WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying offshore tracts

  1. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori

  2. CARIBBEAN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURES UNDER A SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens have long been under the attention of numerous Governments and International Organizations which triggered the concern of an uneven playing field in the taxation area. As a result numerous amendments have been made to both their commercial and tax legislations in order to be in line with the internationally agreed tax standards. The aim of this article is to conduct a SWOT analysis on the offshore corporate structures found in the Caribbean landscape. Based on a selection process of the most commonly recognized tax havens in the Caribbean region and an analysis of their offshore companies at the level of incorporation, administration, activities conducted and costs, a set of frequently met characteristics have been identified which stand at the basis of the SWOT analysis. The results stand to present a comprehensive four dimension framework of the offshore corporate structures in regards to their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

  3. Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    This paper address factors underlying public opinion regarding offshore wind power based on a survey of residents near a proposed development off Cape Cod, MA, USA. Supporters are found to be younger, better educated, and more likely to own their own home. Opponents are more likely to earn over $200,000/year, and more likely to expect to see the project from their daily routine. The overwhelming majority of the population expects negative impacts from the project; much smaller numbers expect positive effects. When asked which factors most affected their position, the most frequently mentioned was damage to marine life/environmental impacts, followed by electricity rates, aesthetics, and impacts on fishing or boating. When the expectations expressed by our respondents are compared with the findings of the project's draft Environmental Impact Statement, many of the beliefs upon which opinion are based appear to be factually incorrect. Finally, we tested whether change in the project would affect support. The biggest change was an increase in the level of support, by 47% of the sample, if the project was the first of 300 such projects, in sum having proportionately larger impacts as well as greater benefits. Implications of this research are discussed

  4. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  5. Modeling large offshore wind farms under different atmospheric stability regimes with the Park wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide range...... turbines on the row and those using the WAsP recommended value closer to the data for the first turbines. It is generally seen that under stable and unstable atmospheric conditions the power deficits are the highest and lowest, respectively, but the wind conditions under both stability regimes...

  6. Modeling large offshore wind farms under different atmospheric stability regimes with the Park wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Here, we evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide range...... turbines and those using the WAsP recommended value closer to the data for the first turbines. It is generally seen that under stable and unstable atmospheric conditions the power deficits are the highest and lowest, respectively, but the wind conditions under both stability regimes are different...

  7. Semi-active control of monopile offshore wind turbines under multi-hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper studies the control of monopile offshore wind turbines subjected to multi-hazards consisting of wind, wave and earthquake. A Semi-active tuned mass damper (STMD) with tunable natural frequency and damping ratio is introduced to control the dynamic response. A new fully coupled analytical model of the monopile offshore wind turbine with an STMD is established. The aerodynamic, hydrodynamic and seismic loading models are derived. Soil effects and damage are considered. The National Renewable Energy Lab monopile 5 MW baseline wind turbine model is employed to examine the performance of the STMD. A passive tuned mass damper (TMD) is utilized for comparison. Through numerical simulation, it is found that before damage occurs, the wind and wave induced response is more dominant than the earthquake induced response. With damage presence in the tower and the foundation, the nacelle and the tower response is increased dramatically and the natural frequency is decreased considerably. As a result, the passive TMD with fixed parameters becomes off-tuned and loses its effectiveness. In comparison, the STMD retuned in real-time demonstrates consistent effectiveness in controlling the dynamic response of the monopile offshore wind turbines under multi-hazards and damage with a smaller stroke.

  8. Response Analysis of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Under Atmospheric Icing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etemaddar, Mahmoud; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges for the development of wind energy in offshore cold-climate regions is atmospheric icing. This paper examines the effects of atmospheric icing on power production, overall performance, and extreme loads of a 5-MW spar-type floating offshore wind turbine during power producti......, as are the effects of atmospheric icing on land-based and offshore wind turbines.......One of the challenges for the development of wind energy in offshore cold-climate regions is atmospheric icing. This paper examines the effects of atmospheric icing on power production, overall performance, and extreme loads of a 5-MW spar-type floating offshore wind turbine during power production......, normal and emergency rotor shutdown, extreme gusts, and survival conditions. Atmospheric icing is simulated by using the ice accretion simulation code LEWICE. A CFD method is used to estimate the blade aerodynamic degradation due to icing. The effects of icing on one, two, or three blades are compared...

  9. An offshore wind farm with dc grid connection and its performance under power system transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The continuous increase in wind power penetration level brings new requirements for wind turbine integration into the network. The grid code requires that after clearance of an external short-circuit fault, grid-connected wind turbines should restore their normal operation without power loss caused...... by disconnections. This paper presents a transient performance study of an offshore wind farm with HVDC transmission for grid connection, where the wind turbines in the offshore wind farm are also connected with dc collection network. A power-reduction control strategy (PRCS) for transient performance improvement...... is proposed for the offshore wind farm that allows it to withstand severe voltage dips. A simulation model of a 400 MW offshore wind farm developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented. The transient performance of the offshore wind farm is studied, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed control...

  10. Verification of aero-elastic offshore wind turbine design codes under IEA Wind Task XXIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorpahl, Fabian; Strobel, Michael; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of a benchmark study on aero-servo-hydro-elastic codes for offshore wind turbine dynamic simulation. The codes verified herein account for the coupled dynamic systems including the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and controls of the turbine, along with the inc...

  11. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  12. The frontal aslant tract underlies speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a pathway that connects the inferior frontal gyrus with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. The FAT was recently identified and introduced as part of a "motor stream" that plays an important role in speech production. In this study, we use diffusion imaging to examine the hypothesis that the FAT underlies speech fluency, by studying its properties in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering, a speech disorder that disrupts the production of fluent speech. We use tractography to quantify the volume and diffusion properties of the FAT in a group of adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. Additionally, we use tractography to extract these measures from the corticospinal tract (CST), a well-known component of the motor system. We compute diffusion measures in multiple points along the tracts, and examine the correlation between these diffusion measures and behavioral measures of speech fluency. Our data show increased mean diffusivity in bilateral FAT of AWS compared with controls. In addition, the results show regions within the left FAT and the left CST where diffusivity values are increased in AWS compared with controls. Last, we report that in AWS, diffusivity values measured within sub-regions of the left FAT negatively correlate with speech fluency. Our findings are the first to relate the FAT with fluent speech production in stuttering, thus adding to the current knowledge of the functional role that this tract plays in speech production and to the literature of the etiology of persistent developmental stuttering.

  13. Strategic Trajectories in the Offshoring and Offshore Outsourcing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine the offshoring and offshore outsourcing process and the strategic trajectories underlying it, including both the internal venturing and the external outsourcing process. We define and present various perspectives on the offshoring and offshore outsourcing process. We then...... management throughout the company, deserves a more significant space in future investigations of strategic trajectories, if the activities in the distributed network is to bring strategic advantages over and beyond short-term cost reductions....

  14. Assessment of special stainless steels and nickel-base alloys for use under offshore conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasner, M.R. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Herda, W.R. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Major offshore installations are designed for a 25-years` life span and more. To predict the corrosion behavior of various alloys for such a long period results from accelerated laboratory tests have to be verified by suitable field tests. The results from laboratory tests and exposure to natural seawater show that nickel-based alloys such as alloy 59 (UNS N06059) and alloy 31 (UNS N08031) can be employed to most severe conditions. For general applications 6Mo stainless steels with 25% Ni such as alloy 926 (UNS N08926) may be used. If higher strength is required alloy 24 (18 Ni-24.5 Cr-6.2 Mn-4.3 Mo-0.6 Cu-0.45 Mn) is the preferred material.

  15. Tracting the neural basis of music: Deficient structural connectivity underlying acquired amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Ripollés, Pablo; Särkämö, Teppo; Leo, Vera; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Soinila, Seppo

    2017-12-01

    Acquired amusia provides a unique opportunity to investigate the fundamental neural architectures of musical processing due to the transition from a functioning to defective music processing system. Yet, the white matter (WM) deficits in amusia remain systematically unexplored. To evaluate which WM structures form the neural basis for acquired amusia and its recovery, we studied 42 stroke patients longitudinally at acute, 3-month, and 6-month post-stroke stages using DTI [tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and deterministic tractography (DT)] and the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Non-recovered amusia was associated with structural damage and subsequent degeneration in multiple WM tracts including the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), arcuate fasciculus (AF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and frontal aslant tract (FAT), as well as in the corpus callosum (CC) and its posterior part (tapetum). In a linear regression analysis, the volume of the right IFOF was the main predictor of MBEA performance across time. Overall, our results provide a comprehensive picture of the large-scale deficits in intra- and interhemispheric structural connectivity underlying amusia, and conversely highlight which pathways are crucial for normal music perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F

    2015-02-28

    A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  18. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  19. Design of Access Platforms for Offshore Windturbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A large number of offshore windmill farms have been constructed, more are currently under construction and much more are planned. Therefore, a lot of research is going on within the design of offshore windmills and their foundation.......A large number of offshore windmill farms have been constructed, more are currently under construction and much more are planned. Therefore, a lot of research is going on within the design of offshore windmills and their foundation....

  20. Biological diversity of yeasts in the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets kept under different farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urubschurov, Vladimir; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang B

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine yeasts present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of piglets kept under experimental farm (EF) and commercial farm (CF) conditions. Ninety five German Landrace full- and half-sibling piglets were sacrificed at 39 days of age. Sixty eight piglets were weaned at 28th day of life, when they were offered one diet ad libitum. Twenty seven piglets remained unweaned by their dams. None of the piglets received any creep feed before weaning. Digesta samples were collected from 1/3 distal small intestine (SI), caecum and proximal colon. One hundred seventy three colonies of isolated yeasts were characterized by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene with following alignment of the recovered sequences to GenBank entries. From the 17 phylotypes found, isolates most closely related to Galactomyces geotrichum, Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida catenulata dominated in the GIT of CF piglets. Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida glabrata dominated in GIT of EF piglets. Sørenson and Morisita-Horn similarity indices between farms were low (0.44 and 0.54 respectively) and the Simpson diversity index was higher for EF (7.58) than for CF (4.34). The study brings new data on yeasts composition in the pig GIT and shows differences in yeasts biodiversity between farms operated at different hygiene conditions.

  1. Commercial Dairy Cow Milk microRNAs Resist Digestion under Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, Abderrahim; Lee, Chan Ho C; Laffont, Benoit; Savard, Patricia; Laugier, Jonathan; Boilard, Eric; Gilbert, Caroline; Fliss, Ismail; Provost, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs are small, gene-regulatory noncoding RNA species present in large amounts in milk, where they seem to be protected against degradative conditions, presumably because of their association with exosomes. We monitored the relative stability of commercial dairy cow milk microRNAs during digestion and examined their associations with extracellular vesicles (EVs). We used a computer-controlled, in vitro, gastrointestinal model TNO intestinal model-1 (TIM-1) and analyzed, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the concentration of 2 microRNAs within gastrointestinal tract compartments at different points in time. EVs within TIM-1 digested and nondigested samples were studied by immunoblotting, dynamic light scattering, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and density measurements. A large quantity of dairy milk Bos taurus microRNA-223 (bta-miR-223) and bta-miR-125b (∼10 9 -10 10 copies/300 mL milk) withstood digestion under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, with the stomach causing the most important decrease in microRNA amounts. A large quantity of these 2 microRNAs (∼10 8 -10 9 copies/300 mL milk) was detected in the upper small intestine compartments, which supports their potential bioaccessibility. A protocol optimized for the enrichment of dairy milk exosomes yielded a 100,000 × g pellet fraction that was positive for the exosomal markers tumor susceptibility gene-101 (TSG101), apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X (ALIX), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and containing bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b. This approach, based on successive ultracentrifugation steps, also revealed the existence of ALIX - , HSP70 -/low , and TSG101 -/low EVs larger than exosomes and 2-6 times more enriched in bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b (P dairy cow milk contains numerous microRNAs that can resist digestion and are associated mostly with ALIX - , HSP70 -/low , and TSG101 -/low EVs. Our results support the existence of interspecies transfer of micro

  2. Fault Ride Though Control of Photovoltaic Grid-connected Inverter with Current-limited Capability under Offshore Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) inverter installed on board experiences the excessive current stress in case of the offshore unbalanced voltage fault ride through (FRT), which significantly affects the operation reliability of the power supply system. In order to solve the problem, the inherent mechanism o...

  3. Energisation of Wind Turbine Transformers with an Auxiliary Generator in a Large Offshore Wind Farm Under Islanded Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thumm, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The prospective inrush currents during the energization of wind turbine transformers in a large offshore wind farm during islanded operation were estimated by time-domain simulations covering different energizing scenarios. In this way, worst case procedures could be identified. The energization ...

  4. Modelling the drained response of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines under general monotonic and cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Gottardi, Guido; Govoni, Laura

    2015-01-01

    the typical conditions of offshore wind turbines: very large cyclic overturning moment, large cyclic horizontal load and comparatively little, self-weight induced, vertical load. The experimental soil-foundation response is interpreted within the macro-element approach, using an existing analytical model...

  5. Automated tractography in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A.K. Kreilkamp

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that TRACULA permits the detection of alterations of DTI tract scalar metrics in patients with TLE. It also provides the opportunity to explore relationships with structural volume measurements and clinical variables along white matter tracts. Our data suggests that the anterior temporal lobe portions of the uncinate and inferior-longitudinal fasciculus may be particularly vulnerable to pathological alterations in patients with TLE. These alterations are unrelated to the extent of hippocampal atrophy (and therefore potentially mediated by independent mechanisms but influenced by chronicity and severity of the disorder.

  6. To deter, distance and dehumanise: mandatory immigration detention and offshore processing of asylum seekers under Australian law

    OpenAIRE

    Penovic, Tania

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the law and practice concerning two key policies directed at asylum seekers who arrive or attempt to arrive in Australia by boat; immigration detention and offshore processing. It is comprised of four parts. Part 1 provides an overview of the thesis, consolidating the published material with reference to political theory. A summary of the chapters is provided in Part II. Part III considers the contribution maoe by my work to the literature on asylum seeker policy in...

  7. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Dovgan, Olesya

    While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor...... that outsourcing can be used proactively to promote expanded international operations....

  8. Urinary tract infection in febrile under five children in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fever is a common symptom of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children less than 5 years of age. Little attention is however paid to UTI as a cause of fever in this age group. Objective: The objective of the following study is to determine the prevalence of UTI in febrile children less than 5 years of age and relate it to ...

  9. The intOA Experiment: A Study of Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Under Moderate to Strong Offshore Winds and Opposing Swell Conditions in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Torres, F. J.; García-Nava, H.; Durazo, R.; Osuna, P.; Díaz Méndez, G. M.; Graber, H. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Gulf of Tehuantepec air-sea interaction experiment ( intOA) took place from February to April 2005, under the Programme for the Study of the Gulf of Tehuantepec (PEGoT, Spanish acronym for Programa para el Estudio del Golfo de Tehuantepec). PEGoT is underway aiming for better knowledge of the effect of strong and persistent offshore winds on coastal waters and their natural resources, as well as performing advanced numerical modelling of the wave and surface current fields. One of the goals of the intOA experiment is to improve our knowledge on air-sea interaction processes with particular emphasis on the effect of surface waves on the momentum flux for the characteristic and unique conditions that occur when strong Tehuano winds blow offshore against the Pacific Ocean long period swell. For the field campaign, an air-sea interaction spar (ASIS) buoy was deployed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec to measure surface waves and the momentum flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. High frequency radar systems (phase array type) were in operation from two coastal sites and three acoustic Doppler current profilers were deployed near-shore. Synthetic aperture radar images were also acquired as part of the remote sensing component of the experiment. The present paper provides the main results on the wave and wind fields, addressing the direct calculation of the momentum flux and the drag coefficient, and gives an overview of the intOA experiment. Although the effect of swell has been described in recent studies, this is the first time for the very specific conditions encountered, such as swell persistently opposing offshore winds and locally generated waves, to show a clear evidence of the influence on the wind stress of the significant steepness of swell waves.

  10. The German offshore grid - A successful integration of offshore wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Ahndorf, T.; Witzmann, R.

    2013-01-01

    The ambitious expectations of politic and industrial sectors are stimulating the planning activities for offshore wind power. Under the Infrastructure Planning Acceleration Act, which entered into force on the 17th of December 2006, the transmission system operators (TSO) in Germany are required to provide grid connections for offshore wind parks up to their offshore substations. This has prompted E.ON Netz to plan for a “first of its kind” bulk power offshore grid connection in the ...

  11. Sea breeze development under an offshore synoptic wind in the South-Western Cape and implications for the Stellenbosch wine-producing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardot, V.; Planchon, O.; Cautenet, S.

    2005-07-01

    Sea breezes were investigated during the maturation period of wine grapes in the South-Western Cape under particular synoptic wind conditions (onshore for Table Bay and offshore for False Bay). Observations from an automatic weather station network located in the Stellenbosch wine-producing area as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS, non-hydrostatic, parallel, version 4.3) were used. Results showed that two sea breezes developed, one from Table Bay late in the morning, and the other from False Bay later in the afternoon. The coastal low strengthened and deflected the sea breeze from Table Bay towards the south and south-east of the study area, while the offshore large-scale circulation hindered the development of the sea breeze in the opposite direction over False Bay and delayed its movement towards land. The decrease in temperature resulting from the onset of the sea breeze from the Atlantic early in the afternoon could be significant for viticulture, reducing the duration and intensity of high temperature stress on grapevine functioning at the coolest locations.

  12. Wind model for offshore power simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hervada Sala, Carme; Jarauta Bragulat, Eusebio; Gibergans Baguena, José; Buenestado Caballero, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is an alternative energy source of increased interest. A large offshore wind farms have been planned or under construction, mainly in northern Europe. One of the points needed to be able to implement offshore projects is to characterize and model the wind for marine generation. Models are needed for the design of the most appropriate control strategies. Some attempts have been done to do so; recently these models are implemented under a wind turbine block set in Matlab/Si...

  13. Offshore wind energy. An overview on the activities in Germany; Offshore-Windenergie. Ein Ueberblick ueber die Aktivitaeten in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, Anja [media consulta Deutschland GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The brochure under consideration provides an overview of the activities of offshore wind energy in Germany. The first offshore wind farms are built and generate more electricity than expected. The offshore wind farms serve as a field of learning for new technologies. The power of offshore wind farms opened new prospects for the economy. The northern Federal States of Germany as well as the traditional locations for mechanical engineering and steel production benefit from offshore wind energy.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Climate Projection Using UPSCALE Climate Data under the RCP8.5 Emission Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Magar, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, the authors demonstrated how data from climate simulations can be utilized to estimate regional wind power densities. In particular, it was shown that the quality of wind power densities, estimated from the UPSCALE global dataset in offshore regions of Mexico, compared well with regional high resolution studies. Additionally, a link between surface temperature and moist air density in the estimates was presented. UPSCALE is an acronym for UK on PRACE (the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe)-weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk. The UPSCALE experiment was performed in 2012 by NCAS (National Centre for Atmospheric Science)-Climate, at the University of Reading and the UK Met Office Hadley Centre. The study included a 25.6-year, five-member ensemble simulation of the HadGEM3 global atmosphere, at 25km resolution for present climate conditions. The initial conditions for the ensemble runs were taken from consecutive days of a test configuration. In the present paper, the emphasis is placed on the single climate run for a potential future climate scenario in the UPSCALE experiment dataset, using the Representation Concentrations Pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario. Firstly, some tests were performed to ensure that the results using only one instantiation of the current climate dataset are as robust as possible within the constraints of the available data. In order to achieve this, an artificial time series over a longer sampling period was created. Then, it was shown that these longer time series provided almost the same results than the short ones, thus leading to the argument that the short time series is sufficient to capture the climate. Finally, with the confidence that one instantiation is sufficient, the future climate dataset was analysed to provide, for the first time, a projection of future changes in wind power resources using the UPSCALE dataset. It is hoped that this, in turn, will provide

  15. 10 CFR 150.7 - Persons in offshore waters not exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons in offshore waters not exempt. 150.7 Section 150.7... AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued Commission Regulatory Authority in Offshore Waters § 150.7 Persons in offshore waters not exempt. Persons in offshore waters are not exempt...

  16. Spill behaviour of Maui B crude oil (offshore Taranaki, New Zealand) under simulated wind and wave conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulzberger, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the response capabilities of New Zealand to an oil spill by the conduct of experiments designed to identify the behaviour of indigenous crude oil when spilled in seawater. The study aimed to determine the weathering properties and the accuracy of the standard rule that oil travels at 3 per cent of the wind speed. The weathering properties, evaporation rate and the expected velocity of the oil in water were measured for the Maui B crude oil, which boasted a moderate wax and high pour point. This information was considered essential to elaborate accurate Offshore Oil Spill Contingency plans. Two cleanup aids, two chemical dispersants and one organic cleaner were evaluated to determine their suitability for clean up operations. The results showed that the behaviour of the Maui B crude oil was greatly affected by the seasonal temperature variations off the coast of Taranaki, New Zealand. The oil travelled at approximately 3 per cent of the wind velocity in the warm sea temperatures, but travelled at 3.7 per cent of the wind velocity in colder seas. In all cases, the formation of tar balls and entrained water was present. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs

  17. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel; Dovgan, Olesya; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Based on a case study of the Danish company SimCorp and the development of its operations in Kiev, Ukraine, we analyze offshore outsourcing in a broader, longitudinal foreign operation mode context, and how it may contribute to mode change in the host country over a certain span of time. Sim......Corp had outsourced part of its software development work to two Ukrainian companies. The case study approach allowed us to explore the dynamic processes in depth. The study shows that involvement in the foreign market generates learning in various forms that provide a foundation for eventual mode...... development or change—beyond outsourcing specific learning. At the same time, restrictions on 3rd parties’, that is, independent vendors’ access to confidential client data, as well as protection of specific investments in human assets, may eventually become a driver for mode change, as in the SimCorp case...

  18. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Floating wind turbines enable harvesting the offshore wind resources over deep sea. About 20 concepts are under development, at varying stages of maturity. Two concepts are demonstrated in full scale; these are HyWind and WindFloat. Both employ a standard on-shore wind turbine with only minor...... modifications, but on a spar and a semi-submersible floater, respectively. Other concepts suggest new types of turbines, e.g., the DeepWind concept consisting of a vertical axis turbine and a subsea generator. The three concepts represent different approaches: HyWind and WindFloat are already in a demonstration...... metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  19. New insights into immune mechanisms underlying autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Antonio; Lenti, Marco Vincenzo; Giuffrida, Paolo; Vanoli, Alessandro; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Recent progresses in the immune mechanisms implicated in chronic inflammatory disorders have led to a more in-depth knowledge of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including autoimmune atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, autoimmune enteropathy and ulcerative colitis. While the pathogenic role of specific circulating autoantibodies, i.e., respectively anti-parietal cell, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-enterocyte and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic, is still controversial, some common T-cell mediated mechanisms for inflammation - increase in T helper cell type 1/type 17 pro-inflammatory cytokines- or losing self-tolerance-abnormal regulatory T cell function - are recognized as crucial mediators of the tissue damage causing atrophy of the stomach mucosa in autoimmune atrophic gastritis, villous flattening of the small bowel in celiac disease and autoimmune enteropathy, and mucosal ulceration of the colon in ulcerative colitis. This review deals with novel advances in the immunological bases of the aforementioned autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders, and it also highlights immune mechanisms of progression from chronic inflammation to cancer and implications for new therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlates of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, R Y; Manjunath, N

    2013-03-01

    In developing countries, acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) cause considerable morbidity, hospitalisation and mortality in children aged nutritional and environmental risk factors for ALRTI. The World Health Organization definition for ALRTI was used for cases. Healthy children attending child immunisation services were enrolled as controls. A total of 214 children, 107 cases and 107 controls, were enrolled. Among the cases, pneumonia, severe pneumonia and very severe disease constituted respectively 23.3%, 47.7% and 29%. Among cases and controls, the male-to-female ratio (1.3:1 vs. 0.9:1) and the proportion of infants (64.5% vs. 70.1%) were identical. Parents' literacy level was negatively associated with ALRTI. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, low socio-economic status (OR 4.89, 95%CI 1.93-12.36), upper respiratory infections in family members (OR 5.32, 95%CI 2.11-13.45), inappropriate weaning period (OR 3.01, 95%CI 1.12-8.07), malnutrition (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.84-3.67), pallor (OR 7.18, 95%CI 2.08-24.82) and cooking fuel other than liquid petroleum gas (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.23-10.45) were found to be significant risk factors (P education and public health measures.

  1. Delayed antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections in children under primary care: Physicians' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raft, Camilla Flintholm; Bjerrum, Lars; Arpi, Magnus; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Jensen, Jette Nygaard

    2017-12-01

    Overprescribing antibiotics for common or inaccurately diagnosed childhood infections is a frequent problem in primary healthcare in most countries. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions have been shown to reduce the use of antibiotics in primary healthcare. The aim was to examine primary care physicians' views on delayed antibiotic prescriptions to preschool children with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). A questionnaire was sent to 1180 physicians working in general practice in the Capital Region of Denmark, between January and March 2015. The questions focused on physicians' attitude and use of delayed antibiotic prescriptions to children with URTIs. The response rate was 49% (n = 574). Seven per cent of the physicians often used delayed prescriptions to children with symptoms of URTI, but 46% believed that delayed prescription could reduce antibiotic use. The physicians' views on delayed antibiotic prescription were significantly associated with their number of years working in general practice. Parents' willingness to wait-and-see, need for reassurance, and knowledge about antibiotics influenced the physicians' views. Also, clinical symptoms and signs, parents' willingness to shoulder the responsibility, the capability of observation without antibiotic treatment, and structural factors like out-of-hour services were relevant factors in the decision. Most physicians, especially those with fewer years of practice, had a positive attitude towards delayed antibiotic prescription. Several factors influence the views of the physicians-from perceptions of parents to larger structural elements and years of experience.

