine produced a stable and repetitive pattern with a reproducible metabolic response in time, thus providing a robust platform for studying the microorganism's physiology under dynamic conditions. We found that the biomass yield was slightly reduced (-5%) under the feast/famine regime, while the averaged substrate and oxygen consumption as well as the carbon dioxide production rates were comparable. The dynamic response of the intracellular metabolites showed specific differences in comparison to other dynamic experiments (especially stimulus-response experiments, SRE). Remarkably, the frequently reported ATP paradox observed in single pulse experiments was not present during the repetitive perturbations applied here. We found that intracellular dynamic accumulations led to an uncoupling of the substrate uptake rate (up to 9-fold change at 20 s.) Moreover, the dynamic profiles of the intracellular metabolites obtained with the feast/famine suggest the presence of regulatory mechanisms that resulted in a delayed response. With the feast famine setup many cellular states can be measured at high frequency given the feature of reproducible cycles. The feast/famine regime is thus a versatile platform for systems biology approaches, which can help us to identify and investigate metabolite regulations under realistic conditions (e.g., large-scale bioreactors or natural environments).

  3. Fast “Feast/Famine” Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions: A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A.; Sousa, Andre; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that leads to repetitive cycles with moderate changes in substrate availability in an aerobic glucose cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a few cycles, the feast/famine produced a stable and repetitive pattern with a reproducible metabolic response in time, thus providing a robust platform for studying the microorganism’s physiology under dynamic conditions. We found that the biomass yield was slightly reduced (−5%) under the feast/famine regime, while the averaged substrate and oxygen consumption as well as the carbon dioxide production rates were comparable. The dynamic response of the intracellular metabolites showed specific differences in comparison to other dynamic experiments (especially stimulus-response experiments, SRE). Remarkably, the frequently reported ATP paradox observed in single pulse experiments was not present during the repetitive perturbations applied here. We found that intracellular dynamic accumulations led to an uncoupling of the substrate uptake rate (up to 9-fold change at 20 s.) Moreover, the dynamic profiles of the intracellular metabolites obtained with the feast/famine suggest the presence of regulatory mechanisms that resulted in a delayed response. With the feast famine setup many cellular states can be measured at high frequency given the feature of reproducible cycles. The feast/famine regime is thus a versatile platform for systems biology approaches, which can help us to identify and investigate metabolite regulations under realistic conditions (e.g., large-scale bioreactors or natural environments). PMID:24957030

  4. Effect of the fungus Piriformospora indica on physiological characteristics and root morphology of wheat under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger

    2017-09-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Q p , of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i.e., placing a weight on the sand surface) in the root medium. Slight, moderate and severe drought stresses were induced using PEG 6000 solutions with osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa, respectively. After 30 days, plant physiological characteristics and root morphology were measured. An increase in Q p from 1.17 to 5.96 MPa led to greater leaf proline concentration and root diameter, and lower relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (LWP), chlorophyll contents and root volume. Moreover, severe drought stress decreased root and shoot fresh weights, root volume, leaf area, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll content compared to control. Catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities under severe drought stress were about 1.5 and 2.9 times greater than control. Interaction of the stresses showed that mechanical stress primarily controls plant water status and physiological responses. However, endophyte presence mitigated the adverse effects of individual and combined stresses on plant growth. Colonized plants were better adapted and had greater root length and volume, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll contents under stressful conditions due to higher absorption sites for water and nutrients. Compared with uncolonized plants, colonized plants showed lower CAT activity implying that wheat inoculated with P. indica was more tolerant and experienced less oxidative damage induced by drought and/or mechanical stress. Copyright

  5. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Atta, Mostafa A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI (p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively (p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels (p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.

  6. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  7. CO2 enrichment affects eco-physiological growth of maize and alfalfa under different water stress regimes in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh; Ppoyil, Shaijal Babu Thru; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed

    2018-03-01

    Water stress has been reported to alter morphology and physiology of plants affecting chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density. In this study, drought stress mitigating effects of CO 2 enrichment was assessed in greenhouse conditions in the hot climate of UAE. Commercially purchased maize ( Zea mays L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were seeded in three different custom-built cage structures, inside a greenhouse. One cage was kept at 1000 ppm CO 2 , the second at 700 ppm CO 2 , and the third at ambient greenhouse CO 2 environment (i.e. 435 ppm). Three water stress treatments HWS (200 ml per week), MWS (400 ml per week), and CWS (600 ml per week) were given to each cage so that five maize pots and five alfalfa pots in each cage received same water stress treatments. In maize, total chlorophyll content was similar or higher in water stress treatments compared to control for all CO 2 concentrations. Stomatal lengths were higher in enriched CO 2 environments under water stress. At 700 ppm CO 2 , stomatal widths decreased as water stress increased from MWS to HWS. At both enriched CO 2 environments, stomatal densities decreased compared to ambient CO 2 environment. In alfalfa, there was no significant increase in total chlorophyll content under enriched CO 2 environments, even though a slight increase was noticed.

  8. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is one of the main problems which limits crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Iran is the most important producer of pistachio in the world. However, its performance is low in many areas. Most pistachio plantations are irrigated with saline water and with low quality (28. On the other hand, nitrogen is a dynamic element which is a constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and Enzymes and it has a vital role in plant physiology, growth, chlorophyll formation and production of fruit and seeds (34. Gibberellic acid is known as phytohormon which varied physiological responses in plants under stress. acid gibberellic increases the photosynthesis and growth under stress and impact on the physiology and metabolism of plant (29. Based on previous studies, production and activity of plant hormones are affected by natural factors and plant nutrient requirements and the nitrogen has an important influence on production and transmission of acid gibberellic plant shoot. Therefore, in this study the effect of acid gibberellic and nitrogen on some characteristics of physiology parameters and micronutrient pistachio seedlings (Cv. Qazvini under saline conditions was studied. Materials and methods: Experiment under greenhouse condition and factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse agriculture college, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 1000 and 2000 mg of sodium chloride per kg of soil, three levels of nitrogen (0, 75 and 150 mg per kg of ammonium nitrate source and three acid gibberellic levels (0, 250 and 500 mg per liter. Adequate soil with little available salinity conditions was collected from the top 30-cm layer of a pistachio-culture region of Kerman province. After air drying and ground through passing a 2 mm sieve, some of the physical-chemical properties of this soil include pH (7

  9. [Scientific connotation of processing Bombyx Batryticatus under high temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xuan; Ma, Lin; Wang, Man-yuan; Qiu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the scientific connotation of Bombyx Batryticatus processing with wheat bran under high temperature. The contents of soluble protein extracted from Bombyx Batryticatus and its processed products and the limited content of AFT in Bombyx Batryticatus and the processed one were compared. The concentration of protein was measured with the Bradford methods and the difference of protein between Bombyx Batryticatus and its processed products was compared by SDS-PAGE analysis. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 were determined by reversed-phase HPLC. The results showed that the soluble protein content of Bombyx Batryticatus and its processed products were (47.065 +/- 0.249), (29.756 +/- 1.961) mg x g(-1), correspondingly. Analysis of protein gel electrophoresis showed that there were no significant differences between the crude and processed one in protein varieties. 6 bands were detected: 31.90, 26.80, 18.71, 15.00, 10.18, 8.929 kDa. Below 10 kDa, the color of bands of the processed one was deeper than the crude one, which demonstrate that macromolecular protein was degradated into micromolecule. The content of AFG1, AFB1, AFG2, AFB2 were 0.382, 0.207, 0.223, 0.073 g x kg(-1), not exceeded 5 microg x kg(-1) while the processed one was not detected. Through processing with wheat bran under high temperature, the content of soluble protein in Bombyx Batryticatus decreased, the processing purpose for alleviating drug property was achieved. Meanwhile, the limited content of aflatoxins were reduced or cleared by processing procedure or absorbed by processing auxillary material, adding the safety of the traditional Chinese Medicine. In conclusion, as a traditional processing method, bran frying Bombyx Batryticatus was scientific and reasonable.

  10. Optimization of Wireless Transceivers under Processing Energy Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaojian; Ascheid, Gerd; Wang, Yanlu; Hanay, Oner; Negra, Renato; Herrmann, Matthias; Wehn, Norbert

    2017-09-01

    Focus of the article is on achieving maximum data rates under a processing energy constraint. For a given amount of processing energy per information bit, the overall power consumption increases with the data rate. When targeting data rates beyond 100 Gb/s, the system's overall power consumption soon exceeds the power which can be dissipated without forced cooling. To achieve a maximum data rate under this power constraint, the processing energy per information bit must be minimized. Therefore, in this article, suitable processing efficient transmission schemes together with energy efficient architectures and their implementations are investigated in a true cross-layer approach. Target use cases are short range wireless transmitters working at carrier frequencies around 60 GHz and bandwidths between 1 GHz and 10 GHz.

  11. The effects of extended nap periods on cognitive, physiological and subjective responses under simulated night shift conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Jonathan; Göbel, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition. The fixed night condition worked from 22h00 to 06h00, while the nap early group worked from 20h00 to 08h00 and napped between 00h00 and 03h20. The nap late group worked from 00h00 to 12h00 and napped between 04h00 and 07h20. Nap length was limited to 3 hours and 20 minutes. Participants performed a simple beading task during each shift, while also completing six to eight test batteries roughly every 2 h. During each shift, six test batteries were completed, in which the following measures were taken. Performance indicators included beading output, eye accommodation time, choice reaction time, visual vigilance, simple reaction time, processing speed and object recognition, working memory, motor response time and tracking performance. Physiological measures included heart rate and tympanic temperature, whereas subjective sleepiness and reported sleep length and quality while outside the laboratory constituted the self reported measures. Both naps reduced subjective sleepiness but did not alter the circadian and homeostatic-related changes in cognitive and physiological measures, relative to the fixed night condition. Additionally, there was evidence of sleep inertia following each nap, which resulted in transient reductions in certain perceptual cognitive performance measures. The present study suggested that there were some benefits associated with including an extended nap during 8-h night shifts. However, the effects of sleep inertia

  12. The levels of processing effect under nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Wendy; Hobbs, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that inert gas (nitrogen) narcosis affects free recall but not recognition memory in the depth range of 30 to 50 meters of sea water (msw), possibly as a result of narcosis preventing processing when learned material is encoded. The aim of the current research was to test this hypothesis by applying a levels of processing approach to the measurement of free recall under narcosis. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of depth (0-2 msw vs. 37-39 msw) and level of processing (shallow vs. deep) on free recall memory performance in 67 divers. When age was included as a covariate, recall was significantly worse in deep water (i.e., under narcosis), compared to shallow water, and was significantly higher in the deep processing compared to shallow processing conditions in both depth conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this effect was not simply due to the different underwater environments used for the depth conditions in Experiment 1. It was concluded memory performance can be altered by processing under narcosis and supports the contention that narcosis affects the encoding stage of memory as opposed to self-guided search (retrieval).

  13. Evaluation of Various Morpho-Physiological and Growth Traits of Dual Purpose Wheat under Early Sowing Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Rasul, F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wheat as dual purpose crop (for fodder and grain) is considered as promising agronomic management practice fulfilling human and animal need at same time. These expectations are largely found on positive experiences by growing wheat as dual purpose crop throughout the world. However, the validity of these results in Pakistan needs confirmation from field experiments under various sowing date and potential cultivars. The impact of cutting and sowing date on morphological and physiological traits of already existing wheat cultivars was evaluated at Agricultural Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan in winter 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Three sowing dates i.e. 15th October, 30th October and 14th November and six wheat cultivars (Ghaznavi-98, Fakhre-Sarhad (FS)-99, Ghaznavi-98, Saleem-2000, Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008) were compared for dual purpose wheat production during the course of experiment. Findings showed that significant reduction were recorded in nodes tiller/sup -1/, plant height, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/ when sowing of wheat delayed from 15th and 30th October to 15th November. Considerable variations were also noted in nodes tiller/sup -1/, internodes length and leaf area index, plant height and lodging score among wheat cultivars but it was mainly due to their genetic characteristic not because of cutting treatment. It was observed that cutting caused 5.5, 12.1, 6.2, 4.1, 25.9, 7.1,6.6% reduction in wheat leaf area, leaf area index, internode length, plant height, lodging score, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/, respectively over non cut plots in both year of the experiment. Interestingly, no-significant change was noted in spike length and number of nodes tiller/sup -1/ under cut and no cut plots. The conclusive findings suggested that optimum sowing date (15th and 30th October) for all wheat cultivars could be utilized as potential source of dual purpose wheat for substantial reduction of

  14. The effects of divided attention on encoding processes under incidental and intentional learning instructions: underlying mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Guez, Jonathan; Hara, Yoko; Brubaker, Matthew S; Lowenschuss-Erlich, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Divided attention (DA) at encoding has been shown to significantly disrupt later memory for the studied information. However, what type of processing gets disrupted during DA remains unresolved. In this study, we assessed the degree to which strategic effortful processes are affected under DA by comparing the effects of DA at encoding under intentional and pure incidental learning instructions. In three experiments, participants studied list of words or word pairs under either full or divided attention. Results of three experiments, which used different methodologies, converged to show that the effects of DA at encoding reduce memory performance to the same degree under incidental and intentional learning. Secondary task performance indicated that encoding under intentional learning instructions was more effortful than under incidental learning instructions. In addition, the results indicated enhanced attention to the initial appearance of the words under both types of learning instructions. Results are interpreted to imply that other processes, rather than only strategic effortful ones, might be affected by DA at encoding.

  15. Eye Movement Analysis of Information Processing under Different Testing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)

  16. Dynamic Processes in Nanostructured Crystals Under Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglov, V. V.; Kvasov, N. T.; Shimanski, V. I.; Safronov, I. V.; Komarov, N. D.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents detailed investigations of dynamic processes occurring in nanostructured Si(Fe) material under the radiation exposure, namely: heating, thermoelastic stress generation, elastic disturbances of the surrounding medium similar to weak shock waves, and dislocation generation. The performance calculations are proposed for elastic properties of the nanostructured material with a glance to size effects in nanoparticles.

  17. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  18. The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri nia

    2017-08-01

    grains under different treatments totally 7 samples were performed from flowering to harvest through checking the process of grain weight changes and final grain weight were determined during physiological maturation (when dry grain weight is fixed or changes are not significant. Filling rate and the effective grain filling period were measured using relevant formula. The grain yield measured at the time of maturing after harvesting 3 m² per two middle lines in the plot and through eliminating the fringes of the midfield. All statistical analyzes including variance analysis, comparison of means and interactional slicing using SAS software was done. Mean comparisons using LSD test at the probability of error of 5% was done. Results and discussion The results of this study concluded that by increasing stress intensity, traits of this research with negative effect on economic performance led to irreparable damage to crop plants. So the lowest grain yield with the rate of 3216.7 kg.ha-1 obtained from 180 mm evaporation. So it is expected to take steps to increase performance by avoiding or minimizing the impact of stress. So that the combined use of these fertilizers had a positive effect on reducing plant leaves heat in low and high water stress condition. Most grain yield obtained by combined treatment of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza that respectively was 23 and 29 percent more than control treatment. In response to levels of fertilizer, the highest amount of LAI, RWC, Final grain weight and effective grain filling period obtained in vermicompost combined with mycorrhiza treatments. Conclusion It seems that the use of vermicompost and mycorrhizal fertilizer combination in areas that are subjected to water stress from improvement of plant physiologic condition can be cause improvement of plant growth conditioning and obtaining higher yielding. Accordingly, for saving irrigation water and cost inputs, farming management and achieving the favorite yield under

  19. Effect of plant-derived smoke solutions on physiological and biochemical attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, M.A.; Shakir, S.K.; Rehman, S.U.; Khan, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Among abiotic stresses, salinity is an important factor reducing crop yield. Plant-derived smoke solutions have been used as growth promoters since last two decades. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cymbopogon jwaracusa smoke extracts (1:100 and 1:400) on physiological and biochemical aspects of maize (Zea mays L.) under salt stress (100, 150, 200 and 250 mM). Results showed that seed germination percentage was improved up to 93% with smoke as compared to control (70%), while seedling vigor in term of root and shoot fresh weights and dry weights were also significantly increased in seeds primed with smoke extracts. Similarly, in case of alleviating solutions, there occurred a significant alleviation in the adverse effects of salt solutions when mixed smoke in all studied end points. Application of smoke solution has also increased the level of K+ and Ca+2 while reduced the level of Na+ content in maize. In addition, the levels of photosynthetic pigments, total nitrogen and protein contents were also alleviated with the application of smoke as compared to salt. There occurred an increase in the activities of Anti-oxidant in response of salt stress but overcome with the smoke application. It can be concluded that plant-derived smoke solution has the potential to alleviate the phytotoxic effects of saline condition and can increased the productivity in plants. (author)

  20. Dynamics of seed germination, seedling growth and physiological responses of sweet corn under peg-induced water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Zhang, X.; Li, G.; Suo, H.; Ashraf, U.; Mo, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Stress induced variations in seed germination of various crops has been well reported but germination potential of sweet corn seeds under osmotic stress with relation to time dynamics is still elusive. Present study explored the water absorption, germination potential and physiological indices and of sweet corn seeds exposed to five different levels of PEG-induced water stress i.e., 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 M Pa water potential (Psi /sub w/) with respect to time dynamics. Results showed that enhanced water stress for prolonged time period (96 h) led to substantial reduction in water absorption and seed moisture contents, seed germination and vigor index as well as seedlings growth and fresh and dry biomass. Osmotic stress triggered antioxidant defense system like super-oxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) and accumulation of soluble sugars, proline and protein contents considerably. Initially, activities of SOD and CAT were higher but then reduced as stress persisted, however, POD showed a linear increase with respect to stress exposure time. Water stress also increased MDA contents up to 36 h then declined. Further, alpha-amylase activity and soluble protein showed significant correlations with maize seed germination. Overall, germination potential decreased with increase in osmotic stress in sweet corn seeds. (author)

  1. The dtudy of physiological and biochemical responses of Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Alibiglouei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a main limiting factor of turfgrass growth in arid and semi-arid regions. Therefore, in this study, the physiological and biochemical changes in two turfgrass species Agrostis stolonifera and Festuca arundinacea schreb during drought stress (70-75 centibar in a 40-day period and recovery were investigated. Control plants during drought stress were regularly irrigated at soil field capacity (20-25 centibar. The results showed that leaf relative water content and leaf chlorophyll content with long-term stress decreased. Electrolyte leakage and proline during drought stress significantly increased and in recovery stage, the level of electrolyte leakage and proline reached to the control. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in two turfgrass significantly increased after 30 days and then significantly reduced. In F. arundinacea schreb the activity of ascorbat peroxidase after 20 days significantly increased and then significantly reduced. Also, in F. arundinacea schreb species the activity of catalase increased during drought stress and in recovery stage the activity of catalase reduced. In studied species during drought stress and recovery stage, the activity of ascorbat peroxidase and catalase significantly increased compared to the control. These results suggested that the resistant species F. arundinacea schreb, under drought stress had a low level of electrolyte leakage, higher level of relative water content and chlorophyll destruction was less than A. stolonifera.

  2. Long-Term Durability Test for the Left Ventricular Assist System EVAHEART under the Physiologic Pulsatile Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Tomoya; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka

    The EVAHEART Left Ventricular Assist System (LVAS) was designed for the long-term support of a patient with severe heart failure. It has an original water lubrication system for seal and bearing and wear on these parts was considered one of its critical failure modes. A durability test focusing on wear was designed herein. We developed a mock loop, which generates a physiologic pulsatile flow and is sufficiently durable for a long-term test. The pulsatile load and the low fluid viscosity enable the creation of a severe condition for the mechanical seal. A total of 18 EVAHEART blood pumps completed 2 years of operation under the pulsatile condition without any failure. It indicated the EVAHEART blood pump had a greater than 90% reliability with a 88% confidence level. The test was continued with six blood pumps and achieved an average of 8.6 years, which was longer than the longest clinical use in Japan. The test result showed that no catastrophic, critical, marginal, or minor failures of the blood pump or their symptoms were observed. The seal performance was maintained after the test. Moreover, the surface roughness did not change, which showed any burn or abnormal wear occurred. The original water lubrication system equipped in EVAHEART LVAS prevent severe wear on the seal and the bearing, and it can be used in the bridge to transplant and destination therapy.

