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Sample records for underlying mmc specification

  1. Analysis of Back-to-Back MMC for Medium Voltage Applications under Faulted Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anurag; Martins, Joäo Pedro Rodrigues; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a 10MW medium voltage Back-to-Back (BTB) Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) without a DC-Link capacitor with halfbridge submodules. It focusses on the system behavior under single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault when there is no capacitor on the DC-Link.The fault current is computed...... to prevent DC overvoltages in the sub-modules during faults....

  2. One Curve Embedded Full-Bridge MMC Modeling Method with Detailed Representation of IGBT Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyang, Yu; Zhengang, Lu; Xi, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Modular Multilevel Converter is more and more widely used in high voltage DC transmission system and high power motor drive system. It is a major topological structure for high power AC-DC converter. Due to the large module number, the complex control algorithm, and the high power user’s back ground, the MMC model used for simulation should be as accurate as possible to simulate the details of how MMC works for the dynamic testing of the MMC controller. But so far, there is no sample simulation MMC model which can simulate the switching dynamic process. In this paper, one curve embedded full-bridge MMC modeling method with detailed representation of IGBT characteristics is proposed. This method is based on the switching curve referring and sample circuit calculation, and it is sample for implementation. Based on the simulation comparison test under Matlab/Simulink, the proposed method is proved to be correct.

  3. IGBT Switching Characteristic Curve Embedded Half-Bridge MMC Modelling and Real Time Simulation Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengang, Lu; Hongyang, Yu; Xi, Yang

    2017-05-01

    The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is one of the most attractive topologies in recent years for medium or high voltage industrial applications, such as high voltage dc transmission (HVDC) and medium voltage varying speed motor drive. The wide adoption of MMCs in industry is mainly due to its flexible expandability, transformer-less configuration, common dc bus, high reliability from redundancy, and so on. But, when the sub module number of MMC is more, the test of MMC controller will cost more time and effort. Hardware in the loop test based on real time simulator will save a lot of time and money caused by the MMC test. And due to the flexible of HIL, it becomes more and more popular in the industry area. The MMC modelling method remains an important issue for the MMC HIL test. Specifically, the VSC model should realistically reflect the nonlinear device switching characteristics, switching and conduction losses, tailing current, and diode reverse recovery behaviour of a realistic converter. In this paper, an IGBT switching characteristic curve embedded half-bridge MMC modelling method is proposed. This method is based on the switching curve referring and sample circuit calculation, and it is sample for implementation. Based on the proposed method, a FPGA real time simulation is carried out with 200ns sample time. The real time simulation results show the proposed method is correct.

  4. Controller Architecture Design for MMC-HVDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, B.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared with high voltage direct current (HVDC, the primary and secondary systems of modular multilevel converter based HVDC (MMC-HVDC are complicated. And the characteristics of the control system determine the properties of the MMC-HVDC system to a certain extent. This paper investigates the design of control architecture. First, the structure and parameters of the 21-level MMC-HVDC are designed. Second, the framework of the control system is studied in details and a complete control system is established. The communication mode and content are built between each layer, and the control system program is developed and debugged. Then The steady state test platform of the sub-module and the relevant control system are designed. Finally, the steady-state tests and the system test of the physical MMC-HVDC simulation system are conducted, which prove that the SMC can control the sub-module (SM efficiently, and the control system could realize efficient start and stop of the physical system. Meanwhile, the capacitor voltage balance between the sub-modules and the basic fault protection and control of the DC voltage and power are verified to be effective.

  5. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  6. Device loading of modular multilevel converter MMC in wind power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popova, L.; Pyrhönen, J.; Ma, Ke

    2014-01-01

    . The converters used to connect the wind turbine to the grid having the rated active powers of 2MW and 10MW are designed and investigated. Electrical losses and thermal loading of the power devices in the proposed converter solutions are analyzed. The efficiency of the MMC converter under different P/Q boundaries...

  7. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, E. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Lormand, G. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Gobin, P.F. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Fougeres, R. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-11-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.).

  8. Control of transformerless MMC-HVDC during asymmetric grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timofejevs, Artjoms; Gamboa, Daniel; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the latest converter topology suitable for the transformerless applications in HVDC transmission. HVDC systems are required to remain connected during grid faults, provide grid support and completely decouple the healthy side from the faulty one. The MMC...... converter weak points are challenged by this particular condition and by these demands. This paper demonstrates the effect of negative and zero sequence current control in MMCHVDC during asymmetric grid faults. A current limitation strategy for MMC is derived and verified through simulations....

  9. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  10. FPGA-based implementation of sorting networks in MMC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricco, Mattia; Máthé, Lászlo; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper an implementation technique for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices of two Sorting Networks (SNs) used for control of Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is presented. In such applications, the classical sorting algorithms are based on repetitive/recursive loops, and they ar......In this paper an implementation technique for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices of two Sorting Networks (SNs) used for control of Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is presented. In such applications, the classical sorting algorithms are based on repetitive/recursive loops......, and they are usually implemented in microcontrollers or DSPs. However, they are not convenient for hardware implementation due to their inherent sequential operation. Instead, the proposed SNs, are suitable for FPGA devices thanks to their fixed parallel structure that allows improving the timing performance...

  11. Modeling of solidification of MMC composites during gravity casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zagórski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with computer simulation of gravity casting of the metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramics (MMC into sand mold. The subject of our interest is aluminum matrix composite (AlMMC reinforced with ceramic particles i.e. silicon carbide SiC and glass carbon Cg. The created model describes the process taking into account solidification and its influence on the distribution of reinforcement particles. The computer calculation has been carried out in 2D system with the use of Navier-Stokes equations using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The Volume of Fluid approach (VOF and enthalpy method have been used to model the air-fluid free surface (and also volume fraction of particular continuous phases and the solidification of the cast, respectively.

  12. Study on Compensation Control of STATCOM Based on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced modular multi-level converter (MMC, which could enhance the voltage and power level by sub-converter modules in series and was easy to extend to any level of output. Its structure and working mechanism were described. By analyzing the energy transfer performance of STATCOM based on MMC working conditions in the compensation, a comprehensive compensation control strategy was proposed based on direct current control mode. By analyzing the higher harmonic components circulation generated by the inconsistencies in the three-phase upper and lower arm voltage, a loop control strategy is proposed for the suppression of the circulation in the arms of the M-STATCOM. The simulation results show the strategy has a better tracking precision and response speed for the compensation control.

  13. Analysis of communication based distributed control of MMC for HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Teodorescu, Remus; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    for high power and high voltage application is a very challenging task. For the reason that distributed control architecture could maintain the modularity of the MMC, this control architecture will be investigated and a distributed control system dedicated for MMC will be proposed in this paper....... The suitable communication technologies, modulation and control techniques for the proposed distributed control system are discussed and compared. Based on the frequency domain modeling and analysis of the distributed control system, the controllers of the different control loops are designed by analytical...... methods and Matlab tools. Finally, sensitiveness of the distributed control system to modulation effect (phase-shifted PWM), communication delay, individual carrier frequency and sampling frequency is studied through simulations that are made in Matlab Simulink and PLECS....

  14. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

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    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  15. Research on MMC-SST Oriented AC/DC Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xifeng; Shi, Hua; Zuo, Jianglin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    A modular multilevel converter-solid state transformer (MMC-SST) oriented AC/DC Distribution System is designed. Firstly, the topology structure is introduced, MMC is adopted in the input stage, multiple DC-DC converters are adopted in the isolation stage, and a Three-Phase Four-Leg inverter is adopted in the output stage. Then, the control strategy is analysed. Finally, simulation model and an experimental prototype of MMC-SST are built, simulation and experimental results show that topology and control strategy of MMC-SST are feasible.

  16. Microwave SQUID multiplexing of large MMC detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Wegner, M.; Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C. [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are the devices of choice for many spectroscopic applications since they provide a very good energy resolution, a very fast intrinsic signal rise time as well as an excellent linearity. While single MMCs or small detector arrays are typically read out by dc-SQUIDs, the readout of very large arrays requires a cryogenic multiplexing technique to limit the parasitic heat load to the cold stage of the cryostat, the system complexity as well as cost. A very promising approach for the readout of very large MMC arrays is microwave SQUID multiplexing. Here, the initial detector signal is transduced into a resonance frequency shift of a related superconducting λ/4 microwave resonator by means of a non-hysteretic, unshunted rf-SQUID. By coupling many resonators - each with unique resonance frequency - to a common transmission line, this frequency domain multiplexing technique allows for the readout of hundreds or thousand pixels with only one HEMT amplifier and two coaxial cables. In this contribution we discuss the performance of a recently developed 64 pixel MMC detector array that is read out by means of an on-chip multiplexer. For the very first time we demonstrate the simultaneous readout of two MMCs by means of a microwave SQUID multiplexer.

  17. Protection Scheme for Modular Multilevel Converters under Diode Open-Circuit Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Zhu, Rongwu; Liu, Dong

    2018-01-01

    devices. The diode open-circuit fault in the submodule (SM) is an important issue for the MMC, which would affect the performance of the MMC and disrupt the operation of the MMC. This paper analyzes the impact of diode open-circuit failures in the SMs on the performance of the MMC and proposes...... a protection scheme for the MMC under diode open-circuit faults. The proposed protection scheme not only can effectively eliminate the possible caused high voltage due to the diode open-circuit fault but also can quickly detect the faulty SMs, which effectively avoids the destruction and protects the MMC....... The proposed protection scheme is verified with a downscale MMC prototype in the laboratory. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed protection scheme for the MMC under diode open-circuit faults....

  18. Pre-charging of module capacitors of MMC when the module ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the latest multilevel converters used for high and medium-voltage power conversion. It is based on cascade connection of multiple identical modules using IGBTs as switching devices. Module switches of MMC are preferably driven by a source derived from the ...

  19. Optimization under Uncertainty of Site-Specific Turbine Configurations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; Zahle, Frederik

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty affects many aspects of wind energy plant performance and cost. In this study, we explore opportunities for site-specific turbine configuration optimization that accounts for uncertainty in the wind resource. As a demonstration, a simple empirical model for wind plant cost of energy is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from the deterministic case and a generally more conservative design is obtained with increasing risk aversion on the part of the designer.

  20. Fault-Tolerant Approach for Modular Multilevel Converters under Submodule Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Tian, Yanjun; Zhu, Rongwu

    2016-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. The fault-tolerant operation is one of the important issues for the MMC. This paper proposed a fault-tolerant approach...... for the MMC under submodule (SM) faults. The characteristic of the MMC with arms containing different number of healthy SMs under faults is analyzed. Based on the characteristic, the proposed approach can effectively keep the MMC operation as normal under SM faults. It can effectively improve the MMC...... performance under SM faults but without the knowledge of the number of the faulty SMs in the arm, without extra demand on communication systems, which potentially increases the reliability. The time-domain simulation studies with the PSCAD/EMTDC are conducted and a down-scale MMC prototype is also tested...