  2. In Vivo Dissolution and Systemic Absorption of Immediate Release Ibuprofen in Human Gastrointestinal Tract under Fed and Fasted Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Baker, Jason R; Wen, Bo; Frances, Ann; Zhang, Huixia; Yu, Alex; Zhao, Ting; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Pai, Manjunath P; Bleske, Barry E; Zhang, Xinyuan; Lionberger, Robert; Lee, Allen; Amidon, Gordon L; Hasler, William L; Sun, Duxin

    2017-12-04

    In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. A multilumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects. Subjects received a single oral dose of ibuprofen (800 mg tablet) with 250 mL of water under fasting and fed conditions. The GI catheter facilitated collection of GI fluid from the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Ibuprofen concentration in GI fluid supernatant and plasma was determined by LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 subjects completed the study, with 11 subjects returning for an additional study visit (a total of 34 completed study visits). The subjects were primarily white (61%) and male (65%) with an average age of 30 years. The subjects had a median [min, max] weight of 79 [52, 123] kg and body mass index of 25.7 [19.4, 37.7] kg/m 2 . Ibuprofen plasma levels were higher under fasted conditions and remained detectable for 28 h under both conditions. The AUC 0-24 and C max were lower in fed subjects vs fasted subjects, and T max was delayed in fed subjects vs fasted subjects. Ibuprofen was detected immediately after ingestion in the stomach under fasting and fed conditions until 7 h after dosing. Higher levels of ibuprofen were detected in the small intestine soon after dosing in fasted subjects compared to fed. In contrast to plasma drug concentration, overall gastric concentrations remained higher under fed conditions due to increased gastric pH vs fasting condition. The gastric pH increased to near neutrality after feedingbefore decreasing to acidic levels after 7 h. Induction of the fed state reduced systemic

  3. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    of the work include using only the offshoring strategy elements and only their limited variety as factors potentially influencing access to offshoring advantages. Also, the findings are limited to Scandinavian companies. Originality/value – The paper introduces a new concept of access, which can help to more......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  4. Solid Fuel in Kitchen and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Among Under Five Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison......This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short....../rapid breath and chest problem within 2 weeks before survey was considered as the symptoms of ARI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds of being suffered from ARI among the children from households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel...

  5. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.......This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  6. Loading Analysis of Modular Multi-level Converter for Offshore High-voltage DC Application under Various Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    challenges but may also result in overstressed components for the modular multi-level converter. However, the thermal loading of the modular multi-level converter under various grid faults has not yet been clarified. In this article, the power loss and thermal performance of the modular multi-level converter...... during grid voltage dips are studied. The impacts of two typical grid faults to the modular multi-level converter in terms of operating and loading conditions are analytically researched and simulated. It has been found that the operating and loading conditions of the modular multi-level converter under...

  7. Removal of coin from upper esophageal tract in children with Magill's forceps under propofol sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, B K; Joshi, R R; Bhattarai, B K; Sewal, R B

    2010-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common emergency problem in children. Coins are the most common foreign bodies lodged in the esophagus. This is a retrospective study where we reviewed 21 consecutive paediatric cases of coins impacted in the upper esophagus. These children were attended at the BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, from March 2007 to March 2008. In this study, Mc-Intosh laryngoscopes were inserted into the pharynx to elevate the larynx and to expose the esophageal entrance. Then Magill's forceps were advanced into the esophagus and opened in order to see and extract the coin from the esophagus under propofol sedation. Coins were successfully removed by Magill forceps without any complications from all 21 children. Amongst these children, 14 (66.7%) were male and 7 (33.3%) were female. The mean age of the children was 3.79 (+/- 3.02) years. The coin was grasped and extracted on the first attempt in all 21 patients. The mean time for the removal of the coin (i.e. initiation of laryngoscope to removal of coin) was 51.48 (+/- 24.17) seconds. During direct laryngoscopy, 15 (71.4%) coins were visualized clearly, whereas 6 (28.6%) were not. However all coins were successfully removed. The most commonly ingested coin is a one rupee Nepali coin (42.9%) followed by a two rupee coin (19.0%) and an Indian one rupee coin. Thus it can be seen that the coin impacted at the cricopharynx and upper oesophagus can be safely, easily and quickly removed by direct laryngoscopy and Magill's forceps under propofol sedation.

  8. An analysis of the mechanism of a reactivated basaltic landslide site under varying rate of displacement in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    During the past 20 years, the continuous weathering of the soil on sloping areas has greatly contributed to landslide-prone geo-environment in Mauritius. Consequently, the landslide areas became a matter of interest for the government of Mauritius. This research has been focused on an existing landslide area namely Chitrakoot in Mauritius which is 1.8 km2 and was monitored by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius from 2012 to 2015. In 2005, 54 houses and infrastructures were affected with the activation of the landslide and which further reactivated in 2006 damaging another 14 houses. During the investigation conducted by JICA's Experts, a landslide block of 300 m by 150 m in a highly populated zone was found to be unstable. To monitor the behaviour of the landslide, two extensometers were installed together with piezometers. The extensometers revealed that the unstable block kept moving after the event with accelerating movement during and after a heavy rainfall and cyclonic conditions. Moreover, the piezometers concluded that the groundwater rises above the ground surface in the rainy season. To examine the mechanism of the reactivated landslide, disturbed samples were taken from the shear zone and were tested in the laboratories of Niigata University, Japan. The borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes showed that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. Atterberg limits test for the soil showed that the soil had a liquid limit of 67.0%, plastic limit of 27.4 % and plasticity index of 39.26. The soil being of low plasticity possesses few inter-particle contact points and hence low shear stresses. Ring shear test was conducted under dry condition, fully saturated drained and undrained condition to examine the shear behaviour of the soil. Under the

  9. From Offshoring to Backshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring over time. The paper employs qualitative methodology and on the basis of two case studies of Danish companies, it develops a framework conceptualizing the stages of offshoring and highlights the factors driving the transition...... between these stages. The framework challenges the linear nature of offshoring and proposes the existence of ‘the pendulum effect’. The pendulum effect suggests that the modes of offshoring (i.e. captive and non-captive) and geographies of offshoring (i.e. home and abroad) are not static; rather...

  10. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity......With increasing incentives for reducing the CO2 emissions offshore, optimization of energy usage on offshore platforms has become a focus area. Most of offshore oil and gas platforms use gas turbines to support the electrical demand on the platform. It is common to operate a gas turbine mostly...... under part-load conditions most of the time in order to accommodate any short term peak loads. Gas turbines with flexibility with respect to fuel type, resulting in low turbine inlet and exhaust gas temperatures, are often employed. The typical gas turbine efficiency for an offshore application might...

  11. Cooperation under the RES Directive - Case study on a joint project: An offshore wind park in the North Sea (cooperation between the Netherlands, Belgium, UK, and Luxembourg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Nysten, Jana; Gephart, Malte

    assume that Belgium can achieve to involve Luxembourg into the project viastatistical transfers, corresponding to 10% of the project.Because of the first mover character of such a joint project in the North Sea, with offshore electricityproduction connected to several countries, we discuss in detail...... as compared to own development at the same site. The UK will gain anoption on additional offshore wind resources that may be at competitive prices. Luxembourg mighthave a benefit from using a concrete joint project for the import of RES benefits, as they are moretangible than for e.g. technology...

  12. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  13. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined in the CBS...... Maritime report “Offshore Supply Chain Dynamics – The main drivers in the energy sector and the value chain characteristics for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind”, which constitutes the first part of mapping project D. It offers insights into the main drivers in the energy sector (macro level...

  14. Panorama 2012 - Offshore hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbutoviez, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Technological progress is enabling production from offshore oil and gas fields at increasingly ambitious depths (3, 000 metres). Investment in offshore production is running at around $100 billion per year, accounting for one-fifth of all investment in oil exploration and development worldwide. However, the global economic crisis that broke at the end of 2008 and the accident involving the Macondo well temporarily disrupted the race to deep offshore technology. (author)

  15. New Progress in the Cause Analysis and Nursing of Respiratory Tract Infection after Abdominal Surgery under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Congxian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of the causes of respiratory tract infection after abdominal surgery. These causes include general anesthesia, intubation factors, factors inherent to the patient, surgical factors, the injudicious use of antimicrobial agents, and the environmental factors of the ward. The perioperative management of the respiratory tract should be strengthened. Health education, respiratory function training, oral nursing intervention, atomization inhalation, and personalized expectoration methods should receive more attention to decrease the complications and promote the early rehabilitation of patients after abdominal surgery.

  16. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  17. Advanced Laboratory Setup for Testing Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a test setup for testing small-scale offshore foundations under realistic conditions of high pore-water pressure and high impact loads. The actuator, used for loading has enough capacity to apply sufficient force and displacement to achieve both drained and undrained failure...... modes for small-scale offshore foundations. Results from trial tests on two small-scale bucket foundations, subjected to transient or cyclic loading, are presented. Tests showed that cavitation limits the undrained bearing capacity. Hence, a high pore-water pressure is important for simulating offshore...

  18. Technological capabilities, technological dynamism and innovation offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Torben; Baier, Elisabeth; Rammer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the conditions under which firms decide to offshore innovation. We consider the role of internal technological capabilities and technological dynamism in the firm environment, distinguishing speed and uncertainty of technological change. Using unique data from the German Innovation Survey we find that while high speed of technological change tends to drive innovation offshoring, high uncertainty about future technology developments results in more innovation offsho...

  19. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  20. Organizational Adaptation in Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Offshoring offers managers the promise of substantial economic benefits, but also comes with the risk of increased complexity and coordination challenges. We argue that offshoring firms must accumulate architectural knowledge to keep the cost of coordination of the geographically separated activi...

  1. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  2. Offshoring R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    Companies are increasingly offshoring R&D activities. Many firms, however, experience difficulties related to virtual teamwork across cultures and time zones. The research question is: How does increasing R&D offshoring impact transparency of communication structures and knowledge sharing? Using...

  3. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  4. "Nonlinear coupled dynamic response of offshore spar platforms under regular sea waves" by A.K. Agarwal and A.K. Jain. Ocean Engineering 30; 2003; 517-555

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    .C., Yasuda, T., 2002. Analysis of freak wave measurements in the sea of Japan. Ocean Engineering 29, 1399–1414. Sand, S.E., Hansen, Neo, Klingting, P., Gudmestad, O.T., Sterndorff, M.J., 1990. Freak waves kinematics. Proc. NATO advanced research workshop... 31 (2004) 791–793 www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Letter to the editor “Nonlinear coupled dynamic response of offshore spar platforms under regular sea waves” By Agarwal, AK and Jain, AK. Ocean Engineering, 2003, 30, 517-555 The authors have shown...

  5. A Pilot Study to Examine Exposure to Residential Radon in Under-Sampled Census Tracts of DeKalb County, Georgia, in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Dai, Dajun; Chan, Sydney R; Diem, Jeremy E; Weaver, Scott R; Rothenberg, Richard

    2017-03-22

    While DeKalb County, Georgia, offers free radon screening for all eligible residents, portions of the county remain relatively under-sampled. This pilot study focused on 10% of the census tracts in the county with the lowest proportion of radon testing; most were in southern DeKalb County. In total, 217 households were recruited and homes were tested for indoor radon concentrations on the lowest livable floor over an eight-week period from March-May 2015. Tract-level characteristics were examined to understand the differences in socio-demographic and economic factors between the pilot study area and the rest of the county. The pilot study tracts had a higher proportion of African Americans compared to the rest of DeKalb County (82% versus 47%). Radon was detected above 11.1 Bq/m³ (0.3 pCi/L) in 73% of the indoor samples and 4% of samples were above 148 Bq/m³ (4 pCi/L). Having a basement was the strongest predictive factor for detectable and hazardous levels of radon. Radon screening can identify problems and spur homeowners to remediate but more research should be done to identify why screening rates vary across the county and how that varies with radon levels in homes to reduce radon exposure.

  6. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... and direct investments. At the center of both value chains are the energy companies. The energy companies have a number of suppliers and sub suppliers which provide a range of equipment and services to the offshore operations. The supply industry is characterized by horizontal cooperation (between suppliers...

  7. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  8. Study on wind turbine arrangement for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the separation distance between two neighboring offshore wind turbines has been carried out by using the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes technique developed at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Under offshore atmospheric conditions, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for...... to the turbulence mixing. This study hints that the optimal separation distance between neighboring turbines for offshore wind farms should be 7 rotor diameters....

  9. Whether and What to Offshore?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ørberg; Pedersen, Torben

    In this article, we explore the idea that offshoring of services and technical work should be regarded as a dynamic process that evolves over time. Firms gradually move from offshoring of simple, standardized activities towards offshoring of advanced activities when they accumulate experience...... that incorporates two different aspects of the process of offshoring. First, we approach the question of whether to offshore and establish a baseline that investigates the determinants of firms’ participation—or lack thereof—in offshoring. Secondly, we approach the question of what to offshore and the subsequent...

  10. The Swedish experience, Utgrunden offshore windfarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, Thomas [Enron Wind Sverige AB (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    The operation of the 10 MW Utgrunden Offshore Project in Sweden since the commissioning December 2000. The Utgrunden Wind Park is a demonstration project for Enron Wind showing the capability for full scale offshore projects in Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany and Great Britain. It is seven EW 1.5s turbines on a rammed monopile all in total a 10 MW offshore park. The project uses intelligent megawatt variable speed machines under offshore conditions similar to full scale projects built this year in Denmark. The wind park is using an innovative foundation technology and operation and maintenance strategy. The purpose is to show investors that wind technology is now ready for commercial large scale offshore projects. That it is possible to operate and maintain an offshore park with availability kept above 95 %. The project uses variable speed machines which makes it possible to control the loads. This in combination with a flexible tower construction have made it possible so reduce the weight with 50 tons per turbine in comparison to fixed speed technology. Results from the operation of the park from 21 of December 2000 to January 2002 will be presented as well as some production statistics during three peek load hours from Christmas 2001. At all offshore project the environmental questions concerning birds and fishes are of equal importance as technical and economical matters. Another important topic is how to handle and build up public interest. At Bergkvara Harbour Utgrunden Offshore Wind Park has become a tourist attraction with a during June-August open expo and daily boat tours. The local demand is to extend the park (Published in summary form only)

  11. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  12. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Impulse Based Substructuring for Coupling Offshore Structures and Wind Turbines in Aero-Elastic Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, P.L.C.; Rixen, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of 20% renewable energy in 2020, as set by the European Union, large offshore wind farms are either under construction or in development through-out Europe. As many of the "easy" locations are already under development, offshore wind farms are moving further offshore

  14. Offshoring in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    MONTÓN GARCÍA, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    [ EN] This project is about offshoring in the textile industry, focusing in the rights violated in this process, this concept can be defined as the moving of various operations of a company to another country for reasons such as lower labor costs or more favorable economic conditions in that other country. The project describes the evolution of offshoring, which started in 1960’s and has continued since then; it was characterized primarily by the transferring of factories from the develope...

  15. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrits, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  16. Getting offshoring right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers

  17. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    consisting of a number of offshored activities. In this special issue introduction paper, we argue that an organizational design perspective on offshoring can benefit research and practice in understanding how firms can coordinate and integrate offshoring activities. Specifically, we argue that offshoring......Offshoring can be defined as the relocation of organizational tasks and services to foreign locations. At the same time as the scale and scope of offshoring have reached unprecedented levels in recent years, firms have increasingly been exposed to the challenges relating to managing an organization...... implies an organizational reconfiguration consisting of three stages: disintegration, relocation and reintegration. We discuss the implications of this perspective and outline a research agenda....

  18. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  19. Spina bifida occulta: is it a predictor of underlying spinal cord abnormality in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Farideh; Radmanesh, Farid; Ansari, Saeed; Tajik, Parvin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdolmohammad; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of spina bifida occulta in radiographs of children with lower urinary tract or bowel dysfunction. The authors prospectively investigated the presence of spinal cord abnormalities in 176 patients with functional urinary and bowel problems: 88 children with radiographic evidence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and 88 age-and sex-matched controls. Each group included 46 boys and 42 girls (age range 5-14 years). Nocturnal enuresis, isolated diurnal enuresis, enuresis during both day and night, urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, encopresis, intractable constipation, and vesicoureteral reflux were assessed in all patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in all patients and evaluated for spinal cord abnormalities. Sacral ratios (SRs) were calculated on the basis of plain radiographs. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups on any of the clinical measures. The most common sites of SBO on radiographs were the S-1 (47%) and L-5 and S-1 (25%). The mean SRs (+/-standard deviations) in the SBO and control groups, respectively, were 0.64+/-0.45 and 0.68+/-0.51 (no statistically significant difference). Sacral agenesis was found in 17 children (7 in the SBO group and 10 in the control group, p=0.44). Abnormal MR imaging findings were observed in 9 children (10.22%) in the SBO group and 3 (3.4%) in the control group. Abnormalities included tethered spinal cord in 5 children, syringomyelia in 4, and club-shaped conus in 2. No significant association was found between the presence of SBO and spinal cord abnormalities identified on MR images (p=0.13, paired t-test). Among children with functional bowel and urinary problems, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of abnormal spinal MR imaging findings in those with radiographic SBO and an age- and sex-matched control group. Spina bifida occulta was not shown to be a reliable indicator of spinal cord

  20. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii...... of skill composition and rent sharing available in typical firm level datasets - like ratio of educated to uneducated workers and sales per employee.......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...

  1. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development scenarios are critical when trying to assess the impact of the demonstration at national and European level. The work described in this report had several objectives. The main objective was to prepare and deliver the proper input necessary for assessing the impact of Demo 4...... – Storm management at national and European level. For that, detailed scenarios for offshore wind power development by 2020 and 2030 were required. The aggregation level that is suitable for the analysis to be done is at wind farm level. Therefore, the scenarios for offshore wind power development offer...... details about the wind farms such as: capacity and coordinates. Since the focus is on the impact of storm fronts passage in Northen Europe, the offshore wind power scenarios were estimated only for the countries at North and Baltic Sea. The sources used are public sources, mentioned in the reference list...

  3. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    issues on the boundaries of the firm. More or less advanced tasks can be found within all activities, e.g., in sales and marketing where telesales is on the less advanced end of the scale while branding and identity building are on the advanced end of the scale. This article focuses on the antecedents...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  5. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  6. Models to predict both sensible and latent heat transfer in the respiratory tract of Morada Nova sheep under semiarid tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinícius Carvalho; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; da Silva, Josinaldo Araújo; Pereira, Walter Esfraim; Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti Pimenta; Almeida, Maria Elivânia Vieira

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to build a prediction model both sensible and latent heat transfer by respiratory tract for Morada Nova sheep under field conditions in a semiarid tropical environment, using easily measured physiological and environmental parameters. Twelve dry Morada Nova ewes with an average of 3 ± 1.2 years old and average body weight of 32.76 ± 3.72 kg were used in a Latin square design 12 × 12 (12 days of records and 12 schedules). Tidal volume, respiratory rate, expired air temperature, and partial vapor pressure of the expired air were obtained from the respiratory facial mask and using a physiological measurement system. Ewes were evaluated from 0700 to 1900 h in each day under shade. A simple nonlinear model to estimate tidal volume as a function of respiratory rate was developed. Equation to estimate the expired air temperature was built, and the ambient air temperature was the best predictor together with relative humidity and ambient vapor pressure. In naturalized Morada Nova sheep, respiratory convection seems to be a mechanism of heat transfer of minor importance even under mild air temperature. Evaporation from the respiratory system increased together with ambient air temperature. At ambient air temperature, up to 35 °C respiratory evaporation accounted 90 % of the total heat lost by respiratory system, on average. Models presented here allow to estimate the heat flow from the respiratory tract for Morada Nova sheep bred in tropical region, using easily measured physiological and environmental traits as respiratory rate, ambient air temperature, and relative humidity.

  7. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  8. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  9. Effect of morphine on lower urinary tract discomfort after transurethral resection of prostate under general anesthesia: a randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menda, Ferdi; Temur, Sibel; Bilgen, Sevgi; Yencilek, Faruk; Koyuncu, Hakan; Sancar, Nurcan; Koner, Ozge

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract (LUT) discomfort is a common complaint after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), and it may lead to agitation and restlessnes. We have evaluated the efficacy of morphine for preventing TURP-related LUT discomfort symptoms. This was a prospective randomised study including 60 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II) who were scheduled to undergo TURP. The patients were divided into two equally sized groups (group M: morphine, group C: control). A standartized anesthesia method was used. Group M patients received morphine 0.04 mg/kg intravenous (iv) in 100 ml of normal saline followed by an infusion of morphine for 24 h (0.01 mg/kg/h); group C patients received 100 ml normal saline 20 min before the expected extubation time, followed by a normal saline infusion which looked identical to that of the morphine infusion. The incidences and severity of LUT discomfort, postoperative pain, sedation level, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and respiratory depression were recorded at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h postoperatively. The incidence of LUT discomfort was lower in group M patients at all time points during the study (p LUT discomfort was also lower this group at 0, 12 and 24 h postoperatively (p = 0.001, p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). Pain (numeric rating scale) scores were lower in group M patients at 0 (p = 0.003) and 6 h (p LUT discomfort after TURP at a cost of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  10. Offshore Windturbines in Areas with Strong Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter; Jensen, Morten S.

    The purpose of the project is to establish a better understanding of the development of scour at circular monopiles of offshore windturbines. The purpose of the model tests is to illuminate various aspects of scour developed under typical conditions but also to shed light on the influence on scou...

  11. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  12. Offshore environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Degraer, S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms (OWFs) is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the cumulative environmental impact of such farms. The major impacts are caused by the noise produced in the building phase, the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise in

  13. Nearshore versus Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  14. Lightweight Efficient Offshore Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    At offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions from supply vessels.Normally the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not normally capable of resisting the impact load from of the boat. Therefore ...

  15. Offshore 2010. Final report; Offshore 2010. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    An overview of the accomplishments of the various projects that have received support from the Norwegian Research Council's program 'Offshore 2010'. The following projects are presented, some have English and some Norwegian project names: 'Critical parameters influencing inhibitor performance in multiphase flow', 'Development of the drilling optimization simulator (DDS) and a totally integrated drilling optimization system', 'Produksjonsoptimalisering og automatisk styring av broenner og roerledninger (PETRONICS)', 'Termisk isolerte undervannsroer for sikring av broenntransport over store avstander', 'Utvikling av magnetisk frekvensformer for styring av store subsea pumper paa havdyp ned mot 4000 meter', 'Flerfase stroemningsmaaler for permanent nedihulls installasjon', 'Hastighetsmaaling i flerfase stroemning ved passiv akustikk', 'Oil/water seperation offshore: optimized flow- and seperation behavior', 'Stroemningshastighet', 'A rock mechanics based reservoir simulation', 'MultiTool fase 2 - et flerbruksverktoey for nedihulls applikasjoner', 'Utvikling av undervanns olje-i-vann monitor for kontinuerlig maaling av lave oljekonsentrasjoner basert paa TR-LIFS', 'Subsea multipath ultrasonic liquid flow meter', 'Fluid characterization at elevated pressures and temperatures (Flucha II)'. The two main goals for the research program are 1. The development of new technology and competency in the field of downhole- and subsea processing and multiphase transportation, and 2. Innovation and commercialisation in small and medium sized companies (less than 100 employees). Some details on the financing and results are included (ml)

  16. The economics of offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. - Research Highlights: → Market trends for investment in offshore wind generation. → Cost analysis and comparison of offshore and onshore wind farms. → Review of policy support schemes in Europe for offshore wind generators and implications.

  17. Offshore concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shiphuidling industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  18. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective: The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design: The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results: Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions: Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food.

  19. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziarno, Małgorzata; Zaręba, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food.

  20. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziarno, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Background In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food. PMID:26546945

  1. Offshore wind investments – Realism about cost developments is necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Wierling, August

    2016-01-01

    Data available from the recent boom in European offshore wind investments contradict widely held expectations about a decline in costs per kW. Our review shows that scenario projections for investment costs are systematically flawed by over-optimistic assumptions. Contrasting offshore wind technology with onshore wind and nuclear power, we argue that offshore wind could be a candidate for negative learning since a trend towards more complex OWP (offshore wind parks) exists and uncertainty remains high. We estimate technical uncertainty and input cost uncertainty to calculate whether investments in offshore wind technology are profitable today. Applying a real option model to two reference plants using empirically derived parameter values, we allow for sunk cost and the possibility to abandon the investment. We find that for a large parameter range, investments are not profitable, even with substantial support such as feed-in tariffs under the German Energy Act. Therefore, policy incentives for building larger and more complex offshore wind parks bear a high risk to fail in their aim of bringing down investment costs. Policies that instead incentivize the optimization of offshore wind technology – in particular by increasing the load factor and material efficiency and bringing down decommissioning costs – are more sustainable. - Highlights: • We review offshore wind power investments. • Contrary to expectations costs increase. • It is unlikely to see a turn in the near future as complexity is growing. • We deploy an empirically based real option model. • Investments are not profitable across a large parameter range.

  2. The Offshore New European Wind Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagali, I.; Hahmann, A. N.; Badger, M.; Hasager, C.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    The New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) is a joint effort of research agencies from eight European countries, co-funded under the ERANET Plus Program. The project is structured around two areas of work: development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and measurement campaigns to validate these methodologies, leading to the creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form. This atlas will contain an offshore component extending 100 km from the European coasts. To achieve this, mesoscale models along with various observational datasets are utilised. Scanning lidars located at the coastline were used to compare the coastal wind gradient reproduced by the meso-scale model. Currently, an experimental campaign is occurring in the Baltic Sea, with a lidar located in a commercial ship sailing from Germany to Lithuania, thus covering the entire span of the south Baltic basin. In addition, satellite wind retrievals from scatterometers and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments were used to generate mean wind field maps and validate offshore modelled wind fields and identify the optimal model set-up parameters.The aim of this study is to compare the initial outputs from the offshore wind atlas produced by the Weather & Research Forecasting (WRF) model, still in pre-operational phase, and the METOP-A/B Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) wind fields, reprocessed to stress equivalent winds at 10m. Different experiments were set-up to evaluate the model sensitivity for the various domains covered by the NEWA offshore atlas. ASCAT winds were utilised to assess the performance of the WRF offshore atlases. In addition, ASCAT winds were used to create an offshore atlas covering the years 2007 to 2016, capturing the signature of various spatial wind features, such as channelling and lee effects from complex coastal topographical elements.

  3. Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Myall, Nathaniel J; Wandell, Brian A; Feldman, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts) in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile) may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA) values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ) that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further validation, AFQ Tract

  4. Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Yeatman

    Full Text Available Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further

  5. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power...... system considering conventional power plants, distributed generation based on wind energy and CHP technology as well as the load and transmission facilities. In particular, the different models are used to represent two well-known test systems, the RBTS and the IEEE-RTS, and to calculate...

  6. Advanced Service Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg; Lind, Manya Jaura

    2018-01-01

    the capabilities, where the deficient development of one capability can be mitigated by the development of another capability (firm-internal determinants). Grounded in organization and service production theory, the paper contributes to the thematic literature on service offshoring and literature on organizational......We analyze the effect of offshored service task types on the development of capabilities in emerging market service provider firms. Using multiple case studies, we find that dependent on task interdependent service types, implying different client interactions (firm-external determinants......), organizational capabilities are developed. More specifically, reciprocal task interdependent services generate human capital and management capabilities, while sequential task interdependent services generate organizational capital and management capabilities. Moreover, we find a relationship between...