  3. Identification an characterization of QTL underlying whole plant physiology in Arabidopsis taliana: 13C, stomatal conduction and transpiration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juenger, T.E.; McKay, J.K.; Hausmann, N.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Sen, S.; Stowe, K.A.; Dawson, T.E.; Simms, E.L.; Richards, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Water limitation is one of the most important factors limiting crop productivity world-wide and has likely been an important selective regime influencing the evolution of plant physiology. Understanding the genetic and physiological basis of drought adaptation is therefore important for improving

  4. Concentration processes under tubesheet sludge piles in nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, F.; Spekkens, P.

    1987-01-01

    The process by which bulk water solutes are concentrated under tubesheet sludge piles in nuclear steam generators was investigated in the laboratory under simulated CANDU operating conditions. Concentration rates were found to depend on the tube heat flux and pile depth, although beyond a critical depth the concentration efficiency decreased. This efficiency could be expressed by a concentration coefficient, and was found to depend also on the sludge pile porosity. Solute concentration profiles in the sludge pile suggested that the concentration mechanism in a high-porosity/permeability pile is characterized by boiling mainly near or at the tube surface, while in low-porosity piles, the change of phase may also become important in the body of the sludge pile. In all cases, the full depth of the pile was active to some extent in the concentration process. As long as the heat transfer under the pile was continued, the solute remained under the pile and slowly migrated toward the bottom. When the heat transfer was stopped, the solute diffused back into the bulk solution at a rate slower than that of the concentration process

  5. Recovery of Physiological Traits in Saplings of Invasive Bischofia Tree Compared with Three Species Native to the Bonin Islands under Successive Drought and Irrigation Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Nakano, Takashi; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Ogasa, Mayumi Y; Ishida, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Partial leaf shedding induced by hydraulic failure under prolonged drought can prevent excess water consumption, resulting in delayed recovery of carbon productivity following rainfall. To understand the manner of water use of invasive species in oceanic island forests under a fluctuating water regime, leaf shedding, multiple physiological traits, and the progress of embolism in the stem xylem under repeated drought-irrigation cycles were examined in the potted saplings of an invasive species, Bischofia javanica Blume, and three endemic native species, Schima mertensiana (Sieb. Et Zucc,) Koitz., Hibiscus glaber Matsum, and Distylium lepidotum Nakai, from the Bonin Islands, Japan. The progress of xylem embolism was observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The samples exhibited different processes of water saving and drought tolerance based on the different combinations of partial leaf shedding involved in embolized conduits following repeated de-rehydration. Predawn leaf water potential largely decreased with each successive drought-irrigation cycle for all tree species, except for B. javanica. B. javanica shed leaves conspicuously under drought and showed responsive stomatal conductance to VPD, which contributed to recover leaf gas exchange in the remaining leaves, following a restored water supply. In contrast, native tree species did not completely recover photosynthetic rates during the repeated drought-irrigation cycles. H. glaber and D. lepidotum preserved water in vessels and adjusted leaf osmotic rates but did not actively shed leaves. S. mertensiana exhibited partial leaf shedding during the first cycle with an osmotic adjustment, but they showed less responsive stomatal conductance to VPD. Our data indicate that invasive B. javanica saplings can effectively use water supplied suddenly under drought conditions. We predict that fluctuating precipitation in the future may change tree distributions even in mesic or moist sites in the Bonin Islands.

  6. Recovery of Physiological Traits in Saplings of Invasive Bischofia Tree Compared with Three Species Native to the Bonin Islands under Successive Drought and Irrigation Cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Yazaki

    Full Text Available Partial leaf shedding induced by hydraulic failure under prolonged drought can prevent excess water consumption, resulting in delayed recovery of carbon productivity following rainfall. To understand the manner of water use of invasive species in oceanic island forests under a fluctuating water regime, leaf shedding, multiple physiological traits, and the progress of embolism in the stem xylem under repeated drought-irrigation cycles were examined in the potted saplings of an invasive species, Bischofia javanica Blume, and three endemic native species, Schima mertensiana (Sieb. Et Zucc, Koitz., Hibiscus glaber Matsum, and Distylium lepidotum Nakai, from the Bonin Islands, Japan. The progress of xylem embolism was observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The samples exhibited different processes of water saving and drought tolerance based on the different combinations of partial leaf shedding involved in embolized conduits following repeated de-rehydration. Predawn leaf water potential largely decreased with each successive drought-irrigation cycle for all tree species, except for B. javanica. B. javanica shed leaves conspicuously under drought and showed responsive stomatal conductance to VPD, which contributed to recover leaf gas exchange in the remaining leaves, following a restored water supply. In contrast, native tree species did not completely recover photosynthetic rates during the repeated drought-irrigation cycles. H. glaber and D. lepidotum preserved water in vessels and adjusted leaf osmotic rates but did not actively shed leaves. S. mertensiana exhibited partial leaf shedding during the first cycle with an osmotic adjustment, but they showed less responsive stomatal conductance to VPD. Our data indicate that invasive B. javanica saplings can effectively use water supplied suddenly under drought conditions. We predict that fluctuating precipitation in the future may change tree distributions even in mesic or moist sites in the

  7. Research on the changes of some physiological parameters in several fish species under the action of the talstar insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PONEPAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Talstar insecticide is labeled for numerous bugs and many other household pests and lawn pests. Bifenthrin is highly toxic to fish and aquatic arthropods. Bifenhrin LC50 values range from 0.0038 to17.8 μg/L and is only slightly toxic to both waterfowl and upland game birds (LD50 values range from 1.800 mg/kg to > 2.150 mg/kg. Bifenthrin had no effect on mollusks at its limit of water solubility. This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations – from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml Talstar/l water on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, number of erythrocytes on fish belonging to three species: prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The acute and subacute toxicity of Talstar insecticide was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. The Tlastar product, under the concentrations from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml/l water, produces, after one week of immersion, a significant decrease of the fish oxygen consumption. The insecticide has changed the fish respiratory rhythm in all investigated concentrations after seven days of exposure. The number of erythrocytes has significantly decrease after seven days of immersion at insecticide concentrations of 0.000625 ml Talstar/l water (bleak and perch and 0.00125 (prussian carp ml Talstar/l water. From the three investigated fish species, the perch proved to be the most sensitive to the action of the toxic substance, followed by the bleak and the prussian carp.

  8. Impact of seasonal thermal stress on physiological and blood biochemical parameters in pigs under different dietary energy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P K; Roychoudhury, R; Saharia, J; Borah, M C; Dutta, D J; Bhuyan, R; Kalita, D

    2018-06-01

    The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936.5, and 3585.8 kcal/kg in grower ration and 3260.2, 2936.6, and 3587 kcal/kg in finisher ration for normal energy (NE), low energy (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively. Both the genetic group of animals were housed separately under intensive system of management. Each pen was measuring 10' × 12' along with an outer enclosure. Six weaned piglets (almost similar body weight of average 10.55 kg) of each group were kept in a separate pen. However, after attainment of 35 kg body weight, the animals of a group were divided in two pens of three animals each. The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33-29.51 °C) was above the comfort zone for pigs (22 °C). The significantly (P energy (HE) ration during summer season. Serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were significantly (P energy level of the ration might be helpful to minimize the effects of thermal stress during summer.

  9. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  10. Prioritization of Candidate Genes in QTL Regions for Physiological and Biochemical Traits Underlying Drought Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Gudys

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most adverse abiotic factors limiting growth and productivity of crops. Among them is barley, ranked fourth cereal worldwide in terms of harvested acreage and production. Plants have evolved various mechanisms to cope with water deficit at different biological levels, but there is an enormous challenge to decipher genes responsible for particular complex phenotypic traits, in order to develop drought tolerant crops. This work presents a comprehensive approach for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in barley at the seedling stage of development. The study includes mapping of QTLs for physiological and biochemical traits associated with drought tolerance on a high-density function map, projection of QTL confidence intervals on barley physical map, and the retrievement of positional candidate genes (CGs, followed by their prioritization based on Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis. A total of 64 QTLs for 25 physiological and biochemical traits that describe plant water status, photosynthetic efficiency, osmoprotectant and hormone content, as well as antioxidant activity, were positioned on a consensus map, constructed using RIL populations developed from the crosses between European and Syrian genotypes. The map contained a total of 875 SNP, SSR and CGs, spanning 941.86 cM with resolution of 1.1 cM. For the first time, QTLs for ethylene, glucose, sucrose, maltose, raffinose, α-tocopherol, γ-tocotrienol content, and catalase activity, have been mapped in barley. Based on overlapping confidence intervals of QTLs, 11 hotspots were identified that enclosed more than 60% of mapped QTLs. Genetic and physical map integration allowed the identification of 1,101 positional CGs within the confidence intervals of drought response-specific QTLs. Prioritization resulted in the designation of 143 CGs, among them were genes encoding antioxidants, carboxylic acid biosynthesis enzymes, heat shock proteins, small auxin

  11. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  12. Alternate furrow irrigation of four fresh-market tomato cultivars under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia – Part II: Physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashinie Bogale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in physiological response to deficit irrigation together with better knowledge on physiological characteristics of different genotypes that contribute to drought adaptation mechanisms would be helpful in transferring different irrigation technologies to farmers. A field experiment was carried to investigate the physiological response of four tomato cultivars (Fetan, Chali, Cochoro and ARP Tomato d2 to moderate water deficit induced by alternate furrow irrigation (AFI and deficit irrigation (DI under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia during 2013 and 2014. The study also aimed at identifying physiological attributes to the fruit yield of tomato under different deficit irrigation techniques. A factorial combination of irrigation treatments and cultivar were arranged in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that stomatal conductance (g_s was significantly reduced while photosynthetic performance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’, relative water content (RWC and leaf ash content remained unaffected under deficit irrigations. Significant differences among cultivars were found for water use efficiency (WUE, g_s, chlorophyll content (Chl_SPAD, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf ash content and fruit growth rate. However, cultivar differences in WUE were more accounted for by the regulation of g_s, therefore, g_s could be useful for breeders for screening large numbers of genotypes with higher WUE under deficit irrigation condition. The study result also demonstrated that cultivar with traits that contribute to achieve higher yields under deficit irrigation strategies has the potential to increase WUE.

  13. Ultrasonic signal processing for sizing under-clad flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Paradiso, T.J.; Lane, S.S.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic digital data were collected from underclad cracks in sample pressure vessel specimen blocks. These blocks were weld cladded under different processes to simulate actual conditions in US Pressure Water Reactors. Each crack was represented by a flaw-echo dynamic curve which is a plot of the transducer motion on the surface as a function of the ultrasonic response into the material. Crack depth sizing was performed by identifying in the dynamic curve the crack tip diffraction signals from the upper and lower tips. This paper describes the experimental procedure, digital signal processing methods used and algorithms developed for crack depth sizing

  14. Learning process mapping heuristics under stochastic sampling overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieumwananonthachai, Arthur; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1991-01-01

    A statistical method was developed previously for improving process mapping heuristics. The method systematically explores the space of possible heuristics under a specified time constraint. Its goal is to get the best possible heuristics while trading between the solution quality of the process mapping heuristics and their execution time. The statistical selection method is extended to take into consideration the variations in the amount of time used to evaluate heuristics on a problem instance. The improvement in performance is presented using the more realistic assumption along with some methods that alleviate the additional complexity.

  15. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  16. Group-buying inventory policy with demand under Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammarat Kleebmek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The group-buying is the modern business of selling in the uncertain market. With an objective to minimize costs for sellers arising from ordering and reordering, we present in this paper the group buying inventory model, with the demand governed by a Poisson process and the product sale distributed as Binomial distribution. The inventory level is under continuous review, while the lead time is fixed. A numerical example is illustrated.

  17. Age effects on preattentive and early attentive auditory processing of redundant stimuli: is sensory gating affected by physiological aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Kreisel, Stefan H; Bachmann, Silke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thomas, Christine

    2011-10-01

    The frontal hypothesis of aging predicts an age-related decline in cognitive functions requiring inhibitory or attentional regulation. In Alzheimer's disease, preattentive gating out of redundant information is impaired. Our study aimed to examine changes associated with physiological aging in both pre- and early attentive inhibition of recurrent acoustic information. Using a passive double-click paradigm, we recorded mid-latency (P30-P50) and late-latency (N100 and P200) evoked potentials in healthy young (26 ± 5 years) and healthy elderly subjects (72 ± 5 years). Physiological aging did not affect auditory gating in amplitude measures. Both age groups exhibited clear inhibition in preattentive P50 and attention-modulated (N100) components, whereas P30 was not attenuated. Irrespective of age, the magnitude of inhibition differed significantly, being most pronounced for N100 gating. Inhibition of redundant information seems to be preserved with physiological aging. Early attentive N100 gating showed the maximum effect. Further studies are warranted to evaluate sensory gating as a suitable biomarker of underlying neurodegenerative disease.

  18. Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from freshly slaughtered poultry and strains 'endemic' to processing plants by biochemical and physiological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C; Norris, A P; Bratchell, N

    1989-02-01

    A comparison was made of 27 'endemic' strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 35 strains from freshly slaughtered birds, isolated at five commercial slaughterhouses processing chickens or turkeys. Of 112 biochemical and physiological tests used, 74 gave results which differed among the strains. Cluster analysis revealed several distinct groupings which were influenced by strain type, processing plant and bird origin; these included a single group at the 72% level of similarity containing most of the 'endemic' strains. In comparison with strains from freshly slaughtered birds, a higher proportion of 'endemic' strains produced fibrinolysin, alpha-glucosidase and urease and were beta-haemolytic on sheep-blood agar. The 'endemic' type also showed a greater tendency to coagulate human but not bovine plasma, and to produce mucoid growth and clumping. The last two properties, relevant to colonization of processing equipment, were less evident in heart infusion broth than in richer media or process water collected during defeathering of the birds.

  19. CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TREMOR RESULTING FROM SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCREASING FATIGUE DURING PROLONGED MILITARY TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tomczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define the changes of the characteristics of physiological postural tremor under conditions of increasing fatigue and lack of sleep during prolonged military training (survival.The subjects of the study were 15 students of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. The average age was 19.9±1.3 years. During the 36-hour-long continuous military training (survival the subjects were deprived of sleep. Four tremor measurements were carried out for each of the subjects: Day 1 – morning, after rest (measurement 0; Day 2 – morning, after overnight physical exercise (measurement 1; afternoon, after continuous sleep deprivation (measurement 2; Day 3 – morning, after a full night sleep (measurement 3. The accelerometric method using an acceleration measuring kit was applied to analyse tremor. A significant difference between mean values of the index evaluating tremor power in low frequencies L2-4 in measurement 0 and measurement 3 was observed (p<0.01. No significant differences were found in mean values of index L10-20. Mean frequencies F2-4 differed significantly from each other (F 2,42 =4.53; p<0.01. Their values were 2.94±0.11, 2.99±0.9, 2.93±0.07 and 2.91±0.07 for successive measurements. A gradual, significant decrease of F 8-14 was observed (F 2,42 =5.143; p<0.01. Prolonged sleep deprivation combined with performing tasks demanding constant physical effort causes long-lasting (over 24 hours changes of the amplitude of low-frequency tremor changes. This phenomenon may significantly influence psychomotor performance, deteriorating the ability to perform tasks requiring movement precision.

  20. Morpho-physiological and productive biometry in semi-erect cultivars of the cowpea under different plant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Aécio de Carvalho Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate morpho-physiological and productive characteristics in four semi-erect cultivars of the cowpea under five plant populations. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina in the State of Piauí, Brazil (PI. The experimental design was of randomised complete blocks with four replications, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, for evaluating four cultivars (BRS Guariba, BRS Novaera, BRS Potengi and BRS Tumucumaque and five plant populations (105, 2x105, 3x105, 4x105 and 5x105 plants ha-1. There were significant differences between cultivars for primary branch length (PBL, number of lateral branches (NLB, 100-grain weight (HGW, and dry-grain yield (GY. The maximum PBL of 58.5 cm was obtained with 300 thousand plants ha-1, corresponding to an increase of 11.5% when compared to 100 thousand plants ha-1. However, there was a reduction of 91.2% in NLB when compared to the populations of 100 and 500 thousand plants ha-1. The increases of 188% obtained in the leaf area index (LAI in the range of 100 to 500 thousand plants ha-1 explain the linear increase in the crop growth rate (CGR as being due to the greater production of leaf area; also, the decreases seen in the net assimilation rate (NAR, especially in the range of 100 to 300 thousand plants ha-1, are explained as due to the consequent self-shading, which was intensified in the larger populations. LAI, light interception, and CGR in the cultivars increase in response to higher densities. HGW and GY are not significantly affected by the different populations.

  1. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva E R Philipp

    Full Text Available The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti- aging genes. Expression changes of a antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation

  2. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Moura Romao

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8 or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8. Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245 was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics

  3. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  4. Physiological and Molecular Processes Associated with Long Duration of ABA Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants need to respond to various environmental stresses such as abiotic stress for proper development and growth. The responses to abiotic stress can be biochemically demanding, resulting in a trade-off that negatively affects plant growth and development. Thus, plant stress responses must be fine-tuned depending on the stress severity and duration. Abscisic acid, a phytohormone, plays a key role in responses to abiotic stress. Here, we investigated time-dependent physiological and molecular responses to long-term ABA treatment in Arabidopsis as an approach to gain insight into the plant responses to long-term abiotic stress. Upon ABA treatment, the amount of cellular ABA increased to higher levels, reaching to a peak at 24 h after treatment (HAT, and then gradually decreased with time whereas ABA-GE was maintained at lower levels until 24 HAT and then abruptly increased to higher levels at 48 HAT followed by a gradual decline at later time points. Many genes involved in dehydration stress responses, ABA metabolism, chloroplast biogenesis, and chlorophyll degradation were strongly expressed at early time points with a peak at 24 or 48 HAT followed by gradual decreases in induction fold or even suppression at later time points. At the physiological level, long-term ABA treatment caused leaf yellowing, reduced chlorophyll levels, and inhibited chloroplast division in addition to the growth suppression whereas short-term ABA treatment did not affect chlorophyll levels. Our results indicate that the duration of ABA treatment is a crucial factor in determining the mode of ABA-mediated signaling and plant responses: active mobilization of cellular resources at early time points and suppressive responses at later time points.

  5. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASISH KUMAR PARIDA

    2016-03-01

    compared to control. There was no significant changes in polyphenol levels in leaf at all levels of salinity. The results from the present study reveal that seedlings imposed with various levels of salinity experience physiological, biochemical and anatomical modifications in order to circumvent under extreme saline environment. The vital mechanisms of salt tolerance in this

  6. Oligo-Alginate with Low Molecular Mass Improves Growth and Physiological Activity of Eucomis autumnalis under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have become increasingly popular as biostimulators of plant growth. One of them, oligo-alginate, is a molecule that regulates plant biological processes and may be used in horticultural practice as a plant growth regulator. Biostimulators are mainly used to improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of salinity and oligo-alginate of various molecular masses on the growth and physiological activity of Eucomis autumnalis. The species is an ornamental and medicinal plant that has been used for a long time in the traditional medicine of South Africa. The bulbs of E. autumnalis were coated using depolymerized sodium alginate of molecular mass 32,000; 42,000, and 64,000 g mol−1. All of these oligo-alginates fractions stimulated plant growth, and the effect was the strongest for the fraction of 32,000 g mol−1. This fraction was then selected for the second stage of the study, when plants were exposed to salt stress evoked by the presence of 100 mM NaCl. We found that the oligo-alginate coating mitigated the negative effects of salinity. Plants treated with the oligomer and watered with NaCl showed smaller reduction in the weight of the above-ground parts and bulbs, pigment content and antioxidant activity as compared with those not treated with the oligo-alginate. The study demonstrated for the first time that low molecular mass oligo-alginate may be used as plant biostimulator that limits negative effects of salinity in E. autumnalis.