  1. Ultrasound spectroscopy: application on MMC and PMC materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Ricardo B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vuorinen, Jyki [TAMPERE UNIV TECHNOLOGY; Kuokkala, Veli - Tapani [TAMPERE UNIV TECHNOLOGY

    2010-01-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is a simple technique for measuring the second-order elastic constants and ultrasonic attenuation of solids. The technique is based on measuring the spectrum of mechanical resonances for a sample of known shape (usually a sphere, cylinder, or parallelepiped). This spectrum cannot be deconvoluted to deduce the elastic constants. Instead, an approximate spectrum is calculated from the known sample dimensions, its mass, and a set of 'guessed' elastic constants. A multidimensional minimization of the rms difference between the measured and calculated spectra enables us to deduce all the elastic constants of the solid from a single frequency scan. Currently, the technique can be applied to crystals of orthorhombic symmetry (9 elastic constants) or higher using desktop computers and software developed for this purpose. Composite materials, especially fiber composites, can take full advantage of the RUS technique as they typically have low symmetry. In this paper we summarize the RUS technique and provide examples of its application to the elastic characterization of both fiber reinforced MMC's, and fiber reinforced PMC's.

  2. Traits underlying community consequences of plant intra-specific diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Abdala-Roberts

    Full Text Available A plant's performance and interactions with other trophic levels are recorgnized to be contingent upon plant diversity and underlying associational dynamics, but far less is known about the plant traits driving such phenomena. We manipulated diversity in plant traits using pairs of plant and a substitutive design to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diversity effects operating at a fine spatial scale. Specifically, we measured the effects of diversity in sex (sexual monocultures vs. male and female genotypes together and growth rate (growth rate monocultures vs. fast- and slow-growing genotypes together on growth of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia and on above- and belowground consumers associated with this plant. We compared effects on associate abundance (# associates per plant vs. density (# associates per kg plant biomass to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diversity effects; effects on abundance but not density suggest diversity effects are mediated by resource abundance (i.e. plant biomass alone, whereas effects on density suggest diversity effects are mediated by plant-based heterogeneity or quality. Sexual diversity increased root growth but reduced the density (but not abundance of the dietary generalist aphid Aphis gossypii and its associated aphid-tending ants, suggesting sex mixtures were of lower quality to this herbivore (e.g. via reduced plant quality, and that this effect indirectly influenced ants. Sexual diversity had no effect on the abundance or density of parasitoids attacking A. gossypii, the dietary specialist aphid Uroleucon macolai, or mycorrhizae. In contrast, growth rate diversity did not influence plant growth or any associates except for the dietary specialist aphid U. macolai, which increased in both abundance and density at high diversity, suggesting growth rate mixtures were of higher quality to this herbivore. These results highlight that plant associational and diversity effects on consumers are contingent

  3. Voltage Balancing Method on Expert System for 51-Level MMC in High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC have been a spotlight for the high voltage and high power transmission systems. In the VSC-HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current based on Voltage Source Converter transmission system, the energy of DC link is stored in the distributed capacitors, and the difference of capacitors in parameters and charge rates causes capacitor voltage balance which affects the safety and stability of HVDC system. A method of MMC based on the expert system for reducing the frequency of the submodules (SMs of the IGBT switching frequency is proposed. Firstly, MMC with 51 levels for HVDC is designed. Secondly, the nearest level control (NLC for 51-level MMC is introduced. Thirdly, a modified capacitor voltage balancing method based on expert system for MMC-based HVDC transmission system is proposed. Finally, a simulation platform for 51-level Modular Multilevel Converter is constructed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results indicate that the strategy proposed reduces the switching frequency on the premise of keeping submodule voltage basically identical, which greatly reduces the power losses for MMC-HVDC system.

  4. Super Capacitor Energy Storage Based MMC for Energy Harvesting in Mine Hoist Application

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    Xiaofeng Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a super capacitor energy storage-based modular multilevel converter (SCES-MMC for mine hoist application. Different from the conventional MMCs, the sub-modules employ distributed super capacitor banks, which are designed to absorb the regenerative energy of mine hoist and released in the traction condition, so as to improve energy utilization efficiency. The key control technologies are introduced in detail, followed by analysis of the configuration and operation principles. The feasibility of the proposed SCES-MMC topology and the control theory are also verified. Simulation results show that SCES-MMC can adapt to the variable frequency speed regulation of the motor drive, which shows good application prospects in the future for medium- and high-voltage mine hoist systems.

  5. Design of a Dry Dilution Refrigerator for MMC Gamma Detector Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyd, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cantor, Robin

    2017-04-03

    The goal of this LCP is to develop an ultra-high resolution gamma detector based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material to replace current Au:Er sensors. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers. MMC detectors require operating temperatures of ~15 mK and thus the use of a dilution refrigerator, and the desire for user-friendly operation without cryogenic liquids requires that this refrigerator use pulse-tube pre-cooling to ~4 K. For long-term reliability, we intend to re-design the heat switch that is needed to apply the magnetizing current to the Ag:Er sensor and that used to fail in earlier designs after months of operation. A cryogenic Compton veto will be installed to reduce the spectral background of the MMC, especially at low energies where ultra-high energy resolution is most important. The goals for FY16 were 1) to purchase a liquid-cryogen-free dilution refrigerator and adapt it for MMC operation, and 2) to fabricate Ag:Er-based MMC γ-detectors with improved performance and optimize their response. This report discusses the design of the instruments, and progress in MMC detector fabrication. Details of the MMC fabrication have been discussed in an April 2016 report to DOE.

  6. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gaston, Stéphanie; Rubens, Muni; Theodore, Harry; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P; Pape, Jean William

    2015-01-01

    Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing "the best age to perform MMC" as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies with larger and

  8. Energy Storage Characteristic Analysis of Voltage Sags Compensation for UPQC Based on MMC for Medium Voltage Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The modular multilevel converter (MMC, as a new type of voltage source converter, is increasingly used because it is a distributed storage system. There are many advantages of using the topological structure of the MMC on a unified power quality controller (UPQC, and voltage sag mitigation is an important use of the MMC energy storage system for the power quality compensation process. In this paper, based on the analysis of the topology of the MMC, the essence of energy conversion in a UPQC of voltage sag compensation is analyzed; then, the energy storage characteristics are calculated and analyzed to determine the performance index of voltage sag compensation; in addition, the simulation method is used to verify the voltage sag compensation characteristics of the UPQC; finally, an industrial prototype of the UPQC based on an MMC for 10 kV of medium voltage distribution network has been developed, and the basic functions of UPQC have been tested.

  9. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  10. Category specific spatial dissociations of parallel processes underlying visual naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Christopher R; Chen, Gang; Pieters, Thomas A; Tandon, Nitin

    2014-10-01

    The constituent elements and dynamics of the networks responsible for word production are a central issue to understanding human language. Of particular interest is their dependency on lexical category, particularly the possible segregation of nouns and verbs into separate processing streams. We applied a novel mixed-effects, multilevel analysis to electrocorticographic data collected from 19 patients (1942 electrodes) to examine the activity of broadly disseminated cortical networks during the retrieval of distinct lexical categories. This approach was designed to overcome the issues of sparse sampling and individual variability inherent to invasive electrophysiology. Both noun and verb generation evoked overlapping, yet distinct nonhierarchical processes favoring ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively. Notable differences in activity patterns were noted in Broca's area and superior lateral temporo-occipital regions (verb > noun) and in parahippocampal and fusiform cortices (noun > verb). Comparisons with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results yielded a strong correlation of blood oxygen level-dependent signal and gamma power and an independent estimate of group size needed for fMRI studies of cognition. Our findings imply parallel, lexical category-specific processes and reconcile discrepancies between lesional and functional imaging studies. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. New MMC capacitor voltage balancing using sorting-less strategy in nearest level control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricco, Mattia; Máthé, Lászlo; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for balancing the Capacitor Voltages (CVs) for Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs). The balancing is one of the main challenges in MMC applications and it is usually solved by adopting a global arm control approach. For performing such an approach, a sorted list...

  12. Enhanced control strategy for MMC-based STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieves, M.; Maza, J.M.; Mauricio, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) technology is today one of the preferred technology in HVDC and large STATCOM applications due to modularity, fault tolerance and high efficiency, but the voltage balancing becomes very challenging, especially during negative sequence current injection as requi...

  13. Simulation of cracks in tungsten under ITER specific heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschany, S.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of high tritium retention in co-deposited carbon layers on the walls of ITER vacuum chamber motivates investigation of materials for the divertor armour others than carbon fibre composite (CFC). Tungsten is most probable material for CFC replacement as the divertor armour because of high vaporisation temperature and heat conductivity. In the modern ITER design tungsten is a reference material for the divertor cover, except for the separatrix strike point armoured with CFC. As divertor armour, tungsten should withstand severe heat loads at off-normal ITER events like disruptions, ELMs and vertical displacement events. Experiments on tungsten heating with plasma streams and e-beams have shown an intense crack formation at the surface of irradiated sample [ V.I. Tereshin, A.N. Bandura, O.V. Byrka et al. Repetitive plasma loads typical for ITER type-I ELMs: Simulation at QSPA Kh-50.PLASMA 2005. ed. By Sadowski M.J., AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics, 2006, V 812, p. 128-135., J. Linke. Private communications.]. The reason for tungsten cracking under severe heat loads is thermo stress. It appears as due to temperature gradient in solid tungsten as in resolidified layer after cooling down. Both thermo stresses are of the same value, but the gradiental stress is compressive and the stress in the resolidified layer is tensile. The last one is most dangerous for crack formation and it was investigated in this work. The thermo stress in tungsten that develops during cooling from the melting temperature down to room temperature is ∼ 8-16 GPa. Tensile strength of tungsten is much lower, < 1 GPa at room temperature, and at high temperatures it drops at least for one order of magnitude. As a consequence, various cracks of different characteristic scales appear at the heated surface of the resolidified layer. For simulation of the cracks in tungsten the numeric code PEGASUS-3D [Pestchanyi and I. Landman. Improvement of the CFC structure to

  14. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Markus V; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach; Sénéchal, Fabien; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Maloof, Julin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic Microcalorimeter (MMC) Gamma Detectors with Ultra-High Energy Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    The goal of this LCP is to develop ultra-high resolution gamma detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material, and implement several geometry and design changes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers, and by developing a cryogenic Compton veto to reduce the spectral background. Since best MMC performance requires detector operation at ~10 mK, we will purchase a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature <10 mK and adapt it for MMC operation. The detector performance will be tested with radioactive sources of interest to the safeguards community.