  7. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    that these decisions are embedded in the same context – firms making governance and location decisions. Therefore, papers 1-4 primarily focus on offshoring, whereas paper 5 focuses on insourcing and paper 6 on reshoring. Their main findings are summarized in Table II. Research limitations/implications: Suggestions......Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... for future research out of the six papers are summarized in Table III. There is ample opportunity to further shed light on these suggestions as well as to cover parts of the “rightshoring” framework presented, that remain less covered here (e.g. insourcing and/or reshoring). Practical implications: The array...

  8. United Kingdom offshore surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    To date, the reconnaissance mapping programme of the inner continental shelf of the United Kingdom has absorbed almost the entire effort of the offshore programme. Activities now, however, are much more diverse. Clients include government departments and public and private industry, and there are also the strategic and basis research projects in support of the Core Programme. Attention is now being turned to the remaining unexplored areas of the UK shelf. These include the Rockall Trough, the Hatton Rockall Basin, the Faeroe-Shetland Channel and the Norwegian Sea to the west and north of Scotland; and also the coastal strip around the UK extending one to two kilometres offshore, which was inaccessible to the large ships that conducted the first phase of the shelf survey. (author).

  9. Meta-analysis of Magnetic Marker Monitoring Data to Characterize the Movement of Single Unit Dosage Forms Though the Gastrointestinal Tract Under Fed and Fasting Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénin, Emilie; Bergstrand, Martin; Weitschies, Werner; Karlsson, Mats O

    2016-03-01

    To develop a model predicting movement of non-disintegrating single unit dosage forms (or "tablet") through the gastrointestinal tract and characterizing the effect of food intake, based on Magnetic Marker Monitoring data, allowing real-time location of a magnetically labeled formulation. Five studies including 30 individuals in 94 occasions under 3 food status were considered. The mean residence time (MRT) of the tablet and the effect of food intake in proximal (PS) and distal stomach (DS), small intestine (SI), ascending (AC), transverse (TC) and descending colon (DC) were estimated using a Markov model for probabilities of movement. Under fasting conditions, tablet MRTs were 9.4 min in PS, 10.4 in DS, 246 in SI, 545 in AC, 135 in TC, and 286 in DC. A meal taken simultaneous to tablet intake prolonged tablet MRT to 99 min in PS and to 232 in DS; probability of gastric emptying increased of 89% each hour from 2.25 h after meal. The effect of a gastroileac reflex, caused by a secondary meal, accelerated the transit from terminal SI to AC. This model-based knowledge can be used as a part of mechanism-based models for drug absorption, applied for bottom-up predictions and/or top-down estimation.

  10. Outsourcing software development offshore making IT work

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2004-01-01

    THE OFFSHORE IMPERATIVECrunching the Offshore Numbers: What the Financials PortendWelcome to the Definitive Guide on Offshore OutsourcingSetting the Stage: The Compelling Offshore StoryOffshore Outsourcing versus Traditional IT OutsourcingChallenges of Offshore OutsourcingChapter SummaryGetting Started in OffshoreExecutive Support and Communications: The Key to SuccessA Look at an Example of Enlightened Leadership: Handling Employee Impact at a Northeast Utilities CompanyWell-Planned and Executed Communications: A Critical Success Factor for Offshore Program InitiationEstablishing the Offshore

  11. Offshore Desalination Using Wave Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Serna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the design of an offshore desalination plant currently under preliminary development. The purpose is to test the feasibility of producing drinkable water using wave energy in out-of-sight installations, as an alternative for those locations where land use, civil engineering works, and/or environmental impact make a coast-based solution inadequate. After describing the components, a proposal for sizing them is studied, based on using buoy-measured data at the expected location and their mathematical models of the different sections of the plant. Finally, by using measured buoy data, the influence of sizing on the expected performance is studied for a specific location, and one of the designs is developed in detail.

  12. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  13. The Economic Geography of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    when distinguishing between standardized and advanced activities. Asia attracts as many advanced activities as Western Europe while North America attracts more advanced activities even in manufacturing. Central and Eastern Europe attract offshoring in manufacturing and IT, but the activities......We draw from the literature on economic geography and from the thematic offshoring literature, and propose three hypotheses that rest on the assumption that the choice of offshoring location is based on the fit between the attributes of different destinations and the attributes of the offshored...

  14. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  15. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik

    Offshore wind energy has greatly matured during the last decade with an annually installed energy capacity exceeding 1 GW. A key factor for further large-scale development of offshore wind energy is a cost of energy reduction. Given for example the drop in oil price since summer 2014, which has c...

  16. OFFSHORING FOR SUSTAINABLE VALUE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Oforegbunam Ebiringa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates offshoring as a strategic value management initiative using Cadbury Nigeria Plc as a case study. Through offshoring risks associated with inventory holding are hedged. A comparative analysis of in-house and offshored cost profiles as well as critical risk factors that affect firm value are evaluated. The result shows that offshoring led to immediate costs saving, freeing of funds previously held in inventory for other working capital investments as well as profitability for vendors. However, aside financial benefits to partners, it leads to increased stakeholders awareness, shared values, partnerships, teamwork and risk mitigation. It therefore follows that for sustainability of financial benefits of offshoring, concerted effort must be made by partners to ensure that critical drivers of value management are not compromised.

  17. Resource Use of Wind Farms in the German North Sea—The Example of Alpha Ventus and Bard Offshore I

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Rohn; Klaus Wiesen; Jens Teubler

    2013-01-01

    The German government aims to obtain at least 40 percent of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030. One of the central steps to reach this target is the construction of deep sea offshore wind farms. The paper presents a material intensity analysis of the offshore wind farms “Alpha Ventus” and “Bard Offshore I” under consideration of the grid connection. An additional onshore scenario is considered for comparison. The results show that offshore wind farms have higher resource consumpti...

  18. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  19. The rate of antibiotic utilization in Iranian under 5-year-old children with acute respiratory tract illness: A nationwide community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Mostafavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the prevalence of antibiotic usage in children aged <5 years with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI in Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from a national health survey conducted in 2010 (Iran′s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. Participants of this cross-sectional study were selected by multistage stratified cluster-random sampling from 31 provinces of Iran. Parents of children with <5 years of age responded to questions about the occurrence of any cough during the previous 2 weeks, referral to private/governmental/other health care systems, and utilization of any oral/injection form of antibiotics. Data were analyzed using SPSS software18. The chi-square test was used to determine antibiotic consumption in various gender and residency groups and also a place of residence with the referral health care system. Results: Of the 9345 children under 5 years who participated in the study, 1506 cases (16.2% had ARTI during 2 weeks prior to the interview, in whom 1143 (75.9% were referred to urban or rural health care centers (43.4 vs. 30.4%; P < 0.001. Antibiotics were utilized by 715 (62.6% of affected children. Injection formulations were used for 150 (13.1% patients. The frequency of receiving antibiotics was higher in urban than in rural inhabitants (66.0% vs. 57.7%; P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of total and injection antibiotics usage in children <5 years with ARTI is alarmingly high in Iran. Therefore, interventions to reduce antibiotic use are urgently needed.

  20. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum Strains Isolated from Mozzarella Cheese: Probiotic Potential, Safety, Acidifying Kinetic Parameters and Viability under Gastrointestinal Tract Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Bruna Maria Salotti; Borgonovi, Taís Fernanda; Casarotti, Sabrina Neves; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Penna, Ana Lúcia Barretto

    2018-03-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, as well as to select novel and safe strains for future development of functional fermented products. The in vitro auto-aggregation, co-aggregation, hydrophobicity, β-galactosidase production, survival to gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated. The selected strains were additionally tested by the presence of genes encoding adhesion, aggregation and colonization, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and biogenic amine production, followed by the evaluation of acidifying kinetic parameters in milk, and survival of the strains under simulated GIT conditions during refrigerated storage of fermented milk. Most strains of both species showed high auto-aggregation; some strains showed co-aggregation ability with other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and/or pathogens, and both species showed low hydrophobicity values. Seven L. casei and six L. fermentum strains produced β-galactosidase enzymes, and ten strains survived well the simulation of the GIT stressful conditions evaluated in vitro. All strains were resistant to vancomycin, and almost all the strains were resistant to kanamycin. L. casei SJRP38 and L. fermentum SJRP43 were distinguished among the other LAB strains by their higher probiotic potential. L. fermentum SJRP43 presented fewer genes related to virulence factors and antibiotic resistance and needed more time to reach the maximum acidification rate (V max ). The other kinetic parameters were similar. Both strains survived well (> 8 log 10 CFU/mL) to the GIT-simulated conditions when incorporated in fermented milk. Therefore, these strains presented promising properties for further applications in fermented functional products.

  1. Decreased Axon Caliber Underlies Loss of Fiber Tract Integrity, Disproportional Reductions in White Matter Volume, and Microcephaly in Angelman Syndrome Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Matthew C; Burette, Alain C; Thaxton, Courtney L; Pribisko, Alaine L; Shen, Mark D; Rumple, Ashley M; Del Cid, Wilmer A; Paniagua, Beatriz; Styner, Martin; Weinberg, Richard J; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2017-08-02

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of function of the maternally inherited UBE3A allele. It is currently unclear how the consequences of this genetic insult unfold to impair neurodevelopment. We reasoned that by elucidating the basis of microcephaly in AS, a highly penetrant syndromic feature with early postnatal onset, we would gain new insights into the mechanisms by which maternal UBE3A loss derails neurotypical brain growth and function. Detailed anatomical analysis of both male and female maternal Ube3a -null mice reveals that microcephaly in the AS mouse model is primarily driven by deficits in the growth of white matter tracts, which by adulthood are characterized by densely packed axons of disproportionately small caliber. Our results implicate impaired axon growth in the pathogenesis of AS and identify noninvasive structural neuroimaging as a potentially valuable tool for gauging therapeutic efficacy in the disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People who maternally inherit a deletion or nonfunctional copy of the UBE3A gene develop Angelman syndrome (AS), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. To better understand how loss of maternal UBE3A function derails brain development, we analyzed brain structure in a maternal Ube3a knock-out mouse model of AS. We report that the volume of white matter (WM) is disproportionately reduced in AS mice, indicating that deficits in WM development are a major factor underlying impaired brain growth and microcephaly in the disorder. Notably, we find that axons within the WM pathways of AS model mice are abnormally small in caliber. This defect is associated with slowed nerve conduction, which could contribute to behavioral deficits in AS, including motor dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377347-15$15.00/0.

  2. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...

  3. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  4. Liquefaction and merchandising of offshore natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H.W. (LGA Gastechnik G.m.b.H., Remagen (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-01-01

    The liquefaction of offshore natural gas is a relatively new technology, and years of intensive research and development indicate that it is now feasible. But problems can occur in the phase of merchandising the cryogenic liquid. In this context, the necessary steps start with the intermediate product storage which maybe integrated in the liquefaction platform, or which possibly has to be on an external structure. The product transfer from the platform to the exporting tanker is another problem area. The paper deals with the principle design features of the liquefaction plant's supporting structure (barge, semisubmersible or fixed platform). Special emphasize is given to the technical, the operational and the economic aspects of the product transfer from the offshore liquefaction site to the coastal terminal and these considerations are summarized under the heading merchandising.

  5. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  6. Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    A corporation’s offshore outsourcing may be seen as the result of a discrete, strategic decision taken in response to an increasing pressure from worldwide competition. However, empirical evidence of a representative cross-sector sample of international Danish firms indicates that offshore sourcing...... in low-cost countries is best described as a learning-by-doing process in which the offshore outsourcing of a corporation goes through a sequence of stages towards sourcing for innovation. Initially, a corporation’s outsourcing is driven by a desire for cost minimization. Over a period of time...

  7. Offshore wind power in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the project were to estimate the technical offshore wind power potential of the Gulf of Bothnia, with cost assessments, to study icing conditions and ice loads, and to design a foundation suitable for the environmental conditions. The technical offshore potential from Vaasa to Tornio is huge, more than 40 TWh/a, although the cost of offshore wind power is still higher than on land. Wind turbines have not previously been designed for the icing conditions found in Gulf of Bothnia and the recommendations for load cases and siting of megawatt-class turbines are an important result of the project. (orig.)

  8. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Hvenekær Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Offshore vindenergi er i høj grad modnet i det seneste årti med en årligt installeret kapacitet på mere end1 GW. En vigtig faktor for den videre udvikling af offshore vindenergi i stor målestok, er en reduktion af de samlede udgifter til produceret energi. I betragtning af for eksempel faldet i olieprisen siden sommeren 2014 og dens fortsatte fald ind i 2015, er det endnu vigtigere at sænke omkostningerne til etablering af vedvarende energikilder såsom offshore vindenergi, for at nå frem til ...

  9. Integration of Wave and Offshore Wind Energy in a European Offshore Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Sørensen, H. C.; Korpås, M.

    2010-01-01

    of offshore renewable energy sources. According to this, the paper covers i) public and private initiatives for offshore transmission networks, ii) the synergies between the wave and the offshore wind energy sector within an offshore grid, iii) power transmission options for offshore generation and iv...

  10. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  11. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Long-term, net offshore bar migration is a common occurrence on many multiple-barred beaches. The first stage of the process involves the generation of a longshore bar close to the shoreline that oscillates about a mean position for some time, followed by a stage of net offshore migration across...... the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding...... of the morphodynamic processes and sediment transport pathways involved in bar decay is limited. In this paper, long-term, net offshore bar migration is investigated at Vejers Beach, located on the North Sea coast of Denmark where offshore bar migration rates are of the order of 45–55 m a-1. A wave height...

  12. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2014-01-01

    The general research question guiding this thesis is: What are the organizational consequences of offshoring? Increasingly firms are becoming caught up by the “harsh realities of offshoring” (Aron and Singh, 2005: 135). Many firms have begun to realize that managing an increasingly globally....... In this respect, a number of questions arise. For example, how does the added distance between the organizational activities signified by offshoring impact task interdependencies and performance? How do bounded rational decision makers account for and plan the organizational change from co....... Accordingly, the overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate why some firms fail when offshoring and others do not. To accomplish this, offshoring is conceptualized as an organizational reconfiguration which requires firms to coordinate and integrate geographically dispersed activities across distances...

  13. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2014-01-01

    . Accordingly, the overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate why some firms fail when offshoring and others do not. To accomplish this, offshoring is conceptualized as an organizational reconfiguration which requires firms to coordinate and integrate geographically dispersed activities across distances......The general research question guiding this thesis is: What are the organizational consequences of offshoring? Increasingly firms are becoming caught up by the “harsh realities of offshoring” (Aron and Singh, 2005: 135). Many firms have begun to realize that managing an increasingly globally....... In this respect, a number of questions arise. For example, how does the added distance between the organizational activities signified by offshoring impact task interdependencies and performance? How do bounded rational decision makers account for and plan the organizational change from co...

  14. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  15. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  16. Offshoring along the Production Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Harms; Oliver Lorz; Dieter M. Urban

    2009-01-01

    Recent contributions on offshoring often assume that firms can freely split their production process into separate steps which can be ranked according to the cost savings from producing abroad. We replace this assumption by the notion of a technologically determined sequence of production steps. In our model, cost savings from offshoring fluctuate along the production chain, and moving unfinished goods across borders causes transport costs. We show that, in such a setting, firms may refrain f...

  17. The Offshore Bucket Trail Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Andreas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The Bucket Trail Installation project has gathered a substantial amount of date in a unique soil database which enable update of the used standards for penetration prediction. This update will lead to less conservative design of bucket foundations and is vital for the aim of cost reduction...... in the offshore wind business. Furthermore is serial offshore operation with the bucket concept was demonstrated with achieving full installation depth and inclination within given tolerance....

  18. IS OFFSHORING AN INTERNATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyze the applicability of transaction cost economics - TCE (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1975, 1979 through its characteristic make-or-buy expression, considering the offshoring pace and emerging economy firms. The make-or-buy decision must be flexible enough to explain offshoring characteristics and developed and emerging economy firms scenarios. As secondary objectives, and to show the trail to the main purpose, two research questions were identified and discussed during the paper: Is offshoring process an international movement only from developed countries to emerging economies? Is the main reason of offshoring the looking for low-cost work / activities? To achieve the proposed objectives, the structure of this paper begins with a reasonable or acceptable definition of offshoring. Some reasons (or “the reason” for the process are also another important starting point. The majority of articles referee the idea that low-cost is the main reason for offshoring, and if it is correct, transaction cost economics seems to be a good basis for our analysis purpose and integrative intention. Also some literature connections between offshoring and TCE are presented and, naturally TCE is presented in highlights for understanding these connections. Ending this section, some different arguments based on newer researches are presented by some authors presenting another perspective as the main reason. After this theoretical approach, a scenario analysis and some discussions are presented based on all possible interactions among firm from developed (DC and emerging economies (EE and examples of international corporations are presented to clarify and improve the understanding of our research questions and to build new contributions to international business theory.

  19. Energy yield prediction of offshore wind farm clusters at the EERA-DTOC European project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, E.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    A new integrated design tool for optimization of offshore wind farm clusters is under development in the European Energy Research Alliance – Design Tools for Offshore wind farm Cluster project (EERA DTOC). The project builds on already established design tools from the project partners and possib...

  20. Energy Yield Prediction of Offshore Wind Farm Clusters at the EERA-DTOC European Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, E.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated design tool for optimization of offshore wind farm clusters is under development in the European Energy Research Alliance – Design Tools for Offshore wind farm Cluster project (EERA DTOC). The project builds on already established design tools from the project partners and possib...

  1. 77 FR 75656 - Research Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia, Request for... obtain a lease under 30 CFR 585.238 for renewable energy research activities, including the siting of two... production of renewable energy within and around the Wind Energy Area (WEA) offshore Virginia, identified by...

  2. Testing of full scale composite journal bearings for offshore underwater applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, R.C.; Van Den Heuvel, W.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Slot, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the offshore industry, fibre reinforced sliding journal bearings are increasingly used due to their low-maintenance and self-lubricating characteristics. To be able to use the bearings in the rough offshore environment, under heavy loading, full scale tests are essential to assess the friction

  3. A Macro-Element Approach for Non-linear Response of Offshore Skirted Footings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2018-01-01

    -hardening plasticity model for the moment and horizontal force resultants associated with the displacements of the offshore suction caissons is herein developed. In addition, in order to better understand the performance of offshore bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loads series of cyclic lateral load tests were...

  4. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  5. Offshore investments: Denmark shows the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of wind power in Denmark and discusses the tremendous growth in the manufacture of wind turbines since 1981 with Denmark holding some 60% of the worlds' wind turbine market. The move to offshore wind farms is explained in terms of the shortage of land and the quality of the offshore wind, and details of the Tuno Knob pilot offshore wind farm are given. Offshore wind power in Europe, the challenges to offshore operations, the costs involved, environmental effects of the use of offshore wind, and the growing amount of wind power capacity are discussed

  6. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  7. Urinary tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (cystitis or urethritis) with no urological anomalies and mostly affects girls over the age of 2 years. Complicated UTIs involve the renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis), and are usually associated with underlying congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract.9 These UTIs may result in significant short-term morbidity,.

  8. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau

    2012-11-01

    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  9. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...

  10. Offshore Wind Energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Hvelplund, Frede

    Offshore wind energy has developed in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. This paper will attempt to explain the paradox of increasing costs of offshore wind energy despite larger scales and technological development by looking at other factors: The limited...... availability of locations, driven by accelerating requirements of environmental concern, park size and public acceptance, is one important driver. Mounting risk of mega-projects and the infinite demand for renewable energy is another likely cause. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks...

  11. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    on the Kriegers Flak offshore hub in the Baltic Sea and on the question of offshore storage, applying the WILMAR Joint Market Model, complement these analyses. The study on Kriegers Flak shows that embedded wind generation approximately halves congestion rents. While building and operating an adiabatic cavern air...... energy storage appears technically feasible, several reasons are explained why this is inferior to an onshore solution from an electricity markets perspective. The measures addressed until now, transmission and storage, are complemented by an analysis of an alternative: curtailment of renewable...... of the optimisation. Combining results from the different papers leads to the conclusion that an integrated operation of meshed offshore grids and generation seems best. Strategic behaviour between actors is thus avoided, while stable investment conditions can be supported. A feed-in tariff or a combination...

  12. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  13. CFD applications in offshore engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Muk Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a discussion on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD applications in offshore engineering. Accurate hydrodynamic quantities are essential for engineering design. Offshore structures are generally subject to high Reynolds number flows. These high Reynolds number flow conditions (Re > 106 are difficult and expensive to achieve in an experimental setup. Therefore, it is attractive to use CFD to provide the essential hydrodynamic quantities for practical design. Verification and validation studies are important for determining the validity of the CFD prediction. A procedure of performing CFD simulation is shown. Different types of turbulence modelling are discussed. Three examples of high Reynolds number CFD simulations, covering flow around offshore structural components and waves past partially-submerged horizontal cylinders, are shown and discussed.

  14. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs. In......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group........ In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  15. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  16. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  17. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...

  18. Getting the most from offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize this scenario and propose how its adverse impacts can be addressed. From previous studies we know that the roles and mandates of home based sites of offshoring companies are changing from broad scoped manufacturing towards innovation and network...

  19. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  20. Dimensioning of pile systems for the foundation of offshore wind power plants; Bemessung von Pfaehlen fuer die Gruendung von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmus, Martin [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik

    2012-11-01

    In the near future, an enormous number of wind power plants are built in offshore wind turbine arrays in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. In the dimensioning of foundation structures aspects have to be taken into account which are irrelevant in the dimensioning of conventional onshore structures and offshore structures. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on a dimensioning of pile systems of pile founded structures. An overview of current issues and solutions is given.

  1. 3D Scanning technology for offshore purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Morten Thoft

    2005-01-01

    New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities......New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities...

  2. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  3. Insight into offshoring: perspectives on offshoring in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.L.; van Leeuwen, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    While discussing the (perceived) effects of offshoring economists have started using terms like ‘anxiety’, ‘hysteria’, ‘ludicrous’, and even conjured up images of ‘tooth fairies" and ‘bogeymen’ - and that was just in the academic debate. By presenting an overview of the available data and knowledge

  4. To assess the relations between breast feeding and illness in children under two years of age with particular reference to respiratory tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Zaidi, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine the relation between the breast feeding and morbidity as a result of respiratory illness and infection in the children less than two years of age. This is a prospective analysis of 131 children attending the outdoor paediatric department of Federal Government Services Hospital, Islamabad during the month of February 2006. A close ended pretested questionnaire was filled after taking informed consent from patient's parents. Out of total 131 enrolled cases (76 male and 55 female) 62 (47%) were breast fed; 56 (43%) bottle fed; while 13 (10%) had mix feeding. Among 38 children, having past history of respiratory tract infections episodes in last one month, only 04 (10%) were breast fed and remaining 34 (90%) were either bottle fed or had partial breast feeding. Out of 62 breast fed children, only 04 (6%) had recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections, on the other hand out of 56 bottle fed 32 (57%) had previous history of respiratory illness. In our study there is a significant correlation between breast feeding and reduction in number of Respiratory tact infections episodes. Predominant breast feeding for at leas six months and partial breast feeding for up to one year may reduce the prevalence and subsequent morbidity of respiratory illness and infection in infancy. (author)

  5. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  6. Offshore wind farm Bockstigen - installation and operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Aagaard, E.; Andersen, P.E.; Moeller, A. [Wind World af 1997 A/S, Noerresundby (Denmark); Niklasson, S.; Wickman, A. [Vindkompaniet, Degerhamn (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The first Swedish offshore wind farm Bockstigen is operating since March 1998 near the coast of Gotland. It was built as a demonstration project by the Swedish wind farm developer Vindkompaniet, the Danish wind turbine manufacturer Wind World and the British offshore construction company Seacore and partly funded under the EU-THERMIE program. Bockstigen is the fourth offshore wind farm world-wide. While at previous wind farms the main emphasis laid on the demonstration of the technical feasibility of offshore wind energy utilisation, Bockstigen was aimed at demonstrating its economic viability. A number of innovative concepts have been employed: Drilled monopile foundations were used to save costs. A new construction method has been applied making use of a jack-up barge. A new control system for the turbines and the whole wind farm was developed, which controls the maximum power output, the flicker and the reactive power consumption depending on online measurements of the actual grid state. These new developments have been implemented successfully. A substantial cost reduction compared to previous offshore projects could be achieved. (au)

  7. Services Offshoring and Its Strategic Effects on Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article’s main objective is to examine some known management theories under the offshoring point of view. It detaches some factors in existing theories and how they can be at risk in an increasing offshoring of services processes. In the absence of more systematic studies about the effects of offshoring over value chain and core competencies imprecise borders and definitions, we try to interpret them in a holistic manner and stimulate discussions in a new area of study rather than to provide definitive general conclusions. The methodological aspects mainly concerning the offshoring bibliography are very impressive, especially since 2000. There seems to be a new trend appearing, like a wedge between strategy and international business theories, or that at least complements these theories. The analysis presented in this paper is offered as an aid to systematic investigation involving value chains, core competencies, innovations and the accelerated process of offshore outsourcing of services. Some preliminary evidence showed countries and companies in good conditions to improve their participation in the international market. The internationalization of these new firms from emerging countries and their learning process may need extension to existing theories, at least from the perspective of emerging and in the developing world.

  8. Deep Panuke offshore gas development comprehensive study report : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    A project was proposed by EnCana Corporation (EnCana) for the development of the Deep Panuke Offshore Gas Development Project. Located offshore the Scotian Shelf, approximately 175 kilometres southeast of Goldboro, Nova Scotia and 250 kilometres southeast of Halifax, the development of this natural gas reservoir would allow EnCana to derive economic benefit from licences issued under the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation (Nova Scotia) Act. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act required that a comprehensive study report be prepared, and the results were presented in this document. Consisting of three bottom-founded platforms in a water depth of approximately 40 metres, the wellhead platform would be used for dry wellheads, wellhead control system, and production manifolds. All power generation and processing equipment would be located on the production platform, and the accommodations platform would consist of the utilities, helicopter landing pad, refueling station and crew accommodations. It was determined that the Deep Panuke project was unlikely to result in adverse environmental effects. The offshore oil and gas industry in Atlantic Canada would benefit from this development as a result of the establishment of a viable facility and operation

  9. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  10. The offshore accords and Hibernia's impact on the Newfoundland treasury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, W.