  7. Redox processes at a nanostructured interface under strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Wolfram; Surnev, Svetlozar; Netzer, Falko P; Sementa, Luca; Negreiros, Fabio R; Barcaro, Giovanni; Durante, Nicola; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2014-09-21

    Manipulation of chemistry and film growth via external electric fields is a longstanding goal in surface science. Numerous systems have been predicted to show such effects but experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate in a custom-designed UHV apparatus that the application of spatially extended, homogeneous, very high (>1 V nm(-1)) DC-fields not only changes the system energetics but triggers dynamic processes which become important much before static contributions appreciably modify the potential energy landscape. We take a well characterized ultrathin NiO film on a Ag(100) support as a proof-of-principle test case, and show how it gets reduced to supported Ni clusters under fields exceeding the threshold of +0.9 V nm(-1). Using an effective model, we trace the observed interfacial redox process down to a dissociative electron attachment resonant mechanism. The proposed approach can be easily implemented and generally applied to a wide range of interfacial systems, thus opening new opportunities for the manipulation of film growth and reaction processes at solid surfaces under strong external fields.

  8. Assessment of physiological performance and perception of pushing different wheelchairs on indoor modular units simulating a surface roughness often encountered in under-resourced settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Rispin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    In under-resourced settings where motorized wheelchairs are rarely available, manual wheelchair users with limited upper-body strength and functionalities need to rely on assisting pushers for their mobility. Because traveling surfaces in under-resourced settings are often unpaved and rough, wheelchair pushers could experience high physiological loading. In order to evaluate pushers' physiological loading and to improve wheelchair designs, we built indoor modular units that simulate rough surface conditions, and tested a hypothesis that pushing different wheelchairs would result in different physiological performances and pushers' perception of difficulty on the simulated rough surface. Eighteen healthy subjects pushed two different types of pediatric wheelchairs (Moti-Go manufactured by Motivation, and KidChair by Hope Haven) fitted with a 50-kg dummy on the rough and smooth surfaces at self-selected speeds. Oxygen uptake, traveling distance for 6 minutes, and the rating of difficulty were obtained. The results supported our hypothesis, showing that pushing Moti-Go on the rough surface was physiologically less loading than KidChair, but on the smooth surface, the two wheelchairs did not differ significantly. These results indicate wheelchair designs to improve pushers' performance in under-resourced settings should be evaluated on rough surfaces.

  9. Efficient Option Pricing under Levy Processes, with CVA and FVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy eLaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the Piterbarg (2010 model to include 1 bilateral default risk as in Burgard and Kjaer (2012, and 2 jumps in the dynamics of the underlying asset using general classes of L'evy processes of exponential type. We develop an efficient explicit-implicit scheme for European options and barrier options taking CVA-FVA into account. We highlight the importance of this work in the context of trading, pricing and management a derivative portfolio given the trajectory of regulations.

  10. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivonin, L.; Chang, H.; Diaz, M.; Català, A.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent

  11. Biological and physiological changes in raw and radiation-processed legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakeil, F.A.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Farag, M. Diaa El-Din H.; Mahrous, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Body weight of rats fed on raw kidney beans, soybeans, broad beans, chick peas and lupines suffered from poor growth due to some antinutritional factors. When the studied legumes were exposed to 10 kGy, the rats gained more weight than those kept on raw legumes. When extracts of raw legumes were intraperitoneally injected, the LD 50 were found to be 125, 300 and 1800 mg/kg, for raw kidney beans, raw soybeans, and raw broad beans respectively. However, injecting extracts of raw chick peas and raw lupines did not kill the rats even at higher concentration levels of 3000 mg/kg. Similar results were obtained with irradiated chick peas and lupines (10 kGy). Meanwhile, after irradiation treatment of kidney beans, soybeans and broad beans, the LD 50 were found to be 250, 400 and 2000 mg/kg for the above pulses respectively. Both raw and irradiated kidney beans and raw soybeans were most active in stimulating pancreas and liver growth and reducing spleen weight. Irradiated soybeans showed a moderate but significant increase in liver weight only. However, rats fed on both raw and irradiated broad beans, chick peas and lupines in their diets did not suffer any pancreatic and liver hypertrophy or spleen atrophy. The haematological parameters investigated showed that there was no significant differences between rat groups fed on either raw or irradiated legumes. It could be concluded that irradiation offers a good treatment for legumes as it has a beneficial effect to correct the poor growth for rats fed on raw beans during experimental period without any deleterious physiological effects. (author)

  12. Small RNA-Sequencing Links Physiological Changes and RdDM Process to Vegetative-to-Floral Transition in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition from vegetative to floral buds is a critical physiological change during flower induction that determines fruit productivity. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are pivotal regulators of plant growth and development. Although the key role of sRNAs in flowering regulation has been well-described in Arabidopsis and some other annual plants, their relevance to vegetative-to-floral transition (hereafter, referred to floral transition in perennial woody trees remains under defined. Here, we performed Illumina sequencing of sRNA libraries prepared from vegetative and floral bud during flower induction of the apple trees. A large number of sRNAs exemplified by 33 previously annotated miRNAs and six novel members display significant differential expression (DE patterns. Notably, most of these DE-miRNAs in floral transition displayed opposite expression changes in reported phase transition in apple trees. Bioinformatics analysis suggests most of the DE-miRNAs targeted transcripts involved in SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL gene regulation, stress responses, and auxin and gibberellin (GA pathways, with further suggestion that there is an inherent link between physiological stress response and metabolism reprogramming during floral transition. We also observed significant changes in 24 nucleotide (nt sRNAs that are hallmarks for RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM pathway, suggestive of the correlation between epigenetic modifications and the floral transition. The study not only provides new insight into our understanding of fundamental mechanism of poorly studied floral transition in apple and other woody plants, but also presents important sRNA resource for future in-depth research in the apple flowering physiology.

  13. Effects of body temperature on post-anoxic oxidative stress from the perspective of postnatal physiological adaptive processes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.

  14. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  15. Network-based integration of molecular and physiological data elucidates regulatory mechanisms underlying adaptation to high-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derous, D.; Kelder, T.; Schothorst, E.M. van; Erk, M. van; Voigt, A.; Klaus, S.; Keijer, J.; Radonjic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health is influenced by interplay of molecular, physiological and environmental factors. To effectively maintain health and prevent disease, health-relevant relations need to be understood at multiple levels of biological complexity. Network-based methods provide a powerful platform for integration

  16. Ruminant Metabolic Systems Biology: Reconstruction and Integration of Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Functional Responses of Tissues to Nutrition and Physiological Statea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ‘omics’ data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue’s adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

  17. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found......Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi...

  18. Attention Modulates the Neural Processes Underlying Multisensory Integration of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tam Ho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrating emotional information from multiple sensory modalities is generally assumed to be a pre-attentive process (de Gelder et al., 1999. This assumption, however, presupposes that the integrative process occurs independent of attention. Using event-potentials (ERP the present study investigated whether the neural processes underlying the integration of dynamic facial expression and emotional prosody is indeed unaffected by attentional manipulations. To this end, participants were presented with congruent and incongruent face-voice combinations (eg, an angry face combined with a neutral voice and performed different two-choice tasks in four consecutive blocks. Three of the tasks directed the participants' attention to emotion expressions in the face, the voice or both. The fourth task required participants to attend to the synchronicity between voice and lip movements. The results show divergent modulations of early ERP components by the different attentional manipulations. For example, when attention was directed to the face (or the voice, incongruent stimuli elicited a reduced N1 as compared to congruent stimuli. This effect was absent, when attention was diverted away from the emotionality in both face and voice suggesting that the detection of emotional incongruence already requires attention. Based on these findings, we question whether multisensory integration of emotion occurs indeed pre-attentively.

  19. Independent component processes underlying emotions during natural music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Zollinger, Nina; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the brain processes underlying emotions during natural music listening. To address this, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from 22 subjects while presenting a set of individually matched whole musical excerpts varying in valence and arousal. Independent component analysis was applied to decompose the EEG data into functionally distinct brain processes. A k-means cluster analysis calculated on the basis of a combination of spatial (scalp topography and dipole location mapped onto the Montreal Neurological Institute brain template) and functional (spectra) characteristics revealed 10 clusters referring to brain areas typically involved in music and emotion processing, namely in the proximity of thalamic-limbic and orbitofrontal regions as well as at frontal, fronto-parietal, parietal, parieto-occipital, temporo-occipital and occipital areas. This analysis revealed that arousal was associated with a suppression of power in the alpha frequency range. On the other hand, valence was associated with an increase in theta frequency power in response to excerpts inducing happiness compared to sadness. These findings are partly compatible with the model proposed by Heller, arguing that the frontal lobe is involved in modulating valenced experiences (the left frontal hemisphere for positive emotions) whereas the right parieto-temporal region contributes to the emotional arousal. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Periparturient Behavior and Physiology: Further Insight Into the Farrowing Process for Primiparous and Multiparous Sows

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    Sarah H. Ison

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Giving birth is a critical time for many species and is often the most painful event ever experienced by females. In domestic species, like the pig, pain associated with parturition represents a potential welfare concern, and the consequences of pain can cause economic losses (e.g., by indirectly contributing to piglet mortality as pain could slow post-farrowing recovery, reduce food and water intake, reducing milk let-down. This study investigated pain assessment and its management in primiparous (gilts and multiparous (sows breeding pigs, including the provision of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID post-parturition. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive the NSAID ketoprofen (3 mg/kg bodyweight (n = 11 gilts, 16 sows or the equivalent volume of saline (n = 13 gilts, 16 sows by intramuscular injection 1.5 h after the birth of the last piglet. Data collected included putative behavioral indicators of pain (back leg forward, tremble, back arch, salivary cortisol concentrations pre-farrowing and up to 7 days post-injection. In addition, post-partum biomarkers of inflammation, including the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP and 3 porcine cytokines [interleukin-1 β (IL1 β, interleukin-6 (IL6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α] were measured in plasma collected 6 h following the injection. Behaviors were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models, and physiological variables with linear mixed models. No difference in putative pain behaviors, salivary cortisol, CRP, or cytokines were found between individuals treated with ketoprofen or those administered the saline control. However, there were some differences between gilts and sows, as sows exhibited more putative pain behavior than gilts, had higher salivary cortisol on the day of farrowing and had higher plasma TNF α. Conversely, gilts had higher salivary cortisol than sows on day 3 post-farrowing and had higher CRP. This indicates that, like human females

  1. The effect of air permeability characteristics of protective garments on the induced physiological strain under exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Heled, Yuval; Ketko, Itay; Muginshtein, Jeni; Yanovich, Ran; Druyan, Amit; Moran, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The high values of thermal resistance (Rct) and/or vapor resistance (Ret) of chemical protective clothing (CPC) induce a considerable thermal stress. The present study compared the physiological strain induced by CPCs and evaluates the relative importance of the fabrics' Rct, Ret, and air permeability in determining heat strain. Twelve young (20-30 years) healthy, heat-acclimated male subjects were exposed fully encapsulated for 3h daily to an exercise-heat stress (35°C and 30% relative humidity, walking on a motor-driven treadmill at a pace of 5 km h(1) and a 4% inclination, in a work-rest cycle of 45 min work and 15 min rest). Two bipack CPCs (PC1 and PC2) were tested and the results were compared with those attained by two control suits-a standard cotton military BDU (CO1) and an impermeable material suit (CO2). The physiological burden imposed by the two bilayer garments was within the boundaries set by the control conditions. Overall, PC2 induced a lower strain, which was closer to CO1, whereas PC1 was closer to CO2. Air permeability of the PC2 cloth was almost three times higher than that of PC1, enabling a better heat dissipation and consequently a lower physiological strain. Furthermore, air permeability characteristic of the fabrics, which is associated with its construction and weave, significantly correlated with the physiological strain, whereas the correlation with Rct, Ret, and weight was poor. The results emphasize the importance of air permeability in reducing the physiological strain induced by CPCs.

  2. Chronic exposure to soil salinity in terrestrial species: Does plasticity and underlying physiology differ among specialized ground-dwelling spiders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, D; Puzin, C; Foucreau, N; Bouchereau, A; Pétillon, J

    2016-07-01

    In salt marshes, the alternation of low and high tides entails rapid shifts of submersion and aerial exposure for terrestrial communities. In these intertidal environments, terrestrial species have to deal with an osmotic loss in body water content and an increase in sodium chloride concentration when salt load increases. In salt marshes, spiders represent an abundant arthropod group, whose physiological ecology in response to variations of soil salinity must be further investigated. In this study, we compared the effect of salinity on the survival and physiology of three species of Lycosidae; two salt marsh species (Arctosa fulvolineata and Pardosa purbeckensis) and one forest species (P. saltans). Spiders were individually exposed at three salinity conditions (0‰, 35‰ and 70‰) and survival, changes in body water content, hemolymph ions (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+); ICP-MS technique) and metabolites (mainly amino acids, polyols, sugars; LC and GC techniques) were assessed. The survival of the forest species P. saltans was very quickly hampered at moderate and high salinities. In this spider, variations of hemolymph ions and metabolites revealed a quick loss of physiological homeostasis and a rapid salt-induced dehydration of the specimens. Conversely, high survival durations were measured in the two salt-marsh spiders, and more particularly in A. fulvolineata. In both P. purbeckensis and A. fulvolineata, the proportion of Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) remained constant at the three experimental conditions. Accumulation of hemolymph Na(+) and amino acids (mainly glutamine and proline) demonstrated stronger osmoregulatory capacities in these salt-marsh resident spiders. To conclude, even if phylogenetically close (belonging to the same, monophyletic, family), we found different physiological capacities to cope with salt load among the three tested spider species. Nevertheless, physiological responses to salinity were highly consistent with the realized

  3. ANATOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF DISTAL LOWER LEG AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE PROCESS OF OSTEOGENESIS

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    Desimir Mladenović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis is the process of bone tissue forming, i.e. bone or callus regeneration. This process is influenced by many factors, and the degree of bone fragments’ stability and vascularization in the fracture area are the basic local factors which determine the nature of reparative process. Regenerative process of all bone structures increases with increasing of blood supply.The distal lower leg has its specific biomechanical features, and plays an important role in the transfer of body weight to foot. The distal part of tibia has a small diameter, which as a consequence has reduced diameter in medullar cave. Through this anatomic feature, the medullar network in the lower tibia part is also reduced.As for anatomic aspect, vascularization in the lower end of tibia is poor. It primarily depends on periosteal vascularization, because medullar vascularization is reduced. Fasciae, tendons and skin cover the lower part of the leg, and there is no muscle mass. These tissues have poor vascular network and that is why the extraosseous blood circulation in tibia is poor, and does not participate in the osteogenesis process. For these reasons, distal lower leg represents a predelection site for delayed osteogenesis and pseudoarthrosys development.Osteosynthesis causes secondary damage to bone and soft tissue circulation. The screw plate damages the periosteal circulation – in the lower part of tibia it is the main source of vascularization, and for this reason, this method of osteosynthesis should not be applied. The external fixator has a sparing role regarding vascularization, and that is the reason why this method is recommended for fracture stabilization at the level of distal lower leg.

  4. Priming and stress under high humidity and temperature on the physiological quality of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5 seeds

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    Thiago Barbosa Batista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisade grass is a forage plant that is widely used in pasture cropping in the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG–5 seeds subjected to priming and stress at high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x5 factorial arrangement. Seeds were exposed to stress under high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning and five priming treatments [Water (Control, potassium nitrate (KNO3 at 0.2%, calcium nitrate Ca(NO32 at 0.2%, gibberellin (GA3 at 0.2% and glucose at 10%] with four replications. Two experiments were performed: Experiment I - seed with chemical scarification using H2SO4 and Experiment II - without scarification. The stress on the seed was applied using artificial aging at 41°C for 96 hours. Seed priming was accomplished by immersion at 25°C for 2 hours. Thereafter, the seeds were oven-dried at 35°C until they regained hygroscopic equilibrium. Seed germination and vigor were evaluated. Priming using KNO3 and Ca(NO32 produced seeds with high tolerance to stress under high temperature, and this process is efficient to overcome dormancy.

  5. The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process - The Integrative Governor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Gibson, A; Swart, J; Tucker, R

    2018-02-01

    Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation. As part of the Integrative Governor theory we develop in this review, we suggest that both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles, and that regulation of the relative activity of each is by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Because of this competitive, dynamic interplay, we propose that the activity in all systems will oscillate, that these oscillations create information, and comparison of this oscillatory information with either prior information, current activity, or activity templates create efferent responses that change the activity in the different systems in a similarly dynamic manner. Changes in a particular system are always the result of perturbations occurring outside the system itself, the behavioural causative 'history' of this external activity will be evident in the pattern of the oscillations, and awareness of change occurs as a result of unexpected rather than planned change in physiological activity or psychological state.

  6. Stochastic analysis in production process and ecology under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    The monograph addresses a problem of stochastic analysis based on the uncertainty assessment by simulation and application of this method in ecology and steel industry under uncertainty. The first chapter defines the Monte Carlo (MC) method and random variables in stochastic models. Chapter two deals with the contamination transport in porous media. Stochastic approach for Municipal Solid Waste transit time contaminants modeling using MC simulation has been worked out. The third chapter describes the risk analysis of the waste to energy facility proposal for Konin city, including the financial aspects. Environmental impact assessment of the ArcelorMittal Steel Power Plant, in Kraków - in the chapter four - is given. Thus, four scenarios of the energy mix production processes were studied. Chapter five contains examples of using ecological Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) - a relatively new method of environmental impact assessment - which help in preparing pro-ecological strategy, and which can lead to reducing t...

  7. Effect of Salinity on Growth and Physiological Parameters of Four Olive (OleaeuropaeaL. Cultivars underGreenhouse Conditions

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    Farzaneh Olyaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production around the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions.The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Olive is one of the most important fruit crops in Iran and the world. Despite olive has been classified as moderately salt tolerant plant, poor quality of irrigation water in association with salt build-up soils has reduced the yields, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. The tolerance of the olive to salt is to a great extent depends on the cultivar. Selecting salinity-resistant cultivars is one of the most important strategies used for mitigating salinity effects on olive. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the salt tolerance of four olive cultivars under greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, one-year-old rooted cuttings of Iranian olive cultivars (‘Dakal’, ‘Shiraz’, ‘Zard’ and non-Iranian cultivar ‘Amigdal’ were grown in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. Plants were grown in plastic pots. The pots were 180 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth with volume of 7 L. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 35˚C, respectively. After sticking the cuttings, the pots with uniform plants were subjected to the treatment with 0 (control, 100, 150 or 200 mMNaCl. The electrical conductivities of these solutions were 0.003, 10.52, 15.43 and 19.55 dS m-1, respectively. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was gradually increased. The layout was a 4×4 factorial experiment based oncompletely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out three months after beginning the salt treatments

  8. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  9. [Autonomic regulation at emotional stress under hypoxic conditions in the elderly with physiological and accelerated aging: effect of hypoxic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Os'mak, E D; Asanov, É O

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hypoxic training on autonomic regulation in psycho-emotional stress conditions in hypoxic conditions in older people with physiological (25 people) and accelerated (28 people) aging respiratory system. It is shown that hypoxic training leads to an increase in vagal activity indicators (HF) and reduced simpatovagal index (LF/HF), have a normalizing effect on the autonomic balance during stress loads in older people with different types of aging respiratory system.

  10. Cognitive Processes in Decisions Under Risk Are Not the Same As in Decisions Under Uncertainty

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    Kirsten G Volz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We deal with risk versus uncertainty, a distinction that is of fundamental importance for cognitive neuroscience yet largely neglected. In a world of risk (small world, all alternatives, consequences, and probabilities are known. In uncertain (large worlds, some of this information is unknown or unknowable. Most of cognitive neuroscience studies exclusively study the neural correlates for decisions under risk (e.g., lotteries, with the tacit implication that understanding these would lead to an understanding of decision making in general. First, we show that normative strategies for decisions under risk do not generalize to uncertain worlds, where simple heuristics are often the more accurate strategies. Second, we argue that the cognitive processes for making decisions in a world of risk are not the same as those for dealing with uncertainty. Because situations with known risks are the exception rather than the rule in human evolution, it is unlikely that our brains are adapted to them. We therefore suggest a paradigm shift towards studying decision processes in uncertain worlds and provide first examples.