  16. ANN-PSO Integrated Optimization Methodology for Intelligent Control of MMC Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Muthumari; Tamang, Santosh

    2017-08-01

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) show improved properties in comparison with non-reinforced alloys and have found increased application in automotive and aerospace industries. The selection of optimum machining parameters to produce components of desired surface roughness is of great concern considering the quality and economy of manufacturing process. In this study, a surface roughness prediction model for turning Al-SiCp MMC is developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Three turning parameters viz., spindle speed ( N), feed rate ( f) and depth of cut ( d) were considered as input neurons and surface roughness was an output neuron. ANN architecture having 3 -5 -1 is found to be optimum and the model predicts with an average percentage error of 7.72 %. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used for optimizing parameters to minimize machining time. The innovative aspect of this work is the development of an integrated ANN-PSO optimization method for intelligent control of MMC machining process applicable to manufacturing industries. The robustness of the method shows its superiority for obtaining optimum cutting parameters satisfying desired surface roughness. The method has better convergent capability with minimum number of iterations.

  17. Competition and regulation in the gas industry: an evaluation of the MMC report on gas in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoppard, M.

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of a more competitive gas market in the UK are examined, and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC) references and recommendations are outlined. An assessment of the findings of the MMC report is given covering the structure of British Gas, the monopoly threshold, setting charges for the tariff market and transportation, services, market share targets, the regulatory system, and guarantees to shareholders. (UK)

  18. Analysis of fatigue crack propagation behaviour in SiC particulate Al2O3 whisker reinforced hybrid MMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, AKM Asif; Arai, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behaviour of a cast hybrid metal matrix composite (MMC) was investigated and compared with the crack propagation behaviour of MMC with Al 2 O 3 and Al alloy in this article. Three dimensional (3D) surface analysis is carried out to analyze the crack propagation mechanism. All three materials clearly show near threshold and stable crack growth regions, but the rapid crack growth region is not clearly understood. The crack propagation resistance is found higher in hybrid MMC than that of MMC with Al 2 O 3 whisker and the Al alloy in the low ΔK region. The crack propagation in the hybrid MMC in the near-threshold region is directed by the debonding of reinforcement-matrix followed by void nucleation in the Al alloy matrix. Besides, the crack propagation in the stable- or midcrack-growth region is controlled by the debonding of particle-matrix and whisker-matrix interface caused by the cycle-by-cycle crack growth along the interface. The transgranular fracture of the reinforcement and void formation are also observed. Due to presence of large volume of inclusions and the microstructural inhomogeneity, the area of striation formation is reduced in the hybrid MMC, caused the unstable fracture. (paper)

  19. Characteristics of the use of 3-MMC and other new psychoactive drugs in Slovenia, and the perceived problems experienced by users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sande, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The study presents the characteristics of the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), the perceived problems experienced by users, and the reasons for cessation or cutting down. The research focused mainly on synthetic cathinones and the use of 3-MMC in Slovenia. In order to research the characteristics of NPS use, we used a questionnaire which had been developed to determine the characteristics of the use of ATS and cocaine in the context of nightlife and was elaborated in our study on the use of mephedrone. The final non-representative sample included 249 users of NPS from Slovenia, who had completed an on-line survey over a period of 5 months in 2014. Part of the sampling was conducted on the ground and with the help of peer-groups. DrogArt's outreach workers and correspondents visited open public places, clubs, and discotheques to encourage users to participate in the survey. Most users of NPS in Slovenia have tried NPS from the groups of synthetic cathinones and amphetamines. Most respondents included in the sample (67.9%) have tried 3-MMC, while 43.0% have tried methylone and 37.3% have tried mephedrone (4-MMC). Users attributed greater risks to the use of new drugs and preferred the effects of traditional drugs to those of new drugs. The most frequently reported problems were depression (55.2% of users), concentration difficulties (44.0%), damage to the mucous membrane of the nose and to the throat (39.8%), feelings of fear and anxiety (39.4%), and tingling in the arms or legs (34.4%). The main reasons for cutting down or discontinuing the use of NPS were 'fear of the health consequences', 'actual health consequences', and 'growing weary of using'. Among users of NPS, 7% have sought help, while 9.1% have considered doing so. The results also highlight differences between the NPS drug markets in Slovenia and the United Kingdom. In 2014, the most frequently used NPS in Slovenia were synthetic cathinones such as 3-MMC. Users experienced various problems

  20. Mono-PEGylation of Alpha-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica charantia L.: Production, Identification and Anti-Tumor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun; Sun, Fenghui; Li, Jianlong; Wu, Minlu; Fan, Xiang; Meng, Yanfa; Meng, Yao

    2016-10-31

    PEGylation is a well-established and effective strategy to decrease immunogenicity, which can increase the stability and in vivo half-life time. However, the generation of multi-site modified products is inevitable due to the lysine chemistry, which will bring difficulties in subsequent research, such as purification and quantification. Site-specific modification by mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) is a widely used method for N -terminal conjugation. In this study, we used it for site-directed modification on two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30), from Momordica charantia L. According to the optimization of previous modification conditions, we compared Macro-Cap SP with SP-Sepharose FF chromatography for separating the final mPEGylated RIPs. Two kinds of methods both can obtain homogenous mPEGylated RIPs which were identified by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. We also used iodine staining method to detect the amount of unmodified PEG. Furthermore, the inhibition activity of both mPEGylated and non-PEGylated RIPs against human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells was detected. All of the results suggested that the mPEGylated α-MMC/MAP30 might be potentially developed as new anti-tumor drugs.

  1. Bridging the Gap: Towards a Cell-Type Specific Understanding of Neural Circuits Underlying Fear Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, KM; Morrison, FG; Ressler, KJ

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety-related disorders are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated fear responses. Rodent models of fear learning and memory have taken great strides towards elucidating the specific neuronal circuitries underlying the learning of fear responses. The present review addresses recent research utilizing optogenetic approaches to parse circuitries underlying fear behaviors. It also highlights the powerful advances made when optogenetic techniques are utilized in a genetically defined, cell-type specific, manner. The application of next-generation genetic and sequencing approaches in a cell-type specific context will be essential for a mechanistic understanding of the neural circuitry underlying fear behavior and for the rational design of targeted, circuit specific, pharmacologic interventions for the treatment and prevention of fear-related disorders. PMID:27470092

  2. MMC with parallel-connected MOSFETs as an alternative to wide bandgap converters for LVDC distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage direct-current (LVDC networks offer improved conductor utilisation on existing infrastructure and reduced conversion stages, which can lead to a simpler and more efficient distribution network. However, LVDC networks must continue to support AC loads, requiring efficient, low-distortion DC–AC converters. Additionally, increasing numbers of DC loads on the LVAC network require controlled, low-distortion, unity power factor AC-DC converters with large capacity, and bi-directional capability. An AC–DC/DC–AC converter design is therefore proposed in this study to minimise conversion loss and maximise power quality. Comparative analysis is performed for a conventional IGBT two-level converter, a SiC MOSFET two-level converter, a Si MOSFET modular multi-level converter (MMC and a GaN HEMT MMC, in terms of power loss, reliability, fault tolerance, converter cost and heatsink size. The analysis indicates that the five-level MMC with parallel-connected Si MOSFETs is an efficient, cost-effective converter for low-voltage converter applications. MMC converters suffer negligible switching loss, which enables reduced device switching without loss penalty from increased harmonics and filtering. Optimal extent of parallel-connection for MOSFETs in an MMC is investigated. Experimental results are presented to show the reduction in device stress and electromagnetic interference generating transients through the use of reduced switching and device parallel-connection.

  3. Inter- and intra-specific competition of duckweed under multiple heavy metal contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Shi, Huijuan; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Cunqi; Chen, Lingci; Liang, Xiaofei; Jin, Lei

    2017-11-01

    The influences of intra- and inter-species competition on ecosystems are poorly understood. Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela polyrhiza were used to assess the effects of exposure to different concentrations of multiple heavy metals (copper-cadmium-zinc), when the plants were grown in mixed- or mono-culture. Parameters assessed included relative growth rate (RGR), content of chlorophyll, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Inter-specific competition was affected by metal concentration, with results indicating that inter-specific competition significantly affected duckweed growth and metal uptake in different heavy metal exposure conditions. Inter-specific competition increased growth rate of duckweed under high metal concentrations, although when compared with intra-specific competition, it caused no obvious differences under low metal concentrations. The growth of L. aequinoctialis was further increased in mixed culture when exposed to high metal concentrations, with inter-specific competition increasing the content of cadmium and zinc, while decreasing copper content of L. aequinoctialis compared with under intra-specific conditions. Conversely, inter-specific competition increased the content of copper and cadmium of S. polyrhiza, without causing obvious differences in zinc accumulation under high ambient concentrations. Under high metal conditions, inter-specific competition increased antioxidant enzyme activities in duckweed species, increasing resistance to heavy metals. Results show that inter-specific competition makes duckweed develop mechanisms to increase fitness and survival, such as enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities, rather than limiting metal uptake when exposed to high concentrations of multiple metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On fatigue crack growth mechanisms of MMC: Reflection on analysis of 'multi surface initiations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaddem, A.; El Mansori, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work attempts to examine the mechanisms of fatigue when cracks synergetically initiate in more than one site at the specimen surface. The metal matrix composites (MMC) i.e. silicon carbide particles reinforced aluminium matrix composites (Al/SiC p -MMC), seem to be good candidates to accelerate fatigue failures following multi surface initiations (MSI). Closure effects of MSI mechanisms on the variation of fatigue behaviour are explored for various stress states. Experiments were carried out using non pre-treated and pre-treated specimens. Using an Equivalent Ellipse Method (EEM), it is shown that the aspect of surface finish of specimen plays an important role on crack growth. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) inspections have lead to distinguishing the initiation regions from propagation regions and final separation regions. It is also revealed that the total lifetime of specimens is sensitive to heat treatment. Moreover, it is found that the appearance of MSI in cycled materials is more probable at high level of fatigue loads.

  5. Production and Compressive Characterization of Aluminium MMC Foam Manufactured Using Dual Foaming Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, S.; Ansary, S.; Rahman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium foams, produced by melting Aluminium alloy (LM6) containing blowing agent(s) and vigorous stirring. TiH2 is a known agent for this. As TiH2 begins to decompose into Ti and gaseous H2 when heated above about 465°C, large volumes of hydrogen gas are rapidly produced, creating bubbles that leads to a closed cell foam. A novel Strategy to enhance the mechanical properties of Al-MMC foams is discussed here, and it is demonstrated that titanium hydride (TiH2) in the form of 10-15 μm diameter particles can be pre-treated by selective oxidation to produce more uniform foams having better compressive properties (yield strength and energy absorption). It is found that the mechanical properties of the foams and the uniformity of cell size distribution is improved when the foam is blown with an optimized mixture of CaCO3 and pretreated TiH2. In order to define the relationship of mechanical properties with relative density of this material, correlations which uniquely defines the compressive behaviour of this modified Al- MMC foam has been developed.