    1992-01-01

    The provincial governments of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia have each signed an accord with the government of Canada to manage and share revenues from the development of their respective offshore oil and gas fields. Negotiated provisions for offsetting equalization payments were an important component of each of these accords. The potential effectiveness of these provisions in sheltering offshore oil revenues derived from the Hibernia project under various oil price scenarios is reviewed. Both mathematical and simulation analyses demonstrate that the provisions negotiated by Nova Scotia shelter significantly more revenue than those by Newfoundland. Recommendations for future negotiating positions are presented. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  11. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  12. The electrical connection of offshore windparks - technology and investment costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, R.; Schultz, W.; Unger, C.; Diedrichs, V.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reach an acceptable cost level for wind energy generated in off-shore wind farms, the consideration of the electrical grid connection is much more important than for on-shore sites. This connection was investigated under technical as well as financial aspects leading to different concepts for different sizes of windfarms. (Author)

  13. Optimization of Offshore De-oiling Hydrocyclone Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Pedersen, Simon

    companies, Maersk Oil and Ramboll Oil & Gas A/S, launched a research project HTF-PDPWAC with total budget of 10 million dkk. One of the focuses of this project is to optimization of the de-oiling hydrocyclone performance in order to improve the produced water treatment quality without sacrificing.......1 Classification of typical offshore PWT technologies in terms of performance vs. cost [12] As shown in Fig.1, the offshore PWT technologies are classified into four categories according to their purification performance and relevant expenses [12]. Apparently, almost 90% of offshore PWT facilities...... are based on the hydrocyclone technology, due to the fact that it is one of the cheapest and most reliable solution with a best performance to 20 ppm (mg/l) [9,13]. In 2013, under the partial support from the Danish Advanced Technology Fund (now called Innovation Fund), the AAU together with two Danish OG...

  14. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  15. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  16. Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, H.F.

    1978-09-01

    The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system

  17. Offshore: Economic Deterrent or Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Turuev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The downside of investment's addition rate in Russia, lack of capital investments result from "poor investment attractiveness". As a result, the companies' financial imbalance together with high investments risks lead to capital outflow from the country by virtue of offshores. Along with negative aspects connected with "financial oases" many advantages are given to the business community: lessening of tax payments, monetary privacy and confidentiality of operations. Taking in consideration the above and also the existence of specific international agreements concerning the avoidance of double taxation and offshore zones, the banner of the latter appears to be quite difficult and would divest the global economy of an important segment of global economic growth. The author performed a SWOT analysis of the role and the importance of offshores in international economy. Tolerant coexistence of local and global economic interests seems to be achievable by implementing a distinct circumspect and complex plan of measures aimed at the raise of the investment attractiveness of a country, for which the creation of "Skolkovo" and new Institutes for market development would not be sufficient. Transparent and oriented on business stability and safety provision of monitor and regulatory system, data interflow, improvement of prudential control on financial markets operations - are parts of measures that have to be accomplished in order to solve and exclude the problems associated with offshores. But the author also appeals to not forgetting that besides the offshores exists a number of such issues directly related to the outflow of capital as lowering of inflationary pace, enlargement of direct investment flow-in, support of social peace, which have to be handled for the purposes of improvement of domestic investment climate of countries with developing economy.

  18. CFD for wind and tidal offshore turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Montlaur, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses novel CFD techniques to compute offshore wind and tidal applications. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are regarded as the main design tool to explore the new engineering challenges presented by offshore wind and tidal turbines for energy generation. The difficulty and costs of undertaking experimental tests in offshore environments have increased the interest in the field of CFD which is used to design appropriate turbines and blades, understand fluid flow physical phenomena associated with offshore environments, predict power production or characterise offshore environments, amongst other topics.

  19. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co......-sourcing shapes the perception and alleviation of common offshoring risks is limited. We present a case study of how a certified CMMI-level 5 Danish software supplier approaches these risks in offshore co-sourcing. The paper explains how common offshoring risks are perceived and alleviated when adopting the co...

  20. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas....... Against this backdrop, we present an interpretive case study of how managers perceive and mitigate the risk areas in software development offshoring with a mature CMMI level 5 (Capability Maturity Model, Integrated) software company as the client. We find that managers perceive and mitigate most...... and why managers perceive and mitigate the risk areas in this way and the implications for theory and practice in software development offshoring....

  1. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  2. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  3. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  4. A note on the fouling hydroids from the offshore waters of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopalan, V.P.; Wagh, A.B.

    This short communication brings out the preliminary results of the studies on fouling hydroids from an offshore region of the Arabian sea. A total of ten species falling under four different families have been collected of these four species viz...

  5. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase II Results Regarding Monopile Foundation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Passon, P.; Larsen, T.; Camp, T.; Nichols, J.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Annex XXIII.

  6. Risks to offshore installations in Europe due to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necci, Amos; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    contrast, in other parts of the world, and in particular in the Gulf of Mexico, tropical storms are likely to trigger severe direct damage to structures, resulting in platform capsizing, sinking or grounding. The in-depth analysis of the incident records also showed that the natural event was often just the triggering cause of the accident, which was frequently accompanied by contributing factors (e.g. corrosion, fatigue, wrong procedures, etc.). Under these circumstances, not only extreme storms, but also storms with moderate intensity can trigger incidents. Due to the high density of offshore structures and the unique environmental conditions promoting fatigue and corrosion, the North Sea is the area with the highest number of incidents recorded in Europe, as well as the area with the highest number of incidents at semi-submersible units in the world. About 4% of all reported global Natech events at offshore infrastructures involved casualties, and 2.6% for the European incident subset. Hazardous materials releases were documented for 21 events in Europe, resulting in fires and hydrocarbon spills polluting the sea. Furthermore, a surprisingly high number of severe events occurred during towing which highlights the impact of natural hazards on the safety of offshore transfer operations.

  7. Panorama 2016 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2015-11-01

    While onshore wind power is a rapidly growing global industry, the offshore wind power market remains in its consolidation and globalization phase. This most mature of renewable marine energies continues to develop and can no longer be considered a niche industry. This fact sheet evaluates the market over the last several years, looking at its potential and its current rank in terms of electricity production costs. (author)

  8. Money Laundering Through Offshore Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Ispas

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we have started from the premise that from the analysis of the "money laundering", the money resulted from this is circulating in the whole world, through some geographical and institutional channels. Starting from the characteristics of "tax haven", we have made a parallel between it and the financial paradise. In the second part of the work we have explored offshore areas, adding the methods for placement of revenue in those countries and the necessary conclusions.

  9. Panorama 2013 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2012-10-01

    While onshore wind power is already a well-developed global industry, offshore wind power is still in the consolidation and globalization phase. The most mature of marine renewable energies is beginning to venture off the European coast and even to other continents, driven by public policies and the ever increasing number of players joining this promising market, which should evolve into deeper waters thanks to floating structures. (author)

  10. Gas hydrates in Krishna-Godavari offshore basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.; Mazumdar, A.; Dewangan, P.

     geography and you T Ramprasad, A Mazumdar and P Dewangan Gas hydrates in Krishna- Godavari offshore basin Earth science technologies geography and you  july - august 2013  45 Methane from gas hydrate deposits could be a viable energy alternative... areas get buried deep under few kilometres of thick ocean sediments and is degraded by the bacterial activity for eons under very high temperatures. The methane molecules thus generated find their way into the overlying sediments through...

  11. Resource Use of Wind Farms in the German North Sea—The Example of Alpha Ventus and Bard Offshore I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Rohn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The German government aims to obtain at least 40 percent of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030. One of the central steps to reach this target is the construction of deep sea offshore wind farms. The paper presents a material intensity analysis of the offshore wind farms “Alpha Ventus” and “Bard Offshore I” under consideration of the grid connection. An additional onshore scenario is considered for comparison. The results show that offshore wind farms have higher resource consumption than onshore farms. In general, and in respect to the resource use of other energy systems, both can be tagged as resource efficient.

  12. Dutch offshore suppliers in confident mood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beudel, M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of linked articles discusses the current state of the Netherland's offshore industry. Reduced taxes, and availability of exploration licenses has meant that explorers and producers are drawn to the small size, but frequent yield explorations on Holland's continental shelf. The excellent operation record of Rotterdam's Verolme Botlek yard; for repair and maintenance of offshore platforms and associated plant, is explored as the facility plans to diversify into newbuilding. The construction of an offshore basin designed for the hydrodynamic testing of offshore plant intended for deepwater use is described. The Netherlands maritime research institute (Marin) aims to stay at the forefront of offshore research and development with this new facility. Other articles cover pipe tensioning, new large linear winches and innovations in offshore drilling and production. (UK)

  13. Offshoring and Changes in Firms’ Domestic Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    In this paper, we investigate, by merging the Danish linked employer-employee database with a Danish offshoring survey, the difference in employment between offshoring and non-offshoring firms that are active in manufacturing industries and business services in Denmark. We measure the mean...... difference on a set of employment characteristics, i.e. employment growth, growth in high skilled employees, and growth in employees with a background in science and engineering, by using a partial propensity score matching approach. The findings of the analyses show that there are clear differences between...... Danish offshoring and non-offshoring firms in how the employee composition changes over time. The change in employment composition differ considerably between manufacturing industries and business services and on whether firms offshore administrative and technical business functions or other types...

  14. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    -sourcing shapes the perception and alleviation of the well-known risks related to offshoring is limited. We present a case study of how a certified CMMI-level 5 Danish software supplier approaches these risks in offshore co-sourcing. The paper explains how co-sourcing from a mature software company may shape......Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co...... the perception and alleviation of common offshoring risks. Contrary to the suggestion from previous research on offshoring risks, the case shows a successful pursuit of high task uncertainty, equivocality, and coupling across sites. We found that indirect risk alleviation shaped the task related risk...

  15. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  16. Offshoring and Corruption: Does Corruption Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2010-01-01

    Corruption is often portrayed as a barrier to trade and investment capable of altering international investment patterns. Here, we analyze how firms’ choice of country and the volume of offshored material inputs are affected by corruption in target economies. Taking stance from the gravity model of trade, the analysis suggests that corruption is a deterrent for offshoring. Firms avoid corrupt countries and, given that destination country has been chosen it reduces the volume of offshored inpu...

  17. Fouling polyzoans of Bombay offshore waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; De; Wagh, A.B.

    (December), 1990, pp.169-178 FOULING POLYZOANS OF BOMBAY OFFSHORE WATERS T.V. RAVEENDRAN, A.P. DE SOUZA AND A.B. WAGH National InstituteofOceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004. ABSTRACT Seven cheilostomatanand one cyclostornatan polyzoan observed as members... and Bhavanarayana, 1988 and De Souza, 1988) and there arehardly~nyreport from offshore regions. Thepresentpaperdeals with the fouling polyzoans from the offshore waters of Bombay High area; a station situated ap proximately 160 krn off Bombay. The watercolumnin...

  18. Offshore support vessel developments for deep water oil and gas E and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dielen, Baldo A.M. [SMIT, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide trend to move towards more exposed locations and deeper waters for O and G exploration and production activities resulted in an increased need for larger and more powerful tugs and offshore support vessels. These vessels must meet higher operational requirements under higher wind and sea-state conditions. This market-driven need, together with technological developments, is leading towards a new generation of powerful and sophisticated offshore support vessels (OSV's). This paper will describe the actual and future trends in OSV design for deep water offshore use. (author)

  19. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  20. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the design of offshore wind turbine substructures with respect to fatigue loads is an important issue in offshore wind energy. A stochastic model is developed for assessing the fatigue failure reliability. This model can be used for direct probabilistic design and for calibration...... of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

  1. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    With increasing incentives for reducing the CO2 emissions offshore, optimization of energy usage on offshore platforms has become a focus area. Most of offshore oil and gas platforms use gas turbines to support the electrical demand on the platform. It is common to operate a gas turbine mostly...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...

  2. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms....

  3. OC5 Project Phase Ib: Validation of Hydrodynamic Loading on a Fixed, Flexible Cylinder for Offshore Wind Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Amy N.; Wendt, Fabian; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from Phase Ib of the Offshore Code Comparison, Collaboration, Continued with Correlation (OC5) project. OC5 is a project run under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Research Task 30, and is focused on validating the tools used for modelling offshore win...

  4. Offshore system for integration of the wind energy; Sistema offshore para integracao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Jan de [3E, Brussels (Belgium); Tambke, Jens [Universidade de Oldemburg (Germany). ForWind; Voelker, J. [Dena - Agencia Alema de Energia (Germany); Michalowska-Knap, Katarzyna [Instituto de Energia Renovavel (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The Offshore Grid project aims to analyze the conditions required for the development of an offshore transmission network to integrate renewable energy (wind) to the national electrical systems, securely and efficiently. Regulatory aspects, technical, economic and political are considered, that will help the various players in the industry to have a common view on the offshore power grids in Europe.

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ... and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ...

  8. International activities and experience in offshore wind power generation; Internationale Aktivitaeten und Erfahrungen im Bereich der Offshore-Windenergienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehfeldt, K.; Gerdes, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Current activities in the area of offshore wind energy are being made only in the European Community in the form of concrete plans or as projects. Denmark and Sweden began as pioneers in the setting up of offshore wind parks along their coast in the Baltic Sea. As a world-wide first, Denmark saw the practicality of offshore wind energy as a way of reducing the emission of CO{sub 2} and opening new doors in the wind energy branch. Essential is not to name the ambitious goals, but that at the designated suitable regions, pilot projects are implemented therefore initiating extensive research and development projects. Our European neighbours have shown us through their own experience what great potential and underlying dynamic offshore wind energy has. The development of projects can be given with confidence to private sector, if however the main consensus from promoters and environmentalists is desired, then in this instance the governmental participation as a guide would be desirable. (orig.)

  9. Getting the Most from Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... as a whole. The purpose of this chapter is to conceptualize this scenario and propose how its adverse impacts can be addressed. On the basis of a series of workshops with Danish companies, we discuss the need for sourcing and assimilating operations inputs at the home base as a means for sustained innovation...

  10. Offshore structure and installation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, J.W.

    1992-12-23

    An offshore structure particularly for use in arctic environments, and a method for installing this structure comprises a shield portion which rests on a seabed and primarily resists environmental loads, such as from ice, and a separate support portion which comprises a plurality of piles driven into the seabed to support a deck payload. The method for installing the structure comprises moving a shield portion of the structure to its intended location with piles pre-installed therein; setting the structure on the seabed; driving the piles into the seabed; and then severing any connection between the piles and the shield portion. (Author)

  11. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  12. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  13. Offshore wind power deployment in Germany; Entwicklung der Offshore-Windenergienutzung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehfeldt, Knud [Deutsche Windguard GmbH (Germany); Paschedag, Udo [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Boemer, Jens (eds.)

    2007-01-15

    This bilingual brochure in German and English was published by the Federal Minister of the Environment. It discussses aspects of offshore wind power deployment in Germany. The following subjects are gone into: Expansion targets and expansion scenarios; Economic policy; Implementation of the Federal Government's offshore strategy; Offshore wind turbines of German manufacturers; Licensing of offshore wind farms; Regional planning of the North and Baltic Seas; Integration into the grid; Research in the field of offshore wind power. There is also an appendix of useful links. (orig./AKB)

  14. Optimal Structural Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    structures, humans spent little time in the vicinity of offshore wind turbines and the probability of human injury during storm conditions is small. Further environmental pollution will also in general be small in case of failure. One could therefore argue that the reliability level of offshore wind turbines...

  15. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...

  16. Offshore Vendors’ Software Development Team Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Suranjan; Sarker, Saonee; Rai, Sudhanshu

    2012-01-01

    This research uses configuration theory and data collected from a major IT vendor organization to examine primary configurations of distributed teams in a global off-shoring context. The study indicates that off-shoring vendor organizations typically deploy three different types of configurations...

  17. Offshore Vendors' Software Development Team Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Suranjan; Sarker, Saonee; Rai, Sudhanshu

    2011-01-01

    This research uses configuration theory and data collected from a major IT vendor organization to examine primary configurations of distributed teams in a global off-shoring context. The study indicates that off-shoring vendor organizations typically deploy three different types of configurations...

  18. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 543.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 543.201 on transactions or dealings...

  19. 31 CFR 597.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 597.406 Section 597.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 597.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 597.201 apply to...

  20. 31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 544.406 Section 544.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 544.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 544.201 on...

  1. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 593.201 on...

  2. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  3. 31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 541.406 Section 541.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 541.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 541.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  4. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 548.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 548.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  5. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 537.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 537.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  6. 31 CFR 587.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 587.406 Section 587.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 587.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions...

  7. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 546.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 546.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  8. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 542.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 542.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  9. 31 CFR 588.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 588.406 Section 588.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 588.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 588.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  10. Whether or Not to Prepare for Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    A consequence of offshoring is increased coordination costs. To counter this, firms can strive to identify a cost reducing organizational configuration either ex ante or ex post to the offshoring implementation. In this paper, we investigate the performance implications of these contrasting strat...

  11. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  12. Project alliancing in the offshore industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Braks, B.F.M.

    In this paper the shift towards new types of project organisation within the Offshore Industry is explained and discussed. Special focus is given to the organisational concept of Project Alliancing. The principles, structure and culture of a Project Alliance as applied within the Offshore Industry

  13. A fair wind for the offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2009-01-01

    The wind power future will take into account the sea. But to increase, the offshore channel must manage its organization and create a real cross-border cooperation. The author presents an economic analysis of the market with a special attention to the french sector. A map of the offshore sites in Europe is provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Whether or Not to Prepare for Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    A consequence of offshoring is increased coordination costs. To counter this, firms can strive to identify a cost reducing organizational configuration either ex ante or ex post to the offshoring implementation. In this paper, we investigate the performance implications of these contrasting...

  15. Stress, health and the offshore work environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, Katharine [Oxford Univ., Psychology Dept., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The present paper focuses on empirical research; it aims to review, with examples from the literature, ways in which measures of the physical and psychosocial environment relate to psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health among offshore workers, to identify some of the problems encountered in interpreting such research, and to describe a recent study of onshore and offshore employees. (Author)

  16. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  17. The Capabilities of the Offshore Middlemen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Wareham, Jonathan

    This paper argues that a new breed of offshore intermediary has emerged with the function of moderating disparities in expertise (e.g. CMMI levels), culture, and communication styles that often deteriorate performance in offshore relationships. The purpose of this paper is to present some...

  18. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  19. Design off-shore wind climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Joergensen, H.E. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Specific recommendations of off-shore turbulence intensities, applicable for design purposes, are lacking in the present IEC-code. The present off-shore wind climate analysis presents the distribution of the turbulence standard deviation around the mean turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the mean wind speed. Measured distributions, based on a huge amount of measuring data from two shallow water off-shore sites, are parameterized by fitting to a three parameter Weibull distribution. Combining a simple heuristic load model with the parameterized probability density functions of the turbulence standard deviations, an empirical off-shore design turbulence intensity is evaluated that in average yields the same fatigue damage as the distributed turbulence intensity. The proposed off-shore design turbulence intensity is, within the IEC code framework, applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue load determination. (au)

  20. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Courtney, M.S.; Lange, B.; Nielsen, M.; Sempreviva, A.M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J.; Olsen, F. [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T. [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  1. 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter; Beiter, Philipp; Schwabe, Paul; Tian, Tian; Stehly, Tyler; Spitsen, Paul; Robertson, Amy; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-08-08

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide offshore wind policymakers, regulators, developers, researchers, engineers, financiers, and supply chain participants, with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide. In particular, this report is intended to provide detailed information on the domestic offshore wind industry to provide context to help navigate technical and market barriers and opportunities. The scope of the report covers the status of the 111 operating offshore wind projects in the global fleet through December 31, 2016, and provides the status and analysis on a broader pipeline of 593 projects at some stage of development. In addition, this report provides a wider assessment of domestic developments and events through the second quarter of 2017 to provide a more up-to-date discussion of this dynamically evolving industry.

  2. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...... farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...

  3. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  4. Foundation of an offshore platform. Fundament for offshore-plattform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Tjelta, T.-I.; Vikse, K.; Stead, B.L.; Helgy, T.S.

    1994-06-06

    The investigation deals with a foundation design for an offshore platform, in particular for a re-usable platform or a jackable platform is made up of several modules designed to be stacked onto each other. The modules preferably have a hollow design with open bottom, and are completely or partly filled with a filling material when arranged on the seabed. The modules may be equipped with an adaptor being shaped in concordance with the adjacent module so that a plurality of modules stacked onto each other make up a stable foundation unit. The foundation may be erected to different heights, and, therefore, both the platforms and the foundations may be reused on locations having different depths. 5 figs.

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's in ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  6. Prospects for generating electricity by large onshore and offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake

    2017-01-01

    The decarbonisation of energy sources requires additional investments in renewable technologies, including the installation of onshore and offshore wind farms. For wind energy to remain competitive, wind farms must continue to provide low-cost power even when covering larger areas. Inside very...... on the local free-stream wind speed, the surface characteristics, and the turbine density. In onshore regions with moderate winds the power density of very large wind farms reaches 1 W m−2, whereas in offshore regions with very strong winds it exceeds 3 W m−2. Despite a relatively low power density, onshore...... regions with moderate winds offer potential locations for very large wind farms. In offshore regions, clusters of smaller wind farms are generally preferable; under very strong winds also very large offshore wind farms become efficient....

  7. Economic valuation of the visual externalities of off-shore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Martinsen, Louise

    studies of the environmental impact of off-shore wind farms. The programme is coordinated by the Environmental Group with representatives from Elsam Engineering, Energy E2, the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, and the Danish Energy Authority. The present study was initiated in August 2003, and this report......The primary focus of the study presented in this report is visual externalities of off-shore wind farms and the Danish population’s willingness to pay for having these ex-ternalities reduced. The investigation is part of the Danish monitoring programme for off-shore wind farms, comprising several...... concludes the project. An overview of the findings will also be published in a joint publication, comprising all projects under the Danish monitoring programme for off-shore wind farms. Fur-ther research within this area is taking place in connection with a Ph.D. programme at KVL....

  8. Offshore Facilities to Produce Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Blanco-Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of international agreements on the reduction of CO2 emissions, new technologies using hydrogen are being developed. Hydrogen, despite being the most abundant element in Nature, cannot be found in its pure state. Water is one of the most abundant sources of hydrogen on the planet. The proposal here is to use energy from the sea in order to obtain hydrogen from water. If plants to obtain hydrogen were to be placed in the ocean, the impact of long submarines piping to the coast will be reduced. Further, this will open the way for the development of ships propelled by hydrogen. This paper discusses the feasibility of an offshore installation to obtain hydrogen from the sea, using ocean wave energy.

  9. Image processing in offshore engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.V.R.; A. Oliveira, M. de; Almeida, M.E.T. de; Lorenzoni, C.; Ferrante, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The technological progress which has taken place during the last decade introduced a totally new outlook regarding the professional computational environment in general, and regarding the engineering profession in particular. During many years engineering computing was performed based on large computer centers, getting bigger and bigger all the time, going from mainframes to super computers, essentially producing numerical results on paper media. Lately, however, it has been realized that a much more productive computational environment can be implemented using an open architecture of client/server type, based on smaller lower cost equipment including workstations and PC's, and considering engineering information in a broader sense. This papers reports briefly the experience of the Production Department of Petrobras in transforming its centralized, mainframe based, computational environment into a open distributed client/server computational environment, focusing on the problem of handling technical graphics information regarding its more than 70 fixed offshore platforms

  10. Offshore Aquaculture Development in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Alvarado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Recommended Development Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenke, Edmund J.; Williams, Larry; Calafa, Caesar

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project in cooperation with the Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC) contracted with the System Resources Corporation (SRC) for the evaluation of the existing environment and the identification of user and service provider needs in the Gulf of Mexico low-altitude Offshore Sector. The results of this contractor activity are reported in the Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Engineering Needs Assessment. A recommended system design and transition strategy was then developed to satisfy the identified needs within the constraints of the environment. This work, also performed under contract to NASA, is the subject of this report.

  12. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone. Bloater is abundant in the offshore zone but appears restricted to depths shallower than 150 m (Selgeby and Hoff 1996; Stockwell et al. 2010), although it occuppied greater depths several decades ago (Dryer 1966; Peck 1977). Shortjaw is relatively rare in the offshore zone (Hoff and Todd 2004; Gorman and Hoff 2009; Gorman and Todd 2007). Lake whitefish is also known to frequent bathymetric depths >100 m (Yule et al. 2008b). In this chapter, we develop a conceptual model of the offshore food web based on data collected during 2001-2005 and on inferences from species interactions known for the nearshore fish community. We then develop a framework for examination of energy and nutrient movements within the pelagic and benthic habitats of the offshore zone and across the offshore and nearshore zones. To document research results.

  13. NREL Offshore Balance-of-System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has investigated the potential for 20% of nationwide electricity demand to be generated from wind by 2030 and, more recently, 35% by 2050. Achieving this level of wind power generation may require the development and deployment of offshore wind technologies. DOE (2008) has indicated that reaching these 2030 and 2050 scenarios could result in approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of wind energy generation to come from offshore resources. By the end of 2013, 6.5 gigawatts of offshore wind were installed globally. The first U.S. project, the Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island, has recently begun operations. One of the major reasons that offshore wind development in the United States is lagging behind global trends is the high capital expenditures required. An understanding of the costs and associated drivers of building a commercial-scale offshore wind plant in the United States will inform future research and help U.S. investors feel more confident in offshore wind development. In an effort to explain these costs, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Offshore Balance-of-System model.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of floating offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Santos, Laura; Diaz-Casas, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a sensitivity analysis of a floating offshore wind farm. • Influence on the life-cycle costs involved in a floating offshore wind farm. • Influence on IRR, NPV, pay-back period, LCOE and cost of power. • Important variables: distance, wind resource, electric tariff, etc. • It helps to investors to take decisions in the future. - Abstract: The future of offshore wind energy will be in deep waters. In this context, the main objective of the present paper is to develop a sensitivity analysis of a floating offshore wind farm. It will show how much the output variables can vary when the input variables are changing. For this purpose two different scenarios will be taken into account: the life-cycle costs involved in a floating offshore wind farm (cost of conception and definition, cost of design and development, cost of manufacturing, cost of installation, cost of exploitation and cost of dismantling) and the most important economic indexes in terms of economic feasibility of a floating offshore wind farm (internal rate of return, net present value, discounted pay-back period, levelized cost of energy and cost of power). Results indicate that the most important variables in economic terms are the number of wind turbines and the distance from farm to shore in the costs’ scenario, and the wind scale parameter and the electric tariff for the economic indexes. This study will help investors to take into account these variables in the development of floating offshore wind farms in the future

  16. [Biliary tract tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, A; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C

    1996-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers are rare neoplasms including gallbladder cancer (the commonest), extrahepatic biliary tract cancer and cancer of the ampulla of Vater. Descriptive epidemiology of biliary tract cancers as a whole has two peculiarities: incidence and mortality rates are higher for women than men, and in some specific populations. Mortality rates are highest among New Mexico American Indian women, in Chile and Japan, lowest in Great Britain and Greece. Mortality trends vary widely: the largest increases have been observed in Japan, Hong-Kong and Spain and the largest decreases in the Anglo-Saxon populations. Our knowledge of biliary tract cancer etiology is limited. Defined risks include genetic factors (family history of biliary tract cancers, ethnicity), history of gallbladder disease, and cholelithiasis. Risk factors reported in some studies, on which, however, information is not consistent and which need further study, include overweight, some menstrual and reproductive factors (multiparity, young age at first birth, late menopause), low education, cigarette smoking, selected bacterial infections, some intestinal diseases and diabetes.