  11. Aspectos da fisiologia de cenoura minimamente processada Physiological aspects of minimally processed carrot

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    Milza M. Lana

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O processamento mínimo de hortaliças compreende as operações que eliminam as partes não comestíveis, seguidas pelo corte em tamanhos menores, tornando-as prontas para consumo imediato e mantendo a condição de produto in natura. A oferta e o interesse do consumidor por esses produtos têm sido crescentes, tanto para o mercado institucional (restaurantes e cozinhas industriais, como para o consumidor final. A cenoura é, dentre as hortaliças, uma das principais espécies comercializadas nessa forma, ou seja, ralada, picada em cubos ou rodelas ou na forma de mini-cenoura (`baby-carrot'. As operações de processamento causam uma série de estresses e alterações metabólicas indesejáveis que reduzem a vida útil da hortaliça processada em relação ao produto inteiro. Dentre as principais, incluem-se o aumento da taxa respiratória e da transpiração, a deterioração microbiana, a produção de metabólitos secundários e a degradação de membranas lipídicas. São apresentados os efeitos de diversos fatores como cultivares, formas de corte, tratamentos químicos, uso de revestimentos, irradiação, atmosfera modificada e refrigeração sobre a magnitude das alterações fisiológicas resultantes do processamento.Minimal processing of vegetables involves the elimination of non-edible parts followed by cutting into smaller pieces, so that the product obtained is ready-to-eat and fresh-like. The demand for minimally processed vegetables by consumers and by food service industry has increased. Carrot is among the most popular vegetables marketed this way, that is shredded, cut as slices or cubes and as baby-carrot. Minimal processing operations induce stress and undesirable metabolic changes that reduce the product shelf life in relation to the intact organs from which they were obtained. These metabolic changes include increase in respiration and transpiration rate, pathological breakdown, synthesis of secondary compounds and membrane

  12. The relationships between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in Muslim women under the controlled thermal conditions

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    Peymaneh Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental and physiological heat stress indices based on heart rate (HR, oral temperature for the estimation of heat strain, in veiled women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy Muslim women in hot-dry climatic conditions (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 22-32°C in low workload for 2 h. The HR, oral temperature and WBGT index were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests. Results: The results of the Pearson test indicated that physiological strain index was a high correlation (r = 0.975 with WBGT index (P < 0.05. Also, there was a good correlation among WBGT and HR (r = 0.779 and oral temperature (r = 0.981. Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated that there is a good correlation between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in veiled women with Islamic clothing at the low workload over the action limit (WBGT = 31°C. So that it can be concluded that the WBGT 22-32°C is a good indicator of the heat strain in veiled women with Islamic clothing.

  13. Healthy aging and myocardium: A complicated process with various effects in cardiac structure and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakou, E S; Parthenakis, F I; Kallergis, E M; Marketou, M E; Nakos, K S; Vardas, P E

    2016-04-15

    It is known that there is an ongoing increase in life expectancy worldwide, especially in the population older than 65years of age. Cardiac aging is characterized by a series of complex pathophysiological changes affecting myocardium at structural, cellular, molecular and functional levels. These changes make the aged myocardium more susceptible to stress, leading to a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease) in the elderly population. The aging process is genetically programmed but modified by environmental influences, so that the rate of aging can vary widely among people. We summarized the entire data concerning all the multifactorial changes in aged myocardium and highlighting the recent evidence for the pathophysiological basis of cardiac aging. Keeping an eye on the clinical side, this review will explore the potential implications of the age-related changes in the clinical management and on novel therapeutic strategies potentially deriving from the scientific knowledge currently acquired on cardiac aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex-comparative study of mouse cerebellum physiology under adult-onset hypothyroidism: The significance of GC-MS metabolomic data normalization in meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga-Nteve, Christoniki; Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Margarity, Marigoula; Klapa, Maria I

    2017-01-15

    A systematic data quality validation and normalization strategy is an important component of the omic profile meta-analysis, ensuring comparability of the profiles and exclusion of experimental biases from the derived biological conclusions. In this study, we present the normalization methodology applied on the sets of cerebellum gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiles of 124days old male and female animals in an adult-onset-hypothyroidism (AOH) mouse model before combining them into a sex-comparative analysis. The employed AOH model concerns the monitoring of the brain physiology of Balb/cJ mice after eight-week administration of 1%w/v KClO 4 in the drinking water, initiated on the 60th day of their life. While originating from the same animal study, the tissues of the two sexes were processed and their profiles acquired and analyzed at different time periods. Hence, the previously published profile set of male mice was first re-annotated based on the presently available resources. Then, after being validated as acquired under the same analytical conditions, both profiles sets were corrected for derivatization biases and filtered for low-confidence measurements based on the same criteria. The final normalized 73-metabolite profiles contribute to the currently few available omic datasets of the AOH effect on brain molecular physiology, especially with respect to sex differentiation. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated one (unknown) and three (succinate, benzoate, myristate) metabolites with significantly higher and lower, respectively, cerebellum concentration in the hypothyroid compared to the euthyroid female mice. The respective numbers for the males were two and 24. Comparison of the euthyroid cerebellum metabolic profiles between the two sexes indicated 36 metabolites, including glucose, myo- and scyllo-inositol, with significantly lower concentration in the females versus the males. This implies that the female mouse cerebellum has

  15. Effects of Bacillus subtilis on some physiological and biochemical parameters of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastochkina, Oksana; Pusenkova, Ludmila; Yuldashev, Ruslan; Babaev, Marat; Garipova, Svetlana; Blagova, Dar'ya; Khairullin, Ramil; Aliniaeifard, Sasan

    2017-12-01

    Endophytic strain Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) 10-4, producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderofores but not active in phosphate solubilization, exerted a protective effect on Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) plant grown under salinity (2% NaCl) stress. Exposure to salt stress resulted in an essential increase of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the seedlings. At the same time the seedlings inoculated with B. subtilis 10-4 were characterized by decreased level of stress-induced Pro and MDA accumulation. It was revealed that both B. subtilis 10-4 and salinity caused increase in the content of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) in wheat seedlings as compared to SA content in the control, while B. subtilis 10-4 suppressed stress-induced SA accumulation. Water storage capacity (WSC) in leaf tissues was increased and stress-induced hydrolysis of statolite starch in root cap cells of the germinal roots was reduced by B. subtilis 10-4. The obtained data indicated that the activation of the defense reactions induced by B. subtilis 10-4 induced defense reactions may be connected with their ability to decrease the level of stress-induced oxidative and osmotic stress in seedlings and with the increase of endogenous SA level that can make a significant contribution to the implementation of the protective effect of B. subtilis 10-4 and is manifested in the improvement of plant growth, WSC of leaves and slowing down of the process of statolite starch hydrolysis under salinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes

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    Jose M. Requena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones are key components in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival, not only during stress but also under optimal growth conditions. Folding of nascent polypeptides is supported by molecular chaperones, which avoid the formation of aggregates by preventing nonspecific interactions and aid, when necessary, the translocation of proteins to their correct intracellular localization. Furthermore, when proteins are damaged, molecular chaperones may also facilitate their refolding or, in the case of irreparable proteins, their removal by the protein degradation machinery of the cell. During their digenetic lifestyle, Leishmania parasites encounter and adapt to harsh environmental conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, oxidative stress, changing pH, and shifts in temperature; all these factors are potential triggers of cellular stress. We summarize here our current knowledge on the main types of molecular chaperones in Leishmania and their functions. Among them, heat shock proteins play important roles in adaptation and survival of this parasite against temperature changes associated with its passage from the poikilothermic insect vector to the warm-blooded vertebrate host. The study of structural features and the function of chaperones in Leishmania biology is providing opportunities (and challenges for drug discovery and improving of current treatments against leishmaniasis.

  17. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jose M.; Montalvo, Ana M.; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are key components in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival, not only during stress but also under optimal growth conditions. Folding of nascent polypeptides is supported by molecular chaperones, which avoid the formation of aggregates by preventing nonspecific interactions and aid, when necessary, the translocation of proteins to their correct intracellular localization. Furthermore, when proteins are damaged, molecular chaperones may also facilitate their refolding or, in the case of irreparable proteins, their removal by the protein degradation machinery of the cell. During their digenetic lifestyle, Leishmania parasites encounter and adapt to harsh environmental conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, oxidative stress, changing pH, and shifts in temperature; all these factors are potential triggers of cellular stress. We summarize here our current knowledge on the main types of molecular chaperones in Leishmania and their functions. Among them, heat shock proteins play important roles in adaptation and survival of this parasite against temperature changes associated with its passage from the poikilothermic insect vector to the warm-blooded vertebrate host. The study of structural features and the function of chaperones in Leishmania biology is providing opportunities (and challenges) for drug discovery and improving of current treatments against leishmaniasis. PMID:26167482

  18. MODEL-ASSISTED ESTIMATION OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY IN PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO TOMATO FRUIT GROWTH UNDER CONTRASTED WATER CONDITIONS

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    Dario Constantinescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major abiotic stres threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding Drought stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding mechanisms governing water and carbon accumulations and identifying genes, QTLs and phenotypes, that will enable trade-offs between fruit growth and quality under Water Deficit (WD condition is a crucial challenge for breeders and growers. In the present work, 117 recombinant inbred lines of a population of Solanum lycopersicum were phenotyped under control and WD conditions. Plant water status, fruit growth and composition were measured and data were used to calibrate a process-based model describing water and carbon fluxes in a growing fruit as a function of plant and environment. Eight genotype-dependent model parameters were estimated using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm in order to minimize the prediction errors of fruit dry and fresh mass throughout fruit development. WD increased the fruit dry matter content (up to 85 % and decreased its fresh weight (up to 60 %, big fruit size genotypes being the most sensitive. The mean normalized root mean squared errors of the predictions ranged between 16-18 % in the population. Variability in model genotypic parameters allowed us to explore diverse genetic strategies in response to WD. An interesting group of genotypes could be discriminated in which i the low loss of fresh mass under WD was associated with high active uptake of sugars and low value of the maximum cell wall extensibility, and ii the high dry matter content in control treatment (C was associated with a slow decrease of mass flow. Using 501 SNP markers genotyped across the genome, a QTL analysis of model parameters allowed to detect three main QTLs related to xylem and phloem conductivities, on chromosomes 2, 4 and 8. The model was then applied to design ideotypes with high dry matter

  19. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Filter Cake, due to high salinity and salt accumulation in the root zone, causes secondary oxidative stress and increases damage to cell membranes and reduces the economic benefit. In order to investigate the effect of Filter Cake levels application on some morpho-physiological characteristics and ear yield of sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, at 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments of experiment were drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content in main plots and filter cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton.ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress significant on more traits and led to decrease of plant height, leaf area index (LAI, membrane stability index(MSI, leaf osmotic potential, soluble protein contents, ear and biological yield while effect of drought stress on shoot sodium concentration was not significant. The intensive drought stress led to decrease 21.7 and 27.3% ear and biological yield compared to control respectively. Application of filter cake on non-stress led to increase height of plant and ear and biological yield. But high levels of filter cake in intensive stress led to increase salinity and damage to cell membranes and reduce LAI and MSI and thus reduce economic performance. It also the amount of 30 ton.ha-1 of filter cake in intensive stress condition has been decrease ear and biological yield 18.7 and 23.3% compared to non-filter cake application respectively.

  20. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  1. Dietary fibers from mushroom Sclerotia: 2. In vitro mineral binding capacity under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    The in vitro mineral binding capacity of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, to Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human stomach, small intestine, and colon was investigated and compared. Apart from releasing most of their endogenous Ca (ranged from 96.9 to 97.9% removal) and Mg (ranged from 95.9 to 96.7% removal), simulated physiological conditions of the stomach also attenuated the possible adverse binding effect of the three sclerotial DFs to the exogenous minerals by lowering their cation-exchange capacity (ranged from 20.8 to 32.3%) and removing a substantial amount of their potential mineral chelators including protein (ranged from 16.2 to 37.8%) and phytate (ranged from 58.5 to 64.2%). The in vitro mineral binding capacity of the three sclerotial DF under simulated physiological conditions of small intestine was found to be low, especially for Ca (ranged from 4.79 to 5.91% binding) and Mg (ranged from 3.16 to 4.18% binding), and was highly correlated (r > 0.97) with their residual protein contents. Under simulated physiological conditions of the colon with slightly acidic pH (5.80), only bound Ca was readily released (ranged from 34.2 to 72.3% releasing) from the three sclerotial DFs, and their potential enhancing effect on passive Ca absorption in the human large intestine was also discussed.

  2. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  4. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2012-03-21

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design and operation a challenging task. This work presents a detailed optimization-based approach for simultaneously incorporating PSA design, operational, and control aspects under the effect of time variant and invariant disturbances. It is applied to a two-bed, six-step PSA system represented by a rigorous mathematical model, where the key optimization objective is to maximize the expected H2 recovery while achieving a closed loop product H2 purity of 99.99%, for separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 feed. The benefits over sequential design and control approach are shown in terms of closed-loop recovery improvement of more than 3%, while the incorporation of explicit/multiparametric model predictive controllers improves the closed loop performance. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  5. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  6. Gaussian process regression for sensor networks under localization uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaliha, M.; Xu, Yunfei; Choi, Jongeun; Johnson, N.S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate Gaussian process regression with observations under the localization uncertainty due to the resource-constrained sensor networks. In our formulation, effects of observations, measurement noise, localization uncertainty, and prior distributions are all correctly incorporated in the posterior predictive statistics. The analytically intractable posterior predictive statistics are proposed to be approximated by two techniques, viz., Monte Carlo sampling and Laplace's method. Such approximation techniques have been carefully tailored to our problems and their approximation error and complexity are analyzed. Simulation study demonstrates that the proposed approaches perform much better than approaches without considering the localization uncertainty properly. Finally, we have applied the proposed approaches on the experimentally collected real data from a dye concentration field over a section of a river and a temperature field of an outdoor swimming pool to provide proof of concept tests and evaluate the proposed schemes in real situations. In both simulation and experimental results, the proposed methods outperform the quick-and-dirty solutions often used in practice.

  7. Behavioral processes underlying the decline of narcissists' popularity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckelt, Marius; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Nestler, Steffen; Back, Mitja D

    2015-11-01

    Following a dual-pathway approach to the social consequences of grandiose narcissism, we investigated the behavioral processes underlying (a) the decline of narcissists' popularity in social groups over time and (b) how this is differentially influenced by the 2 narcissism facets admiration and rivalry. In a longitudinal laboratory study, participants (N = 311) first provided narcissism self-reports using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, and subsequently interacted with each other in small groups in weekly sessions over the course of 3 weeks. All sessions were videotaped and trained raters coded participants' behavior during the interactions. Within the sessions participants provided mutual ratings on assertiveness, untrustworthiness, and likability. Results showed that (a) over time narcissists become less popular and (b) this is reflected in an initially positive but decreasing effect of narcissistic admiration as well as an increasing negative effect of narcissistic rivalry. As hypothesized, these patterns of results could be explained by means of 2 diverging behavioral pathways: The negative narcissistic pathway (i.e., arrogant-aggressive behavior and being seen as untrustworthy) plays an increasing role and is triggered by narcissistic rivalry, whereas the relevance of the positive narcissistic pathway (i.e., dominant-expressive behavior and being seen as assertive) triggered by narcissistic admiration decreases over time. These findings underline the utility of a behavioral pathway approach for disentangling the complex effects of personality on social outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use.

  9. Blind signal processing algorithms under DC biased Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namyong; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Distortions caused by the DC-biased laser input can be modeled as DC biased Gaussian noise and removing DC bias is important in the demodulation process of the electrical signal in most optical communications. In this paper, a new performance criterion and a related algorithm for unsupervised equalization are proposed for communication systems in the environment of channel distortions and DC biased Gaussian noise. The proposed criterion utilizes the Euclidean distance between the Dirac-delta function located at zero on the error axis and a probability density function of biased constant modulus errors, where constant modulus error is defined by the difference between the system out and a constant modulus calculated from the transmitted symbol points. From the results obtained from the simulation under channel models with fading and DC bias noise abruptly added to background Gaussian noise, the proposed algorithm converges rapidly even after the interruption of DC bias proving that the proposed criterion can be effectively applied to optical communication systems corrupted by channel distortions and DC bias noise.

  10. The impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the physiology of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under different soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiming; Rossi, Lorenzo; Stowers, Cheyenne; Zhang, Weilan; Lombardini, Leonardo; Ma, Xingmao

    2018-01-01

    The ongoing global climate change raises concerns over the decreasing moisture content in agricultural soils. Our research investigated the physiological impact of two types of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) on soybean at different moisture content levels. One CeO 2 NP was positively charged on the surface and the other negatively charged due to the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating. The results suggest that the effect of CeO 2 NPs on plant photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE) was dependent upon the soil moisture content. Both types of CeO 2 NPs exhibited consistently positive impacts on plant photosynthesis at the moisture content above 70% of field capacity (θ fc ). Similar positive impact of CeO 2 NPs was not observed at 55% θ fc , suggesting that the physiological impact of CeO 2 NPs was dependent upon the soil moisture content. The results also revealed that V Cmax (maximum carboxylation rate) was affected by CeO 2 NPs, indicating that CeO 2 NPs affected the Rubisco activity which governs carbon assimilation in photosynthesis. In conclusion, CeO 2 NPs demonstrated significant impacts on the photosynthesis and WUE of soybeans and such impacts were affected by the soil moisture content. Graphical abstract Soil moisture content affects plant cerium oxide nanoparticle interactions.

  11. Electroformation of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles from Native Membranes and Organic Lipid Mixtures for the Study of Lipid Domains under Physiological Ionic-Strength Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, Ruth; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Ibarguren, Maitane

    2010-01-01

    Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) constitute a cell-sized model membrane system that allows direct visualization of particular membrane-related phenomena, such as domain formation, at the level of single vesicles using fluorescence microscopy-related techniques. Currently available protocols...... for the preparation of GUVs work only at very low salt concentrations, thus precluding experimentation under physiological conditions. In addition, the GUVs thus obtained lack membrane compositional asymmetry. Here we show how to prepare GUVs using a new protocol based on the electroformation method either from...... native membranes or organic lipid mixtures at physiological ionic strength. Additionally, we describe methods to test whether membrane proteins and glycosphingolipids preserve their natural orientation after electroformation of GUVs composed of native membranes...

  12. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  13. Utilizing Virtual Reality to Understand Athletic Performance and Underlying Sensorimotor Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kimura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral sports sciences, knowledge of athletic performance and underlying sensorimotor processing remains limited, because most data is obtained in the laboratory. In laboratory experiments we can strictly control the measurement conditions, but the action we can target may be limited and differ from actual sporting action. Thus, the obtained data is potentially unrealistic. We propose using virtual reality (VR technology to compensate for the lack of actual reality. We have developed a head mounted display (HMD-based VR system for application to baseball batting where the user can experience hitting a pitch in a virtual baseball stadium. The batter and the bat movements are measured using nine-axis inertial sensors attached to various parts of the body and bat, and they are represented by a virtual avatar in real time. The pitched balls are depicted by computer graphics based on previously recorded ball trajectories and are thrown in time with the motion of a pitcher avatar based on simultaneously recorded motion capture data. The ball bounces depending on its interaction with the bat. In a preliminary measurement where the VR system was combined with measurement equipment we found some differences between the behavioral and physiological data (i.e., the body movements and respiration of experts and beginners and between the types of pitches during virtual batting. This VR system with a sufficiently real visual experience will provide novel findings as regards athletic performance that were formerly hard to obtain and allow us to elucidate their sensorimotor processing in detail.

  14. [Dual process in large number estimation under uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumuro, Miki; Miwa, Kazuhisa; Terai, Hitoshi; Yamada, Kento

    2016-08-01

    According to dual process theory, there are two systems in the mind: an intuitive and automatic System 1 and a logical and effortful System 2. While many previous studies about number estimation have focused on simple heuristics and automatic processes, the deliberative System 2 process has not been sufficiently studied. This study focused on the System 2 process for large number estimation. First, we described an estimation process based on participants’ verbal reports. The task, corresponding to the problem-solving process, consisted of creating subgoals, retrieving values, and applying operations. Second, we investigated the influence of such deliberative process by System 2 on intuitive estimation by System 1, using anchoring effects. The results of the experiment showed that the System 2 process could mitigate anchoring effects.