  6. Α-MMC and MAP30, two ribosome-inactivating proteins extracted from Momordica charantia, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang; He, Lingli; Meng, Yao; Li, Gangrui; Li, Linli; Meng, Yanfa

    2015-05-01

    α‑Momorcharin (α‑MMC) and momordica anti‑human immunodeficiency virus protein (MAP30), produced by Momordica charantia, are ribosome‑inactivating proteins, which have been reported to exert inhibitory effects on cultured tumor cells. In order to further elucidate the functions of these agents, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on cell viability, the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA integrity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. α‑MMC and MAP30 were purified from bitter melon seeds using ammonium sulfate precipitation in combination with sulfopropyl (SP)‑sepharose fast flow, sephacryl S‑100 and macro‑Cap‑SP chromatography. MTT, flow cytometric and DNA fragmentation analyses were then used to determine the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. The results revealed that A549 cells were sensitive to α‑MMC and MAP30 cytotoxicity assays in vitro. Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed following α‑MMC and MAP30 treatment in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner; in addition, the results indicated that MAP30 had a more potent anti‑tumor activity compared with that of α‑MMC. Cell cycle arrest in S phase and a significantly increased apoptotic rate were observed following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30. Furthermore, DNA integrity analysis revealed that the DNA of A549 cells was degraded following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30 for 48 h. The pyrogallol autoxidation method and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride staining were used to determine SOD activity, the results of which indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 did not possess SOD activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer.

  7. Tool material effect on the friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 Alloy Matrix MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Bozkurt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study on the effect of material properties tool on friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 alloy matrix MMC. Uncoated tool, coated tool with a CrN, and coated tool with AlTiN were used to weld aluminum MMC plates. Macrostructure and microstructure observations, ultimate tensile strength, wear resistance, and chemical analysis were carried out to determine the appropriate tool for joining these composite plates. Results showed that the good welded joints could be obtained when a tool is coated with AlTiN.

  8. Shafting Alignment Computing Method of New Multibearing Rotor System under Specific Installation Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shafting of large steam turbine generator set is composed of several rotors which are connected by couplings. The computing method of shafting with different structure under specific installation requirement is studied in this paper. Based on three-moment equation, shafting alignment mathematical model is established. The computing method of bearing elevations and loads under corresponding installation requirements, where bending moment of each coupling is zero and there exist preset sag and gap in some couplings, is proposed, respectively. Bearing elevations and loads of shafting with different structure under specific installation requirement are calculated; calculation results are compared with installation data measured on site which verifies the validity and accuracy of the proposed shafting alignment computing method. The above work provides a reliable approach to analyze shafting alignment and could guide installation on site.

  9. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of residual stresses in MMC tensile and fatigue specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.

    2000-01-01

    The experiments here described have been carried out in the framework of a more general research, aiming to develop a set of complementary models to predict the in-service performances of particle reinforced MMC automotive and aeronautical components. As MMCs are highly heterogeneous materials......, residual stresses are present in both the matrix and the particles microstructure, prior to any macroscopic loading. They vary with the temperature and with the type and level of loading imposed to the material, having a strong influence on the mechanical behaviour of MMCs. Neutron diffraction measurements...... and thermal mismatch microstresses. The results show that, in general, the main contribution to the stress state of both matrix and reinforcement is given by the thermal microstresses, already existing due to heat treatment prior to mechanical tests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Time dependent enhanced resistance against antibiotics & metal salts by planktonic & biofilm form of Acinetobacter haemolyticus MMC 8 clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidhani, Sharvari Vijaykumar; Raskar, Aartee Vishnu; Poddar, Sharmishtha; Gosavi, Shriya; Sahu, Praveen Kishore; Pardesi, Karishma Rajendra; Bhide, Shobhana V; Chopade, Balu Ananada

    2014-11-01

    Available literature shows paucity of reports describing antibiotic and metal resistance profile of biofilm forming clinical isolates of Acinetobacter haemolyticus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antibiotic and metal resistance profile of Indian clinical isolate of A. haemolyticus MMC 8 isolated from human pus sample in planktonic and biofilm form. Antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration were determined employing broth and agar dilution techniques. Biofilm formation was evaluated quantitatively by microtiter plate method and variation in complex architecture was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Minimum biofilm inhibiting concentration was checked by Calgary biofilm device. Planktonic A. haemolyticus MMC 8 was sensitive to 14 antibiotics, AgNO 3 and HgC1 2 resistant to streptomycin and intermediately resistant to netilmycin and kanamycin. MMC 8 exhibited temporal variation in amount and structure of biofilm. There was 32-4000 and 4-256 fold increase in antibiotic and metal salt concentration, respectively to inhibit biofilm over a period of 72 h as against susceptible planktonic counterparts. Total viable count in the range of 10(5)-10(6) cfu / ml was observed on plating minimum biofilm inhibiting concentration on Muller-Hinton Agar plate without antimicrobial agents. Biofilm forming cells were several folds more resistant to antibiotics and metal salts in comparison to planktonic cells. Presence of unaffected residual cell population indicated presence of persister cells. The results indicate that biofilm formation causes enhanced resistance against antibiotics and metal salts in otherwise susceptible planktonic A. haemolyticus MMC 8.

  11. Modelisation et simulation d'une liaison HVDC de type VSC-MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Hani Aziz

    High-voltage direct current transmission systems (HVDC) are rapidly expanding in the world. Two main factors are responsible for this expansion. The first is related to the difficulty of building new overhead lines to ensure the development of high-voltage AC grids, which makes the usage of underground cables more common. However, the use of such cables is limited in length to a few tens of km because of the capacitive current generated by the cable itself. Beyond this length limit, the solution is usually to transmit in DC. The second factor is related to the development of offshore wind power plants that require connecting powers of several hundred of MW to the mainland grid by cables whose lengths can reach several hundreds of km and consequently require HVDC transmission system. Several HVDC projects are currently planned and developed by the French transmission system operator RTE. One of such projects is the INELFE interconnection project, with a capacity of 2,000 MW, between France and Spain. This thesis has been funded by RTE, in order to model and simulate in off-line and real time modes, modern HVDC interconnections. The delivered simulation means are used to examine targeted HVDC system performances and risks of abnormal interactions with surrounding power systems. The particularity of the INELFE HVDC system is the usage of a dedicated control system that will largely determine the dynamic behaviour of the system for both large disturbances (faults on the network) and small perturbations (power step changes). Various VSC topologies, including the conventional two-level, multi-level diode-clamped and floating capacitor multi-level converters, have been proposed and reported in the literature. However, due to the complexity of controls and practical limitations, the VSC-HVDC system installations have been limited to the two-level and three-level diode-clamped converters. Recently, the development of modular technology called MMC (Modular Multilevel

  12. Frequency-specific adaptation and its underlying circuit model in the auditory midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eShen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Receptive fields of sensory neurons are considered to be dynamic and depend on the stimulus history. In the auditory system, evidence of dynamic frequency-receptive fields has been found following stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. However, the underlying mechanism and circuitry of SSA have not been fully elucidated. Here, we studied how frequency-receptive fields of neurons in rat inferior colliculus (IC changed when exposed to a biased tone sequence. Pure tone with one specific frequency (adaptor was presented markedly more often than others. The adapted tuning was compared with the original tuning measured with an unbiased sequence. We found inhomogeneous changes in frequency tuning in IC, exhibiting a center-surround pattern with respect to the neuron’s best frequency. Central adaptors elicited strong suppressive and repulsive changes while flank adaptors induced facilitative and attractive changes. Moreover, we proposed a two-layer model of the underlying network, which not only reproduced the adaptive changes in the receptive fields but also predicted novelty responses to oddball sequences. These results suggest that frequency-specific adaptation in auditory midbrain can be accounted for by an adapted frequency channel and its lateral spreading of adaptation, which shed light on the organization of the underlying circuitry.

  13. X-ray- and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromosome aberrations in spermiogenic germ cells and the repair capacity of mouse eggs for the X-ray and MMC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Utsugi-Takeuchi, Toyoko; Tobari, Izuo; Seki, Naohiko; Chiba Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced at the first-cleavage metaphase of eggs fertilized with sperm recovered from spermiogenic cells which had been X-irradiated and treated with mitomycin C (MMC) at various stages were observed using in vitro fertilization and embryo culture technique. Furthermore, the repair capacity of the fertilized eggs for X-ray- and MMC-induced DNA damage which was induced in the spermiogenic cells and retained in the sperm until fertilization was investigated by analysis of the potentiation effects of 2 repair inhibitors, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine on the yield of chromosome aberrations. The frequency of chromosome aberrations observed in the eggs fertilized with sperm recovered from speratozoa to late spermatid stage (0-8 days after X-irradiation). The induced chromosome aberrations followed by chromosome exchange through all the spermiogenic stages. The results suggest that the large amount of DNA lesions induced in spermiogenic cells by X-rays and MMC persist as reparable damage until sperm maturation and are effectively repaired in the cytoplasm of the fertilized eggs. (author). 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Strain-specific protective effect of the immunity induced by live malarial sporozoites under chloroquine cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Cheesman, Sandra; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Carter, Richard; Pathirana, Sisira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of a whole-sporozoite malaria vaccine would partly be determined by the strain-specificity of the protective responses against malarial sporozoites and liver-stage parasites. Evidence from previous reports were inconsistent, where some studies have shown that the protective immunity induced by irradiated or live sporozoites in rodents or humans were cross-protective and in others strain-specific. In the present work, we have studied the strain-specificity of live sporozoite-induced immunity using two genetically and immunologically different strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi, Pc746 and PcCeylon, in toque monkeys. Two groups of monkeys were immunized against live sporozoites of either the Pc746 (n = 5), or the PcCeylon (n = 4) strain, by the bites of 2-4 sporozoite-infected Anopheles tessellates mosquitoes per monkey under concurrent treatments with chloroquine and primaquine to abrogate detectable blood infections. Subsequently, a group of non-immunized monkeys (n = 4), and the two groups of immunized monkeys were challenged with a mixture of sporozoites of the two strains by the bites of 2-5 infective mosquitoes from each strain per monkey. In order to determine the strain-specificity of the protective immunity, the proportions of parasites of the two strains in the challenge infections were quantified using an allele quantification assay, Pyrosequencing™, based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the parasites' circumsporozoite protein gene. The Pyrosequencing™ data showed that a significant reduction of parasites of the immunizing strain in each group of strain-specifically immunized monkeys had occurred, indicating a stronger killing effect on parasites of the immunizing strain. Thus, the protective immunity developed following a single, live sporozoite/chloroquine immunization, acted specifically against the immunizing strain and was, therefore, strain-specific. As our experiment does not allow us to determine the parasite stage at

  15. Machinability Studies on Turning Al 6061alloy with 10% Reinforcement of B4C on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivathsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum Boron Carbide Metal Matrix Composites (Al-MMC have revolutionized aeronautical and automobile industries, in the recent times due to their exceptional mechanical and physical properties. However it is seen that the machinability of these composites is greatly reduced by the hardness of constituent reinforcement particles. Moreover these constituent reinforcement particles serve as disadvantage by increasing tool wear accompanying undesirable depression in life of tool. This paper presents the experimental investigations on turning of Al6061 matrix metal reinforced with 10 % by weight of boron carbide (B4Cp particles - which was fabricated using Stir casting method. Fabricated samples are turned on medium duty lathe of 2kW spindle power with Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD inserts of 1500 grade at various cutting conditions by varying parameters. Hence, parameters such as power consumed by main spindle, machined surface roughness and tool wear are studied and recorded. Furthermore, study results are supported using concurring images obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. It is observed that surface finish and power consumed for 1500 grade insert are comparatively better at higher cutting speeds. Additionally it is observed that tool wear is strongly dependent on abrasive hard reinforcement particles.