  17. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  18. Available and announced offshore wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilzhoefer, L.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2011, about 4000 MW of offshore wind capacity had been installed in Europe. With market shares of respectively 50% and 40%, Siemens and Vestas are the dominant manufacturers on this market. In the field of offshore wind, Siemens is primarily successful with its wind turbine type SET3,6 (3.6 MW) and Vestas with the V90 of 3.0 MW. The offshore wind turbines of other manufacturers that have a higher capacity do not play a significant role with their market share. [nl

  19. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  20. Offshoring in the Semiconductor Industry: Historical Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Clair; Linden, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor design is a frequently-cited example of the new wave of offshoring and foreign-outsourcing of service sector jobs. It is certainly a concern to U.S. design engineers themselves. In addition to the current wave of white-collar outsourcing, the industry also has a rich experience with offshoring of manufacturing activity. Semiconductor companies were among the first to invest in offshore facilities to manufacture goods for imports back to the U.S. A brief review of these earlie...

  1. Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions...... of offshorers and exporters increase in one country and decrease in the other country. This model outcome occurs when competition enhances in a country experiencing a decline in its costs of international trade. The fractions of offshorers and exporters certainly increase in a small open economy experiencing...

  2. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...

  3. Prevalence of acute pyelonephritis and incidence of renal scarring in children under the age of two with urinary tract infection evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy: the experience of a university hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevski, Eduardo Herz; Vilas, Eduardo Rosito de, E-mail: duduberdi@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas. Service of Medicine; Mattos, Silvia Gelpi; Bezerra, Sofia; Baldisserotto, Matteo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To calculate the frequencies of acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring in patients under the age of two, with first episode of urinary tract infection in a Brazilian university hospital, comparing with data reported in the international literature. Materials and Methods: Scintigraphic reports of children less than two years old submitted to {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in a university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul between 2006 and 2009 were reviewed to investigate acute pyelonephritis/renal scarring. Additionally, the presence of vesicoureteral reflux, early use of antibiotics, and comorbidities were investigated on electronic records. The sample size calculation was based on a systematic review study and obtained a minimum of 147 patients. Patients whose electronic records were not available were excluded. Results: One hundred and fifty-seven children met the inclusion criteria; among them 48 had acute pyelonephritis and 8 of these had renal scars. Neither age nor sex presented any significant association with acute pyelonephritis (p = 0.405 and p = 0.124, respectively). No statistical significance was observed in the association between vesicoureteral reflux and acute pyelonephritis (p = 1.0) and other comorbidities (p = 0.470), and in relation to early use of antibiotics with acute pyelonephritis (p = 0.130) and renal scarring (p = 0.720). Conclusion: The frequencies found in the present study for acute pyelonephritis/renal scarring are in agreement with the results reported by most studies in the literature. (author)

  4. On outsourcing and offshoring:Challenges facing management and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Conrad, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Dette studie har undersøgt de udfordringer ingeniør firmaer møder når de globaliserer produkt udviklingsprocessen igennem offshoring og outsourcing. Derudover er de løsninger firmaerne implementerede for at imødekomme disse udfordringer og den påvirkning disse har på organisationen, tekniske processer samt ingeniørernes arbejde, blevet undersøgt. Forskningsmetoden beskrevet af Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) bliver brugt in denne afhandling. Denne metode består af fire faser; (1) Klargør fo...

  5. Offshore investments-cui prodis? Schrodinger's cat in offshore financing: Both alive and dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepuk Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends of FDI in offshore tax havens were compared to efforts and efficiency of regulatory authorities to prevent money laundering. Based on available data it was stated that current position in offshore FDI stays alive and officially dead at the same time, keeping the balance of interests for the main stakeholders: corporations, authorities and financial institutes support further offshore investments. Analysis based on volumes of trade and financial transactions between offshore centers, developed and developing countries. As a result withdrawal of financial resources from the developing countries degrades social capital funding and supports corruption growth.

  6. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  7. Regulatory thinking and offshore resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Simmons, G.M.; Meadow, H.M.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: monitoring petroleum exploration in offshore environment; regulations for assessment of cultural resources by geophysical surveys; biological surveys prior to drilling; shallow site hazards; impact of present regulations; and deficiencies in present regulations

  8. Offshore wind energy potential in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous...... of each spatial constraint as well as various scenarios of spatial constraints on marginal production costs of offshore wind energy. Furthermore, the impacts of differing Feed-in-tariff (FIT) standards on the economic potential are calculated. It confirms that economic potential of offshore wind energy...... and economic costs. However, the influence of tropical cyclone risks on these regions and detailed assessments at regional or local scale are worth of further discussions. Nevertheless, the models and results provide a foundation for a more comprehensive regional planning framework that would address...

  9. Capability Development in an Offshoring Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaura, Manya

    Capability development can be defined as deliberate firm-level investment involving a search and learning process aimed at modifying or enhancing existing capabilities. Increasingly, firms are relocating advanced services to offshore locations resulting in the challenge of capability development...

  10. Offshore wind development research (technical brief).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The study addresses all aspects of Offshore Wind (OSW) development. This includes identifying : vessel types, vessel installation methods, needs and operating characteristics through all phases : of OSW installation, construction, operations and main...

  11. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  12. CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Offshore borrow sites as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore). Later updates to the dataset by the...

  13. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  14. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyewon, E-mail: hyewon@ldeo.columbia.edu [Division of Biology and Paleo Environment, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Kim, Yong Hoon, E-mail: Yong.Kim@rpsgroup.com [RPS ASA, 55 Village Square Drive, South Kingstown, RI 02879 (United States); Kang, Seong-Gil, E-mail: kangsg@kriso.re.kr [Offshore CCS Research Unit, Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, 32 1312 Beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Deaejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Gyu, E-mail: ypark@kiost.ac.kr [Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 787 Haeanro, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO{sub 2} levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO{sub 2} gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO{sub 2} leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO{sub 2} leakage (ocean acidification

  15. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kang, Seong-Gil; Park, Young-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO 2 levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO 2 gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO 2 leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO 2 leakage (ocean acidification, hypercapnia) on marine

  16. [Offshore substation workers' exposure to harmful factors - Actions minimizing risk of hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Paweł Janusz; Robak, Sylwester; Polewaczyk, Mateusz Maksymilian; Raczkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The current development of electric power industry in Poland, especially in the field of renewable energy sources, including wind power, brings about the need to introduce legislation on new work environment. The development of occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations that must be met by new workplaces, such as offshore substations becomes necessary in view of the construction of modern offshore wind power plants - offshore wind farms. Staying on offshore substation is associated with an increased exposure to harmful health factors: physical, chemical, biological and psychophysical. The main sources of health risks on offshore substations are: temperature, electromagnetic field, noise from operating wind turbines, direct and alternating current, chemicals, Legionella bacteria and social isolation of people. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the problem of offshore substation workers' exposure to harmful factors and to present methods of preventing and reducing the risk-related adverse health effects. In this paper, there are identified and described risks occurring on offshore substations (fire, explosion, lightning, accidents at work). Some examples of the means and the methods for reducing the negative impact of exposure on the human health are presented and discussed. The article also highlights the need to develop appropriate laws and health and safety regulations concerning the new working environment at the offshore substations. The review of researches and international standards shows that some of them can be introduced into the Polish labor market. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. DESIGN OF ENERGY COMPLEXES ON OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov Pavel Kirillovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studies offshore oil and gas plat-forms after the exhaustion of hydrocarbon reserves. As an alternative to dismantling ways of reequipment of the promising facilities in the Arctic region for power generation are presented. Also a common problem of the infrastructure of offshore oil and gas fields after the end of their operation life is considered. One of the dif-ficult issues that is faced by oil-producing organizations is how to utilize the offshore platform? The hypothesis of infrastructure functionality of offshore platform was put forward for the other types of energy production. In the future, reequipment of offshore platforms will pro-vide an opportunity to reduce costs in the field of con-servation and optimize the environment. The methods for the development of design so-lutions selected by the authors allow us to consider an offshore platform after its operation as an element of culture development and a tool of ecological rehabilita-tion of the offshore area. This makes it possible to con-sider the prospects for the marine infrastructure growth and to improve the economy of coastal areas. The re-construction of offshore platforms with the change of their function will allow forming a developed maritime infrastructure in coastal waters. The ability to transport some of the offshore platforms after the oil and gas end will allow building a network 50 km away from the coastline. The authors carried out design experiments based mostly on fixed offshore platforms, regulated by the rules of the Rus-sian Maritime Register of Shipping and by SNIP 2.07.01—89*1. The authors developed the basic requirements for the selection of priority projects for the analysis, which are the characteristics of the waters suitable for the use of renewable energy sources and location of offshore platforms less than 50 km away from the coast with a small average water depth of 50 to 110 meters. Thus, the presented the concept of reconstruc

  18. Stochastic Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures An Analytical Appraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Karadeniz, Halil

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures provides a clear and detailed guide to advanced analysis methods of fixed offshore steel structures using 3D beam finite elements under random wave and earthquake loadings. Advanced and up-to-date research results are coupled with modern analysis methods and essential theoretical information to consider optimal solutions to structural issues. As these methods require and use knowledge of different subject matters, a general introduction to the key areas is provided. This is followed by in-depth explanations supported by design examples, relevant calculations and supplementary material containing related computer programmers. By combining this theoretical and practical approach Stochastic Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures cover a range of key concepts in detail including: ·         The basic principles of standard 3D beam finite elements and special connections, ·         Wave loading - from hydrodynamics to the calculation of wave load...

  19. APPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES IN THE AUSTRALIAN OFFSHORE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. HJ. MOHD AMIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel is not practically renewable and therefore the world is at risk of fossil fuel depletion. This gives urgency to investigate alternative energies, especially for industries that rely entirely on energies for operations, such as offshore industry. The use of alternative energies in this industry has been in place for a while now. This paper discusses the application of various alternative energy sources to assist powering the Goodwyn Alpha (A Platform, located on the North West Shelf (NWS of Australia. The three alternative energy sources under discussion are: wind, wave and solar. The extraction devices used are the Horizontal and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines - for wind; Pelamis, PowerBuoy and Wave Dragon - for wave; and the solar parabolic dish of SunBeam and Photovoltaic (PV cells of SunPower - for solar. These types of devices are installed within the same offshore platform area. Technical, environmental and economic aspects are taken into consideration before the best selection is made. The results showed that PowerBuoy used for wave energy, is the best device to be used on offshore platforms where operators could save up to 9% of power; $603,083 of natural gas; and 10,848 tonnes of CO2 per year.

  20. Effects of offshore wind farms on birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag; Fox, Anthony David; Desholm, Mark

    På konferencen "Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience" blev der gjort rede for danske erfaringer med effekten af havvindmølleparker på havfugle.......På konferencen "Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience" blev der gjort rede for danske erfaringer med effekten af havvindmølleparker på havfugle....

  1. Offshore wind turbines reliability, availability and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tavner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The first book to specifically focus on offshore wind turbine technology and which addresses practically wind turbine reliability and availability. The book draws on the author's experience of power generation reliability and availability and the condition monitoring of that plant to describe the problems facing the developers of offshore wind farms and the solutions available to them to raise availability, reduce cost of energy and improve through life cost.

  2. The Utility of Offshoring : A Rawlsian Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Friedland, Julian

    2005-01-01

    Most prominent arguments favoring the widespread discretionary business practice of sending jobs overseas, known as ‘offshoring,’ attempt to justify the trend by appeal to utilitarian principles. It is argued that when business can be performed more cost-effectively offshore, doing so tends, over the long-term, to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number. This claim is supported by evidence that exporting jobs actively promotes economic development overseas while simultan...

  3. Paleocene stratigraphic plays in Uruguay offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E; Soto, M; Ferro, S; Tomasini, J; De Santa Ana, H; Conti, B.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguayan continental margin offshore evolution is represented by three large mega sequences: pre rift, rift and post rift, which are correlated with other South Atlantic basins. The tectonic and stratigraphic knowledge about the Uruguayan offshore evolution enable a hydrocarbon potential approximation . The mapping of the seismic depositional sequences are covered by deep basins. The methodology used identify the migration of Uruguayan side depo centers such as the stratigraphic plays group in particular a prospective Paleocene sequence

  4. Cost Analysis of Medications Used in Upper Respiratory Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To conduct a cost analysis, a narrow cost-utility study, for upper respiratory tract infection medications in University Sans Malaysia's clinics. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done for all medical claims of upper respiratory tract infections in the period 2008 - 2009. The study was done in the clinics under ...

  5. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  6. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslak Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researched. It has been defined that the general anti-offshore regulation vector should be based on the principles of financial transparency, active cooperation with the international community, an optimal combination of instruments that restrict the capital outflows and the effective instruments that stimulate the business development in the country. It has been also established that the mechanism of deoffshorization should be aimed not only at elimination of the territories with the preferential taxation, but also at receiving benefits from their use on the basis of the existing financial infrastructure of the leading world offshore centers. The experience of China in attracting additional foreign investments, gaining wider access to financial resources through the cooperation with an offshore financial centre has been researched.

  7. Offshore Metocean Station for Energy Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balluff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy concepts are able to sustainably satisfy the world energy demand without any restrictions for the following generations. In these concepts the wind energy and wave / current energy are important factors as the description and the prognosis of waves and currents is a complex issue, especially offshore. For the estimation of the average annual wind speed and thus the energy production of offshore wind farms it is imperative to know the exact wind conditions at each project site. Suitable prognosis methods are missing so far, are not accurate enough or at beta stage. The only possibility to achieve exact information about the offshore conditions is a metocean station consisting of wind and wave sensors. These met stations can be lattice masts mounted on monopiles or buoys equipped with meteorological sensors, both in combination with wave sensors to include all important parameters. Though conventional metocean stations are far more common, established and are measuring data of high quality, cheaper and more flexible solutions as the likes of floating Lidars (Light Detection And Ranging are about to be used during the operation of wind farms. This article explains currently used methods of measurements offshore with respect to wind and wave and compares it with reanalysis data. This data has advantages in comparison to measurements from conventional metocean stations, but cannot be used independently. This article proves that using solely reanalysis data is not possible, that measurements offshore are still necessary and that its operation helps improving the performance of offshore wind farms.

  8. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  13. Pecularities inherent in the geotechnical certifications for flat foundations of offshore wind power plants; Besonderes bei den geotechnischen Nachweisen fuer Flachgruendungen von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Udo [Ed. Zueblin AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrale Technik

    2012-11-01

    Due to the international study ''Wind speed'' of the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Petten, The Netherlands) in cooperation with the German Aerospace Centre (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) offshore wind power plants with a total capacity of 135 gigawatts can be built up to the year 2030. In order to achieve the desired development goals of offshore wind turbines in the North Sea, foundation concepts are required to take account of the special technical and economic constraints of offshore wind turbines. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the development of the STRABAG gravity foundation of Ed. Zueblin AG (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany).

  14. The effects of meshed offshore grids on offshore wind investment – a real options analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Kitzing, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind farms in future meshed offshore grids could be subject to different regulatory regimes. Feed-in tariffs would absorb market risk from wind farm operators, whereas price premium mechanisms leave operators exposed to market price signals. In this case, it plays a decisive role which...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  16. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations. Supply vessels are also

  17. The genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the field of pediatric uroradiology, as in most other aspects of radiology, since the last edition of this text was published in 1978. To a large extent, this progress was due to the remarkable advances in, and an increased application of, ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear imaging. In this section, an attempt has been made to incorporate and illustrate some of the applications of these diagnostic modalities to pediatric urology. The subjects discussed in this section include a brief account of the major radiologic procedures used in pediatric urology, followed by a review of the most common congenital and acquired diseases of the urinary tract and of the male and female genital tract, precocious puberty and intersex conditions, and disorders of the adrenal glands and related structures

  18. MUDMAP: Simulation model for releases from offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The present article deals with a Norwegian developed simulation model dubbed MUDMAP. MUDMAP is a numerical model that simulates releases of drill muds and cuttings, produced water and other substances from offshore platforms. The model is envisioned as an advanced tool to assist in the rapid design and placement of intakes and release pipes on platforms, as well as in evaluating potential long-term impacts in the water and on the sea floor. MUDMAP allows rapid visual/graphical analysis of potential alternative solutions under various realistic environmental conditions, and for planning and executing platform monitoring projects. 4 figs

  19. Multilink DC Transmission for Offshore Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Silva, Rodrigo Da; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    analysis the Multi Terminal Direct Current (MTDC) operation and focuses on the sharing of active power produced by an offshore Wind Power Plant (WPP). The first objective was to model the system in PSCAD/EMTDC simulation software and then control structure tested under different situations. The second...... objective was to validate the simulation on a laboratory platform using 15 kW Voltage Source Converters (VSC) and a Real Time Interface (RTI). As a result, the power sharing is validated using such methodology and the influence in the parameters can be evaluated...

  20. Faults in the Collection Grid of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunow, Morten Erlandsson; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with transient conditions in the collection grid of offshore wind farms under different faults. A model of a standard wind farm was established in two versions, with a floating and a grounded collection grid respectively. Line to ground faults and three-phase to ground faults were...... applied at critical points at worst-case phase angle and the results compared. The simulations show that it is better with a grounded collection grid, since lack of a ground reference will prevent the system from recovering after a line to ground fault....

  1. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  2. ISM Approach to Model Offshore Outsourcing Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunand Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to achieve a competitive advantage via cost reductions and improved market responsiveness, organizations are increasingly employing offshore outsourcing as a major component of their supply chain strategies. But as evident from literature number of risks such as Political risk, Risk due to cultural differences, Compliance and regulatory risk, Opportunistic risk and Organization structural risk, which adversely affect the performance of offshore outsourcing in a supply chain network. This also leads to dissatisfaction among different stake holders. The main objective of this paper is to identify and understand the mutual interaction among various risks which affect the performance of offshore outsourcing.  To this effect, authors have identified various risks through extant review of literature.  From this information, an integrated model using interpretive structural modelling (ISM for risks affecting offshore outsourcing is developed and the structural relationships between these risks are modeled.  Further, MICMAC analysis is done to analyze the driving power and dependency of risks which shall be helpful to managers to identify and classify important criterions and to reveal the direct and indirect effects of each criterion on offshore outsourcing. Results show that political risk and risk due to cultural differences are act as strong drivers.

  3. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  4. New Approaches for Responsible Management of Offshore Springs in Semi-arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Amin; de Jong, Carmen; Al-Sulaimani, Zaher

    2017-04-01

    burial under land reclamation rubble has caused the disappearance of offshore springs inducing a drastic decline in the pearl oyster population. Climate change related precipitation decrease and temperature increase is likely to further decrease groundwater and surface water recharge, increase irrigation and domestic water demand, increase water extraction from aquifers and in turn decrease water availability for offshore springs.. Thus in future, continuous monitoring of water quantity and quality as well as new remote sensing approach in addition to observations by citizens such as fishermen and tourist guides are becoming essential to ensure responsible management of offshore freshwater springs.

  5. Viewing engineering offshoring in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Zhang, Yufeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Companies are increasingly engaged with global engineering networks through offshoring of product development activities from R&D to production. This creates many new challenges as operations get physically and culturally decoupled. The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding...... a systematic approach to understanding global engineering networks through investigating their contextual features, critical capabilities to compete in a particular contextual circumstance, and configuration characteristics to deliver the capabilities. Using the GEN framework, the challenges faced by companies...... of how to effectively manage engineering offshoring activities in a context of global engineering networks. The main research question, therefore, is: “Can offshoring of engineering tasks be explained and managed using the concept of Global Engineering Networks (GEN)?” Effective approaches to handling...

  6. Design tool for offshore wind farm clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Giebel, Gregor; Waldl, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Research Alliance (EERA) and a number of industrial partners. The approach has been to develop a robust, efficient, easy to use and flexible tool, which integrates software relevant for planning offshore wind farms and wind farm clusters and supports the user with a clear optimization work flow......The Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Clusters (DTOC) is a software tool to facilitate the optimised design of both, individual and clusters of offshore wind farms. DTOC is developed with the support of an EC funded FP7 project with contributions from science partners from the European Energy...... is developed within the project using open interface standards and is now available as the commercial software product Wind&Economy....

  7. Design tool for offshore wind farm clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Giebel, Gregor; Waldl, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Clusters (DTOC) is a software tool to facilitate the optimised design of both, individual and clusters of offshore wind farms. DTOC is developed with the support of an EC funded FP7 project with contributions from science partners from the European Energy...... is developed within the project using open interface standards and is now available as the commercial software product Wind&Economy....... Research Alliance (EERA) and a number of industrial partners. The approach has been to develop a robust, efficient, easy to use and flexible tool, which integrates software relevant for planning offshore wind farms and wind farm clusters and supports the user with a clear optimization work flow...

  8. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  9. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringing together leading experts from various disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive study of the governance of offshore oil and gas activities in the circumpolar Arctic. As a consequence of energy globalisation, and of a sharp increase in world energy demand, the Arctic Ocean is also now...... being targeted for its offshore oil and gas resources, at the same time as an increasing demand for democratic legitimisation and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples is emerging in the civil spheres of society. The volume analyses how, in the daunting context of climate change......, the interactions between the various levels of governance structure the policy process and impact on the efficiency of environmental management and the effectiveness of public participation, including the participation of indigenous peoples. Any governance system for Arctic offshore oil and gas activities...

  10. Project alliancing in the offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Braks, B.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the shift towards new types of project organisation within the offshore industry is explained and discussed. Special focus is given to the organisational concept of project alliancing. The principles, structure and culture of a project alliance as applied within the offshore industry are described. In the paper the organisational concept of project alliancing is discussed on its potential to reduce project costs and enhance profits, both for the operator (oil and gas company) as well as for participating contractors. A risk and reward mechanism developed to share project risks and rewards between allied parties is explained for an alliance case. Based upon an in-depth study carried out within a contractor company in the offshore industry the organisational and financial implications of project alliancing are presented. (author)

  11. Offshore wind energy : balancing risk and reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerland, C.

    2010-01-01

    Offshore wind energy developments are expected to increase as the demand for renewable energy sources grows. This poster presentation described a method of balancing risk and reward in offshore wind energy projects. The method was based on risk assessment strategies used by the oil and gas industry. The dedicated framework considered schedules; budgets; performance; and operating and maintenance costs. A value chain assessment method was used to optimize the balance between risk and reward by evaluating uncertainties and risk related to each project element and its relationship to other elements within an integrated dynamic model designed to determine the net present value of a project. The decision-making criteria included the RISKEX risk expenditure strategy designed to consider the balance between risk exposure, capital expenditures, and operational expenditures in relation to the statistical cost of unplanned repairs, and lost production capacity. A case study of a large offshore wind farm was used to demonstrate the method. tabs., figs.

  12. RBI Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. Offshore wind turbines with an electricity production of 5-10 MW are planned. Typically, the wind turbine...... support structure is a steel structure consisting of a tower and a monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod type of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning...... methods for oil & gas installations, a framework for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines considered are the fatigue loading characteristics where usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake...

  13. Economic optimization of offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauling, T.

    1996-09-01

    The study on the title subject continues the development of a cost model for offshore wind farms started at the Institute for Wind Energy (IW) in 1995, and applies it on different kinds of cost analyses. The model will be considered within the European research project 'Structural and Economic Optimization of Bottom-Mounted Offshore Wind Energy Converters' (Opti-OWECS, JOR3-CT95-0087) co-ordinated by the IW, where also the cost analyses and optimization will be extended. The conclusions of the investigations have already been presented at the European Union Wind Energy Conference '96 at Goeteborg, Sweden. In Chapter 1, a short overview of former offshore studies and projects is given, especially those dealing with cost analysis. Typical cost breakdowns of offshore and onshore wind farms are compared. Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the cost model in its present state. The recent improvements and extensions are documented in Chapter 3, and a validation by means of a recalculation of two former offshore studies is carried out in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, four different offshore sites are compared with respect to the same farm size and an optimized farm design: Jade in the German part of the North Sea near Wilhelmshafen; Swansea Bay in the Bristol Channel at the British Atlantic Coast; Rostock at the German Baltic Coast, and IJmuiden in the Dutch part of the North Sea. In Chapter 6, a sensitivity study is carried out for a variety of site, design and economical parameters. The results of this project are summarized in Chapter 7, and an outlook is given in Chapter 8. The appendix contains among others a description of the SCOptiM2 code, where the model is implemented, as well as data obtained from the parameter studies and design optimizations. 30 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appendices, 40 refs

  14. Offshore Wind Power at Rough Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne

    2013-01-01

    This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. However......, the study has also revealed the need for new maintenance models including a shift from breakdown and preventive maintenances and towards more predictive maintenance to reduce the cost of energy for offshore wind energy installations in the future....

  15. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  16. Switching transients in large offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Rose; Jenkins, Nick [Cardiff Univ., Wales (United Kingdom). Centre for Integrated Renewable Energy, Generation and Supply

    2008-07-01

    The energisation of a wind farm is studied in EMTP-RV. Two different types of array collection networks are studied, one with redundancy and the other with tapered cabling. A wideband frequency-dependent model is used to represent the cables and a circuit breaker model which includes pre-strike and re-strike characteristics is used. The response of the circuit to switching at the offshore substation is shown. The cable lengths between the turbines are varied to show the impact this has on the wave propagation of the transient over-voltage. The difficulties associated with modelling the offshore wind farm for high frequency transient studies are highlighted. (orig.)

  17. Harmonic Aspects of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the aim, the work and the findings of a PhD project entitled "Harmonics in Large Offshore Wind Farms". It focuses on the importance of harmonic analysis in order to obtain a better performance of future wind farms. The topic is investigated by the PhD project at Aalborg...... University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of the project is to improve and understand the nature of harmonic emission and propagation in wind farms (WFs), based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The aim of the project is to obtain validated models and analysis methods...... of offshore wind farm (OWF) systems....

  18. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  19. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  20. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  1. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  2. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

    2014-07-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response.