  15. Starch hydrolysis under low water conditions: a conceptual process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.E.; Veelaert, S.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    A process concept is presented for the hydrolysis of starch to glucose in highly concentrated systems. Depending on the moisture content, the process consists of two or three stages. The two-stage process comprises combined thermal and enzymatic liquefaction, followed by enzymatic saccharification.

  16. Robust collaborative process interactions under system crash and network failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung

    2013-01-01

    With the possibility of system crashes and network failures, the design of robust client/server interactions for collaborative process execution is a challenge. If a business process changes its state, it sends messages to the relevant processes to inform about this change. However, server crashes

  17. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows unde...

  18. Disruption of Relational Processing Underlies Poor Memory for Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2015-01-01

    McDaniel and Bugg (2008) proposed that relatively uncommon stimuli and encoding tasks encourage elaborative encoding of individual items (item-specific processing), whereas relatively typical or common encoding tasks encourage encoding of associations among list items (relational processing). It is this relational processing that is thought to…

  19. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  20. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  1. Physico-chemical changes of ZnO nanoparticles with different size and surface chemistry under physiological pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2015-03-01

    We studied the physico-chemical properties of ZnO nanoparticles under physiological pH conditions (gastric, intestinal and plasma) as functions of their size (20 and 70 nm) and surface chemistry (pristine, L-serine, or citrate coating). ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline under physiological pH conditions and aliquots were collected at specific time points (0.5, 1, 4, 10 and 24 h) for further characterization. The pH values of the aqueous ZnO colloids at each condition were in the neutral to slightly basic range and showed different patterns depending on the original size and surface chemistry of the ZnO nanoparticles. The gastric pH condition was found to significantly dissolve ZnO nanoparticles up to 18-30 wt%, while the intestinal or plasma pH conditions resulted in much lower dissolution amounts than expected. Based on the X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectra, we identified partial phase transition of the ZnO nanoparticles from wurtzite to Zn(OH)2 under the intestinal and plasma pH conditions. Using scanning electron microscopy, we verified that the overall particle size and morphology of all ZnO nanoparticles were maintained regardless of the pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Hb Binding to GP1bα Abrogates Hb-Mediated Thrombus Formation on Immobilized VWF and Collagen under Physiological Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annarapu, Gowtham K; Singhal, Rashi; Peng, Yuandong; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Reports including our own describe that intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our recent study shows that plasma Hb concentrations correlate directly with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The binding of Hb to glycoprotein1bα (GP1bα) increases platelet activation. A peptide AA1-50, designed from N-terminal amino acid sequence of GP1bα significantly inhibits the Hb binding to GP1bα as well as Hb-induced platelet activation. This study further examined if the Hb-mediated platelet activation plays any significant role in thrombus formation on subendothelium matrix under physiological flow shear stresses and the inhibition of Hb-platelet interaction can abrogate the above effects of Hb. Study performed thrombus formation assay in vitro by perfusing whole blood over immobilized VWF or collagen type I in presence of Hb under shear stresses simulating arterial or venous flow. The Hb concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μM, commonly observed level in plasma of the hemolytic patients including PNH, dose-dependently increased thrombus formation on immobilized VWF under higher shear stress of 25 dyne/cm2, but not at 5 dyne/cm2. The above Hb concentrations also increased thrombus formation on immobilized collagen under both shear stresses of 5 and 25 dyne/cm2. The peptide AA1-50 abrogated invariably the above effects of Hb on thrombus formation. This study therefore indicates that the Hb-induced platelet activation plays a crucial role in thrombus formation on immobilized VWF or collagen under physiological flow shear stresses. Thus suggesting a probable role of this mechanism in facilitating thrombosis under hemolytic conditions.

  3. Morpho-physiological variation of white spruce seedlings from various seed sources and implications for deployment under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Villeneuve

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of changes in climatic conditions, tree seeds originating from breeding programs may no longer be suited to sites where they are currently sent. As a consequence, new seed zones may have to be delineated. Assisted migration consists of transferring seed sources that match the future climatic conditions to which they are currently adapted. It represents a strategy that could be used to mitigate the potential negative consequences of climate change on forest productivity. Decisions with regard to the choice of the most appropriate seed sources have to rely on appropriate knowledge of morpho-physiological responses of trees. To meet this goal, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss seedlings from eight seed orchards were evaluated during two years in a forest nursery, and at the end of the first growing season on three plantation sites located in different bioclimatic domains in Quebec.The morpho-physiological responses obtained at the end of the second growing season (2+0 in the nursery made it possible to cluster the orchards into three distinct groups. Modelling growth curves of these different groups showed that the height growth of seedlings from the second-generation and southern first-generation seed orchards was significantly higher than that of those from other orchards, by at least 6%. A multiple regression model with three climatic variables (average growing season temperature, average July temperature, length of the growing season showed that the final height of seedlings (2+0 from the first-generation seed orchards was significantly related to the local climatic conditions at the orchard sites of origin where parental trees from surrounding natural populations were sampled to provide grafts for orchard establishment. Seedling height growth was significantly affected by both seed source origins and planting sites, but the relative ranking of the different seed sources was maintained regardless of reforestation site. This

  4. Bioactive reagents used in mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation in vivo induce diverse physiological processes in human skin fibroblasts in vitro- a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Claudia; Brenner, Christiane; Habicht, Jüri; Wallich, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The promise of mesotherapy is maintenance and/or recovery of a youthful skin with a firm, bright and moisturized texture. Currently applied medications employ microinjections of hyaluronic acid, vitamins, minerals and amino acids into the superficial layer of the skin. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying mesotherapy are still elusive. Here we analysed the effect of five distinct medication formulas on pivotal parameters involved in skin ageing, that is collagen expression, cell proliferation and morphological changes using normal human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Whereas in the presence of hyaluronic acid, NCTF135(®) and NCTF135HA(®) , cell proliferation was comparable to control cultures; however, with higher expression of collagen type-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, addition of Soluvit(®) N and Meso-BK led to apoptosis and/or necrosis of human fibroblasts. The data indicate that bioactive reagents currently applied for skin rejuvenation elicit strikingly divergent physiological processes in human skin fibroblast in vitro. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Physiology and postharvest conservation of ‘Paluma’ guava under coatings using Jack fruit seed-based starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Marques Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of jackfruit seed starch-based (S coatings, added to chitosan and alginate on the physiology and maintenance of quality of cold stored ‘Paluma’ guavas, followed by transfer to the room condition. The design was the completely randomized, in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in 4 replications, with 4 coatings (dispersion of S - 4%; S 2% + chitosan - 2% (SC; S - 2% + alginate - 2% (SA; and the uncoated control, in 2 environments (refrigerated (10±2 °C e 80±2% RH with transfer to room condition (25±3 °C e 75±4% HR, on the 16th and 20th day of cold storage. The SC and SA coatings were efficient in reducing the respiratory rate in fruits during 10 days at room condition. The SC coating delayed fruit ripening, and maintained firmness and color, with intention of purchasing and appearance higher than the limit of acceptance for another 6 days, following transferring to room condition, at the 16th day of refrigeration.

  6. GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF FORMOSA ‘PAPAYA’ CULTIVATED UNDER DIFFERENT DOSES OF COATED AND CONVENTIONAL UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL BARBOSA DA SILVA JÚNIOR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizer management is one of the most important agronomic techniques applied in papaya cultivation, which generally extracts large amounts of nutrients from soil, especially nitrogen. This study aimed to assess the phytotechnical and physiological attributes and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya hybrid Caliman 01 as a function of different doses of coated and conventional urea in the region of Bom Jesus - PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (2 × 4 and distributed in a randomized block design with four replications, corresponding to 2 nitrogen sources (coated urea, 43% of N; and conventional urea, 45% of N and 4 doses nitrogen (350, 440, 530 and 620 g per plant. The N doses used corresponded to 80, 100, 120 and 140% of the nitrogen fertilization. It was used six plants per plot with two row borders, totaling 192 plants cultivated in the field. It was assessed the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (int.PAR, radiation interception efficiency (PAREff., leaf area index (LAI, plant height, stem diameter and yield. The coated urea promotes a higher growth and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya compared to the conventional urea. The application of 1.0 g of coated N promotes the production of 2.87 g of fruit per hectare while the application of 1.0 g of conventional N produces only 1.89 g of fruit per hectare, showing that the source of polymerized N increases the use efficiency of N applied to soil.

  7. Physicochemical processes occurring under action of ionizing radiation in sarcophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, S.I.; Pshenichny, V.A.; Vilenskaya, L.N.; Korchevnaya, O.V.; Martseniuk, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    The result of analysis of environment ionization process inside Sarcophagus owing to alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation processes with forming of ions. It is shown that as a result of ionization and physicochemical transformations gaseous mixtures, which are dangerous for personnel's health and can influence upon general technical safety of Sarcophagus, can release into atmosphere

  8. Model-based investigation of intracellular processes determining antibody Fc-glycosylation under mild hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Si Nga; Jedrzejewski, Philip M; Lee, Ken; Sellick, Christopher; Polizzi, Karen M; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2017-07-01

    Despite the positive effects of mild hypothermic conditions on monoclonal antibody (mAb) productivity (q mAb ) during mammalian cell culture, the impact of reduced culture temperature on mAb Fc-glycosylation and the mechanism behind changes in the glycan composition are not fully established. The lack of knowledge about the regulation of dynamic intracellular processes under mild hypothermia restricts bioprocess optimization. To address this issue, a mathematical model that quantitatively describes Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell behavior and metabolism, mAb synthesis and mAb N-linked glycosylation profile before and after the induction of mild hypothermia is constructed. Results from this study show that the model is capable of representing experimental results well in all of the aspects mentioned above, including the N-linked glycosylation profile of mAb produced under mild hypothermia. Most importantly, comparison between model simulation results for different culture temperatures suggests the reduced rates of nucleotide sugar donor production and galactosyltransferase (GalT) expression to be critical contributing factors that determine the variation in Fc-glycan profiles between physiological and mild hypothermic conditions in stable CHO transfectants. This is then confirmed using experimental measurements of GalT expression levels, thereby closing the loop between the experimental and the computational system. The identification of bottlenecks within CHO cell metabolism under mild hypothermic conditions will aid bioprocess optimization, for example, by tailoring feeding strategies to improve NSD production, or manipulating the expression of specific glycosyltransferases through cell line engineering. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1570-1582. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  9. Effect of Olive Pulpe Levels in The Diet of Buffalo Calves on Physiological Body Functions and Productive Traits Under Heat Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the changes that occur in growth and some physiological traits in buffalo calves as a result of using olive pulp levels (20 or 40%) under different conditions in Egypt. The study was carried out on 30 male growing buffalo calves aged 14-16 months with average body weight 309 kg and including two experiments; the 1st was carried out under mild climate in winter season on 15 calves while the 2nd was conducted during heat stress conditions of summer season on another 15 calves. In each of the two periods, animals were divided into three equal groups (5 buffalo calves in each). The first group was considered as control to olive pulp levels of 0% . The second and third groups receive olive pulp with 20 and 40% of the ingredient ration, respectively. The results showed that heat stress conditions of hot period induced significant decreases in the levels of final live body weight (FLBW), daily body weight gain (DBWG), total body weight gain (TBWG), total protein, albumin, total lipids, total cholesterol, Ca, inorganic P and thyroid hormones level (T4 and T3). On the other hand, significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GOT and GPT as compared with animals under mild conditions was recorded. Olive pulp levels in the diet affected significantly the total body gain, daily body weight gain, total cholesterol and thyroid hormones (T4 or T3). The values were lower in the group received 40% olive pulp than in the two groups received 0 and 20.0 % olive pulp. In addition, animals received 40% olive pulp showed significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GPT, total lipids and Ca. It could be concluded that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant depression in daily body weight gain and changed most blood components and thyroid hormones which related to physiological functions in buffalo calves. Concerning added olive pulp to the ration of buffalo calves, it could be concluded that daily body gain of buffalo calves

  10. 75 FR 65707 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... consideration and processing of applications for financial assistance under the RRIF Program. FOR FURTHER...) regarding FRA's consideration and processing of applications for financial assistance under the RRIF Program... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice Regarding Consideration and...

  11. Changes in the physiological activity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. under the influence of exogenous growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year pot experiment (2008–2009 conducted at the Vegetation Hall, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, we investigated the influence of exogenous growth regulators, i.e. indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and their mixture, on the activity of gas exchange and selected physiological features of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.. The experimental factors included the following Polish soybean cultivars: ‘Aldana’, ‘Progres’ and ‘Jutro’. During plant growth, CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs, and substomatal CO2 concentration (ci were determined. Two soybean cultivars, i.e. ‘Jutro’ and ‘Progres’, showed a significant increase in the intensity of assimilation and transpiration after using all kinds of growth regulators as compared with the control plants. It was found that the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using a mixture of growth regulators (IBA + BAP, was characterized by the significantly highest CO2 assimilation (A and transpiration (E as well as the highest stomatal conductance (gs. The ‘Aldana’ cultivar, on the other hand, responded by a significant reduction in the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and subsomatal CO2 concentration. The spraying of the plants with exogenous growth regulators had a significant influence on the increase in the number of stomata and stomatal pore length, mostly on the lower epidermis of the lamina. It was also found that plants from the ‘Jutro’ and ‘Aldana’ cultivars sprayed with IBA and IBA + BAP were characterized by the highest yield, as compared with the control plants. In the case of the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using the growth regulators, a positive correlation was observed between the assimilation and transpiration rates and the length of stomata, which in consequence produced increased yields.

  12. Effect of Seed Priming on Growth and Some Physiological Characteristics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity Stress Condition caused by Alkali Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bekhrad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sesame (Sesamun indicum L. is an important oil seed crop. Its seed has excellent nutritional value with a high and unique protein composition, making it a perfect food. Salinity is a serious problem in many regions of the world including Iran. Salinity stress is one of the widespread environmental constraints affecting crop productivity. Salinity generally induces osmotic stress and causes direct ion injury by disrupting ion homeostasis and the ion balance within plant cells (25. Seed priming is one of the ways to reduce negative effects of salt which is used for increasing germination percentage and seed resistance in salty zones. Seed priming is a pre-germination treatment that provides a moisture level sufficient to start pre-germination metabolic processes. It entails the partial germination of seeds by soaking them in water (or in a solution of salts for specified period of time, and then re-dry them just before radicle emerges (24. Priming stimulates many of the metabolic processes involved with the early phases of germination. Given that part of the germination processes have been initiated, seedlings from primed seed grow faster, grow more vigorously, and perform better in adverse conditions (24. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity stress caused by alkali salts on growth and some physiologic characteristics of sesame. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a greenhouse in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan as factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental factors included priming (control (unprimed, hydropriming, halopriming with NaCl and NaHCO3 and level of salinity with sodium bicarbonate salt (Zero, 15, 30 and 45 mM. Seeds were planted in pots filled with perlite and cocopite (1:1. The pots were irrigated with a nutrient solution (with half strength Hoagland's solution. After the fourth true leaves appeared, salinty stress in

  13. Differential effects of Pseudomonas mendocina and Glomus intraradices on lettuce plants physiological response and aquaporin PIP2 gene expression under elevated atmospheric CO2 and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria Del Mar; Kohler, Josef; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) can alleviate the effects of water stress in plants, but it is unknown whether these benefits can be maintained at elevated CO2. Therefore, we carried out a study where seedlings of Lactuca sativa were inoculated with the AM fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices N.C. Schenk & G.S. Sm. or the PGPR Pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni and subjected to two levels of watering and two levels of atmospheric CO2 to ascertain their effects on plant physiological parameters and gene expression of one PIP aquaporin in roots. The inoculation with PGPR produced the greatest growth in lettuce plants under all assayed treatments as well as the highest foliar potassium concentration and leaf relative water content under elevated [CO2] and drought. However, under such conditions, the PIP2 gene expression remained almost unchanged. G. intraradices increased significantly the AMF colonization, foliar phosphorus concentration and leaf relative water content in plants grown under drought and elevated [CO2]. Under drought and elevated [CO2], the plants inoculated with G. intraradices showed enhanced expression of the PIP2 gene as compared to P. mendocina or control plants. Our results suggest that both microbial inoculation treatments could help to alleviate drought at elevated [CO2]. However, the PIP2 gene expression was increased only by the AMF but not by the PGPR under these conditions.

  14. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide under plasma DBD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouroux, Jacques; Cavadias, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide can be converted, by reaction with hydrogen, into fine chemicals and liquid fuels such as methanol and DME. Methane production by the Sabatier reaction opens the way of carbon recycling for a circular economy of carbon resources. The catalytic process of methanation of carbon dioxide produces two molecules of water as a by-product. A current limitation in the CO 2 methanation is the ageing of catalysts, mainly due to water adsorption during the process. To avoid this adsorption, the process is operated at high temperature (300 °C–400 °C), leading to carbon deposition on the catalyst and its deactivation. To overcome this problem, a methanation plasma-catalytic process has been developed, which achieves high CO 2 conversion rate (80%), and a selectivity close to 100%, working from room temperature to 150 °C, instead of 300 °C–400 °C for the thermal catalytic process. The main characteristics of this process are high-voltage pulses of few nanoseconds duration, activating the adsorption of CO 2 in bent configuration and the polarization of the catalyst. The key step in this process is the desorption of water from the polarized catalyst. The high CO 2 conversion at low temperature could be explained by the creation of a plasma inside the nanopores of the catalyst. (paper)

  15. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide under plasma DBD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, Jacques; Cavadias, Simeon

    2017-11-01

    Carbon dioxide can be converted, by reaction with hydrogen, into fine chemicals and liquid fuels such as methanol and DME. Methane production by the Sabatier reaction opens the way of carbon recycling for a circular economy of carbon resources. The catalytic process of methanation of carbon dioxide produces two molecules of water as a by-product. A current limitation in the CO2 methanation is the ageing of catalysts, mainly due to water adsorption during the process. To avoid this adsorption, the process is operated at high temperature (300 °C-400 °C), leading to carbon deposition on the catalyst and its deactivation. To overcome this problem, a methanation plasma-catalytic process has been developed, which achieves high CO2 conversion rate (80%), and a selectivity close to 100%, working from room temperature to 150 °C, instead of 300 °C-400 °C for the thermal catalytic process. The main characteristics of this process are high-voltage pulses of few nanoseconds duration, activating the adsorption of CO2 in bent configuration and the polarization of the catalyst. The key step in this process is the desorption of water from the polarized catalyst. The high CO2 conversion at low temperature could be explained by the creation of a plasma inside the nanopores of the catalyst.

  16. Fast “Feast/Famine” Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions : A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez-Mendez, C.A.; Sousa, A.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that

  17. Effects of Nano Chelated Zinc and Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation on Some Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Zinc is an essential element for plants and animals and plays an important role in plants metabolic system. This element activates enzymes and involved in protein, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acid metabolism. Zinc has a major role in cell defenses against ROS and as a protective factor against several chemical compositions of oxidation such as membrane lipids, protein, chlorophyll, and enzyme having sulfhydryl and DNA. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that plays many important roles in various physiological and metabolic processes in all living organisms. It functions as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes and proteins involved in cell division, nucleic acid metabolism and protein synthesis. Nanoparticles have received considerable attention due to their increased uptake and high rate of penetration in plants. Nanomaterials are classified as materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Nonmaterial could to be applied in designing more soluble and diffusible sources of Zn fertilizer for increased plant productivity. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. an oilseed crop is a member of the family Compositae or Asteraceae. Safflower, a multipurpose crop that has been grown for centuries in India for the orange-red dye (carthamin extracted from its brilliantly colored flowers and for its quality oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, 78%. Safflower flowers are known to have many medicinal properties for curing several chronic diseases, and they are widely used in Chinese herbal preparations. The mycorrhizal symbiosis is arguably the most important symbiosis on earth. The majority of these mycorrhizal interactions is mutually beneficial for both partners and is characterized by a bidirectional exchange of resources across the mycorrhizal interface. The mycorrhizal fungus provides the host plant with nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrogen, and increases the abiotic (drought, salinity and heavy metals and

  18. Ecological Risk Assessment Process under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) ecological risk assessment process for the evaluation of potential risk to endangered and threatened (listed) species from exposure to pesticides.