  16. Approximate anlysis of an unreliable $M/M/c$ retrial queue with phase merging algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faiza BELARBI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an approximate analysis of unreliable $M/M/c$ retrial queue with $c\\geq 3$ in which all servers are subject to breakdowns and repairs. Arriving customers that are unable to access a server due to congestion or failure can choose to enter a retrial orbit for an exponentially distributed amount of time and persistently attempt to gain access to a server, or abandon their request and depart the system. Once a customer is admitted to a service station, they remain there for a random duration until service is complete and then depart the system. However, if the server fails during service, i.e., an active breakdown, the customer may choose to abandon the system or proceed directly to the retrial orbit while the server begins repair immediately. In the unreliable model, there are no exact solutions when the number of servers exceeds one. Therefore, we seek to approximate the steady-state joint distribution of the number of customers in orbit and the status of the $c$ servers for the case of Markovian arrival and service times. Our approach to deriving the approximate steady-state probabilities employs a phase-merging algorithm.

  17. Skill transfer specificity shapes perception and action under varying environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Wattebled, Léo; Orth, Dominic; L'Hermette, Maxime; Boulanger, Jérémie; Davids, Keith

    2016-08-01

    Using an ecological dynamics framework, this study investigated the generality and specificity of skill transfer processes in organisation of perception and action using climbing as a task vehicle. Fluency of hip trajectory and orientation was assessed using normalized jerk coefficients exhibited by participants as they adapted perception and action under varying environmental constraints. Twelve recreational climbers were divided into two groups: one completing a 10-m high route on an indoor climbing wall; a second undertaking a 10-m high route on an icefall in a top-rope condition. We maintained the same level of difficulty between these two performance environments. An inertial measurement unit was attached each climber's hips to collect 3D acceleration and 3D orientation data to compute jerk coefficient values. Video footage was used to record the ratio of exploratory/performatory movements. Results showed higher jerk coefficient values and number of exploratory movements for performance on the icefall route, perhaps due to greater functional complexity in perception and action required when climbing icefalls, which involves use of specific tools for anchorage. Findings demonstrated how individuals solve different motor problems, exploiting positive general transfer processes enabling participants to explore the pick-up of information for the perception of affordances specific to icefall climbing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Textile Diamond Dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor Performance under Bending, Wetness and Specific Absorption Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile diamond dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC have been proposed and tested under wearable and body centric measurements. The proposed antenna and AMC sheet are entirely made of textiles for both the substrate and conducting parts, thus making it suitable for wearable communications. Directive radiation patterns with high gain are obtained with the proposed AMC sheet, hence minimizing the radiation towards the human body. In this study, wearable and body centric measurements are investigated which include bending, wetness and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR. Bending is found not to give significant effect to the antenna and AMC performance, as opposed to wetness that yields severe performance distortion. However, the original performance is retrieved once the antenna and AMC dried. Moreover, notable SAR reduction is achieved with the introduction of the AMC sheet, which is appropriate to reduce the radiation that penetrates into human flesh.

  19. Circumostial injection of mitomycin C (COS-MMC) in external and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: efficacy, safety profile, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Saurabh; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new technique of circumostial mitomycin C (COS-MMC) injection in dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and to evaluate the outcomes. A prospective, interventional consecutive case series involving 110 DCR surgeries performed over a period of 1 year using the COS-MMC technique were evaluated. All patients were operated by a single surgeon (M.J.A.). After fashioning of the mucosal flaps, all patients underwent an intramucosal injection of 0.02% MMC at 4 points (0.1 ml at each point) along the edges of the freshly created ostium. All patients were intubated, and stent removal was done at 12 weeks following the surgery. All patients underwent regular monitoring of the ostium to look for any complications. A minimum follow up of 6 months after stent removal was considered for final analysis. The outcome measures analyzed were anatomical and functional success, complications, and ostium. The mean age at presentation was 39.91 years. The diagnosis was primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction in 60.9% (67/110) and persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in 9.1% (10/110) of the patients. Twenty-six patients were known cases of failed DCR and underwent a revision DCR. Of the total patients, 19.1% (21/110) had a history of acute dacryocystitis, of which, 73% (80/110) of the surgeries were performed by an external approach and 27% (30/110) by endoscopic endonasal route. Anatomical success was noted in 97.3% (107/110) and functional success in 96.4% (106/110). All the 4 failures were due to cicatricial closure of the ostium. None of the patients were noted to have mucosal burns in the area where MMC was injected, and none of the Ostia showed any features of necrosis, infection, or any other complications. COS-MMC is a safe and effective adjunctive modality in DCR. No adverse effects on the ostium were noted. The technique appears to be promising for the success of cases with high risk of failures like revision DCR and traumatic

  20. DNA polymerase kappa protects human cells against MMC-induced genotoxicity through error-free translesion DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemaru, Yuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Sassa, Akira; Matsumoto, Kyomu; Adachi, Noritaka; Honma, Masamitsu; Numazawa, Satoshi; Nohmi, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins. In this study, we set up several genotoxicity assays with cell lines possessing altered Pol κ activities and investigated the protective roles of Pol κ in terms of genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), a therapeutic agent that induces bulky DNA adducts and crosslinks in DNA. We introduced a frameshift mutation in one allele of the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of the KO, CD, and wild-type Pol κ cells (WT), thereby establishing cell lines for the TK gene mutation assay, namely TK+/- cells. In addition, we formulated experimental conditions to conduct chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays with cells. By using the WT TK+/- and KO TK+/- cells, we assayed genotoxicity of MMC. In the TK gene mutation assay, the cytotoxic and mutagenic sensitivities of KO TK+/- cells were higher than those of WT TK+/- cells. MMC induced loss of heterozygosity (LOH), base pair substitutions at CpG sites and tandem mutations at GpG sites in both cell lines. However, the frequencies of LOH and base substitutions at CpG sites were significantly higher in KO TK+/- cells than in WT TK+/- cells. MMC also induced CA and SCE in both cell lines. The KO TK+/- cells displayed higher sensitivity than that displayed by WT TK+/- cells in the SCE assay. These results suggest that Pol κ is a modulating factor for the genotoxicity of MMC and

  1. Radioactive particulate release associated with the DOT specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    A testing program was conducted to determine the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide powder (DUO) from the inner containment components of the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions. Depleted uranium dioxide was selected as a surrogate for plutonium oxide because of the similarities in the powder characteristics, density and particle size, and because of the special handling and special facilities required for plutonium oxide. The DUO was packaged inside food pack cans in three different configurations inside the 2R vessel of the 6M container. The amount of DUO powder leakage ranged from none detectable ( -7 g) to a high of 1 x 10 -3 g. The combination of gravity, vibration and pressure produced the highest leakage of DUO. Containers that had hermetic seals (leak rates -4 atm cc/min) did not leak any detectable amount ( -7 g) of DUO under the test conditions. Impact forces had no effect on the leakage of particles with the packaging configurations used. 23 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Perfusion patterns of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor lesions under specific molecular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Marcus [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven P. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schinwald, Nicole [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Christoph R.; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Berger, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Berger@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Rationale and objective: The aim of this pilot study was the evaluation of CT perfusion patterns in metastatic GIST lesions under specific molecular therapy with sunitinib or imatinib both in responders and non-responders. Patients and methods: 24 patients with metastatic GIST under tyrosine kinase inhibition were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 46 perfusion and venous phase CT scans were acquired. Volume of distribution, blood flow, blood volume, permeability and hepatic perfusion index measurements of metastatic lesions were carried out. Lesions were classified as 'good response' or 'poor response' to therapy, and perfusion parameters were compared for these two types of lesions. Results: 24 patients were evaluated. In the extrahepatic abdominal lesions (N = 15), good responders showed significant lower perfusion values than poor responders (volume of distribution: 3.3 {+-} 2.0 vs. 13.0 {+-} 1.8 ml/100 ml, p = 0.001). The same tendency was observed in intrahepatic lesions (N = 31) (liver volume of distribution: 2.1 {+-} 0.3 vs. 7.1 {+-} 1.3 ml/100 ml, p = 0.003); (hepatic perfusion index: 24.3 {+-} 7.9 vs. 76.1 {+-} 1.5%, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that there are characteristic perfusion patterns of metastatic GIST lesions showing a good or poor response to molecular pharmacotherapy. Perfusion should be further evaluated in cross-sectional imaging studies as a possible biomarker for treatment response in targeted therapies of GIST.

  3. Covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and body mass only under specific conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-03-01

    Identifying the factors that mediate covariation between an ornament and other phenotypic attributes is important to determine the signaling function of ornaments. Sign and magnitude of a covariation may vary across environments if the expression of the ornament or of its linked genes regulating correlated phenotypes is condition-dependent. I investigated in the barn owl Tyto alba whether sign and magnitude of covariation between body mass and two heritable melanin-based plumage ornaments change with food supply, along the reproductive cycle and from the morning to the evening. Using a dataset of 1,848 measurements of body mass in 336 breeding females, I found that females displaying large black spots were heavier than conspecifics with smaller spots in the afternoon (i.e., a long time after the last feeding) but not in the morning (i.e., a short time after the last feeding). This is consistent with the recently proposed hypothesis that eumelanin-based ornaments are associated with the ability to maintain energy balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Thus, covariation between melanin-based coloration and body mass can be detected only under specific conditions potentially explaining why it has been reported in only ten out of 28 vertebrate species. The proposition that ornamented individuals achieve a higher fitness than drab conspecifics only in specific environments should be tested for other ornaments.

  4. Unconventional superconductors under a rotating magnetic field. I. Density of states and specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, A. B.; Vekhter, I.

    2007-06-01

    We develop a fully microscopic theory for the calculations of the angle-dependent properties of unconventional superconductors under a rotated magnetic field. We employ the quasiclassical Eilenberger equations and use a variation of the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt (BPT) method to obtain a closed-form solution for the Green’s function. The equations are solved self-consistently for quasi-two-dimensional dx2-y2(dxy) superconductors with the field rotated in the basal plane. The solution is used to determine the density of states and the specific heat. We find that applying the field along the gap nodes may result in minima or maxima in the angle-dependent specific heat, depending on the location in the T-H plane. This variation is attributed to the scattering of the quasiparticles on vortices, which depends on both the field and the quasiparticle energy, and is beyond the reach of the semiclassical approximation. We investigate the anisotropy across the T-H phase diagram and compare our results with the experiments on heavy fermion CeCoIn5 .