  3. Strengthening, modification and repair techniques’ prioritization for structural integrity control of ageing offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarakoon, Samindi M.K.; Ratnayake, R.M. Chandima

    2015-01-01

    Structural integrity control is vital for existing ageing as well as newly built offshore and onshore structures. Structural integrity control becomes highly sensitive to interventions under a potential loss of structural integrity when it comes to offshore oil and gas production and process facilities. This is mainly due to the inherent constraints present in carrying out engineering work in the offshore atmosphere. It has been further exacerbated by the ageing offshore structures and the necessity of carrying out life extension toward the end of their design service lives. Local and international regulations demand the implementation of appropriate strengthening, modification and repair plans when significant changes in the structural integrity are revealed. In this context, strengthening, modification and repair techniques such as welding, member removal/reduction of loading, mechanical clamping and grouted repairs play a vital role. This manuscript presents an approach for prioritizing the strengthening, modification and repair techniques using a multi-criteria analysis approach. An analytic hierarchy process has been selected for the analysis via an illustrative case. It also provides a comprehensive overview of currently existing; strengthening, modification and repair techniques and their comparative pros and cons. - Highlights: • Structural integrity control (SIC) of ageing and intact offshore structures. • Strengthening, modification and/or repair (SMR) techniques have been explained. • Application of multi-criteria analysis conserving SI has been illustrated. • SMR techniques prioritization and sensitivity analysis has been performed

  4. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkinton, Chris [DNV GL; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    on GL GH’s review of U.S. ports infrastructure and its readiness to support the development of proposed offshore wind projects in U.S. waters. Specific examples of facility costs and benefits are provided for five coastal regions (North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes, and Pacific) around the country. GL GH began this study by identifying the logistical requirements of offshore wind ports to service offshore wind. This review was based on lessons learned through industry practice in Northern Europe. A web-based port readiness assessment tool was developed to allow a capability gap analysis to be conducted on existing port facilities based on the identified requirements. Cost models were added to the assessment tool, which allowed GL GH to estimate the total upgrade cost to a port over the period 2014-2030 based on a set of regional project build-out scenarios. Port fee information was gathered from each port allowing an estimate of the potential revenue to the port under this same set of scenarios. The comparison of these revenue and improvement cost figures provides an initial indication of the level of offshore wind port readiness. To facilitate a more in-depth infrastructure analysis, six ports from different geographic regions, with varied levels of interest and preparedness towards offshore wind, were evaluated by modeling a range of installation strategies and port use types to identify gaps in capability and potential opportunities for economic development. Commonalities, trends, and specific examples from these case studies are presented and provide a summary of the current state of offshore wind port readiness in the U.S. and also illustrate the direction some ports have chosen to take to prepare for offshore wind projects. For example, the land area required for wind turbine and foundation manufacturing is substantial, particularly due to the large size of offshore wind components. Also, the necessary bearing capacities of the

  5. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  6. Simulating coastal effects on an offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Volker, Patrick

    Wind turbine wakes can cause energy losses in wind farms1 and their effect needs to be modeled in order to design energy efficient wind farm layouts. Wake losses in offshore wind farms are often modeled by assuming offshore conditions for all wind directions; however, many offshore wind farms...

  7. Water-hydraulic power transmission for offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.; Kempenaar, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art of offshore wind turbine power transmission technology is expensive, heavy and maintenance intensive. The Delft Offshore Turbine project considers a radically new concept for power transmission in an offshore wind farm: using seawater as power transmission medium. For

  8. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical s...

  9. The development of the Hibernia offshore field: panacea for a depressed regional economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, L.W.; Feehan, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the Hibernia offshore oil and gas field is one of the largest ventures under-taken by the oil industry in Canada. It is also the first field to be developed on Canada's Grand Banks. This paper reviews Hibernia's controversial past and assesses the extent to which it may serve as a catalyst for economic recovery in Newfoundland. (author)

  10. Vessel for the removal of offshore platforms; Fartoey for fjerning av plattformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, Brian L.; Gudmestad, Ove Tobias

    1998-05-04

    The invention relates to a vessel designed for the removal of offshore platforms. The vessel comprises at least two spaced gliding arrangements designed for being placed at or under the platform deck and to support the deck and for moving the deck structure towards thr decided position on the vessel. 6 figs.

  11. Distribution of fish species for the generic Appropriate Assessment for the construction of offshore wind farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.; Os, O.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch government aims at the production of 450 MW of electricity by offshore wind farms by 2010 and 6000 MW by 2020. Possibly the construction, exploitation and dismantlement of the wind farms will influence fish in the North Sea, which are protected under the European Habitat Directive or are

  12. An Investigation on Fatigue in High-Strength Steel Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Lopez Martinez, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of offshore steel structures in high-strength steel is studied. The material used has a yield stress of 800-1000 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Of special interest is the fatigue life under a realistic stochastic loading....... In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on both full-scale tubular joints and smaller welded plate test specimens, in high-strength steel as well as in conventional offshore structural steel. The present document gives a summary of the main results presented in two......, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those obtained in corresponding tests on joints in conventional offshore structural steel....

  13. An investigation on fatigue in high-strength steel offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1998-01-01

    The fatigue life of offshore steel structures in high-strength steel is studied. The material used has a yield stress of 800-1000 MPa and high weldability and toughness properties. Of special interest is the fatigue life under a realistic stochastic loading. In the experimental part...... of the investigation, fatigue test series were carried out on both full scale tubular joints and smaller welded plate test specimens in high-strength steel as well as in conventional offshore structural steel. This paper gives a summary of the main results presented in two recent research reports [15, 16], from...... specimens in high-strength steel than those obtained in corresponding tests on joints in conventional offshore structural steel....

  14. Energy yield prediction of offshore wind farm clusters at the EERA-DTOC European project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, E.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    plant interconnection and energy yield models all interrelated with a simplified cost model for the evaluation of layout scenarios. The overall aim is to produce an efficient, easy to use and flexible tool - to facilitate the optimised design of individual and clusters of offshore wind farms....... A demonstration phase at the end of the project will assess the value of the integrated design tool with the help of potential end-users from industry. This abstracts summarizes the objectives and preliminary results of work package 3. In order to provide an accurate value of the expected net energy yield......A new integrated design tool for optimization of offshore wind farm clusters is under development in the European Energy Research Alliance – Design Tools for Offshore wind farm Cluster project (EERA DTOC). The project builds on already established design tools from the project partners and possibly...

  15. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...

  16. Uncertainty Quantification of the Real-Time Reserves for Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göçmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    In order to retain the system stability, the wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services. One of those services is reserve power. Here in this study, we focus on the real-time reserves which can be traded in the balancing markets and are currently used for compensation under...... mandatory downregulation stated by the transmission system operators (TSOs). The PossPOW project (Possible Power of down-regulated Offshore Wind power plants) developed a real-time power curve of available power for offshore wind farms for use during down-regulation. The follow-up Concert project......(control and uncertainties in real-time power curves of offshore wind power plants) aims to quantify and finally reduce the uncertainty in reserve power, bringing the PossPOW algorithm and the state of the art forecasting methods together. The experiments designed to test the available power estimated by the Poss...

  17. The Crucial Records Number to Retrieve Offshore Directional Wind Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Li, Z.; Yang, X.

    2017-02-01

    The wind energy production estimates are very important to a wind power project. And, the remote sensing technique has been widely used to obtain the offshore wind speed and direction which could be used to calculate the wind energy of potential wind farm. However, the directional wind energy distributions are rarely studied, which also play important roles in analysis of wind farms’ potential power. In this article, the minimum number of records to obtain offshore directional wind distribution is stated by simulation experiment on In-situ dataset. The NDBC buoy dataset is randomly and multiply sampled to build new dataset under different numbers of observation records, which vary from 21 to 800. The resample under the same number of observation is repeated for 100 times to build dataset group. The directional wind distribution of new dataset is compared with the one of original buoy dataset, and errors made by dataset with fewer records are calculated. Besides, the 10th largest error in the sampled dataset group, which have the same number of observation records, is regarded as the error bound for those dataset. The change rule of the error bound is shown by fitted curves. Based on the fitted curves, minimum number of records is calculated. By this simulation experiment, the minimum number of records to represent wind direction frequency is 350, and 800 for annual direction distributions of wind energy density. To reduce the number of records needed in retrieval, some methods are discussed and tested.

  18. Large-scale offshore wind farms in Denmark. Update of ''Future offshore sites for wind turbines 2025''; Stor-skala havmoelleparker i Danmark. Opdatering af fremtidens havmoelleplaceringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    This updating of the ''Future offshore sites for wind turbines 2025'', is made by the Offshore Wind Farm Committee and adjusts primarily the existing sites in relation to a updated data basis. The sites are adjusted within the already identified areas, and no new areas are therefore included. In addition to an update of the underlying data base, including the revised sailing routes, the new Natura 2000 sites and mineral resources, there are now further collected knowledge about the seabed in the designated areas. Moreover, the underlying assumptions for construction costs and grid connection updated, which has resulted in a revised socio-economic priority of the areas. The Offshore Wind Farm Committee's report confirms that the placement of the 600 MW Kriegers Flak Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic Sea is the best location for Denmark's next major offshore wind farm. Kriegers Flak Offshore Wind Farm is already included in the Government's energy strategy. (LN)

  19. An Experimental Study of an Offshore Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Asmussen, John Christian; Andersen, Palle

    of the multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. Before the calibration of the ARMA...

  20. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model...

  1. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Palle

    1995-01-01

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model...

  2. Advokaat ja offshore'id / Leon Glikman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glikman, Leon, 1957-

    2003-01-01

    Advokaatide tegevusest nn offshore-äriühingute ostmisel ja kliendi rahaliste kohustuste täitmisel. Kommentaar Silva Männiku, Inno Tähismaa ja Heidit Kaio art. "Mahukate maksuskeemide uurimine jõuab lõpusirgele", Äripäev 6. aug. 2003, lk. 2

  3. General Report for TC209 : Offshore Geotechnics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, F.; Gavin, K.

    2017-01-01

    The present report overviews the 22 contributions submitted to the session on offshore geotechnics held by Technical Committee (TC) 209 at the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ICSMGE). Following a general discussion on the nature (fundamental or applied)

  4. Power Transmission from Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1999-01-01

    The major part of the coming wind farms in Denmark will be placed offshore. If the location is near a grid with a high short circuit level the power can be transmitted as AC.If the wind farm is far away from the grid and the grid perhaps has a low short circuit level, the best solution for transm...

  5. Fluctuations of offshore wind generation: Statistical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Christensen, Lasse E.A.; Madsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms has a significant impact on the control and management strategies of their power output. If focusing on the minute scale, one observes successive periods with smaller and larger power fluctuations. It seems that different regimes yi...

  6. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  7. Failing to Estimate the Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates cost estimation errors in the context of offshoring. It is argued that an imprecise estimation of the costs related to implementing a firm activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred...

  8. DESIGN OF OFFSHORE CONCRETE GRAVITY PLATFORMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: concrete gravity platform, offshore, foundation design, manufacturing, construction ... (2) Prefabrication of piping and mechanical systems in ... measurements). Z = desired elevation in ft. Ref = the reference height (30ft). The wind effects on all parts of the above- water structure should be calculated. The two.

  9. Dispatching capacity in manufacturing facility offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how a dispatching capacity of motivation, relational dynamics and structures seen from the sending context influence the entire knowledge transfer process in manufacturing facility offshoring. An inductive and qualitative approach is taken and five main themes are derived...

  10. Domestic R&D and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    An important question in industrialized countries is whether offshoring activities reduce the probability of performing own research and development (R&D) or whether the R&D intensity falls in firms that already have R&D activities. This question is addressed using a unique data set that combines...

  11. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  12. Floating offshore wind turbines for shallow waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulder, B.H.; Henderson, A.; Huijsmans, R.H.M.; Peeringa, J.M.; Pierik, J.T.G.; Snijders, E.J.B.; Hees, M.Th. van; Wijnants, G.H.; Wolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom mounted Offshore wind turbines seem to have a promising future but they are restricted to shallow waters of Northern Europe. Many projects are planned or are in the phase of construction on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. All projects that are planned have a water depth up to approximately

  13. Fishing activity near offshore pipelines, 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    On the North Sea bottom lie numerous pipelines to link oil- or gas offshore drilling units, - platforms and processing stations on land. Although pipeline tubes are coated and covered with protective layers, the pipelines risk being damaged through man-made hazards like anchor dropping and fishing

  14. System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustaffa, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The title of this thesis, System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines, portrays the application of probabilistic methods in assessing the reliability of these structures. The main intention of this thesis is to identify, apply and judge the suitability of the probabilistic methods in

  15. Go offshore -Combining food and energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Stuiver, Marian; Guanche, Raul

    European oceans will be subject to massive development of marine infrastructure in the near future. The development includes energy facilities, e.g. offshore wind farms, exploitation of wave energy, and also development and implementation of marine aquaculture This change of infrastructure makes ...

  16. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  17. Wake dynamics in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mare, Martin Tobias

    Wind turbines within offshore wind farms spend considerable time operating in the wake of neighboring wind turbines. An important contribution to the loads on a wake-affected wind turbine is the slow movement of the wake from the upstream wind turbine across the rotor of the wake-affected wind...

  18. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length...

  19. Urinary tract trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1983-09-01

    From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations.

  20. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Daniel; Resor, Brian Ray; White, Jonathan Randall; Paquette, Joshua A.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2012-12-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are expected to be significantly higher than the current costs for onshore plants. One way in which these costs may be able to be reduced is through the use of a structural health and prognostic management system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management. To facilitate the creation of such a system a multiscale modeling approach has been developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. The developed methodology was used to investigate the effects of a candidate blade damage feature, a trailing edge disbond, on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine and the measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage were the local pitching moments around the disbond. The multiscale method demonstrated that these changes were caused by a local decrease in the blades torsional stiffness due to the disbond, which also resulted in changes in the blades local strain field. Full turbine simulations were also used to demonstrate that derating the turbine power by as little as 5% could extend the fatigue life of a blade by as much as a factor of 3. The integration of the health monitoring information, conceptual repair cost versus damage size information, and this load management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.

  1. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, J. [Cormorant Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations

  2. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  3. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  4. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Bradbury

    Full Text Available We present a Geographic Information System (GIS tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool, to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  5. Environmental education program for offshore employees; Projeto de educacao ambiental para empregados offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Carlos Pedrosa dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Sistema de Sondagem Semi-Submersivel. Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Osborne, Renata

    2004-07-01

    The Pedagogical Project of Environmental Education for Offshore Employees was developed in order to foster greater awareness of the environmental question and contribute towards the reduction of accidents. Main clients are contracted staff. This Project is carried out aboard marine units and consists of five modules with on- the-job classes (the option that it be conducted at the work site was the alternative chosen by the majority of participating employees). Subjects cover technical, historical and cultural matters connected with the environment and involve legislation, residues, energy, health and safety. In order to evaluate the course's receptivity and degree of understanding, a trial group was formed. During 2003, classes were conducted in 27 marine drilling units, 23 of which under contract. Total number of persons attending was 2.471, total number of class-hours being 246. After the course's conclusion, its strengths and weaknesses are evaluated in order to supply data for future improvements. In this way, subjects are always kept up to date and interest is maintained. (author)

  6. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  8. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with half of all women experiencing at least one in their lifetime.1 Of the women affected, 25-30% develop recurrent infections unrelated to any functional or anatomical abnormality of the urinary tract.2 Most UTIs in women are episodes of acute.

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  11. Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...

  12. Effects of Second-Order Hydrodynamics on a Semisubmersible Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayati, I.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Platt, A.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the second-order hydrodynamic effects on a semisubmersible floating offshore wind turbine. Second-order hydrodynamics induce loads and motions at the sum- and difference-frequencies of the incident waves. These effects have often been ignored in offshore wind analysis, under the assumption that they are significantly smaller than first-order effects. The sum- and difference-frequency loads can, however, excite eigenfrequencies of the system, leading to large oscillations that strain the mooring system or vibrations that cause fatigue damage to the structure. Observations of supposed second-order responses in wave-tank tests performed by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN offshore basin suggest that these effects might be more important than originally expected. These observations inspired interest in investigating how second-order excitation affects floating offshore wind turbines and whether second-order hydrodynamics should be included in offshore wind simulation tools like FAST in the future. In this work, the effects of second-order hydrodynamics on a floating semisubmersible offshore wind turbine are investigated. Because FAST is currently unable to account for second-order effects, a method to assess these effects was applied in which linearized properties of the floating wind system derived from FAST (including the 6x6 mass and stiffness matrices) are used by WAMIT to solve the first- and second-order hydrodynamics problems in the frequency domain. The method has been applied to the OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, supporting the NREL 5-MW baseline wind turbine. The loads and response of the system due to the second-order hydrodynamics are analysed and compared to first-order hydrodynamic loads and induced motions in the frequency domain. Further, the second-order loads and induced response data are compared to the loads and motions induced by aerodynamic loading as solved by FAST.

  13. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  14. Economic feasibility of artificial islands for cluster-siting of offshore energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baram, Michael S.; Spencer, James; Munson, J. Steve

    1977-04-01

    The study presents a general first-order cost feasibility analysis of the artificial island concept and its usefulness for the offshore siting of multiple energy facilities. The results of the study include a recommended method of cost-feasibility assessment; the collection and organization of the most useful information presently available; and a series of conclusions on feasibility for generic comparison purposes. These conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) artificial islands to the outer bound of the continental shelf are technologically feasible; (2) offshore nuclear power plants appear to be competitive with onshore plants from a cost standpoint; (3) offshore deepwater ports appear to be more economical than proposed onshore deepwater ports, existing facilities or facilities presently under construction; (4) offshore oil refineries, except under special circumstantces, will probably be more costly than onshore counterparts; (5) the cluster-siting of facilities on an artificial island has definite cost-effectiveness potential; (6) a joint public-private financial venture with a strong federal agency lead role appears essential for the multi-facility island concept to be realized; and (7) artificial island siting of energy complexes appears to be a concept worth pursuing in terms of further site and facility-specific research, and possibly in terms of a demonstration project.

  15. Economic feasibility of artificial islands for cluster-siting of offshore energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baram, M.S.; Spencer, J.; Munson, J.S.

    1977-04-01

    The study presents a general first-order cost feasibility analysis of the artificial island concept and its usefulness for the offshore siting of multiple energy facilities. The results of the study include a recommended method of cost-feasibility assessment; the collection and organization of the most useful information presently available; and a series of conclusions on feasibility for generic comparison purposes. These conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) artificial islands to the outer bound of the continental shelf are technologically feasible; (2) offshore nuclear power plants appear to be competitive with onshore plants from a cost standpoint; (3) offshore deepwater ports appear to be more economical than proposed onshore deepwater ports, existing facilities or facilities presently under construction; (4) offshore oil refineries, except under special circumstantces, will probably be more costly than onshore counterparts; (5) the cluster-siting of facilities on an artificial island has definite cost-effectiveness potential; (6) a joint public-private financial venture with a strong federal agency lead role appears essential for the multi-facility island concept to be realized; and (7) artificial island siting of energy complexes appears to be a concept worth pursuing in terms of further site and facility-specific research, and possibly in terms of a demonstration project

  16. Collection of offshore human error probability data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, Gurpreet; Kirwan, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as Piper Alpha have increased concern about the effects of human errors in complex systems. Such accidents can in theory be predicted and prevented by risk assessment, and in particular human reliability assessment (HRA), but HRA ideally requires qualitative and quantitative human error data. A research initiative at the University of Birmingham led to the development of CORE-DATA, a Computerised Human Error Data Base. This system currently contains a reasonably large number of human error data points, collected from a variety of mainly nuclear-power related sources. This article outlines a recent offshore data collection study, concerned with collecting lifeboat evacuation data. Data collection methods are outlined and a selection of human error probabilities generated as a result of the study are provided. These data give insights into the type of errors and human failure rates that could be utilised to support offshore risk analyses

  17. Offshore Wind Atlas for Northern European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Astrup, Poul; Badger, Merete; Mouche, Alexis; Stoffelen, Ad

    2010-12-01

    Offshore winds are investigated in detail in the EU- Norsewind project - short for Northern Seas Wind Index Database - that aims to produce an offshore wind atlas for the Northern European Seas including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Irish Sea. The results are preliminary as they are from mid-term in the project (2008-2012). The results include mean wind speeds from Envisat ASAR, QuikSCAT and SSM/I compared to masts. The spatial variability across the area is clearly identified with major coastal effects in the enclosed seas. The long-term trend analysis does not indicate any trend in the different wind speed bins investigated during 23 years. The next step is further comparison to ground-based lidar data and atmospheric model results.

  18. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally......This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...

  19. Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    frequencies. The highly variable and cyclic loads on the rotor, tower and foundation, caused by wind and wave loads as well as low-frequent excitations from the rotor blades, all demand special fatigue design considerations and create an even greater demand for a fuller appreciation of how the wind turbine...... and material damping in the soil. Modal properties in terms of natural frequencies and corresponding damping ratios of offshore wind turbines are investigated by full-scale modal testing and simple numerical quasi-static simulations. The analyses show distinctly time-varying inherent modal properties that...... of the soil indicates that the modal properties and cross-wind fatigue loads of offshore wind turbines are strongly affected by the interrelation effects between the foundation and subsoil....

  20. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, M.D.; Marks, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    A task facing the offshore oil and gas industry is the removal of about 7000 platforms. In this chapter, the legal framework for offshore platform decommissioning is first discussed. The various phases of abandonment are then described. The first and most critical of these is the planning phase which should be initiated years in advance when depletion plans for a field are recommended. Seven discrete activities are identified in the abandonment process itself and briefly discussed. These are: the permanent plugging and abandonment of non-productive well bores; pre-abandonment surveys and data gathering to gain knowledge about the platform and its condition; decommissioning; structure removal; disposal, recycle or reuse of platform components on or off shore; site clearance. (13 figures; 13 references) (UK)

  1. Switching overvoltages in offshore wind power grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Ivan

    Switching transients in wind turbines, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid in offshore wind farms, during normal or abnormal operation, are the most important phenomena when conducting insulation coordination studies. However, the recommended models and methods from...... electrical systems and the topic of transients is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 it is described how the component and sub-system models are developed and used from an applied point of view, where common and detail models are mentioned. In Chapter 3 results from frequency domain measurement on transformers...... and cables are presented. In Chapter 4 results from time domain measurements and simulations of switching operations in offshore wind power grids are described. Specifically, switching operations on a single wind turbine, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid measured in several real...

  2. System Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Deeper waters and harsher environments are the main factors that make the electricity generated by offshore wind turbines (OWTs) expensive due to high costs of the substructure, operation & maintenance and installation. The key goal of development is to decrease the cost of energy (CoE). In conse......Deeper waters and harsher environments are the main factors that make the electricity generated by offshore wind turbines (OWTs) expensive due to high costs of the substructure, operation & maintenance and installation. The key goal of development is to decrease the cost of energy (Co...... in inspections or measurements from condition monitoring systems. Finally, an example is established to illustrate the practical application of this framework for jacket type wind turbine substructure considering system effects....

  3. Evaluation of Ductile Iron for Offshore Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Mats Røed

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Mechanical engineering The possibility of using ductile iron as a construction material for offshore applications have been investigated. If ductile iron is considered as being a substitute material forwelded steel, it can create a larger freedom for engineers in a design process as well as provide benefits regarding strength and cost.The issue of getting ductile iron approved as a reliable substitute material for steel is a statement made by DNV GL, being that cast iron...

  4. Social impact of offshoring: myth or reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaoui, Elwardi

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to provide empirical validation of financial globalization. First, we will give an idea about the reorganization of global companies and production functions will emphasize the extent of the phenomenon. Similarly, we will talk if the importance of the size reflects the law of the strongest. Then we will discuss the implications for the use of multi-nationalization and offshoring in the North and in the South. how to define the relocation? What are the main reasons for ou...

  5. Discovering the Endgame in the Offshore Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Irving, Bill; Shojai, Shahin; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-01-01

    The financial services industry is just beginning to take full advantage of the benefits of offshore business processing. Some have taken the steps to outsource parts of the lowerend value chain to third party providers within emerging economies. We predict that similar to the manufacturing industries, financial institutions will over time outsource significant parts of their business processes, including certain components which require complex processes, to cheaper, and perhaps more efficie...

  6. Laserfluorescence offshore oil pollution sensor - LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey, F.R.; Pomeroy, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Laser Fluorescence Offshore Oil Pollution Sensor (LOOPS) was conceived to provide a capability for 24 hour, year-round surveillance of areas around any facilities drilling for producing, transferring, processing or storing oil and oil products. The LOOPS system applies well established fluorescence techniques to detect and characterize different oil types. The system may be mounted in a variety of configurations to ensure maximum coverage around the facility

  7. A Crew Exposure Study. Volume I. Offshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-15

    DESIGN (SAFETY RELATED) 1. "Big Offshore Service Rig is Spark-proof, Portable," World Oil, Vol. 176, No. 2, February 1, 1973, pp 39-40. 2.o Bollinger ... Paris 3. Ca SO4 ’ 2 H2 0, gypsum 4. Source of calcium ions in gyp muds I. Chromic Chloride 1. CrCl 3 • 6 H2 0 2. Cross-linking xanthan gum J. Chromium

  8. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  9. Offshore Companies and the Fiscal Paradise

    OpenAIRE

    CORINA ALEXANDRA VITELAR

    2006-01-01

    The present article introduces the reader in the problem of tax heaven and offshore companies. We tried to present, both positive and negative aspects of this problem. On one hand, this type of companies can help a multinational corporation in its economical and financial global projections, but, on the other hand, these companies can be use as extremely efficient instruments of tax evasion and money laundry

  10. Value of cystography in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, M W; Whitelaw, R

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-one children with a bacteriologically proven urinary tract infection had both an intravenous urogram (IVU) and a micturating cystogram. The IVU was normal in 35. Only 6 of these children showed reflux in the cystogram, affecting 7 of the 70 ureters at risk. Since reflux on its own does not cause renal damage, which occurs only with super-added infection, detection of reflux is not important providing the urine is kept sterile. We suggest that cystography be deferred providing the IVU is normal until recurrent infections occur while under hospital care, and, with this policy this unpleasant and sometimes hazardous investigation could be avoided in many children with a single urinary tract infection. PMID:1008600

  11. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    Society is facing a pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit anthropogenic climate change, which has far reaching implications for humans and the environment. Transforming the energy infrastructure to carbon-free sources is one solution to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but this transformation has been slow to materialize in many places, such as the United States (U.S.). Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources available, which can be deployed in large-scale developments in many parts of the world. Yet, offshore wind has faced many challenges, which are more social and regulatory than technical. This dissertation addresses social and regulatory issues surrounding offshore wind development through three stand-alone essays, which, in combination, address a decision-making framework of where to locate offshore wind turbines, by minimizing effects on people and wildlife. The challenges to offshore wind that are addressed by this dissertation include (1) understanding underlying factors that drive support for or opposition to offshore wind energy; (2) conflict with existing ocean uses and users; and (3) public concern and regulatory processes related to wildlife impacts. The first paper identifies unique factors that drive public opinion of proposed offshore wind projects in nearby coastal communities. Wind energy development on land has faced local opposition for reasons such as effects on cultural landscapes and wildlife, which can be instrumental in whether or not and the speed with which a project moves ahead toward completion. Factors leading to support for, or opposition to, offshore wind energy are not well known, particularly for developments that are near-shore and in-view of coastal communities. Results are presented from a survey of 699 residents (35.5% response rate) completed in 2013 in greater Atlantic City, New Jersey and coastal Delaware, United States, where near-shore wind demonstration projects had

  12. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, William L. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nordstrom, Charles J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Morrison, Brent J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  13. for Fixed Offshore Platforms in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawekal Ricky L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In RBUI method, platform with higher risk level will need inspection done more intensively than those with lower risk level. However, the probability of failure (PoF evaluation in RBUI method is usually carried out in semi quantitative way by comparing failure parameters associated with the same damage mechanism between a group of platforms located in the same area. Therefore, RBUI will not be effective for platforms spread in distant areas where failure parameter associated with the same damage mechanism may not be the same. The existing standard, American Petroleum Institute, Recommended Practice for Structural Integrity Management of Fixed Offshore Structures (API RP-2SIM, is limited on the general instructions in determining the risk value of a platform, yet it does not provide a detail instruction on how determining the Probability of Failure (PoF of platform. In this paper, the PoF is determined quantitatively by calculating structural reliability index based on structural collapse failure mode, thus the method in determining the inspection schedule is called Risk-Reliability Based Underwater Inspection (RReBUI. Models of 3-legs jacket fixed offshore platform in Java Sea and 4-legs jacket fixed offshore platform in Natuna Sea are used to study the implementation of RReBUI.