  19. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design

  20. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  1. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Radiation Processed Aflatoxin-Contaminated Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; Abdalla, E.A.; Abd El-Azeem, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of foods and live-stock feeds is an ongoing problem. In this research, the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the radiation processing of their contaminated-diets, as a physical detoxifying method. Diets contaminated with two different levels of AFB 1 (2 or 5 mg kg -1 diet) were subjected to 10, 20, or 30 kGy and fed to growing Japanese quails for 5 weeks. The physiological and biochemical responses were evaluated for irradiation ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2 and 5 mg AFB 1 kg -1 diet. A total of 270 seven-day-old Japanese quail chicks were assigned to 2 factorial arrangements of nine treatments (level of toxin and radiation dose) each consisted of three replicates with 10 quails per pen. The significant adverse effect of AFB 1 on the food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, mortality rate and internal organ weights, from the first week onwards, were determined. Radiation processing reduced concentration of AFB 1 in all experimental diets and significantly reduced the deleterious effects of AFB 1 on food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, and the relative weights of most observed organs, as a function of radiation dose. Muscles, liver, kidneys and heart tissues were analyzed for aflatoxin (AF) residues. The residual level of AFB 1 was significantly higher in liver than in kidneys, muscles or heart. The level in the observed organs and the muscles was lower in those received irradiated diet at high 30 kGy. Plasma samples were tested for glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. They were significantly increased in AF treated groups in comparison with those received AF-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Birds ate contaminated diet with both level of toxin were suffered from the lower level of total proteins, albumin, globulin, phosphorus and

  2. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  3. Emotion and decision-making under uncertainty: Physiological arousal predicts increased gambling during ambiguity but not risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Glimcher, Paul; Baker, Augustus L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty, which is ubiquitous in decision-making, can be fractionated into known probabilities (risk) and unknown probabilities (ambiguity). Although research has illustrated that individuals more often avoid decisions associated with ambiguity compared to risk, it remains unclear why ambiguity is perceived as more aversive. Here we examine the role of arousal in shaping the representation of value and subsequent choice under risky and ambiguous decisions. To investigate the relationship between arousal and decisions of uncertainty, we measure skin conductance response-a quantifiable measure reflecting sympathetic nervous system arousal-during choices to gamble under risk and ambiguity. To quantify the discrete influences of risk and ambiguity sensitivity and the subjective value of each option under consideration, we model fluctuating uncertainty, as well as the amount of money that can be gained by taking the gamble. Results reveal that although arousal tracks the subjective value of a lottery regardless of uncertainty type, arousal differentially contributes to the computation of value-that is, choice-depending on whether the uncertainty is risky or ambiguous: Enhanced arousal adaptively decreases risk-taking only when the lottery is highly risky but increases risk-taking when the probability of winning is ambiguous (even after controlling for subjective value). Together, this suggests that the role of arousal during decisions of uncertainty is modulatory and highly dependent on the context in which the decision is framed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A physiological model of the interaction between tissue bubbles and the formation of blood-borne bubbles under decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappell, M A; Payne, S J

    2006-01-01

    Under decompression, bubbles can form in the human body, and these can be found both within the body tissues and the bloodstream. Mathematical models for the growth of both types of bubbles have previously been presented, but they have not been coupled together. This work thus explores the interaction between the growth of tissue and blood-borne bubbles under decompression, specifically looking at the extent to which they compete for the common resource of inert gas held in solution in the tissues. The influence of tissue bubbles is found to be significant for densities as low as 10 ml -1 for tissues which are poorly perfused. However, the effects of formation of bubbles in the blood are not found until the density of bubble production sites reaches 10 6 ml -1 . From comparison of the model predictions with experimental evidence for bubbles produced in animals and man under decompression, it is concluded that the density of tissue bubbles is likely to have a significant effect on the number of bubbles produced in the blood. However, the density of nucleation sites in the blood is unlikely to be sufficiently high in humans for the formation of bubbles in the blood to have a significant impact on the growth of the bubbles in the tissue

  5. Thermal, physiological strain index and perceptual responses in Iranian Muslim women under Thermal Condition in order to Guide in Prevention of Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress risk assessment, as a harmful agent at workplace, is essential for controlling heat strain. The purpose of this study was relation between physiological and perceptual heat strain responses in Iranian veiled women under laboratory thermal conditions. This experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy females (age 22.3 ± 2.0 yr, height 162.76±5. 57cm, weight 55.82 ± 9.27kg in sitting state under thermal conditions (27 - 38° C in the hot-dry climatic condition for 120 min. In order to calculate the physiological strain index (PSI, oral temperature and heart rate were measured every 5 min. Physiological factors, and Heat Strain Score Index (HSSI questionnaires are simultaneous measurements taken at any 5 min during the exposure and physiological factors, and Heat Strain Score Index (HSSI questionnaires are the initial measurements. The data were analyzed using correlation and line regression by test spss16. The results showed that the average heart rate and oral temperature at resting and sitting were between 83.06 ±9.41bpm, 87.91 ±7.87 bpm and 36.7° C, 37. 1° C respectively. Also, the results have revealed a direct and significant and direct correlation among HSSI with WBGT (R2 = 0.97, P< 0.001, PSI (R2 = 0.96, P< 0.001, oral temperature (R2 = 0.96, P< 0.001 and heart rate (R2 = 0.62, P< 0.01 indices. The results have shown that simultaneously with the increase in valid indices of heat stress evaluation such as WBGT and PSI indices, the amount of HSSI index has also increased with high power. Therefore, it can be conclude that when there is no access to a reliable heat stress method such as WBGT or PSI indices, HSSI index, an objective and subjective heat strain method, can be used as a simple, fast and inexpensive method for evaluating the heat strain in women.

  6. Leaf Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate Silicon Induced Adaptive Response under Salt Stress in Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Ko, Chung Ho; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2017-08-14

    Beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire' were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM), NaCl (50 mM), and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed. Scorching of leaf edges and stomatal damages occurred due to salt stress was ameliorated under Si supplementation. Similarly, reduction of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, higher lipid peroxidation rate, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species under salinity stress were mitigated in Si treatment. Lesser oxidative stress observed was correlated with the enhanced activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in Si+NaCl treatment. Importantly, sodium transportation was synergistically restricted with the stimulated counter-uptake of potassium in Si+NaCl treatment. Furthermore, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results showed that out of 40 identified proteins, on comparison with control 34 proteins were down-accumulated and six proteins were up-accumulated due to salinity stress. Meanwhile, addition of Si with NaCl treatment enhanced the abundance of 30 proteins and downregulated five proteins. Differentially-expressed proteins were functionally classified into six groups, such as photosynthesis (22%), carbohydrate/energy metabolism (20%), transcription/translation (20%), stress/redox homeostasis (12%), ion binding (13%), and ubiquitination (8%). Hence, the findings reported in this work could facilitate a deeper

  7. Endocrine processes underlying victory and defeat in the male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Teunis

    1981-01-01

    The central questions of the present study were:1. does base line hormonal state determine agonistic behavior in male-male encounters? 2. does agonistic behavior affect hormonal state? Such an interrelationship between agonistic behavior and hormonal processes might serve as a regulatory system for

  8. Minimization of water consumption under uncertainty for PC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is becoming increasingly important for the development of advanced power generation systems. As an emerging technology different process configurations have been heuristically proposed for IGCC processes. One of these schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion for the CO2 removal prior the fuel gas is fed to the gas turbine reducing its size (improving economic performance) and producing sequestration-ready CO2 (improving its cleanness potential). However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be used to obtain optimal flowsheets and designs. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). For the alternative designs, large differences in the performance parameters (for instance, the utility requirements) predictions from AEA and AP were observed, suggesting the necessity of solving the HENS problem within the AP simulation environment and avoiding the AEA simplifications. A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case.

  9. Supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient to modulate thermoregulation, physiologic, and production responses in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Schubach, K M; Batista, L F D; Miranda, M F; Colombo, E A; Rodrigues, R O; Junior, J R G; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis). During the experimental period (d -6 to 56), cows were maintained in a single drylot pen with ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration, and milked twice daily. Cows received Omnigen-AF mixed with 200 g of corn (as-fed basis) after the daily morning milking through self-locking head gates, whereas CON cows concurrently received 56 g of kaolin mixed with 200 g of corn. For feed intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 4 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 4 times per group from d 1 to 56. From d -6 to 0, d 15 to 28, and d 43 to 56, cow vaginal temperature was recorded hourly. Environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) was also recorded hourly from d 15 to 28 and d 43 to 56. Cows were evaluated for body weight and BCS on d -6 and 56, individual milk production was recorded daily from d -6 to 56, and milk samples were collected on d -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 for analyses of somatic cell count and milk components. Blood samples were collected on d -6, -3, 0, 9, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 36, 45, 48, 51, 54, and 56. Results from samples or observations collected from d -6 to 0 were included as an independent covariate in each respective analysis. Environmental THI was 74.2 ± 0.5 and cows were exposed to THI >68 for 633 h within a total of 672 h of evaluation. Cows assigned to CON had greater vaginal temperature on d

  10. Astrocyte-like glial cells physiologically regulate olfactory processing through the modification of ORN-PN synaptic strength in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Zhou, Bangyu; Yan, Wenjun; Lei, Zhengchang; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Ke; Guo, Aike

    2014-09-01

    Astrocyte-like glial cells are abundant in the central nervous system of adult Drosophila and exhibit morphology similar to astrocytes of mammals. Previous evidence has shown that astrocyte-like glial cells are strongly associated with synapses in the antennal lobe (AL), the first relay of the olfactory system, where olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) transmit information into projection neurons (PNs). However, the function of astrocyte-like glia in the AL remains obscure. In this study, using in vivo calcium imaging, we found that astrocyte-like glial cells exhibited spontaneous microdomain calcium elevations. Using simultaneous manipulation of glial activity and monitoring of neuronal function, we found that the astrocyte-like glial activation, but not ensheathing glial activation, could inhibit odor-evoked responses of PNs. Ensheathing glial cells are another subtype of glia, and are of functional importance in the AL. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that astrocyte-like glial activation decreased the amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked through electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve. These results suggest that astrocyte-like glial cells may regulate olfactory processing through negative regulation of ORN-PN synaptic strength. Beyond the antennal lobe we observed astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium activities in the ventromedial protocerebrum, indicating that astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium elevations might be general in the adult fly brain. Overall, our study demonstrates a new function for astrocyte-like glial cells in the physiological modulation of olfactory information transmission, possibly through regulating ORN-PN synapse strength. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmen......Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under...... environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch...... and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light...

  12. Evaluation of diverse wheat genotypes for potential biomass production through physiological parameters at seedling stage under controlled environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, G.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty wheat genotypes from UK, CIMMYT and Pakistan were evaluated under controlled environment conditions for their potential biomass production by measuring stomatal conductance (gs; porometry), leaf photosynthesis (IRGA), carbon isotope discrimination and carbon content (isotope ratio and mass analysis) at Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK during 2011. Amongst the dwarf genotypes, Rht2 and Rht3 showed lower stomatal conductance than Seri 32B, Seri 87B and Bathoor-07. For these 5 genotypes and another genotype Inqalab photosynthetic performance was determined by means of IRGA measurements. Of these genotypes Inqalab had the highest photosynthetic activity (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) and leaf intercellular CO/sub 2/ but it also had the lowest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). Seri-87B had the greatest water use efficiency (A/gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/E). All the Pakistani genotypes had large stomatal conductances and high 13C delta and thus may be expected to produce high biomass under irrigations and optimum inputs. (author)

  13. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20). Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI) and the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily) indicating that potential degradation of HBsAg could

  14. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  15. Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    for the two RMTs, it is shown that forward masking effects only have a significant effect on reflection masking for delays above 7–10 ms. Moreover, binaural mechanisms were revealed which deteriorate auditory detection of test reflections for delays below 7–10 ms and enhance detection for larger delays....... The monaural and binaural processes that may underlie reflection masking are discussed in terms of auditory-modelling concepts....

  16. Category Specific Spatial Dissociations of Parallel Processes Underlying Visual Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Christopher R.; Chen, Gang; Pieters, Thomas A.; Tandon, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    The constituent elements and dynamics of the networks responsible for word production are a central issue to understanding human language. Of particular interest is their dependency on lexical category, particularly the possible segregation of nouns and verbs into separate processing streams. We applied a novel mixed-effects, multilevel analysis to electrocorticographic data collected from 19 patients (1942 electrodes) to examine the activity of broadly disseminated cortical networks during t...

  17. Neural Correlates of Feedback Processing in Decision Making under Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate eSchuermann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Event-related brain potentials (ERP provide important information about the sensitivity of the brain to process varying risks. The aim of the present study was to determine how different risk levels are reflected in decision-related ERPs, namely the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P300. Material and Methods. 20 participants conducted a probabilistic two-choice gambling task while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Choices were provided between a low-risk option yielding low rewards and low losses and a high-risk option yielding high rewards and high losses. While options differed in expected risks, they were equal in expected values and in feedback probabilities. Results. At the behavioral level, participants were generally risk-averse but modulated their risk-taking behavior according to reward history. An early positivity (P200 was enhanced on negative feedbacks in high-risk compared to low-risk options. With regard to the FRN, there were significant amplitude differences between positive and negative feedbacks in high-risk options, but not in low-risk options. While the FRN on negative feedbacks did not vary with decision riskiness, reduced amplitudes were found for positive feedbacks in high-risk relative to low-risk choices. P300 amplitudes were larger in high-risk decisions, and in an additive way, after negative compared to positive feedback. Discussion. The present study revealed significant influences of risk and valence processing on ERPs. FRN findings suggest that the reward prediction error signal is increased after high-risk decisions. The increased P200 on negative feedback in risky decisions suggests that large negative prediction errors are processed as early as in the P200 time range. The later P300 amplitude is sensitive to feedback valence as well as to the risk of a decision. Thus, the P300 carries additional information for reward processing, mainly the enhanced motivational significance of risky

  18. A model for optimization of process integration investments under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Elin; Stroemberg, Ann-Brith; Patriksson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The long-term economic outcome of energy-related industrial investment projects is difficult to evaluate because of uncertain energy market conditions. In this article, a general, multistage, stochastic programming model for the optimization of investments in process integration and industrial energy technologies is proposed. The problem is formulated as a mixed-binary linear programming model where uncertainties are modelled using a scenario-based approach. The objective is to maximize the expected net present value of the investments which enables heat savings and decreased energy imports or increased energy exports at an industrial plant. The proposed modelling approach enables a long-term planning of industrial, energy-related investments through the simultaneous optimization of immediate and later decisions. The stochastic programming approach is also suitable for modelling what is possibly complex process integration constraints. The general model formulation presented here is a suitable basis for more specialized case studies dealing with optimization of investments in energy efficiency. -- Highlights: → Stochastic programming approach to long-term planning of process integration investments. → Extensive mathematical model formulation. → Multi-stage investment decisions and scenario-based modelling of uncertain energy prices. → Results illustrate how investments made now affect later investment and operation opportunities. → Approach for evaluation of robustness with respect to variations in probability distribution.

  19. Category specific spatial dissociations of parallel processes underlying visual naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Christopher R; Chen, Gang; Pieters, Thomas A; Tandon, Nitin

    2014-10-01

    The constituent elements and dynamics of the networks responsible for word production are a central issue to understanding human language. Of particular interest is their dependency on lexical category, particularly the possible segregation of nouns and verbs into separate processing streams. We applied a novel mixed-effects, multilevel analysis to electrocorticographic data collected from 19 patients (1942 electrodes) to examine the activity of broadly disseminated cortical networks during the retrieval of distinct lexical categories. This approach was designed to overcome the issues of sparse sampling and individual variability inherent to invasive electrophysiology. Both noun and verb generation evoked overlapping, yet distinct nonhierarchical processes favoring ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively. Notable differences in activity patterns were noted in Broca's area and superior lateral temporo-occipital regions (verb > noun) and in parahippocampal and fusiform cortices (noun > verb). Comparisons with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results yielded a strong correlation of blood oxygen level-dependent signal and gamma power and an independent estimate of group size needed for fMRI studies of cognition. Our findings imply parallel, lexical category-specific processes and reconcile discrepancies between lesional and functional imaging studies. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparative study of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells between sexes in mice under physiological conditions along time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Samanta; Rando, Amaya; Zaragoza, Pilar; García-Redondo, Alberto; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Osta, Rosario

    2017-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are attractive targets in regenerative medicine, although the differences in their homeostatic maintenance between sexes along time are still under debate. We accurately monitored hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), and common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) frequencies by flow cytometry, by performing serial peripheral blood extractions from male and female B6SJL wild-type mice and found no significant differences. Only modest differences were found in the gene expression profile of Slamf1 and Gata2. Our findings suggest that both sexes could be used indistinctly to perform descriptive studies in the murine hematopoietic system, especially for flow cytometry studies in peripheral blood. This would allow diminishing the number of animals needed for the experimental procedures. In addition, the use of serial extractions in the same animals drastically decreases the number of animals needed. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-01-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of 3 H 2 O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the 3 H 2 O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc

  2. Physiological and Fluorescence Reaction of Four Rice Genotypes to Exogenous Application of IAA and Kinetin under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa SALEHIFAR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of IAA and Kinetin plant growth regulators in order to improve the drought tolerance in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L., a factorial experiment was carried out based on complete randomized design with three replications. The experimental factors included different rice genotypes [‘Gharib’, ‘Khazar’, ‘Sepidrood’ and ‘IR83750 -131-1’ (‘IR83750’ ], drought stress from 1 to 4 code of the Vergara coding system and control (normal irrigation and growth regulators in three levels (IAA and Kinetin through foliar spraying and non-application as control. The results indicated, under normal irrigation condition together with IAA application, ‘IR83750’ rice had the highest number of tillers and leaf greenness, with mean of 18.27 and 49.46, respectively. The highest amount of leaf relative water content 95.11 percent was related to ‘Sepidrood’. Under drought stress condition, the highest electrolyte leakage (36.59 percent was observed in ‘Gharib’. In drought condition, the highest leaf drying score was related to ‘Gharib’ in both years, but the highest score of leaf rolling index (9 was observed in ‘Gharib’ and ‘Khazar’. The present findings showed that drought stress had harmful effects in all examined genotypes and the impact in susceptible genotypes (‘Gharib’ and ‘Khazar’ was more than ‘IR83750’ and ‘Sepidrood’. Application of growth regulators (IAA and Kin improved conditions for the growth of all genotypes. Therefore, using the tolerant genotypes along with growth regulators can improve the rice growth traits.

  3. Dissociable neural processes underlying risky decisions for self versus other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun eJung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for self. Thus, the present study focused on the direct comparison between risky decisions for self and those for other using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants (N = 23 were asked to perform a gambling task for themselves (decision-for-self condition or for another person (decision-for-other condition while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points. The winning probabilities of each option varied from 17% to 83%. Compared to choices for others, choices for self were more risk-averse at lower winning probability and more risk-seeking at higher winning probability, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decision for self compared to other. The brain activation pattern changed according to the target of the decision, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. A parametric modulation analysis reflecting each individual’s decision model revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC were associated with value computation for self and for other, respectively, during a risky financial decision. The present study suggests that decisions for self and other may recruit fundamentally distinctive neural processes, which can be mainly characterized by dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively.