  5. Species-specific genes under selection characterize the co-evolution of slavemaker and host lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, B; Elsner, D; Alleman, A; Foitzik, S

    2017-12-04

    The transition to a parasitic lifestyle entails comprehensive changes to the selective regime. In parasites, genes encoding for traits that facilitate host detection, exploitation and transmission should be under selection. Slavemaking ants are social parasites that exploit the altruistic behaviour of their hosts by stealing heterospecific host brood during raids, which afterwards serve as slaves in slavemaker nests. Here we search for evidence of selection in the transcriptomes of three slavemaker species and three closely related hosts. We expected selection on genes underlying recognition and raiding or defense behaviour. Analyses of selective forces in species with a slavemaker or host lifestyle allowed investigation into whether or not repeated instances of slavemaker evolution share the same genetic basis. To investigate the genetic basis of host-slavemaker co-evolution, we created orthologous clusters from transcriptome sequences of six Temnothorax ant species - three slavemakers and three hosts - to identify genes with signatures of selection. We further tested for functional enrichment in selected genes from slavemakers and hosts respectively and investigated which pathways the according genes belong to. Our phylogenetic analysis, based on more than 5000 ortholog sequences, revealed sister species status for two slavemakers as well as two hosts, contradicting a previous phylogeny based on mtDNA. We identified 309 genes with signs of positive selection on branches leading to slavemakers and 161 leading to hosts. Among these were genes potentially involved in cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis, thus species recognition, and circadian clock functionality possibly explaining the different activity patterns of slavemakers and hosts. There was little overlap of genes with signatures of positive selection among species, which are involved in numerous different functions and different pathways. We identified different genes, functions and pathways under positive

  6. Modeling and simulation of M/M/c queuing pharmacy system with adjustable parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashida, A. R.; Fadzli, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Safwati; Goh, Siti Rohana

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a discrete event simulation (DES) as a computer based modelling that imitates a real system of pharmacy unit. M/M/c queuing theo is used to model and analyse the characteristic of queuing system at the pharmacy unit of Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Kangar in Perlis, Malaysia. The input of this model is based on statistical data collected for 20 working days in June 2014. Currently, patient waiting time of pharmacy unit is more than 15 minutes. The actual operation of the pharmacy unit is a mixed queuing server with M/M/2 queuing model where the pharmacist is referred as the server parameters. DES approach and ProModel simulation software is used to simulate the queuing model and to propose the improvement for queuing system at this pharmacy system. Waiting time for each server is analysed and found out that Counter 3 and 4 has the highest waiting time which is 16.98 and 16.73 minutes. Three scenarios; M/M/3, M/M/4 and M/M/5 are simulated and waiting time for actual queuing model and experimental queuing model are compared. The simulation results show that by adding the server (pharmacist), it will reduce patient waiting time to a reasonable improvement. Almost 50% average patient waiting time is reduced when one pharmacist is added to the counter. However, it is not necessary to fully utilize all counters because eventhough M/M/4 and M/M/5 produced more reduction in patient waiting time, but it is ineffective since Counter 5 is rarely used.

  7. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoo-Singh, Paramjeet Kaur; Keng, Fiona S-L; Phang, Siew-Moi; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C; Sturges, William T; Malin, Gill; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah

    2017-01-01

    Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner) C. Agardh), Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient), 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibro-momethane (CH 2 Br 2 ), iodomethane (CH 3 I), diiodomethane (CH 2 I 2 ), bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI), bromochlorometh-ane (CH 2 BrCl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ), and dibro-mochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl). These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH 2 I 2 and CH 3 I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis . The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ( F v ∕ F m ) prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum

  8. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur Mithoo-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient, 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3, dibro­momethane (CH2Br2, iodomethane (CH3I, diiodomethane (CH2I2, bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI, bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2, and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl. These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of

  9. Reusable task-specific ionic liquids for a clean ε-caprolactam synthesis under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Raphaël; Estager, Julien; Draye, Micheline; Ragaini, Vittorio; Bonrath, Werner; Lévêque, Jean-Marc

    2010-12-17

    Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids that bear a sulfonic acid group, known as Forbes acids, show a good catalytic activity for the Beckmann rearrangement, used to prepare ε-caprolactam, which is a precursor of Nylon 6. The activity essentially stems from the acidity of the sulfonic acid group. Although these task specific ionic liquids suffer from a high viscosity, this drawback can be circumvented at higher temperatures. A combination of the hydrogen sulfate anion and the sulfonic acid group of the cation is needed to obtain the rearrangement product rapidly under mild conditions. When using an excess of ionic liquid, we postulate that the internal pressure of the ionic medium, generated by the high viscosity and the high number of hydrogen-bonds, is strong enough to contribute to a decrease of the thermodynamic barrier. In accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry," we have developed a synthesis of ε-caprolactam that requires no additional chemicals except cyclohexanone oxime and the reusable TSIL.

  10. Diversification of doublesex function underlies morph-, sex-, and species-specific development of beetle horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P; Andrews, Justen

    2012-12-11

    Sex-specific trait expression is frequently associated with highly variable, condition-dependent expression within sexes and rapid divergence among closely related species. Horned beetles are an excellent example for studying the molecular basis of these phenomena because horn morphology varies markedly among species, between sexes, and among alternative, nutritionally-cued morphs within sexes. In addition, horns lack obvious homology to other insect traits and provide a good opportunity to explore the molecular basis of the rapid diversification of a novel trait within and between species. Here we show that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species. In male Onthophagus taurus, dsx transcripts were preferentially expressed in the horns of the large, horned morph, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of dsx dramatically altered male horn allometry by massively reducing horn development in large males, but not in smaller males. Conversely, dsx RNAi induced ectopic, nutrition-sensitive horn development in otherwise hornless females. Finally, in a closely related species (Onthophagus sagittarius) that has recently evolved a rare reversed sexual dimorphism, dsx RNAi revealed reversed as well as novel dsx functions despite an overall conservation of dsx expression. This suggests that rapid evolution of dsx functions has facilitated the transition from a regular sexual dimorphism to a reversed sexual dimorphism in this species. Our findings add beetle horns to existing examples of a close relationship between dsx and sexual trait development, and suggest that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait.

  11. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  12. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... type room heaters and fireplace stoves. (a) Applicable standards. Solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be designed...

  13. 49 CFR 350.311 - What specific items are eligible for reimbursement under the MCSAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Funding § 350.311 What specific..., special inspection equipment, vehicle maintenance, fuel, and oil. (c) Indirect expenses for facilities...

  14. Quantification of maternal microchimerism by HLA-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction: studies of healthy women and women with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathalie C; Erickson, Timothy D; Yan, Zhen; Pang, Jennifer M; Guthrie, Katherine A; Furst, Daniel E; Nelson, J Lee

    2004-03-01

    Microchimerism (Mc), originating from bidirectional fetal-maternal cell traffic during pregnancy, has recently been identified in healthy adults and in patients with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]). This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency and quantitative levels of maternal Mc (MMc) in healthy women and women with SSc. HLA-specific primers and fluorogenic probes were used in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays to detect and quantify MMc by targeting noninherited, nonshared HLA sequences. DNA-based HLA typing was conducted in 67 proband-mother pairs and in all children if the proband was parous. Statistical analysis was limited to 50 proband-mother pairs (including 32 healthy women and 18 women with SSc) in whom MMc could be distinguished from potential fetal Mc. MMc in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was more frequent among women with SSc (72%) than healthy women (22%) (odds ratio 9.3, P = 0.001). However, levels of MMc, expressed as the genome equivalent of maternal cells per million (gEq/mil), were not significantly different (0-68.6 gEq/mil in SSc patients, 0-54.5 in healthy women). In additional studies, positivity for MMc was demonstrated in a bone marrow aspirate from an SSc patient in whom peripheral blood had been found to be negative for MMc on 4 occasions, and tissue from a subsequent autopsy of this patient had MMc levels of 757 and 1,489 gEq/mil in the lung and heart, respectively. MMc is not uncommon in the peripheral blood of healthy adults, is increased in frequency in patients with SSc, and may be present in bone marrow and disease-affected tissues although absent in the peripheral blood.

  15. Neural mechanisms underlying migrating motor complex formation in mouse isolated colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Stuart M; Nichols, Kim; Grasby, Dallas J; Waterman, Sally A

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the intrinsic enteric reflex pathways associated with migrating motor complex (MMC) formation. Acetylcholine (ACh) mediates the rapid component of the MMC, however a non-cholinergic component also exists. The present study investigated the possible role of endogenous tachykinins (TKs) in the formation of colonic MMCs and the relative roles of excitatory and inhibitory pathways.MMCs were recorded from the circular muscle at four sites (proximal, proximal-mid, mid-distal and distal) along the mouse colon using force transducers.The tachykinin (NK1 and NK2) receptor antagonists SR-140 333 (250 nM) and SR-48 968 (250 nM) reduced the amplitude of MMCs at all recording sites, preferentially abolishing the long duration contraction. Residual MMCs were abolished by the subsequent addition of atropine (1 μM).The neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nωnitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 μM), increased MMC amplitude in the distal region, whilst reducing the amplitude in the proximal region. In preparations where MMCs did not migrate to the distal colon, addition of L-NOARG resulted in the formation of MMCs. Subsequent addition of apamin (250 nM) or suramin (100 μM) further increased MMC amplitude in the distal region, whilst suramin increased MMC amplitude in the mid-distal region. Apamin but not suramin reduced MMC amplitude in the proximal region. Subsequent addition of SR-140 333 and SR-48 968 reduced MMC amplitude at all sites. Residual MMCs were abolished by atropine (1 μM).In conclusion, TKs, ACh, nitric oxide (NO) and ATP are involved in the neural mechanisms underlying the formation of MMCs in the mouse colon. Tachykinins mediate the long duration component of the MMC via NK1 and NK2 receptors. Inhibitory pathways may be involved in determining whether MMCs are formed. PMID:11159701

  16. 24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for construction adhesives for wood... program for construction adhesives for wood floor systems. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All construction...) concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's validation mark and the manufacturer's certification of...