  14. Transient recovery voltages in offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Jenkins, N. [Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom); Yao, L.; Kang, H.; Rasolonjanahary, J.L. [ALSTOM Grid Research and Technology Centre, Staffordshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Transient Recovery Voltages (TRVs) and the corresponding Rate of Rise of Recovery Voltage (RRRV) which may be experienced by circuit breakers within offshore wind farms are assessed. In order to assess the TRV and RRRV capabilities of circuit breakers, it is important to model the system during various types and locations of faults. This means that the model used for the wind turbine needs to represent its fault current contribution. The paper reviews the fault current contribution from a simple induction generator, a doubly fed induction generator and a fully-fed machine, along with how this can be modeled in a TRV study. Simulations of an example offshore wind farm are carried out in EMTP-RV. Three phase and single phase faults are applied at a variety of locations, within the offshore wind farm in order to determine the TRVs which may be experienced by 33kV and 132kV circuit breakers. The effect of different wind turbine generator types on the TRVs is shown, along with the addition of reactive compensation. The main submarine cable length and the 33kV array cable lengths are varied to show that there may be particular cable lengths which produce higher magnitudes and rise times of the TRV. (orig.)

  15. Offshore wind energy, who will risk investment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic; Moragues, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    As Europe plans to install 40 GW of offshore wind energy production by 2020 and only 5 GW are already installed, investment is a crucial issue for a still immature industry and in a context where risk management is critical, notably during construction (harsh working conditions, costs of construction, of maintenance and costs related to delays). Other aspects are also related to financial risks like, for example, the cost of offshore wind farm connection to the grid (this has been an underestimated issue in Germany). Then operation and exploitation have to face climate events although, according to relatively recent exploitation data, availability is quite good. The durability of political support is not so sure in a context of political and regulatory instability and of economic crisis. In France, after the first bidding, the wind energy industrial sector is emerging and many small and medium companies enter this activity in the trail of Areva and Alstom, with thousands of job creations and export perspectives. Some offshore wind turbines are briefly presented (by Alstom, Areva, RE Power, Siemens and Vestas)

  16. Offshore regulators focus on incentives for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2000-11-27

    Strict safety regulations in effect at offshore drilling sites are discussed. The guiding principle in all existing regulation is that while economic or industrial considerations are important, the value and the concern for human life is paramount. Should some tragic event occur at an offshore drilling site that is shown to have been caused by negligence of an operator, there is no question at all that the regulatory authority, in this case the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB), would take the negligent operator to court. Nevertheless, Canadian authorities remain confident that encouragement of maintaining a safe working environment is likely to be more successful in ensuring workplace safety than threats of punishment. Indeed, Canadian regulators have, in recent times, shown a tendency to move towards performance-based systems, as opposed to the more usual prescriptive or rule-bound regulatory regime. This new approach involves setting targets and giving companies the responsibility to implement measures to reach the targets rather than relying on government instructions. Still, performance-based regulation in Canada is relatively new and some regulations remain prescriptive. Examples are the requirement for two immersion suits and two lifeboat seats for every worker on a drilling unit.

  17. Conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ronny; Furois, Timothee; Nolte, Nico; Lanoe, Frederic; Lehmann-Matthaei, Bjoern; Ifflaender, Andree; Courcambeck, Alexandre; Giese, Norbert; Kavafyan, Philippe; Bjaert, Niels; Wagner, Andreas; Guillet, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the planning and authorisation procedures implemented in both countries and on the installation, connection to the grid and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. environmental impacts and usage conflicts linked with offshore wind farms exploitation were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Update: Offshore Wind In Germany (Ronny Meyer); 2 - Offshore wind development in France (Timothee Furois); 3 - The Licensing Procedure for Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ (Nico Nolte); 4 - Spatial Planning and Permitting in France: What leverage for more efficiency? (Frederic Lanoe); 5 - Results of 10 years environmental research on FINO-platforms (Bjoern Lehmann-Matthaei); 6 - Offshore Grid Connection - Status Quo and Overview (Andree Ifflaender); 7 - Grid connection of Offshore Wind in France: Situation, perspectives and recommendations (Alexandre Courcambeck); 8 - Controlling risks and warranting safety: Best practices for the installation, exploitation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines (Norbert Giese); 9 - Offshore wind Bremerhaven experience: An essential asset for the development of a complete Wind Offshore industry in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 10 - Standardizing and Cost Reduction -Lessons Learned from London Array (Niels Bjaert); 11 - Offshore Wind energy in Germany: System Benefits and Cost Reduction Potentials. Presentation of study results from prognos/fichtner and Fraunhofer-IWeS (Andreas Wagner); 12 - Offshore Wind energy financing - opportunities and risks (Jerome Guillet)

  18. Dosimetry results for AECL personnel involved in maintenance activities at off-shore CANDU stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaloo, R.

    1997-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is intermittently involved in maintenance work on domestic and off-shore CANDU nuclear power plants. Maintenance activities, such as fuel-channel replacement (FCR), small-scale spacer location and relocation (SLARETTE) and primary-side steam-generator tube cleaning, require work in high-radiation fields. This may lead to appreciable radiation doses. AECL staff experience has been that these radiation doses accrue mostly from external gamma fields, with a minor internal dose component from the uptake of tritiated waste vapour. There are no significant uptakes of other radionuclides. AECL practice for SLARETTE and FCR work at off-shore CANDU stations has been to equip AECL personnel with 1 set of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and 1 direct-reading personal alarming dosimeter (PAD). These TLDs are read at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL. In addition, off-shore site radiation protection personnel issue AECL personnel with a TLD. This TLD is subsequently read at the off-shore site. Consequently, there are often three independent measurements of dose from external fields for AECL personnel. Internal dose assessments rely on off-shore radiation protection personnel. All off-shore CANDU stations use urine bioassay methods for tritiated water uptakes. Most off-shore CANDU sites also have lung or whole-body gamma spectrometry capabilities or both, which, if necessary, can be used to assess doses from uptakes of gamma-emitting airborne contaminants (e.g., from 60 Co, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, etc.). This paper discusses some internal and external dosimetry data for AECL personnel involved in recent FCR and SLARETTE work at off-shore CANDU stations. The data show that the whole-body dose contribution from uptake of tritiated heavy water is small. The data also show that three independent external dosimetry systems give dose results that are in relatively close agreement. Such information is invaluable in promoting confidence in the various

  19. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be

  20. Noise and Vibrations Measurements. External noise and vibrations measurements for offshore SODAR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormel, F.T.; Eecen, P.J.; Herman, S.A.

    2003-10-01

    measured onshore. Therefore, under offshore conditions a negative effect of the background noise on the SODAR measurements is expected. The vibrations in the metal structure of the offshore island are expected to have an influence on the SODAR performance. The vibration measurements showed that the effects are negligible with regards to the normal SODAR measurement uncertainties. A recommendation is to limit negative effects of background noise offshore by performing noise measurements in advance and by choosing a position for the SODAR equipment based on these measurements. It is recommended to select the best position on an offshore island using instruments and not just by listening

  1. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, E.; Tedaldi, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO 2 , water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  2. Active deformation offshore the Western Transverse Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucarkus, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Kent, G.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Transverse Ranges within the structural province of southern California, an east-west trending active fold and thrust belt system, has rapid uplift rates that are capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis. This system to the west consists of north and south dipping reverse faults offshore Santa Barbara and Ventura (i.e., Pitas Point fault, Red Mountain fault, Rincon Creek fault). Ventura Avenue Anticline (VAA) is one of the fastest uplifting structure within this system has experienced nearly 2.7 km of structural uplift since fold initiation about 200-300 thousand years ago, yielding an average uplift rate of 9-13 mm/yr. Mapped and dated Holocene marine terraces between Ventura and Carpenteria reveal that large uplift events occurred at 0.8 ka and 1.9 ka; a recurrence interval of approximately a thousand years. The VAA trends offshore to the west and is buried by sediment from Rincon Creek. This sediment completely obscures the surficial expression of the fold between Rincon Point and Punta Gorda, indicating that Holocene sedimentation has kept pace with fold growth. Given the high sedimentation rate, each uplift event should be captured by stratigraphic rotation and onlap, and formation of angular unconformities. With that perspective, we acquired ~240 km-long very high-resolution (decimeter) CHIRP seismic reflection data from offshore Santa Barbara in the west to Ventura in the east, in order to examine discrete folding/uplift events that are preserved in the Holocene sediment record. CHIRP data together with re-processed USGS sparker profiles provide new constraints on timing and architecture of deformation offshore. A transgressive surface that dates back to ~9.5 kyr B.P is identified in seismic reflection data and dips landward; bending of the transgressive surface appears to be due to active folding and faulting. Observed onlapping sediments together with the deformation of the transgressive surface mark the onset of deformation while periods

  3. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2010-12-01

    This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the larger of the two volumes and contains five chapters that cover background information and objectives of Subtask 2 and results from each of the four phases of the project.

  4. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, Halil; Togan, Vedat; Vrouwenvelder, Ton

    2009-01-01

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  5. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jung Wha [Seoul Nationl Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric

  6. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock; Jang, Jung Wha

    1983-01-01

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, delayed

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's ... signs of a kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified ( ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems ... Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters ( ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  16. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  17. Leveraging Offshore IT Outsourcing by SMEs through Online Marketplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Radkevitch, Uladzimir; Heck, Eric; Koppius, Otto

    2006-01-01

    textabstractFollowing their larger counterparts, an increasing number of small firms outsource their IT tasks to lower cost offshore destinations. For small firms, however, offshore outsourcing is a difficult undertaking as it involves high transaction costs. Online marketplaces for IT services, which have recently become available to small firms, make offshore IT outsourcing more accessible and manageable, although differences in the marketplace design result in varying outcomes across the m...

  18. Improving the Reporting Practice in Project Delivery of Offshoring Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Loponen, Mika

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates reporting practice in the case company and proposes improvements on it. The case company uses offshore for project operations and recently use of offshoring has been increased significantly. Due to growth in offshore operations some reporting practices has not been developed accordingly. The research method of this thesis was action research due to its cyclical and qualitative nature, which was considered to serve best the needs of this study. The research design ...

  19. Design of support structures for offshore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    van der Tempel, J.

    2006-01-01

    To meet growing energy demands, the Kyoto protocol and the much desired diversification of supply, wind energy has become a mainstream source of energy in the EU. Cost wise it is already competing with gas fired electricity. In the last decade wind moved offshore to accommodate even more wind power. The offshore wind resource is more abundant and of a better quality, resulting in higher electricity output. On the other hand, the cost of installing turbines offshore is higher than onshore. To ...

  20. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, John F.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Newman, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thi...

  1. Atrio-His bundle tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechenmacher, C

    1975-01-01

    The atrio-His bundle tracts are very rare; only two have been found in 687 hearts studied histologically. These tracts have a similar appearance to those of the atrioventricular bundle and form a complete bypass of the atrioventricular node. In their presence the electrocardiogram may show a short or normal PR interval. They may be responsible for some cases of very rapid ventricular response to supraventricular arrhythmias. Images PMID:1191446

  2. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  3. Legal aspects of financing Canadian offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.M.; Hudec, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the significant legal considerations involved in structuring, negotiating, and documenting commercial financing of a Canadian offshore oil and gas production facility. Emphasis is placed on the Hibernia Project in the Newfoundland offshore as an example, and more specifically the $450 million bank financing completed in November 1991. The legal framework governing offshore production financing in this case was complex, due to the project's location in international waters on the continental shelf. Complex intergovernmental arrangements have been implemented between Canada and Newfoundland to govern the offshore area and regulate the project. An agreement called the Atlantic Accord allowed the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) to grant production licenses and to regulate offshore exploration and development, with matters relating to legislation, taxation, and royalties shared between the governments. Certain other acts were enacted or extended for application to the offshore area. The CNOPB administers a registry system for transfers and security interests in offshore licenses. Security interests including property are ensured by the Hibernia Act, which makes Newfoundland's existing security interest regime applicable to the offshore. The project owners are operating Hibernia as a joint venture, and the structure of project financing and inter-creditor arrangements is examined. The competing security interest of project lenders and non-defaulting participants is discussed, along with assignment of priorities on the security in case of default

  4. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  5. Offshoring trends in the manufacturing process within the automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, S.; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates offshoring trends in the automotive industry. The research approach consisted of combining empirical findings from case companies with latest research from the field. Empirical data was collected through case studies from 15 automotive organisations based in Europe...... consisting of original equipment manufacturers and engineering service providers. The findings indicated some offshoring trends in the automotive industry. Offshoring in this industry is moving from a manufacturing focus to incorporate large parts of the process, including high-level product development...... with a focus on offshoring in the automotive industry and provides practitioners with information on a cutting-edge trend to the industry...

  6. A New Coordinated Voltage Control Scheme for Offshore AC Grid of HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a coordinated voltage control scheme (CVCS) which enhances the voltage ride through (VRT) capability of an offshore AC grid comprised of a cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPP) connected through AC cables to the offshore voltage source converter based high voltage DC (VSC......-HVDC) converter station. Due to limited short circuit power contribution from power electronic interfaced variable speed wind generators and with the onshore main grid decoupled by the HVDC link, the offshore AC grid becomes more vulnerable to dynamic voltage events. Therefore, a short circuit fault...... in the offshore AC Grid is likely to have significant implications on the voltage of the offshore AC grid, hence on the power flow to the onshore mainland grid. The proposed CVCS integrates individual local reactive power control of wind turbines and of the HVDC converter with the secondary voltage controller...

  7. Offshore gravimetric and subsidence monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenvold, Torkjell

    2008-06-15

    are discussed in Stenvold et al. (Chapter 2). A latitude dependence of the calibration scale factors of Scintrex gravimeters is shown for the first time. Chapter 5 contains the article 'Constraints on the in situ density of CO2 within the Utsira formation from time-lapse seafloor gravity measurements' by Nooner et al. (2007), published in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. In this article gravity measurements made on 30 seafloor stations above the CO2 bubble in 2002 and 2005 have been used to constrain the in-situ density of CO2 for models derived from seismic. The gravity responses of various numerical models are compared for the1999 to 2001 period. Note that time-lapse seismic for the 2002-2005 period was not available when this article was written. Chapter 6 contains the article 'Monitoring both gas production and CO2 injection at the Sleipner field using time-lapse gravimetry' by Alnes et al., submitted 29 February 2008 to Geophysics. This is a renewed analysis of the same gravity data as in the article by Nooner et al. (Chapter 5). Recently available 4D seismic, a more updated reservoir simulation model, and reprocessed gravity and pressure data give a new estimate of CO2 density. The observed gravity response between 2002 and 2005 from the underlying Ty Formation is shown for the first time. Chapter 7 contains the article 'Gravimetric monitoring of gas production from the Troll field' by Eiken et al., submitted 3 April 2008 to Geophysics. The gravity data is used to map and quantify water influx on Troll between 2002 and 2005. There is good agreement with well data and the amount of water influx agrees with material balance calculations. Chapter 8 contains the article 'Gravimetric monitoring of gas reservoir water influx' a combined flow- and gravity-modeling approach' by Stenvold et al., and was accepted for publication in January 2008 by Geophysics. It is to appear in an upcoming special section on

  8. Designing Offshore Super Grid for the Combined Operation of Offshore Wind Farms and Hydro Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimaldi, Armando; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Peiyuan

    2009-01-01

    The European commission decided in 2008 to reduce the dependency of imported primary energy sources and to promote the use of renewable energy. In particular, many offshore wind farms are planned in the North Sea between 2020 and 2030. Furthermore, the recent blackouts in Europe have shown...

  9. Risk management and controlling of offshore wind power plants; Risikomanagement und -controlling bei Offshore-Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlener, Reinhard [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Siegers, Lena; Bendig, Stefan [RWE Innogy, Essen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we provide an overview of the various terms and methods used in risk management and risk controlling. Further, we identify and discuss internal and external risks of offshore wind power plants (WPP) and demonstrate for the concrete example of a fictitious 400 MW offshore wind park in the North Sea the use of the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. The offshore risks involved are considered as part of the different components of the free cash flow, which form the basis for the DCF evaluation, by using a Monte Carlo simulation. The latter contains assumptions for the distribution of each cash flow component, which are based on a detailed consideration of the risk bearings. We use the cash flow at risk (CFaR), with the DCF as the risk-carrying target variable, as a quantitative risk measure for the simulated DCF evaluation. The CFaR enables us to draw a conclusion regarding the risk distribution of the DCF. According to the fictitious offshore wind park studied, the CFaR obtained provides evidence that the investment project investigated is indeed economically viable. (orig.)

  10. Offshore wind potential evaluation and remote sensing imagery; Evaluation du potentiel eolien offshore et imagerie satellitale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichaux, N.

    2003-12-15

    Offshore wind energy may help to contribute to the respect of the Kyoto objectives by Europe. It is a key issue to struggle against global change. To sit the future offshore wind parks, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the spatial repartition of the wind potential. We demonstrate that the offshore wind potential shall be represented by maps of wind statistics. As remote sensing is a tool for measuring space physical phenomena, we evaluate its potentialities for mapping wind statistics. Space-borne scatterometers enables the obtention of wind statistics, but far from our areas of interest and at low spatial resolution. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) enables the computation of high resolution wind maps over our areas of interest, but are unsuitable to compute wind statistics. We define the mathematical framework of a statistical method. That method enables to take advantage of both scatterometer and SAR to compute maps of wind statistics at high spatial resolution over the areas of interest. It enables remote sensing to be used operationally to map the offshore wind potential. (author)

  11. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maurer, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feinberg, Luke [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duerr, Alana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Phillipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Golladay, Jennifer [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Stromberg, Jessica [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Johnson, Isis [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Boren, Doug [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Moore, Annette [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  12. BIO-OFFSHORE: Grootschalige teelt van zeewieren in combinatie met offshore windparken in de Noordzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reith, E.H.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Hemmes, K.; Curvers, A.P.W.M.; Kamermans, P.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lettings, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the technological feasibility of seaweed cultivation in the North Sea in combination with offshore wind parks and harvesting and conversion of seaweed biomass to renewable energy carriers and chemicals. The study also identifies stakeholders and participants for technology

  13. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We

  14. Scour Forecasting for Offshore Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Peres Akrawi

    , scour forecasts facilitate the comparison between a scour design based on either deployment of scour-protection or enhanced structural design. The broad goal is to develop a method that produces accurate scour forecasts for offshore wind parks. The present research investigates more specifically which...... two legacies that deal with these two research questions in dialectical ways. The first legacy is a framework for the scour geometry based on epistemological considerations, theoretical concepts and model scale experiments. Relevant parameters are reviewed, defined and discussed. The combined use...

  15. Offshore wind mapping Mediterranean area using SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface, for example from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often...... with long periods of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models...

  16. Reliability analysis of an offshore structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, J. D.; Faber, M. H.; Thoft-Christensen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A jacket type offshore structure from the North Sea is considered. The time variant reliability is estimated for failure defined as brittle fracture and crack through the tubular member walls. The stochastic modelling is described. The hot spot stress spectral moments as function of the stochastic...... variables are described using spline function response surfaces. A Laplace integral expansion is used to estimate the time variant reliability. Parameter studies are performed for the reliability estimates and the results of the time variant and the time invariant reliability analyses are compared. (Authors)...

  17. Going offshore or better staying in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzer, Fabian; Mitze, Timo

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the short- to mid-run effects of spatial relocation strategies on firm innovativeness and productivity growth. Using conditional difference-in-difference estimation with multiple treatments, we find for a sample of German firms in 1999–2013 that offshoring has a statistically significant...... negative impact on the firms’ innovation activity and productivity growth vis-à-vis nonrelocating comparison firms. In contrast, we find a positive link between domestic relocation activities and the firms’ propensity to introduce a product innovation. Firms should thus carefully account for potentially...... distorting performance effects when deciding about the spatial scale of relocation strategies in the short to mid-run....

  18. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements satisf......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered.......Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...

  19. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements satisf......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered.......Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...

  20. Offshore platform integration and floatover technology

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Gengshen

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses offshore platform integration technology, focusing on the floatover methodology and its applications. It also addresses topics related to safety and cost-effectiveness, as well as ensuring the success of a project through careful planning and established detailed operation procedure/working manuals, which are rarely found in the published literature. Unlike other publications in this area, the book not only includes details of technology development, but also presents real project cases in the discussion to make it more comprehensible. Each topic is illustrated with carefully created sketches to show the complex operation procedures. .

  1. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-07-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  2. Dispatching capacity in manufacturing facility offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how a dispatching capacity of motivation, relational dynamics and structures seen from the sending context influence the entire knowledge transfer process in manufacturing facility offshoring. An inductive and qualitative approach is taken and five main themes are derived...... from the four empirical cases. In the discussion, the five themes i.e. extra tasks, previous experiences, involvement of all groups of employees, teaching skills and organizational support in the dispatching context are linked with a theoretical model leading to the identification of seven testable...

  3. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-01-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  4. Offshore Aquaculture: I Know It When I See It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley E. Froehlich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Offshore aquaculture is increasingly viewed as a mechanism to meet growing protein demand for seafood, while minimizing adverse consequences on the environment and other uses in the oceans. However, despite growing interest in offshore aquaculture, there appears to be no consensus as to what measures commonly define an offshore site or how effects of offshore aquaculture—relative to more nearshore practices—are assessed. This lack of agreement on what constitutes offshore aquaculture has the potential to convolute communication, create uncertainty in regulatory processes, and impede understanding of the ecological implications of offshore farming. To begin addressing these issues, we reviewed and analyzed biologically-focused primary and gray literature (Ntotal = 70 that categorize and quantify characteristics of offshore aquaculture from around the world. We found that many “offshore” descriptions are relatively close to shore (<3 nm and significantly shallower (minimum depth ≤30 m than may be assumed. We also uncovered an overall lack of consistent reporting of even the most common location-focused metrics (distance from shore, depth, current, a dearth of impact related studies (n = 17, and narrow scope of the studies themselves (i.e., 82% nutrient pollution. Of the finite subset of articles that investigated negative ecological impacts of offshore aquaculture, we found the probability of any measurable impact from an offshore farm appears to significantly decrease with distance from the farm (probability of measurable response at 90 m ± SE = 0.01 ± 0.03. Such general, but informative points of reference could be more robustly quantified with better systematic and standardized reporting of physical farm characteristics and a broader scope of ecological investigation into the effects of marine aquaculture. With offshore aquaculture still in its infancy, consistent metrics are needed for a comparable framework to guide sustainable

  5. Offshore Wind Farms in the North Sea: Is there an effect on the zooplankton community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Dominik; Dudeck, Tim; Callies, Ulrich; Riethmüller, Rolf; Hufnagl, Marc; Eckhardt, André; Ove Möller, Klas; Haas, Bianca; Spreitzenbarth, Stefan; van Beusekom, Justus; Walter, Bettina; Temming, Axel; Möllmann, Christian; Floeter, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The climate conference in Paris 2015 has resulted in ambitious goals to mitigate the extent of global climate warming within this century. In Germany, the expansion of renewable energy sources is without any alternative to match the own aims of greenhouse gas reductions. Therefore, in the German EEZ of the North Sea around 10 offshore wind farms (OWFs) are already working and more are currently planned or already under construction. At this already substantial level of offshore wind energy production little is known about the effects of OWFs on the pelagic ecosystem. Earlier investigations have shown an increase of benthic organisms settling on hard substrates provided by the power plant foundations. However, the effects of offshore power plants on lower trophic level organisms within the water column are poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the abundance and distribution of zooplankton within and around OWFs. The analysis was based on optical data derived from a Video Plankton Recorder (VPR). The VPR was mounted on a TRIAXUS system including a suite of different sensors, hence allowing to combine zooplankton information with ambient hydrographic parameters. The combination of the VPR and the TRIAXUS system enabled us to analyse continuous zooplankton and hydrographic data with a high spatial resolution. In this study, we present results of transects through the OWFs Global Tech I, BARD Offshore 1, and Alpha Ventus. The analysis exhibits distinct pattern in the spatial distribution both of physical state variables and of plankton organisms within the vicinity of OWFs, especially of meroplankton, the larval phase of benthic organisms. Keywords: Offshore Wind Farms, Zooplankton, TRIAXUS, Video Plankton Recorder, Meroplankton Corresponding author: Dominik Auch, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, University of Hamburg, Olbersweg 24, 22767 Hamburg, Germany; auch.dominik@web.de

  6. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  7. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic human brain atlas of white matter tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Yang, Guo Liang; Qian, Guo Yu

    2012-01-01

    We present a human brain atlas of white matter (WM) tracts containing 40 major tracts, which is three-dimensional (3D), segmented, labeled, interactive, stereotactic and correlated to structure and vasculature. We consider: (1) WM accuracy by correlating WM tracts to underlying neuroanatomy and quantifying them; (2) balance between realism and completeness by processing a sequence of track volumes generated for various parameters with the increasing track number to enable a tract "shape convergence". MPRAGE and DTI in 64 directions of the same subject were acquired on 3 Tesla. The method has three steps: DTI-MPRAGE registration, 3D tract generation from DTI, to WM reconstruction from MPRAGE to parcellation into 17 components. 82 track volumes were generated for a wide spectrum of parameter values: Fractional Anisotropy threshold in [0.0125, 0.55] and trajectory angle lower than 45°, 60°, 65°, 70°, 75°, 80°, 85°, 90°. For each tract, a sequence of track volumes was processed to create/edit contours delineating this tract to achieve its shape convergence. The parcellated tracts were grouped into commissures, associations, projections and posterior fossa tracts, and labeled following Terminologia Anatomica. To facilitate that, a dedicated tract editor is developed which processes multiple track volumes, handles tracts in three representations (tracks, contours, envelopes); provides editing/visualization simultaneously on axial, coronal, sagittal planes; enables tract labeling and coloring; and provides numerous tools (track counting, smoothing and length thresholding; representation conversion and saving; structural atlas support). A stereotactic tract atlas along with parcellated WM was developed to explore in real-time any individual tract or their groups along with surrounding neuroanatomy.