  4. Dissociable Neural Processes Underlying Risky Decisions for Self Versus Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daehyun; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for oneself. The present study directly compared risky decisions for self with those for another person using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to perform a gambling task on behalf of themselves (decision-for-self condition) or another person (decision-for-other condition) while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points) and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points) with variable levels of winning probability. Compared with choices regarding others, those regarding oneself were more risk-averse at lower winning probabilities and more risk-seeking at higher winning probabilities, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decisions for oneself compared with those for other. The brain-activation pattern changed according to the target, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM) showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. Parametric modulation analysis using individual decision models revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) were associated with value computations for oneself and for another, respectively, during risky financial decisions. The results of the present study suggest that decisions for oneself and for other may recruit fundamentally distinct neural processes, which can be mainly characterized as dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively. PMID:23519016

  5. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  6. Effect of Zeolite and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application under Water Deficit Stress Conditions on Agronomical and Physiological Traits of Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghiasvand Ghiasi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of zeolite and nitrogen fertilizer application effect on agronomic and physilogical traits of rapeseed (cv RGS003 under water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was conducted in factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 in Qazvin region, Iran. In the where, the two levels of irrigation factor as the normal irrigation (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan as control and irrigation cease from stem elongation stage till end of growth, nitrogen factor was at three levels (0, 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 and zeolite factor (0 and 10tons per hectare were studied. Results showed that drought stress decreased evaluated traits such as silique per plant (41%, grain per silique (26%, 1000 seed weight (33%, grain yield (52.5%, oil percent (14%, RWC (31.5% and chlorophyll content (35%. Non-application of nitrogen had adverse effects on total traits and reduced them. However, zeolite application at water deficit stress conditions had positive and significant effect on total traits except of oil percent and chlorophyll content, specially improved grain yield and oil yield. Based on the results of this experiment, application of zeolite (10ton/ha-1 through storage and maintenance of water and nutrients, reduced the intensity and harmful effects of stress in plants and enhances crop yield.

  7. Variation Analysis of Physiological Traits in Betula platyphylla Overexpressing TaLEA-ThbZIP Gene under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla ectopic overexpressing a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA gene and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP gene from the salt-tolerant genus Tamarix (salt cedar show increased tolerance to salt (NaCl stress. Co-transfer of TaLEA and ThbZIP in birch under the control of two independent CaMV 35S promoters significantly enhanced salt stress. PCR and northern blot analyses indicated that the two genes were ectopically overexpressed in several dual-gene transgenic birch lines. We compared the effects of salt stress among three transgenic birch lines (L-4, L-5, and L-8 and wild type (WT. In all lines, the net photosynthesis values were higher before salt stress treatment than afterwards. After the salt stress treatment, the transgenic lines L-4 and L-8 showed higher values for photosynthetic traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lower malondialdehyde and Na+ contents, compared with those in WT and L-5. These different responses to salt stress suggested that the transcriptional level of the TaLEA and ThbZIP genes differed among the transgenic lines, resulting in a variety of genetic and phenotypic effects. The results of this research can provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of salt-tolerant trees.

  8. Mechanism underlying the suppressor activity of retinoic acid on IL4-induced IgE synthesis and its physiological implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Goo-Young; Lee, Jeong-Min; Jang, Young-Saeng; Kang, Seung Goo; Yoon, Sung-Il; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Geun-Shik; Park, Seok-Rae; Nagler, Cathryn R; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun

    2017-12-01

    The present study extends an earlier report that retinoic acid (RA) down-regulates IgE Ab synthesis in vitro. Here, we show the suppressive activity of RA on IgE production in vivo and its underlying mechanisms. We found that RA down-regulated IgE class switching recombination (CSR) mainly through RA receptor α (RARα). Additionally, RA inhibited histone acetylation of germ-line ε (GL ε) promoter, leading to suppression of IgE CSR. Consistently, serum IgE levels were substantially elevated in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice and this was more dramatic in VAD-lecithin:retinol acyltransferase deficient (LRAT -/- ) mice. Further, serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) level was elevated while frequency of intestinal regulatory T cells (Tregs) were diminished in VAD LRAT -/- mice, reflecting that deprivation of RA leads to allergic immune response. Taken together, our results reveal that RA has an IgE-repressive activity in vivo, which may ameliorate IgE-mediated allergic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite element simulation of ironing process under warm conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swadesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal forming is one of the most important steps in manufacturing of a large variety of products. Ironing in deep drawing is done by adjusting the clearance between the punch and the die and allow the material flow over the punch. In the present investigation effect of extent of ironing behavior on the characteristics of the product like thickness distribution with respect to temperature was studied. With the help of finite element simulation using explicit finite element code LS-DYNA the stress in the drawn cup were predicted in the drawn cup. To increase the accuracy in the simulation process, numbers of integration points were increased in the thickness direction and it was found that there is very close prediction of finite element results to that of experimental ones.

  10. Flux behaviour under different operational conditions in osmosis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Zarebska, Agata; Buksek, Hermina

    the active membrane layer is facing draw solution. Osmosis process can be affected by several factors, such as operating conditions (temperature and cross flow velocity), feed and draw solution properties, and membrane characteristics. These factors can significantly contribute to the efficiency......, and total dissolved solids. Taken together our results can contribute understanding of the how performance of asymmetric FO membranes can be enhanced by feed and draw properties, membrane characteristics and operational conditions.......The transport of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane is driven by the osmotic pressure difference between feed and draw solution. Two different operational modes can be distinguished, namely FO mode when the active membrane layer is facing the wastewater (feed), and PRO mode when...

  11. Physiology, Fe(II oxidation, and Fe mineral formation by a marine planktonic cyanobacterium grown under ferruginous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Swanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for Fe(II oxidation and deposition of Fe(III-bearing minerals from anoxic or redox-stratified Precambrian oceans has received support from decades of sedimentological and geochemical investigation of Banded Iron Formations (BIF. While the exact mechanisms of Fe(II oxidation remains equivocal, reaction with O2 in the marine water column, produced by cyanobacteria or early oxygenic phototrophs, was likely. In order to understand the role of cyanobacteria in the deposition of Fe(III minerals to BIF, we must first know how planktonic marine cyanobacteria respond to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(II-rich waters in terms of growth, Fe uptake and homeostasis, and Fe mineral formation. We therefore grew the common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 in closed bottles that began anoxic, and contained Fe(II concentrations that span the range of possible concentrations in Precambrian seawater. These results, along with cell suspension experiments, indicate that Fe(II is likely oxidized by this strain via chemical oxidation with oxygen produced during photosynthesis, and not via any direct enzymatic or photosynthetic pathway. Imaging of the cell-mineral aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM are consistent with extracellular precipitation of Fe(III (oxyhydroxide minerals, but that >10% of Fe(III sorbs to cell surfaces rather than precipitating. Proteomic experiments support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Fe(II toxicity to Synechococcus PCC 7002. The proteome expressed under low Fe conditions included multiple siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore and Fe transporter proteins, but most siderophores are not expressed during growth with Fe(II. These results provide a mechanistic and quantitative framework for evaluating the geochemical consequences of perhaps life’s greatest metabolic innovation, i.e. the evolution and activity of oxygenic photosynthesis, in ferruginous

  12. Modelling soil carbon fate under erosion process in vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Minacapilli, Mario; Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico; Gristina, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion processes in vineyards beyond water runoff and sediment transport have a strong effect on soil organic carbon loss (SOC) and redistribution along the slope. The variation of SOC across the landscape determines a difference in soil fertility and vine productivity. The aim of this research was to study erosion of a Mediterranean vineyard, develop an approach to estimate the SOC loss, correlate the vines vigor with sediment and carbon erosion. The study was carried out in a Sicilian (Italy) vineyard, planted in 2011. Along the slope, six pedons were studied by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled in each pedon every 10cm and SOC was analyzed. Soil erosion, detachment and deposition areas were measured by pole height method. The vigor of vegetation was expressed in term of NDVI (Normalized difference Vegetation Index) derived from a satellite image (RapidEye) acquired at berry pre-veraison stage (July) and characterized by 5 spectral bands in the shortwave region, including a band in the red wavelength (R, 630-685 nm) and in the near infrared (NIR, 760-850 nm) . Results showed that soil erosion, sediments redistribution and SOC across the hill was strongly affected by topographic features, slope and curvature. The erosion rate was 46Mg ha-1 y-1 during the first 6 years since planting. The SOC redistribution was strongly correlated with the detachment or deposition area as highlighted by pole height measurements. The approach developed to estimate the SOC loss showed that during the whole study period the off-farm SOC amounts to 1.6Mg C ha-1. As highlighted by NDVI results, the plant vigor is strong correlated with SOC content and therefore, developing an accurate NDVI approach could be useful to detect the vineyard areas characterized by low fertility due to erosion process.

  13. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, K E

    1999-10-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing, multi-sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. The SC has a laminar structure and is usually considered in two parts; the superficial visual layers and the deep multi-modal/motor layers. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands. Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. Sensory responses are shaped by intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters. It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non-sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: (a) interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; (b) the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and (c) the influence of non-sensory systems on

  14. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  15. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Laudani

    Full Text Available Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years, 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years and 24 older (70 ± 3 years gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume

  16. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  17. A regional process under the international initiative for IFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murase Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events including floods. The International Flood Initiative (IFI, initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO and voluntary partner organizations has promoted an integrated flood management (IFM to take advantage of floods and use of floodplains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks. After its initial decade, the initiative is providing a stepping-stone for the implementation of Sendai Framework by revitalizing its activities aimed at building on the sucess of the past, while addressing existing gaps in integrated flood managemnet strategies comprising of optimal structural and nonstructural measures thereby mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and targeting sustainable development. In this context, a new mechanism try to facilitate monitoring, assessment and capacity building in the Asia Pacific region. The primary outcomes of the mechanism are demand-driven networking and related documentations of best practices for 1 hazard assessment, 2 exposure assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment and coping capacity to identify the gaps, and 4 follow-ups and monitoring of the IFM process.

  18. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

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    Hamidur Rahaman

    Full Text Available While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s, the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD, ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N, denatured (D and intermediate state (X of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4 at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400 and CD ([θ]409, is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1 that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2 that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3 that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1, classical (X2 and disordered (X3, i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  19. 22 CFR 92.92 - Service of legal process under provisions of State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of legal process under provisions of... AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.92 Service of legal process under provisions of State law. It may be found that a State statue purporting to regulate the service of process in foreign...

  20. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Physiological Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under Irrigation and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam POURMOHAMMAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementing appropriate breeding strategies for sunflower, alongside dependable information on heritability and gene effects upon yield and related traits under drought conditions, are all necessary. Thirty sunflower hybrids were produced by line × tester cross of six male-sterile and five restorer lines. Their hybrids were evaluated in three levels of irrigation, as follows: (1 non-stressed plots, irrigated at regular intervals (W1; (2 mild water stress (W2, irrigated from the beginning of the button stage (R4 to seed filling initiation (R6; (3 severe water stress (W3 started from the beginning of button stage (R4 to physiological maturity. Based on observations and specific methods for determination, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index, relative water content and proline content, were studied by additive effects, under the different irrigation conditions. Canopy temperatures,chlorophyll index, relative water content, leaf water potential, proline content and yield were controlled by additive effects under mild stressed conditions. Under severe stress conditions however, canopy temperatures, leaf water potential and proline content were controlled by additive effects, while chlorophyll index and relative water content were controlled by both additive and dominant effects, as seed yield was mainly influenced by the dominant effects. The narrow sense heritability ranged from 47-97% for all traits, except for chlorophyll fluorescence. Yield correlated positively with chlorophyll index and relative water content, and negatively with canopy temperature and leaf water potential. Therefore, under drought stressed conditions in breeding programs, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index and relative water content can be reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant genotypes with prospect to higher yields.

  1. Evaluation of physiological and defense characteristics and ions contents of Red and Brooms cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum biolor under salt stress stress in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Razavizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate defense and physiological responses of some red and broomscultivars of Sorghum to salinity stress under in vitro culture. Seeds of Sorghum cultivars were cultured on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962 medium containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl under in vitro condition. After 2 weeks, the effect of salinity was studied on percentage of germination, growth parameters, photosynthetic capacity (total chlorophyll and carotenoids, total anthocyanin, total felavonoids, reducing sugars, proline, Na+/K+/Ca2+ ions, total soluble protein content, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in roots and shoots. According to percentage of seed germination and growth parameters, Red and brooms cultivars were selected as susceptible and resistant to salinity in the study, respectively. The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids and the anthocyanin content decreased by increasing salt levels in both cultivars, while flavonoids increased in three wavelengths 270, 300 and 330 nm. The results showed proline, suger and protein contents increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars by increasing salinity. The content of Na+ ion increased in the roots of red and brooms cultivars and shoot of Red cultivar. Ratio Na/K increased in roots of two cultivars and shoots of red by increasing salinity. Ratio Na/K in the shoots of brooms cultivar didn’t change significantly under salt stress. Generally in the presence of salt, potassium decreased in roots and shoots of two cultivars. Calcium ion amount in the roots of two cultivars didn’t change significantly under salt stress while it increased in shoots of two cultivars. The CAT activity increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars but APX activity increased in brooms cultivar and decreased significantly in red cultivar.

  2. Studying multisensory processing and its role in the representation of space through pathological and physiological crossmodal extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eJacobs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of crossmodal extinction has brought a considerable contribution to our understanding of how the integration of stimuli perceived in multiple sensory modalities is used by the nervous system to build coherent representations of the space that directly surrounds us. Indeed, by revealing interferences between stimuli in a disturbed system, extinction provides an invaluable opportunity to investigate the interactions that normally exist between those stimuli in an intact system. Here, we first review studies on pathological crossmodal extinction, from the original demonstration of its existence, to its role in the exploration of the multisensory neural representation of space and the current theoretical accounts proposed to explain the mechanisms involved in extinction and multisensory competition. Then, in the second part of this paper, we report recent findings showing that physiological multisensory competition phenomena resembling clinical crossmodal extinction exist in the healthy brain. We propose that the development of a physiological model of sensory competition is fundamental to deepen our understanding of the cerebral mechanisms of multisensory perception and integration. In addition, a similar approach to develop a model of physiological sensory competition in nonhuman primates should allow combining functional neuroimaging with more invasive techniques, such as transient focal lesions, in order to bridge the gap between works done in the two species and at different levels of analysis.

  3. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  4. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  5. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear

  6. In-situ determination of the mechanical properties of gliding or non-motile bacteria by atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions without immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Dhahri

    Full Text Available We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions.

  7. In-Situ Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Gliding or Non-Motile Bacteria by Atomic Force Microscopy under Physiological Conditions without Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Samia; Ramonda, Michel; Marlière, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM) around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions. PMID:23593493

  8. Respostas fisiológicas de folhas de couve minimamente processadas Physiological response of kale leaves minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

    2005-06-01

    closed. The packs were stored during 24 hours under temperatures of 1; 5; 10 and 25ºC. The respiratory rate and the ethylene production increased immediately after the detachment of the leaves from the mother plant. Cutting increased the respiratory rate in approximately two-folds. Increasing of the temperature affected significantly (P<0,05% the respiratory rate and the production of ethylene. Fast cooling reduced the metabolism, but did not result in greater storage time. The low temperature during sanitization is important for the conservation of the minimally processed kale. The harvest time influenced significantly (P<0,05% the respiratory rate and PPO activity of the minimally processed kale, but did not influence the storage time.

  9. The Effect of Paclobutrazol on Morphological, Physiological and Gas Exchange Charactersitics of Pear (Pyrus communus cv. Shah Mive under Different Irrigation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Javadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought is a major environmental stress that affects agricultural systems and induces several physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in plants. Drought inhibits the plant photosynthesis causing changes of chlorophyll contents, damage the photosynthetic apparatus and decreases plant growth and development. Generally, the environmental stresses, especially drought stress, give rise to accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, proline and free amino acids as well as antioxidant compounds. Triazoles are the active ingredient of fungicides (propoconazole, penconazole, epixiconazole and some growth regulators. The fungicidal properties of triazoles depend on inhibition of the C4-demethylase reactions in sterol biosynthesis of fungi. However, triazole-based fungicides induce a suite of morphological and physiological adaptations and allow plants to tolerate a broad range of environmental stresses including drought, herbicide treatment and elevated temperatures. The growth inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ is a triazole and has been reported to protect plants against several environmental stresses, i.e. drought, low and high temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of palobutrazol on vegetative, physiological and gas exchange characteristics of pear (Pyrus communis cv. ShahMive under different irrigation regimes. Materials and Methods: In March, 2011, 1-year-old pear (Pyrus communis cv. ShahMive saplings 80±2 cm high were planted in 20-l plastic pots filled with loamy sand soil (8% clay, 15% silt, 77% Sand in experimental greenhouse. Paclobutrazol was added to soil at the same time with sapling cultivation at rates of 0, 0.15 and 0.3 g active ingredient per pot. PBZ was diluted in 500 ml distilled water and solution applied to the soil at the base of the saplings on pots. The control saplings were treated with distilled water of equal volume. Vegetative (stem growth, stem diameter, leaf number, shoot dry

  10. Transcriptional and Physiological Characterizations of Escherichia coli MG1655 that have been grown under Low Shear Stress Environment for 1000 Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fofanov, Yuriy; Willson, Richard C.; Fox, George E.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physio-logic adaptation. One of the important regulatory biology interactions affected by space flight is the alteration of the immune response. As such, the impairment of the immune system may lead to higher risk of bacterial and/or viral infection during human space flight missions. Mi-crobiological contaminants have been a source of concern over the years for NASA and there is evidence to suggest that microbes in space do not behave like they do on Earth. Previ-ous studies have examined the physiological response of bacteria when exposed to short-term microgravity either during spaceflight or in a Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) en-vironment. Exposure to these environments has been found to induce increased resistance to stresses and antibiotics, and in one case increase of virulence. As NASA increases the duration of space flight missions and is starting to envision human presence on the lunar surface and Mars, it becomes legitimate to question the long-term effects of microgravity on bacteria. The effect of long-term exposure to LSMMG on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is being examined using functional genomics, and molecular tech-niques. In previous E. coli short term studies, reproducible changes in transcription were seen but no direct responses to changes in the gravity vector were identified. Instead, absence of shear and a randomized gravity vector appeared to cause local extra-cellular environmental changes, which elicited cellular responses. In order to evaluate the long-term effects of micro-gravity on bacteria, E. coli was grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations and gene expression patterns and cellular physiology were analyzed in comparison with short-term exposure. The analysis revealed that the long-term response differed significantly from the short-term exposure and 357 genes were expressed

  11. Mashing of Rice with Barley Malt Under Nonconventional Process Conditions for Use in Food Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, T.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Non-conventional mashing conditions are relevant in the development of a lactic acid-fermented soymilk beverage where mashed rice is the source of carbohydrates for the fermentation and sweetness of the beverage. Advantages in the process layout could be achieved by mashing at higher pH and lower...... conditions when a mashing step is integrated in other food processes....

  12. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  13. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-02-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P physiological responses induced by ETC and VS, separately or in association, on chronically heat-stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  14. TheEffect of Salicylic Acid Application on Some Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Grape Cultivars (Vitisvinifera L. Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abbaspour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water stress is considered as a main environmental factor limiting crop growth and yield, including grape in Mediterranean areas.Selection for drought-tolerantvarieties is possible through investigation of their performance under stress conditions. The estimation of physiological characteristics as reliable indices can be used as a tool to select tolerant plants. For this reason, varieties and genotypes of one plant species are usually investigated through physiological characteristics and its relation to drought tolerance. Investigation of the effects of water stress on some growth and physiological characteristics in grape plants has revealed that plant height, number of leaves and nodes, leaf area and the percentage of dry weightdecreased under increasing drought stress. Salicylic Acid is a naturally occurring plant hormone whichinfluences various morphological and physiological functions in plant. It can act as an important signaling molecule and has diverse effects on biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance capacity. Materials and Methods: In this research, two-yearold grapesplanted in plastic pots containingingredients of humus, soil and sand (1:2:1 were used. The experiment was conducted using a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three factors including irrigation periods (every 5, 10 and 15 days, salicylic acid concentrations (0, 1 and 2 mM and grape cultivars (Rasheh andBidanesefid with 3 replications in thegreenhouse of faculty of agricultureinUrmia University. Plant height, stem diameter and leaf area and chlorophyll indicesweremeasuredby usingruler, digital caliper (Model22855 NO: Z, leaf Area Meter (ModelAM200 and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter (Minolta Crop, Japan,respectively. In order to determine proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA, total protein and total soluble sugars, spectrophotometric methods [51,25,6and28] were utilized,respectively. Results and Discussion: Based on comparing the averages

  15. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hasibi

    2016-12-01

    in comparison with control. Sepideh and Payam showed the lowest sensitive to salinity. In the other genotypes, harvest index decreased more than 50%. The minimum rate of harvest index was recorded for Payam genotypes under salinity stress and silicon treatments. Under stress conditions, silicon significantly increased leaf area index in Sepideh, Payam, TN-04-83, TN-04-68, TN-04-37, TN-04-100 and TN-04-62. Chlorophyll index also increased under salinity stress using silicon treatments. The highest chlorophyll index belonged to TN-04-68 and was significantly different from the others genotypes. Use of silicon improved the membrane stability in TN-04-37, TN-04-107, TN-04-100, TN-04-71, TN-04-70, TN-04-95 and Sepideh. Conclusions The results showed that the use of silicon improved the physiological characteristics, yield and yield components of sorghum. Most of the genotypes showed a positive reaction to the applied silicon especially under stress condition. According to the results the maximum yield obtained from Sepideh (540 g m-2 and Payam (475 g m-2, respectively. It seems that among the studied genotypes, Sepideh, Payam and TN-04-100 had the best response to the silicon and showed the minimum sensitivity to the salinity stress. The most sensitive genotypes were TN-04-39, TN-04-68, and TN-04-62. In general it can be said that either under normal condition or salinity stress, silicon is able to improve yield production of grain Sorghum and its components.