  17. Cytostatic action of aspirin and its effect on mitomycin C activity. A study in vitro under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerer, Cornelia; Getoff, Nikola

    2001-01-01

    Experiments in vitro using E. coli bacteria (AB 1157) proved that aspirin possesses a cytostatic ability under various experimental condition (pH=7.4) in airfree, aerated as well as in media containing N 2 O (converting e aq - into OH- radicals). In the last case the highest effect of aspirin was observed. The combination of aspirin with the well-known cytostaticum, mitomycin C (MMC) leads in airfree as well as in aerated media to a significant decrease of the MMC activity. However, the mixture of aspirin and MMC in the presence of N 2 O causes a synergistic effect, resulting in an enhancement of the MMC activity by a factor of 1.5. Probable reaction steps are presented and discussed. Using the pulse radiolysis method the rate constants for the reactions of e aq - , H and OH- species with aspirin were also determined

  18. Cytostatic action of aspirin and its effect on mitomycin C activity. A study in vitro under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerer, Cornelia; Getoff, Nikola E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2001-04-01

    Experiments in vitro using E. coli bacteria (AB 1157) proved that aspirin possesses a cytostatic ability under various experimental condition (pH=7.4) in airfree, aerated as well as in media containing N{sub 2}O (converting e{sub aq}{sup -} into OH- radicals). In the last case the highest effect of aspirin was observed. The combination of aspirin with the well-known cytostaticum, mitomycin C (MMC) leads in airfree as well as in aerated media to a significant decrease of the MMC activity. However, the mixture of aspirin and MMC in the presence of N{sub 2}O causes a synergistic effect, resulting in an enhancement of the MMC activity by a factor of 1.5. Probable reaction steps are presented and discussed. Using the pulse radiolysis method the rate constants for the reactions of e{sub aq}{sup -}, H and OH- species with aspirin were also determined.

  19. Voltage-Balancing Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Under Phase-Shifted Carrier-Based Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) becomes attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of high modularity, availability, and power quality. One of the technical challenges associated with an MMC is the balancing of the capacitors' voltages. In this paper......, a voltage-balancing control method is proposed for the MMC under phase-shifted carrier-based pulsewidth modulation. The proposed voltage-balancing method uses the linearization method for pulse sorting without arm current measurement, which can control the capacitor charge transfer to balance the capacitor....../EMTDC are conducted, and a downscale MMC prototype is also tested with the proposed method. The study results show the effectiveness of the proposed voltage-balancing method....

  20. The impact of outsourcing on investments in firm-specific human capital under varying contract regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråd Nielsen, Lars

    by creating explicit career concerns for the individual employee. Results are provided under long-term as well as short-term contracting regimes. In particular, the paper has relevance for companies operating under short-term contracting where investments in fi.rm-speci.c human capital might be profi......Investments in fi.rm-speci.c human capital have come to play a central role in the value creation for most companies and organisations as job tasks have become ever more complex and demanding to carry out. Today successful performance of essential job tasks often necessitates highly specialised...... knowledge and skills, thus requiring continuous updating of employee competences. This paper develops a two-period agency model to show how the threat of layoff (outsourcing of job tasks to a third party supplier) can help a company trigger or ease employee investments in .firm-speci.c human capital...

  1. Site-specific growth of Au particles on ZnO nanopyramids under ultraviolet illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals with unique "pyramid" morphology were firstly prepared via solvothermal synthesis. It was determined that the ZnO nanopyramids are grown along the polar c-axis with the vertexes pointing to the [001] direction. When the mixture of ZnO nanopyramids and Au precursor (HAuCl4) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, Au particles were site-specifically formed on the vertexes of ZnO nanopyramids. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposite showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the bare ZnO nanopyramids. First-principles based calculations well explained the formation of ZnO nanopyramids as well as the site-specific growth of Au, and revealed that during the photocatalysis process the Au particles can accommodate photoelectrons and thus facilitate the charge separation. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Symbiotic Specificity in Legume-Rhizobium Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are able to form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. The result of this symbiosis is to form nodules on the plant root, within which the bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant. Establishment of a successful symbiosis requires the two symbiotic partners to be compatible with each other throughout the process of symbiotic development. However, incompatibility frequently occurs, such that a bacterial strain is unable to nodulate a particular host plant or forms nodules that are incapable of fixing nitrogen. Genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate symbiotic specificity are diverse, involving a wide range of host and bacterial genes/signals with various modes of action. In this review, we will provide an update on our current knowledge of how the recognition specificity has evolved in the context of symbiosis signaling and plant immunity.

  3. Textile Diamond Dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor Performance under Bending, Wetness and Specific Absorption Rate Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kamardin, K.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Hall, P. S.; Samsuri, N. A.; Jalil, M. E.; Abd Malek, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Textile diamond dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) have been proposed and tested under wearable and body centric measurements. The proposed antenna and AMC sheet are entirely made of textiles for both the substrate and conducting parts, thus making it suitable for wearable communications. Directive radiation patterns with high gain are obtained with the proposed AMC sheet, hence minimizing the radiation towards the human body. In this study, wearable and body centric measurements ...

  4. Evaluation of Specific Executive Functioning Skills and the Processes Underlying Executive Control in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Savla, Gauri N.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Delis, Dean C.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet, the degree to which executive functions are impaired differentially, or above and beyond underlying basic cognitive processes is less clear. Participants included 145 matched pairs of individuals with schizophrenia (SCs) and normal comparison subjects (NCs). Executive functions were assessed with 10 tasks of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), in terms of “achievement scores” reflecting overall performance on the ta...

  5. On firm specific characteristics of pharmaceutical generics and incentives to permanence under fuzzy conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Puente, Javier; de la Fuente, David; Lozano, Jesus; Gascon, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology that is useful for analysing from a microeconomic perspective the incentives to entry, permanence and exit in the market for pharmaceutical generics under fuzzy conditions. In an empirical application of our proposed methodology, the potential towards permanence of labs with different characteristics has been estimated. The case we deal with is set in an open market where global players diversify into different national markets of pharmaceutic...

  6. Evaluation of specific executive functioning skills and the processes underlying executive control in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savla, Gauri N; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Thompson, Wesley K; Delis, Dean C; Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet, the degree to which executive functions are impaired differentially, or above and beyond underlying basic cognitive processes is less clear. Participants included 145 matched pairs of individuals with schizophrenia (SCs) and normal comparison subjects (NCs). Executive functions were assessed with 10 tasks of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), in terms of "achievement scores" reflecting overall performance on the task. Five of these tasks (all measuring executive control) were further examined in terms of their basic component (e.g., processing speed) scores and contrast scores (reflecting residual higher order skills adjusted for basic component skills). Group differences were examined via multivariate analysis of variance. SCs had worse performance than NCs on all achievement scores, but the greatest SC-NC difference was that for the Trails Switching task. SCs also had worse performance than NCs on all basic component skills. Of the executive control tasks, only Trails Switching continued to be impaired after accounting for impairments in underlying basic component skills. Much of the impairment in executive functions in schizophrenia may reflect the underlying component skills rather than higher-order functions. However, the results from one task suggest that there might be additional impairment in some aspects of executive control.

  7. Design of a lane departure driver-assist system under safety specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehener Daniel; Huang Geng; Del Vecchio Domitilla

    2016-01-01

    We use a controlled invariance approach to design a semi-autonomous lane departure assist system that is guaranteed to keep the vehicle in the lane. The controlled invariant safe set is the set of system states from which an input exists that can keep the vehicle in the lane. First we provide theoretical conditions under which this set has a simple characterization and can be computed in real-time. We then use this characterization to derive a feedback strategy that keeps the vehicle in the l...

  8. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloney Kirk A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the

  9. A single-phase multi-level D-STATCOM inverter using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoodeh, Pedram

    This dissertation presents the design of a novel multi-level inverter with FACTS capability for small to mid-size (10-20kW) permanent-magnet wind installations using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology. The aim of the work is to design a new type of inverter with D-STATCOM option to provide utilities with more control on active and reactive power transfer of distribution lines. The inverter is placed between the renewable energy source, specifically a wind turbine, and the distribution grid in order to fix the power factor of the grid at a target value, regardless of wind speed, by regulating active and reactive power required by the grid. The inverter is capable of controlling active and reactive power by controlling the phase angle and modulation index, respectively. The unique contribution of the proposed work is to combine the two concepts of inverter and D-STATCOM using a novel voltage source converter (VSC) multi-level topology in a single unit without additional cost. Simulations of the proposed inverter, with 5 and 11 levels, have been conducted in MATLAB/Simulink for two systems including 20 kW/kVAR and 250 W/VAR. To validate the simulation results, a scaled version (250 kW/kVAR) of the proposed inverter with 5 and 11 levels has been built and tested in the laboratory. Experimental results show that the reduced-scale 5- and 11-level inverter is able to fix PF of the grid as well as being compatible with IEEE standards. Furthermore, total cost of the prototype models, which is one of the major objectives of this research, is comparable with market prices.

  10. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.

  11. Dormancy-specific imprinting underlies maternal inheritance of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskurewicz, Urszula; Iwasaki, Mayumi; Susaki, Daichi; Megies, Christian; Kinoshita, Tetsu; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Mature seed dormancy is a vital plant trait that prevents germination out of season. In Arabidopsis, the trait can be maternally regulated but the underlying mechanisms sustaining this regulation, its general occurrence and its biological significance among accessions are poorly understood. Upon seed imbibition, the endosperm is essential to repress the germination of dormant seeds. Investigation of genomic imprinting in the mature seed endosperm led us to identify a novel set of imprinted genes that are expressed upon seed imbibition. Remarkably, programs of imprinted gene expression are adapted according to the dormancy status of the seed. We provide direct evidence that imprinted genes play a role in regulating germination processes and that preferential maternal allelic expression can implement maternal inheritance of seed dormancy levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19573.001 PMID:28005006

  12. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  13. Specific Energy Absorbed Study Of Aluminum (2024-351T Tubes Alloy Under Lateral Crush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Arab Ghaidan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to find SEA (Specific Energy Absorber for lateral crushing (statically behavior for Aluminum (2024-T351 alloy with difference lengths (10, 20, and 30 mm. An experimental, finite element simulation, and theoretical models present to find force-deformation curves and then find SEA for difference lengths. Experimental results more agreements with finite elements simulation and theoretical when length of tubes is increase for load deformation curve, because when the length increases the plastic region increase with initial plastic collapse load (Pc. The experimental, ANSYS simulation and theoretical results have plotted and it has seen that the theory also underestimates the ANSYS results because in theoretical model, is customary to assume that the material is perfectly plastic, therefore, the finite element simulation might predict the experimental results better than the theoretical one. The results show that light density Aluminum alloy is suitable for SEA.

  14. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    goal was identical to selection index 3. Mastitis data from primiparous cows calving from 1998 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic parameters of the mastitis traits using linear models and AI-REML algorithm. These parameters were used for construction of the selection index equations......The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... to 570 euro per mastitis case and were highest for contagious pathogens such as Staph. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci and lowest for Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. The value for unspecific mastitis was 231 euro per case. Selection differentials (in euro) were estimated for 4...