  8. Hanstholm phase 2B. Offshore wave energy test 1994 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The wave power converter consists of a float 2.5 meter in diameter, connected by a rope to a seabed-mounted piston pump, installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore Hanstholm, Denmark. The converter is designed to absorb an average maximum power of 1 kW. Measured data in real sea conditions are compared to results based on computer simulations and previous tank testing. Losses caused by rope elasticity and hysteresis, friction in the pump and back flow through the valves are assessed. The economic perspectives of a large wave power plant are presented, based on a revised prototype incorporating the results and experience gained during the test period. The wave energy conversion test `Hanstholm phase 2B` has showed, that it it technically possible to exploit the offshore wave energy resource. This source of energy could become attractive for commercial enterprise. The wave power converter demonstrated a reliable performance over a period of nine months. It produced energy under all wave conditions and survived storm waves of 9,6 m. A 300 MW wave power plant in the Danish part of the North sea is estimated to produce electricity at a cost between 2,1 - 2,4 DKK/kWh. The electrical transmission to shore contribute to approximately 20% of the cost. New data predict a potential of 23 kW per meter wave front. The energy plan Energy 21 proposed by the Danish Department of Energy, includes a scenario incorporating wave energy in the energy system year 2030. A strategy for the development of wave energy, has been proposed as part of the project OWEC-1 supported by the European Joule R and D programme. A proposal for future Danish initiatives to develop second generation point absorber systems is outlined. (ARW) 29 refs.

  9. Monsoonal effects on beach and offshore sediments from kalbadevi bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Farnnades, D.

    DAV International Journal of Science Volume-3 Issue-1 2014 ISSN: 2277-5536 (Print); 2277-5641 (Online) 70 MONSOONAL EFFECTS ON BEACH AND OFFSHORE SEDIMENTS... in Ratnagiri to carry out `Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies for placer mining` under the ‘Capacity Building for Sand Mining, Network Program’ of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi. The beach sediment samples from...

  10. Offshore wind power: does France remain ashore?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongrain, T.

    2015-01-01

    France benefits from favorable geographical conditions for offshore wind power but the development of a dedicated industrial sector is slow. 6 projects of wind power farms where turbines are rooted in the seabed are expected to operate progressively from 2018, they represent a cumulated power capacity of 2920 MW. A call for projects has been launched by French authorities for floating offshore wind farms off Brittany and in the mediterranean sea but it will not be sufficient to help to fulfill the declared goal of 40% of the electricity produced in France should be of renewable origin. The main weakness is the cost and countries like Germany benefit from the shallow waters of the North sea to install wind farms at lower costs. The solution could be the development in France of an industrial sector dedicated to floating wind turbines that are easier to install in deep water and can be settled farther off the coast to meet the demand of environmentalists for seascape preservation. More sites could become available for floating wind turbines than for seabed-rooted ones and as the consequence the market for floating systems may become more important. (A.C.)

  11. Analisa Greenwater Akibat Gerakan Offshore Security Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidya Octaviani Bustamin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisa  Tugas  Akhir  ini,  terdiri  atas  beberapa  tahapan.  Yang pertama yaitu perancangan struktur Offshore Security Vessel (OSV dengan bantuan software MAXSURF guna mendapatkan Lines Plan. Offset data yang diperoleh digunakan dalam pemodelan menggunakan MOSES,  kemudian  dilakukan  analisa  gerak  OSV  dalam  gelombang  regular  dan dinyatakan dalam grafik RAO. Analisa gerak relatif vertikal  haluan dihitung dari RAO gerakan, dan kemudian melakukan evaluasi perilaku di gelombang acak dengan analisis spektra gelombang. Dari analisa spektra didapatkan parameter greenwater sehingga dapat dihitung peluang, intensitas dan tekanan greenwater. Dari hasil analisa diperoleh RAO gerak vertikal Offshore Security Vessel (OSV pada  gelombang  reguler yang dipengaruhi  oleh  kecepatan,  kondisi  muatan  dan arah gelombang. Peluang terjadinya greenwater terbesar terjadi pada sudut datang gelombang following sea (0o dimana harga terbesar terjadi pada ω = 0.2 rad/sec dengan periode 29 detik mencapai 0.477. Intensitas greenwater terbesar terjadi pada saat sudut datang gelombang following sea (0o adalah sebanyak 59.265 per jam dan 0.378 per detik. Tekanan greenwater terbesar terjadi pada saat sudut datang gelombang head sea (180o sebesar 1678x10-6 MPa. Dengan nilai tersebut, deck mampu menahan beban akibat tekanan greenwater.

  12. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Soerensen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors

  13. Environmental issues of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Placing wind farms offshore eliminates some of the obstacles encountered when siting wind farms on shore like visual influence on the landscape, annoyance to inhabitants from noise and flickering light, conflicts with other planning interests etc. Other challenges remain - like influence on birds - and new are added like influence on marine life, hydrography and marine traffic. While there are now 20 years of experience in assessing and meeting environmental challenges associated with land based wind installations little is known of the effects of offshore wind installations. The planning and approval procedure for each offshore wind farm installed so far has been on a case-by-case basis as have the demands for environmental surveys prior to installation and monitoring programs during construction and operation. The meeting gathered 24 people from five different countries. Participants came from government agencies, energy agencies (or suppliers) universities and research institutes (both ecological and technical). The aim of the meeting was to make an inventory of the already existing and available information on environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. Another aim was to give recommendations to the COD-project (Concerted action for Offshore wind energy Deployment) on how to proceed within the work package regarding: Collection of information on activities (projects) of participating countries, including at least birds, benthic flora and fauna, sub-sea noise, visual intrusion, and coastal impacts. The meeting mainly focused on: National programs to enforce offshore wind energy; Studies and experiences of influence on birds and sea mammals; Experience and application of Environmental Impact Assessment. One outcome of the COD-project will be a database of environmental issues. At the end of the meeting it was discussed, what kind of information this database should contain: 1. Base line data; 2. Methods for investigating biological data; 3. Methods for the

  14. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1037 Application requirements... 30 days before filing the application: (1) The name, business address, channel coordinator, and... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations...

  16. On bar growth and decay during interannual net offshore migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ranasinghe, R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple bar systems often show a cyclic net offshore directed migration with return periods on the order of years. Generally, a bar is generated near the shoreline, grows in height and width, while migrating offshore before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf zone. Based on a

  17. Large-eddy simulation of an offshore Mediterranean area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizza, Umberto; Miglietta, Mario M.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    in order to optimize the structural design of offshore large wind turbines that today reach heights up to 200 m. Large-eddy simulations (LESs) have been performed and compared with offshore experimental data collected during the LASIE campaign performed in the Mediterranean during summer 2007. Two...

  18. Far offshore wind conditions in scope of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Far offshore atmospheric conditions are favourable for wind energy purposes since mean wind speeds are relatively high (i.e., high power production) while turbulence levels are relatively low (i.e., less fatigue loads) compared to onshore conditions. Offshore wind energy, however, is still expensive

  19. Leveraging Offshore IT Outsourcing by SMEs through Online Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractFollowing their larger counterparts, an increasing number of small firms outsource their IT tasks to lower cost offshore destinations. For small firms, however, offshore outsourcing is a difficult undertaking as it involves high transaction costs. Online marketplaces for IT services,

  20. A review of the European offshore wind innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, A.J.; Negro, S.O.; Harmsen, R.; Heimeriks, G.J.; Luo, L.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind has the potential of becoming an important pillar of the future European energy system. It can contribute to policy objectives on climate change, energy security, green growth and social progress. However, the large potential of offshore wind does not automatically lead to a large

  1. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  2. 76 FR 24504 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. USCG-2011-0183] National Offshore Safety Advisory... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet on May 19... completed its business. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Wyndham Riverfront Hotel, Bacchus room, 701...

  3. Canadian Offshore Schools in China: A Comparative Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Internationalisation is no longer a well-recognised feature unique to higher education. It has permeated K-12 education. However, little research has been done on internationalisation at the K-12 level, particularly on offshore schools. This study examines how Canadian and Chinese policies regarding offshore schools have developed over the years,…

  4. Offshore Wind Farm Clusters - Towards new integrated Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Peña, Alfredo

    In EERA DTOC testing of existing wind farm wake models against four validation data test sets from large offshore wind farms is carried out. This includes Horns Rev-1 in the North Sea, Lillgrund in the Baltic Sea, Roedsand-2 in the Baltic Sea and from 10 large offshore wind farms in Northern Euro...

  5. Proceedings of the ENDOW Workshop 'Offshore Wakes: measurements and Modelling'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    in Massachusetts, accuracy of SODAR measurements for wind energy and tidal influence of offshore wind speeds andturbulence. The papers presented in these Proceedings are the result of a workshop held at Risø National Laboratory on March 7 and 8 2002 entitled 'Offshore Wakes: Measurements and Modelling'....

  6. How Offshore Outsourcing Affects Costs and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although academic and public interest in service offshoring has increased in recent years, research remains focused mainly on antecedents and benefits of activities, overlooking process aspects. For that reason, we take a process perspective when conceptualizing around offshore outsourcing of kno...

  7. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more

  8. POSSPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göçmen, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    will be verified on some of the large offshore wind farms owned by Vattenfall, and possibly in a DONG Energy wind farm too. Dedicated experiments to the wind flow in large offshore wind farms are planned. Main body of abstract Modern wind turbines have a SCADA signal called possible power. In normal operation...

  9. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  10. Nearshore Versus Offshore: Comparative Cost and Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of which offshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The choice between nearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  11. Coordination between offshore transmission assets - A third way approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind farms have been seen for several years as key for achieving the European targets on the use of renewable energies. The majority of offshore wind parks has been built without considering possible coordination between them, but as their number increases so does the benefits...

  12. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  13. Analysis of North Sea Offshore Wind Power Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buatois, A.; Gibescu, M.; Rawn, B.G.; Van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates, for a 2030 scenario, the impact on onshore power systems in terms of the variability of the power generated by 81 GW of offshore wind farms installed in the North Sea. Meso-scale reanalysis data are used as input for computing the hourly power production for offshore wind

  14. Employment Effects of Service Offshoring: Evidence from Matched Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Crinò

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of service offshoring on the level and skill composition of domestic employment, using a rich data set of Italian firms and propensity score matching techniques. The results show that service offshoring has no effect on the level of employment but changes its composition in favor of high skilled workers.

  15. ESTIMATION OF AGING EFFECTS OF PILES IN MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERIN M. GEORGE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for extending life and subsequently higher loading requirements of offshore jacket platforms are among the key problems faced by the offshore industry. The Aging effect has been proved to increase the axial capacity of piles, but proper methods to estimate and quantify these effects have not been developed. Borehole data from ten different Malaysian offshore locations have been analysed and they were employed to estimate the setup factor for different locations using AAU method. The setup factors found were used in the Skov and Denver equation to calculate capacity ratios of the offshore piles. The study showed that there will be an average improvement in the axial capacity of offshore piles by 42.2% and 34.9% for clayey and mixed soils respectively after a time equal to the normal design life (25 years of a jacket platform.

  16. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S.J.; Watson, G.M. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au)

  17. Offshore Substation Locating in Wind Farms Based on Prim Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The investment of offshore wind farm is large while the cost on electrical system can take up to 15% of the total costs. In order to reduce the cost, it is desirable to optimize the electrical system layout in design phase. Since the location of offshore substation (OS) is highly related to the e......The investment of offshore wind farm is large while the cost on electrical system can take up to 15% of the total costs. In order to reduce the cost, it is desirable to optimize the electrical system layout in design phase. Since the location of offshore substation (OS) is highly related...... with the cable connection layout. The results show that the proposed method is an effective way for offshore wind farm cable connection layout design....

  18. The Reconfiguration of Service Production Systems in Response to Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael J.; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    on practice theory, the paper investigates how offshoring leads to reconfiguration of the service production system. Through a multiple case methodology, the authors demonstrate how agents and structures interact during reconfiguration.Findings: The paper analyses the reconfiguration of components...... operations management literature by applying practice theory. Moreover, the authors propose a detailed, activity-driven view of service production systems and service offshoring. The authors contribute to practice theory by extending its domain to operations management.Practical implications......Service production systems have the ability to self-correct any changes inflicted through offshoring of the systems, which helps firms that offshore.Originality/valueThe paper is aimed at service professionals and offshoring managers and proposes a novel presentation of the service production system...

  19. Unique ecological impacts associated with offshore floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; McLean, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The ecological impacts that could occur as a result of site construction and operation of an offshore floating nuclear power plant are identified by comparing the principal ecological features associated with offshore siting with those associated with the siting of onshore estuarine plants. In general, the ecological impacts of offshore nuclear plants should be relatively smaller than those of estuarine plants. Possible factors that could increase the relative impacts of offshore plants are high frequency of contact with schools of fish, siting near inlets to estuaries or other ecologically important areas, and the persistence of halogen residuals. Identifying the potential ecological impacts associated with the siting of offshore plants permits the development of various monitoring programs and measures to minimize these impacts

  20. Risk-based Inspection Planning Optimisation of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Wind industry is substantially propelled and the future scenarios designate offshore locations as important sites for energy production. With this development, offshore wind farms represent a feasible option to accomplish the needed energy, bringing with it technical and economical challenges....... Inspection and maintenance (I&M) costs for offshore sites are much larger than for onshore ones, making the choice of suitable I&M planning for minimising costs important. Risk-based inspection planning (RBI) for offshore installations represents a suitable methodology to identify the optimal maintenance...... and inspection strategies to ‘control’ the deterioration in facilities such as offshore wind turbines (OWT), where fatigue and corrosion are typically affecting these structures. This article considers an RBI approach applied to OWT based on the developed methodologies for oil and gas installations...

  1. Computertomographie of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, H.W.; Roedl, W.

    1982-01-01

    Besides the demonstration of parenchymatous organs CT can be used also in the diagnosis of hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract, e.g. the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and the small and large bowels, since the development of fast scanners with higher resolution. Conventional X-ray and endoscopy have to be primary diagnostics. CT, on the other hand, is capable of assessing of extraluminal and intramural tumor extension. In inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, CT can show the environmental reaction. In penetrating ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, the extension and direction of penetration can be figured by CT well. Extraenteral masses with secondary displacement, impression or infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract are often verified by CT only. One of the CT domains is the local relapse of rectum carcinoma following rectum amputation especially in differentiation from local scar formation. The importance of CT in radiotherapy treatment planning is not subject of this paper. (orig.) [de

  2. Offshore Outlook: the European Side Perspectives offshore : le point de vue européen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacour J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The offshore hydrocarbon potential of Europe was fully revealed during the 1970s by various major discoveries which, after the first oil shock in 1973 and in the light of the high energy consumption in this zone, were a major asset in the new equilibria that would be found between producing and consuming countries. The offshore potential of Europe is concentrated in two zones: the North Sea and the Mediterranean. The North Sea, with the particularly harsh operating conditions, has quickly given rise to what can today be qualified as a new engineering state-of-the-art. At the same time, developments in the Mediterranean have brought a demonstration of entirely original and profitable petroleum achievements. For the future and despite current economic uncertainties, the outlook for European offshore development remain particularly attractive, obviously with regard to oil, but also, and more and more so, from the standpoint of natural gas. Le potentiel offshore en hydrocarbures de l'Europe a été pleinement mis en évidence au cours des années 70 par un certain nombre de grandes découvertes qui constituaient, après le premier choc pétrolier de 1973, compte tenu des fortes consommations d'énergie dans cette zone, un atout majeur dans les nouveaux équilibres qui s'instauraient entre pays producteurs et pays consommateurs. Le potentiel offshore de l'Europe se concentre sur deux zones : la mer du Nord et la Méditerranée. La mer du Nord, avec des conditions d'exploitation particulièrement sévères, a donné rapidement naissance à ce que l'on peut, aujourd'hui, qualifier de nouvel art de l'ingénieur, tandis que les développements en Méditerranée apportaient la démonstration de réalisations pétrolières tout à fait originales et profitables. Pour le futur, et malgré les incertitudes économiques actuelles, les perspectives de développement de l'offshore européen restent particulièrement attractives, au niveau du pétrole

  3. Improving Maryland’s Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pé Alexandra St.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM, with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine’s rotor layer (40m-160m. Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine’s ability to produce power.

  4. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Eocene Rock Strata, Offshore Indus, southwest Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Natasha; Rehman, Khaista; Ahmad, Sajjad; Khokher, Jamil; Hajana, M. Iqbal; Hanif, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, seismic data from two wells (Pak G2-1 and Indus Marine-1C) and age diagnostic larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) within drill cuttings has been used for the first time to identify depositional sequences within the carbonates in the Offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan. The Offshore Indus is tectonically categorized as a passive continental margin where carbonates occur as shelf carbonates in the near offshore and on volcanic seamounts in deeper waters. Seismic data analysis has indicated the presence of minor faults and carbonate buildups above the igneous basement in the south. Patterns of the seismic reflections enabled definition of three seismic facies units identified as: Unit 1 basement, represented by chaotic, moderate amplitude reflection configuration; while parallel bedding and the drape of overlying strata is typical character of Unit 2, carbonate mound facies. The younger Miocene channels represent Unit 3. The diagnosis of Alveolina vredenburgi/cucumiformis biozone confirmed the Ilerdian (55-52 Ma) stage constituting a second order cycle of deposition for the Eocene carbonates (identified as Unit 2). The carbonate succession has been mainly attributed to an early highstand system tract (HST). The environmental conditions remained favorable leading to the development of keep-up carbonates similar to pinnacle buildups as a result of aggradation during late transgressive system tract and an early HST. The carbonate sequence in the south (Pak G2-1) is thicker and fossiliferous representing inner to middle shelf depths based on fauna compared to the Indus Marine-1C in the north, which is devoid of fossils. Three biozones (SBZ 5, SBZ 6 and SBZ 8) were identified based on the occurrence of LBF. The base of the SBZ 5 zone marks the larger foraminifera turnover and the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary. The LBF encountered in this study coincides with earlier findings for the P-E boundary. Our findings indicate that the entire Ilerdian stage ranges from 55

  5. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  6. Concept Testing of a Simple Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    . One task in the project is to test a 1kW concept rotor (not a scaled down MW size rotor) partly under field conditions in a fjord in Denmark, partly in a water tank under controlled conditions in Netherlands. The objective of testing the 1kW concept turbine is to verify the dynamical behaviour under...... a testing program of which the initial tests have been completed, and a testing program with various wind and wave conditions are being carried out. The design ideas and the offshore implementation will be demonstrated, and some of the initial testing results of the testing program will be shown....

  7. Investigations on macro-element modelling of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido

    -model for shallow foundations proposed by Nova and Montrasio (1991) is modified to comply with the response of skirted foundations for offshore wind turbines under general loading. On the base of di Prisco et al. (2003a), the constitutive relationship is modified to account for cyclic loading. The validation......In this report a macro-element model for bucket foundations is formulated and validated against small-scale experimental results. The topics investigated are the response of the foundation under general monotonic loading and the long-term accumulated displacements under cyclic loading. The macro...

  8. Offshore Hydrocarbons Extraction In Colombia: Legal Overview And Challenges Regarding The New Offshore Free Trade Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Acosta Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Offshore extraction of hydrocarbons has increasingly become important in the context of the oil business. Thus, the Republic of Colombia has wanted to encourage the development of such operations in the country, despite the fact that it does not have at present time a harmonious legal framework to regulate the activity and/or to proper coordinate the governmental agencies involved in the approval of such operations. This article presents an overview of the problems associated with offshore activities in the world and analyzes – from a critical perspective - the role of local authorities in authorizing said operations as well as the new regime of customs-free zones created in the country.

  9. Wind power offshore - industrial possibilities for Norway; Vindkraft offshore - industrielle muligheter for Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bysveen, S; Hoelseater, O H; Lier-Hansen, S; Hatlen, S; Soensteby, G. (Energiraadet, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-05-15

    The Europeans alteration of energy policy gives Norway a unique possibility to develop new business activity in the contractor industry as well as become a large exporter of renewable energy to Europe. Sea based wind power marks it self as the area with largest potential and is an area where Norway has a large advantage. This possibility is outlined in this report with offshore wind power as the foundation of business development and energy export to the continent

  10. Optimal Control of an Offshore Lifting Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre M. Mjelde

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal control of an offshore operation is analysed: a hideck which is at rest on a barge is lifted from the barge by means of a partly submerged frame that receives buoyancy by pumping water out of three cylinders connected to the frame. Air is pumped into the cylinders in order to maintain a positive difference between the internal air-pressure and the external water-pressure: for any cylinder, this pressure-difference is possibly critical at certain regions located on the cylinder and on a spherical cupola on the top of it. Optimal pumping rates of water and air as a function of time are determined, such as to minimize the maximum of certain weighted pressure differences at the critical regions, and such as to satisfy given geometrical and dynamical boundary conditions.

  11. Power Transmission from Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1999-01-01

    The major part of the coming wind farms in Denmark will be placed offshore. If the location is near a grid with a high short circuit level the power can be transmitted as AC.If the wind farm is far away from the grid and the grid perhaps has a low short circuit level, the best solution...... for transmitting the power can be by DC. At the moment it is possible to build self-commutating DC/AC-inverters up to about 150 kV. This paper will show a concept to a solution for a wind farm and a transmission system based on synchronous generators or a powerformer® with a rated voltage of 50 kV. The AC power...

  12. Harmonics in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    challenges to the industry in relation to understanding the nature, propagation and effects of harmonics. Recently, the wind power sector is rapidly developing. This creates new challenges to the industry, and therefore more and more research projects, including harmonic analyses especially focused on wind...... power applications, are conducted and that is why the project was initiated and successfully developed. Also experience from the past regarding offshore projects developed in the company and various harmonic aspects causes a need to carry out extensive harmonic research. The research project.......g. measurements, data processing, data analysis, modelling, and models application) in harmonic studies. Based on the framework, also the structure of the report was organized. This allows the reader to go through all of the stages in project development starting from measurements, through data processing...

  13. Peregrino : a heavy oil development offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, H. [StatoilHydro, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a commercial development plan for an offshore oil field located off the coast of Brazil. A 3-D reservoir flow model was combined with an integrated production system model in order to model water-flooding and water injection strategies as well as to determine optimal water handling capacity. Flow assurance modelling was also conducted. A 3-D geological model was developed using data from wells drilled on the field as well as data from a regional sedimentological model. Reservoir penetration will be approximately 40,500 meters. Multilateral wells will be used to increase reservoir penetration in the future. The first phase of the development will consist of a floating production, storage and offloading unit as well as 2 wellhead platforms. A combined power and heating system will be used to provide power for pumps and to heat water. It was concluded that a high recovery factor is needed to ensure the economic viability of the project. 5 figs.

  14. Waste heat recovery technologies for offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Benato, Alberto; Scolari, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at finding the most suitable waste heat recovery technology for existing and future offshore facilities. The technologies considered in this work are the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. A multi-objective optimization approach is employed...... and of the primary heat exchanger, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators appear thus to be the preferred solution to abate CO2 emissions and pollutants on oil and gas facilities. As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for the design of high-efficiency, cost-competitive and low-weight power...... Rankine cycle technology presents larger performances compared to steam Rankine cycle units, whereas the implementation of air bottoming cycle modules is not attractive from an economic and environmental perspective compared to the other two technologies. Despite the relatively high cost of the expander...

  15. Concerted action for offshore wind energy deployment (COD). Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; Dingenouts, M.W.L.

    2004-09-01

    This report is the result of an analysis of all publications on the environmental impacts of offshore wind parks, which have been collected and inserted into a database by the members of the COD working group. The purpose of the overview is to unveil and compare the already available body of reports on Environmental Research of offshore wind energy in a structured way. In this overview the following questions will be addressed: which studies have been published until now? (Chapter 2); what baseline studies were carried out and what methodologies have been studied? (Chapter 3); what are the impacts of Offshore Wind Farms? (Chapter 4); what can be concluded from the reports in the database (Chapter 5); what recommendations are possible up to now? (Chapter 6). Chapter 5 contains recommendations for the environmental research method to be used to obtain the most unequivocal results, the need-to-know information for baseline and effect studies for a good Environmental Impact Assessment and which environmental issues should be studied on a European rather than national

  16. Offshore Earthquake 2012 in the California Borderlands: Possible Extension of Seismically Active Area Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, A.; Kelly, T. B.; Coakley, B.; Pockalny, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The California Borderlands is a tectonically active region with abundant seismic activity. In 2012, an earthquake epicenter was located on the eastern Pacific Plate west of the Patton Escarpment (31.08N, 119.61W). The earthquake was a magnitude 6.3 with a normal focal mechanism. In the past, seismic activity was thought not to extend past the Patton Escarpment. With this offshore earthquake, the extent of seismically active structures past the Patton Escarpment has been brought into question. On a recent Marine Geology and Geophysics Chief Scientists Training Cruise, early career scientists worked together to develop projects that could be completed aboard the RV Sikuliaq. A survey was completed of the earthquake area collecting gravity, multibeam, and sub-bottom profiler data. The survey was designed to identify seafloor morphology or internal structure that could have localized the unexpected offshore seismic activity. Possible mechanisms for the earthquake are a structure linked to the fault system with in the California Borderlands that was extinct but reactivated. Another possibility is that a structure in the oceanic lithosphere may have reactivated to accommodate movement. Establishing the possible mechanism of the 2012 earthquake can determine the possibility of other seismic activity offshore the Borderlands.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney infection , and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make you very sick. How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  19. Candida urinary tract infection: pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

    2011-05-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thigmotropism, and hydrolytic enzymes, to colonize and then invade the urinary tract. Antegrade infection occurs primarily among patients predisposed to candidemia. The process of adherence to and invasion of the glomerulus, renal blood vessels, and renal tubules by Candida species was elegantly described in early histopathologic studies. Armed with modern molecular biologic techniques, the various virulence factors involved in bloodborne infection of the kidney are gradually being elucidated. Disturbances of urine flow, whether congenital or acquired, instrumentation of the urinary tract, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobial therapy, and immunosuppression underlie most instances of retrograde Candida UTI. In addition, bacterial UTIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae may facilitate the initial step in the process. Ascending infections generally do not result in candidemia in the absence of obstruction.

  20. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    One hundred and fourteen (114) and one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract respectively. Parasites recovered during the survey include two species from gills identified as. Ergasilus sarsi ((24.60%) a crustacean (copepod), and one protozoan (myxosporean) named.