  16. Microwave irradiation and citric acid assisted seed germination and phytoextraction of nickel (Ni) by Brassica napus L.: morpho-physiological and biochemical alterations under Ni stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mujahid; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Saeed, Rashid; Tauqeer, Hafiz Muhammad; Sallah-Ud-Din, Rasham; Azam, Ahmed; Raza, Nighat

    2017-09-01

    The complex bio-geochemistry of soil allows pollutant to persist for a longer period of time which further decreased the fertility and natural composition of land. Nickel, an inorganic pollutant, coming from a wide range of industrial and manufacturing units possesses serious threat to soil degradation and crop productivity around the world. The present study was carried to evaluate the combined role of microwave irradiation (MR) and citric acid (CA) on the phytoextraction potential of Brassica napus L. under Ni stress. An initial seed germination test was conducted to select effective time scale of MR exposure. Highest seed germination was observed at exposure of 2.45 GHz frequency for 30 s. Healthy seeds of B. napus L. genotype Faisal Canola (RBN-03060) treated with MR at 2.45 GHz for 30 s were sown in plastic pots filled with 5 kg of soil. Nickel and CA applied exogenously in solution form with different combinations to both MR-treated and untreated B. napus plants. The MR-treated plants showed higher growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b, total, and carotenoids) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, APX, CAT) as compared to untreated plants who showed higher reactive oxygen species (MDA, H 2 O 2 ) and electrolyte leakage. Increasing Ni concentration significantly decreased the physiological and biochemical attributes of B. napus both in MR-treated and untreated plants. The addition of CA alleviated Ni-induced toxic effects in both MR-treated and untreated plants by improving antioxidant defense system. The degree of Ni stress mitigation was higher in MR-treated plants. The Ni concentration was higher in root, stem, and leaves of MR-treated plants under CA application as compared to untreated plants. The present study concluded that seeds treated with MR before sowing showed higher accumulation and concentration of Ni from soil, and this phenomenon boosted with the application of CA.

  17. Automated microdialysis-based system for in situ microsampling and investigation of lead bioavailability in terrestrial environments under physiologically based extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, María; Magalhães, Luis M; Segundo, Marcela A; Miró, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    In situ automatic microdialysis sampling under batch-flow conditions is herein proposed for the first time for expedient assessment of the kinetics of lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in contaminated and agricultural soils exploiting the harmonized physiologically based extraction test (UBM). Capitalized upon a concentric microdialysis probe immersed in synthetic gut fluids, the miniaturized flow system is harnessed for continuous monitoring of lead transfer across the permselective microdialysis membrane to mimic the diffusive transport of metal species through the epithelium of the stomach and of the small intestine. Besides, the addition of the UBM gastrointestinal fluid surrogates at a specified time frame is fully mechanized. Distinct microdialysis probe configurations and membranes types were investigated in detail to ensure passive sampling under steady-state dialytic conditions for lead. Using a 3-cm-long polysulfone membrane with averaged molecular weight cutoff of 30 kDa in a concentric probe and a perfusate flow rate of 2.0 μL min(-1), microdialysis relative recoveries in the gastric phase were close to 100%, thereby omitting the need for probe calibration. The automatic leaching method was validated in terms of bias in the analysis of four soils with different physicochemical properties and containing a wide range of lead content (16 ± 3 to 1216 ± 42 mg kg(-1)) using mass balance assessment as a quality control tool. No significant differences between the mass balance and the total lead concentration in the suite of analyzed soils were encountered (α = 0.05). Our finding that the extraction of soil-borne lead for merely one hour in the GI phase suffices for assessment of the bioavailable fraction as a result of the fast immobilization of lead species at near-neutral conditions would assist in providing risk assessment data from the UBM test on a short notice.

  18. Relationships between soil parameters and physiological status of Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on soil contaminated with trace elements under NPK fertilisation vs. microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Sitko, Krzysztof; Krzyżak, Jacek; Skalska, Aleksandra; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Ciszek, Dorota; Werle, Sebastian; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Mos, Michal; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-06-01

    Crop growth and development can be influenced by a range of parameters, soil health, cultivation and nutrient status all play a major role. Nutrient status of plants can be enhanced both through chemical fertiliser additions (e.g. N, P, K supplementation) or microbial fixation and mobilisation of naturally occurring nutrients. With current EU priorities discouraging the production of biomass on high quality soils there is a need to investigate the potential of more marginal soils to produce these feedstocks and the impacts of soil amendments on crop yields within them. This study investigated the potential for Miscanthus x giganteus to be grown in trace element (TE)-contaminated soils, ideally offering a mechanism to (phyto)manage these contaminated lands. Comprehensive surveys are needed to understand plant-soil interactions under these conditions. Here we studied the impacts of two fertiliser treatments on soil physico-chemical properties under Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on Pb, Cd and Zn contaminated arable land. Results covered a range of parameters, including soil rhizosphere activity, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as well as plant physiological parameters associated with photosynthesis, TE leaf concentrations and growth performance. Fertilization increased growth and gas exchange capacity, enhanced rhizosphere microbial activity and increased Zn, Mg and N leaf concentration. Fertilization reduced root colonisation by AMF and caused higher chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves. Microbial inoculation seems to be a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers, especially due to an insignificant influence on the mobility of toxic trace elements (particularly Cd and Zn). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m-2 day-1) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20 % higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m-2 day-1), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate ( Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ( Ci), transpiration rate ( Tr), stomatal conductivity ( Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3 %, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9 %, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2 %, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8 %, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  20. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20% higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3%, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9%, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8%, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  1. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  3. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  4. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  5. Physiological basis of genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis among rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression lines under drought and well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou

    2012-01-01

    To understand the physiological basis of genetic variation and resulting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for photosynthesis in a rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression line population, 13 lines were studied under drought and well-watered conditions, at flowering and grain filling. Simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted at various levels of incident irradiance and ambient CO2 to estimate parameters of a model that dissects photosynthesis into stomatal conductance (g s), mesophyll conductance (g m), electron transport capacity (J max), and Rubisco carboxylation capacity (V cmax). Significant genetic variation in these parameters was found, although drought and leaf age accounted for larger proportions of the total variation. Genetic variation in light-saturated photosynthesis and transpiration efficiency (TE) were mainly associated with variation in g s and g m. One previously mapped major QTL of photosynthesis was associated with variation in g s and g m, but also in J max and V cmax at flowering. Thus, g s and g m, which were demonstrated in the literature to be responsible for environmental variation in photosynthesis, were found also to be associated with genetic variation in photosynthesis. Furthermore, relationships between these parameters and leaf nitrogen or dry matter per unit area, which were previously found across environmental treatments, were shown to be valid for variation across genotypes. Finally, the extent to which photosynthesis rate and TE can be improved was evaluated. Virtual ideotypes were estimated to have 17.0% higher photosynthesis and 25.1% higher TE compared with the best genotype investigated. This analysis using introgression lines highlights possibilities of improving both photosynthesis and TE within the same genetic background. PMID:22888131

  6. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  7. Exploring the Use of Design of Experiments in Industrial Processes Operating Under Closed-Loop Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Kulahci, Murat; Vanhatalo, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing processes often operate under closed-loop control, where automation aims to keep important process variables at their set-points. In process industries such as pulp, paper, chemical and steel plants, it is often hard to find production processes operating in open loop....... Instead, closed-loop control systems will actively attempt to minimize the impact of process disturbances. However, we argue that an implicit assumption in most experimental investigations is that the studied system is open loop, allowing the experimental factors to freely affect the important system...... responses. This scenario is typically not found in process industries. The purpose of this article is therefore to explore issues of experimental design and analysis in processes operating under closed-loop control and to illustrate how Design of Experiments can help in improving and optimizing...

  8. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  9. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus R Beguelini

    Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.

  10. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED General Provisions Definitions and Forms § 10.7 What forms are needed to process...

  11. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  12. A quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators under input information overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators. The aim of this work is to derive the amount of the information processed during a certain control task under input information overload. We primarily develop the information processing model having multiple stages, which contains information flow. Then the uncertainty of the information is quantified using the Conant's model, a kind of information theory. We also investigate the applicability of this approach to quantifying the information reduction of operators under the input information overload

  13. BURDEN OF PROOF IN CONSTITUTIONAL PROCESS UNDER CONSIDERATION OF DEMOCRATIC STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mendanha Dias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the aegis of the democratic rule of law, the contradictory it appears as a fundamental premise of constitutionalised process. In this view, the contradictory, more than just right party to exercise its right of defense, it should be seen as a form of compartipação in the process, allowing the parties to the probative production as an effective influence on acertamento right. Thus, it should be disproved the right mitigation attempts contradictory in the evidentiary phase and imposing aside the need to produce proofimpossible or difficult to perform, under penalty of offending the process understood in the modern normative framework.

  14. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakanauskienė Irena; Baronienė Laura

    2017-01-01

    This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been u...

  15. How physiological and physical processes contribute to the phenology of cyanobacterial blooms in large shallow lakes: A new Euler-Lagrangian coupled model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Qian, Jin; Wang, Xun

    2018-09-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have emerged as one of the most severe ecological problems affecting large and shallow freshwater lakes. To improve our understanding of the factors that influence, and could be used to predict, surface blooms, this study developed a novel Euler-Lagrangian coupled approach combining the Eulerian model with agent-based modelling (ABM). The approach was subsequently verified based on monitoring datasets and MODIS data in a large shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China). The Eulerian model solves the Eulerian variables and physiological parameters, whereas ABM generates the complete life cycle and transport processes of cyanobacterial colonies. This model ensemble performed well in fitting historical data and predicting the dynamics of cyanobacterial biomass, bloom distribution, and area. Based on the calculated physical and physiological characteristics of surface blooms, principal component analysis (PCA) captured the major processes influencing surface bloom formation at different stages (two bloom clusters). Early bloom outbreaks were influenced by physical processes (horizontal transport and vertical turbulence-induced mixing), whereas buoyancy-controlling strategies were essential for mature bloom outbreaks. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) revealed the combined actions of multiple environment variables on different bloom clusters. The effects of buoyancy-controlling strategies (ISP), vertical turbulence-induced mixing velocity of colony (VMT) and horizontal drift velocity of colony (HDT) were quantitatively compared using scenario simulations in the coupled model. VMT accounted for 52.9% of bloom formations and maintained blooms over long periods, thus demonstrating the importance of wind-induced turbulence in shallow lakes. In comparison, HDT and buoyancy controlling strategies influenced blooms at different stages. In conclusion, the approach developed here presents a promising tool for understanding the processes of onshore/offshore algal

  16. Study the Effect of Different Phosphorus Fertilizers on Physiological Characteristic of Photosynthetic Pigments and Soluble Sugars of Safflower under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Heshmati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is one of the most important and effective factors in agricultural practices in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The arid and semi-arid regions comprise more than 70% of the total area of Iran. Reduction in chlorophyll concentrations has been attributed to the increase in chlorophyll degradation in water deficit conditions and impairment in the enzymes activity responsible for the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. Under drought stress, maintenance of photosynthetic capacities and leaf chlorophyll are physiological parameters which influence drought stress tolerant of crop. Phosphorus is one the most essential elements for plant growth after nitrogen. However, the availability of this nutrient for plants is limited by different chemical reactions especially in arid and semi-arid soils. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB are soil and rhizosphere bacteria that can benefit plant growth by different mechanisms. Given the negative environmental impact of chemical fertilizers and their increasing costs, the use of PGPB as natural fertilizers is advantageous for the development of sustainable agriculture. Inoculation of plants with native beneficial microorganisms may increase drought tolerance of plants growing in arid or semi-arid areas. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of biologic and chemical phosphorous fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments of safflower cultivar (IL111, under water deficit condition, an experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University. The experimental design was split-factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main factors were the three levels of irrigation treatment: full irrigation (irrigation up to 50% soil moisture depletion relative to field capacity, water stress in the vegetative and flowering stages (irrigation up to 75% soil moisture depletion relative to field

  17. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  18. An Electro-Physiological Temporal Principal Component Analysis of Processing Stages of Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltesz, Fruzsina; Szucs, Denes

    2009-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) still lacks a generally accepted definition. A major problem is that the cognitive component processes contributing to arithmetic performance are still poorly defined. By a reanalysis of our previous event-related brain potential (ERP) data (Soltesz et al., 2007) here our objective was to identify and compare…

  19. Assessing the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing piggery under tropical conditions using the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out worldwide for evaluating different types of floor systems for growing-finishing pigs, specifically for assessing their effectiveness on pig performance, health and behaviour, leaving the opportunity for using multi-criteria analysis in decisionmaking towards the selection of flooring type. This study aimed to select the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing pigs under tropical conditions, considering performance traits and farmers management aspects. The analytic hierarchy process was applied for seeking the best solution considering both the farmers’ goals and the pigs’ welfare. Aspects considered in the analysis were: economic feasibility, rearing thermal and aerial ambient, animal behaviour, performance, and health status. The input used in the calculation was based on the results of a field trial using three treatments: whole concrete floor, coffee and rice husk bedding, and wood shavings deepbedding. Rearing conditions and pigs’ physiological parameters, performance, behaviour, and health status were analysed. When the floor system was considered, the most significant criteria were economic feasibility (0.31 and overall pig performance (0.31 leading to a final deep-bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, concrete floor (2nd, and wood shavings (3rd. Conversely, when the animal welfare was considered, the most decisive criterion was health status (0.32, followed by physiological parameters (0.25, and behaviour (0.23 leading to a final bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, wood shavings (2nd, and concrete floor (3rd. Results indicate that the deep-bedding of coffee and rice husks provided the best choice for both the farmer and the growing-finishing pigs.

  20. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  1. Effect of Zinc Sulfate and Ascorbic Acid on some Morpho-Physiological Traits of Echinacea purpurea (Purple coneflower under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farahvash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the response of some morpho-physiological traits of Echinacea purpurea to thr application of zinc sulfate and ascorbic acid under water deficit, an experiment was carried out in split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011-12. Experimental factors consisted of water stress as the main factor with three levels (irrigation after70mm evaporation, irrigation after120mm evaporation and irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan, Secondary factor consisted of: application of microelement with two levels (control and application of zinc sulfate 0.005 concentration and ascorbic acid with four levels (not application, application of 50 mg/l of ascorbic acid, application of 100 mg/l of ascorbic acid and application of 150 mg/l of ascorbic acid. The results showed that the effect of water deficit on purple coneflower caused significant differences in diameter of stem, number of flowering branch, stomata density, zinc concentration of aerial parts plant, fresh weight, relative water content of leaf, LAI, proline concentration, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Comparison of means for water deficits between the different levels of drought stress showed that the maximum LAI, with 2.85, belonged to control. Comparison of means for interaction effects between drought stress and application of zinc sulfate revealed that the maximum proline concentration belonged to spraying plants with zinc sulfate at irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan with 10.16 mg/g.fw. Minimum proline concentration was due to without applying zinc sulfate in complete irrigation (control with 0.08 mg/g.fw. Maximum crop growth rate with 6.77 g/m2.day was was related to control and the minimum, with 4.16 g/m2.day, to irrigation after 170mm. Maximum relative crop growth rate, with 0.19 g/m2.day, belonged to control and the

  2. Abscisic acid as an internal integrator of multiple physiological processes modulates leaf senescence onset in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Yuwei eSong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that exogenous abscisic acid (ABA promotes leaf abscission and senescence. However, owing to a lack of genetic evidence, ABA function in plant senescence has not been clearly defined. Here, two-leaf early-senescence mutants (eas that were screened by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and named eas1-1 and eas1-2 showed high photosynthetic capacity in the early stage of plant growth compared with the wild type. Gene mapping showed that eas1-1 and eas1-2 are two novel ABA2 allelic mutants. Under unstressed conditions, the eas1 mutations caused plant dwarf, early germination, larger stomatal apertures, and early leaf senescence compared with those of the wild type. Flow cytometry assays showed that the cell apoptosis rate in eas1 mutant leaves was higher than that of the wild type after day 30. A significant increase in the transcript levels of several senescence-associated genes, especially SAG12, was observed in eas1 mutant plants in the early stage of plant growth. More importantly, ABA-activated calcium channel activity in plasma membrane and induced the increase of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in guard cells are suppressed due to the mutation of EAS1. In contrast, the eas1 mutants lost chlorophyll and ion leakage significant faster than in the wild type under treatment with calcium channel blocker. Hence, our results indicate that endogenous ABA level is an important factor controlling the onset of leaf senescence through Ca2+ signaling.

  3. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: A review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes

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    Christoph S Herrmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.

  4. Internal mechanisms underlying anticipatory language processing: Evidence from event-related-potentials and neural oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yuping; Xia, Jinyan; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2017-07-28

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts. We examined the effects of semantic predictability on anticipatory processing prior to the onset of the critical nouns and on integration of the critical nouns. The results revealed that, at the integration stage, the strong-constraint condition (compared to the weak-constraint condition) elicited a reduced N400 and reduced theta activity (4-7Hz) for the congruent nouns, but induced beta (13-18Hz) and theta (4-7Hz) power decreases for the incongruent nouns, indicating benefits of confirmed predictions and potential costs of disconfirmed predictions. More importantly, at the anticipatory stage, the strongly constraining context elicited an enhanced sustained anterior negativity and beta power decrease (19-25Hz), which indicates that strong prediction places a higher processing load on the anticipatory stage of processing. The differences (in the ease of processing and the underlying neural oscillatory activities) between anticipatory and integration stages of lexical processing were discussed with regard to predictive processing models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumour and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, A; Putzer, D; Decristoforo, C; Uprimny, C; Warwitz, B; Nilica, B; Gabriel, M; Kendler, D; Waitz, D; Widmann, G; Virgolini, I J

    2013-04-01

    We wanted to establish the range of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in liver and bone metastases of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and to establish the range of its uptake in pancreatic NET. This would allow differentiation between physiological uptake and tumour-related somatostatin receptor expression in the pancreas (including the uncinate process), liver and bone. Finally, we wanted to test for differences in patients with NET, either treated or not treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In 249 patients, 390 (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT studies were performed. The clinical indications for PET/CT were gastroenteropancreatic NET (194 studies), nongastroenteropancreatic NET (origin in the lung and rectum; 46 studies), NET of unknown primary (111 studies), phaeochromocytoma/glomus tumours (18 studies), and radioiodine-negative metastatic thyroid carcinoma (21 studies). SUVmax (mean ± standard deviation) values of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC were 29.8 ± 16.5 in 162 liver metastases, 19.8 ± 18.8 in 89 bone metastases and 34.6 ± 17.1 in 43 pancreatic NET (33.6 ± 14.3 in 30 tumours of the uncinate process and 36.3 ± 21.5 in 13 tumours of the pancreatic tail). A significant difference in SUVmax (p TOC is an excellent tracer for the imaging of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors on the tumour cell surface, facilitating the detection of even small tumour lesions. The noninvasive PET/CT approach by measurement of regional SUVmax can offer important clinical information to distinguish between physiological and pathological somatostatin receptor expression, especially in the uncinate process. PRRT does not significantly influence SUVmax, except in liver metastases of patients with NET.

  6. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakanauskienė Irena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of inves