  15. What are the specific disability and limitation types underlying responses to the BRFSS disability questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua; Balte, Pallavi; Clarkson, John; Nitcheva, Daniela; Graham, Catherine Leigh; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Researchers rely on resources such as BRFSS data to understand the health status of people with disability. However, the survey data rely on a limited definition of disability resulting in imprecise inferences about the nature of disability. Understanding how health varies among people with different types of disability is vital to tailoring interventions for improving health and eliminating disparities. The purpose of this study was to utilize state added follow-up questions in the 2011 South Carolina BRFSS to describe the specific health conditions and limitations attributed to their disability and to compare health status across different types of disability. Participants reporting a disability were asked to name health condition(s) causing disability and describe their disability-related limitations. Descriptive statistics were calculated using weighted proportions. Logistic regression was used to model the associations of specific health conditions and limitations with the outcomes of self-rated general health and mental health status, controlling for demographic factors. The 5 most commonly reported health condition categories were (weighted percentage): musculoskeletal (68.56%); pulmonary (10.41%); neurologic (8.48%); heart disease (8%) and mental health (7.31%). The 5 most commonly reported limitation categories were: mobility/balance limitations (46.29%); pain (23.22%); breathing problems (12.36%); general weakness/fatigue (9.57%) and limited lifting (8.24%). There was substantial variation in the degree of association between categories of conditions and limitations and the outcomes of self-rated physical and mental health. Researchers and practitioners should consider variability in the nature of disability when designing interventions to improve the health of people with a disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Positive selection underlies the species-specific binding of Plasmodium falciparum RH5 to human basigin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Diego; Pontremoli, Chiara; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, is a member of the Laverania subgenus, which includes ape-infecting parasites. P. falciparum is thought to have originated in gorillas, although infection is now restricted to humans. Laverania parasites display remarkable host-specificity, which is partially mediated by the interaction between parasite ligands and host receptors. We analyse the evolution of BSG (basigin) and GYPA (glycophorin A) in primates/hominins, as well as of their Plasmodium-encoded ligands, PfRH5 and PfEBA175. We show that, in primates, positive selection targeted two sites in BSG (F27 and H102), both involved in PfRH5 binding. A population genetics-phylogenetics approach detected the strongest selection for the gorilla lineage: one of the positively selected sites (K191) is a major determinant of PfRH5 binding affinity. Analysis of RH5 genes indicated episodic selection on the P. falciparum branch; the positively selected W447 site is known to stabilize the interaction with human basigin. Conversely, we detect no selection in the receptor-binding region of EBA175 in the P. falciparum lineage. Its host receptor, GYPA, shows evidence of positive selection in all hominid lineages; selected codons include glycosylation sites that modulate PfEBA175 binding affinity. Data herein provide an evolutionary explanation for species-specific binding of the PfRH5-BSG ligand-receptor pair and support the hypothesis that positive selection at these genes drove the host shift leading to the emergence of P. falciparum as a human pathogen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Individual specificities and heart rhythm variability under emotional influence in women of various age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopenko, N A

    2011-01-01

    The autonomic regulation of heart rhythm against the background of emotiogenic factors in women aged 30-60 was studied. A method of variational pulsemetry based on the analysis of heart rhythm variability (HRV - temporal and spectral) was used for physiological control of the status of those under investigation. Modeling negative emotions in introverts and in those tested at intropunitive type of reaction resulted in a similar directivity of changes in HRV indices vs. initial condition: SDNN, RMSSD, triangular index and power in HF-range decreased, while Baevsky index increased. This may signify that people having above peculiarities demonstrated changes in the autonomic balance towards activation of sympathoadrenal link, decrease of efficacy of baroreflex regulation and a tension of organism's regulatory systems. Such changes in HRV values were shown to be similar to those observed during aging. Peculiarities of the emotional pattern of the personality, determined by both congenital features of the nervous system and the acquired system of emotional relationships, play a significant role in health strengthening and prevention of neurogenic disorders. The results obtained enable to explain some of the mechanisms of neurogenic diseases during prolonged emotional stress.

  18. The problems of material pairs under the specific conditions of high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation gives a detailed descirption of the problems of friction and solid lubrication of slide and ball bearings under HTR conditions. The first part is concerned with an analysis of established approaches for determining the friction factor and the development of a mathematical model on this basis, taking particular account of the following parameters. (1) Surface characteristics (peak-to-valley height, pressure angles of roughness elevations) and, (2) material properties of the friction partner (ductility, brittleness, crystal structure). The formula for friction factor thus arrived at incorporates the microscopic and sub-microscopic influence of the surface grain structure. In addition, the effects of elastic and plastic properties at the region of contact was studied. The derived equation is used to characterise frictional properties and enables a suitable and economic friction pair to be selected. The second part deals with the application of solid lubrication and the effect of the solid lubricant film on the mechanicsm and kinematics of ball bearings. In the final part of this investigation an evaluation of experimental results is carried out on the basis of the preceding theoretical studies in order to confirm the theoretical approach and to provide information of practical use on limits of application, cost details and aids to construction. (orig./IHOE) [de

  19. Patient-specific 3D hemodynamics modelling of left coronary artery under hyperemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Nik-Ghazali, N; Badarudin, A; Viswanathan, Girish N; Ahmed, N J Salman; Khan, T M Yunus

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of various degrees of percentage stenosis on hemodynamic parameters during the hyperemic flow condition. 3D patient-specific coronary artery models were generated based on the CT scan data using MIMICS-18. Numerical simulation was performed for normal and stenosed coronary artery models of 70, 80 and 90% AS (area stenosis). Pressure, velocity, wall shear stress and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were measured and compared with the normal coronary artery model during the cardiac cycle. The results show that, as the percentage AS increase, the pressure drop increases as compared with the normal coronary artery model. Considerable elevation of velocity was observed as the percentage AS increases. The results also demonstrate a recirculation zone immediate after the stenosis which could lead to further progression of stenosis in the flow-disturbed area. Highest wall shear stress was observed for 90% AS as compared to other models that could result in the rupture of coronary artery. The FFR of 90% AS is found to be considerably low.

  20. Investigating genotype specific response in photosynthetic behavior under drought stress and nitrogen limitation in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.; Aston, T.

    2015-12-01

    Challenges in terrestrial ecosystem modeling include characterizing the impact of stress on vegetation and the heterogeneous behavior of different species within the environment. In an effort to address these challenges the impacts of drought and nutrient limitation on the CO2 assimilation of multiple genotypes of Brassica rapa was investigated using the Farquhar Model (FM) of photosynthesis following a Bayesian parameterization and updating scheme. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements from an unstressed group (well-watered/well-fertilized) and two stressed groups (drought/well-fertilized and well-watered/nutrient limited) were used to estimate FM model parameters. Unstressed individuals were used to initialize Bayesian parameter estimation. Posterior mean estimates yielded a close fit with data as observed assimilation (An) closely matched predicted (Ap) with mean standard error for all individuals ranging from 0.8 to 3.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Posterior parameter distributions of the unstressed individuals were combined and fit to distributions to establish species level Bayesian priors of FM parameters for testing stress responses. Species level distributions of unstressed group identified mean maximum rates of carboxylation standardized to 25° (Vcmax25) as 101.8 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 29.0) and mean maximum rates of electron transport standardized to 25° (Jmax25) as 319.7 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 64.4). These updated priors were used to test the response of drought and nutrient limitations on assimilation. In the well-watered/nutrient limited group a decrease of 28.0 μmol m-2 s-1 was observed in mean estimate of Vcmax25, a decrease of 27.9 μmol m-2 s-1 in Jmax25 and a decrease in quantum yield from 0.40 mol photon/mol e- in unstressed individuals to 0.14 in the nutrient limited group. In the drought/well-fertilized group a decrease was also observed in Vcmax25 and Jmax25. The genotype specific unstressed and stressed responses were then used to

  1. European methodology of analysis vertical restraints under rule of reason in context of cooperative relation specific investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamirova Maria, Е.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of underinvestment in specific assets is a key issue in new institutional economics, especially in case of cooperative relation specific investments. It can be solved due to vertical restraints, as an alternative way of vertical integration to transfer control to partner, who makes relation specific investments. The type of relationspecific investments called «cooperative» investments (or cross investments was nearly absent in economic analysis up to the very end of the twentieth century despite of the fact that such investments are widespread. It led to the absence of analysis relation specific investments in official regulation documents. At the same time, different types of relation specific investments can be characterized by different degree of riskiness and need special regulations of vertical agreements. In the paper author makes an attempt to analyze the European methodology of assessment vertical restraints under rule of reason focusing on the type of relation specific investments. It makes possible to improve analysis of vertical restraint in Russian antitrust.

  2. Reversibility of cardiac fibrosis in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, under specific chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to verify the effect of specific chemotherapy (Benznidazole or MK-346 on the inflammatory and fibrotic cardiac alterations in mice chronically infected with the strains 21 SF (Type II and Colombian (Type III of Trypanosoma cruzi. To obtain chronically infected mice, two groups of 100 Swiss mice each, were infected with either the 21 SF or the Colombian strain (2x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 and 5x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 blood forms respectively. The rate of morality in the acute phase was of 80% for both groups. Twenty surviving mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 20 with the Colombian strain were then divided in treated and untreated groups. Excluding those that died during the course of treatment, 14 mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 15 with the Colombian strain were evaluated in the present study. Chemotherapy was performed with Benznidazole (N-benzil-2-nitro-1-imidazolacetamide in the dose of 100mg/k.b.w/day, for 60 days, or with the MK-436(3(1-methyl-5 nitroimidazol-2-yl in two daily doses of 250 mg/k.b.w, for 20 days. Parasitological cure tests were performed (xenodiagnosis, haemoculture, subinovulation of the blood into newborn mice, and serological indirect immunofluorescence test. The treated and untreated mice as well as intact controls were killed at different periods after treatment and the heart were submitted to histopathological study with hematoxilineosin and picrosirius staining; ultrastructural study; collagen immunotyping, fibronectin and laminin identification by immunofluorescence tests. Results: the untreated controls either infected with 21 SF or Colombian strain, showed inflammatory and fibrotic alterations that were mild to moderate with the 21 SF strain and intense with the Colombian strain. Redpicrosirius staining showed bundles of collagen in the interstitial space and around cardiac fibers. Increased deposits of mitritial components and

  3. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time t_{a}, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature T_{a} and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with t_{a}. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above T_{a} is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with t_{a}. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  4. Right ventricular free-wall longitudinal speckle tracking strain in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension under specific treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Hatice S; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Kultursay, Hakan; Vuran, Ozcan; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Mogulkoc, Nesrin; Can, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a major determinant of outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although the optimal measure of RV function is poorly defined. We evaluated the utility of RV free-wall speckle tracking strain as an assessment tool for RV function in patients with PAH who are already under specific treatment compared with conventional echocardiographic parameters and investigated the relationship of RV free-wall strain with clinical hemodynamic parameters of RV performance. Right ventricular free-wall strain was evaluated in 92 patients (Group-1 and Group-4 pulmonary hypertension) who were on PAH-specific treatment for at least 3 months. Right atrial (RA) area, RV FAC, TAPSE, tricuspid S, functional class, 6-minute walking distance, and NT-proBNP were studied. The mean duration of follow-up was 222±133 days. All patients were under PAH-specific treatment, and mean RV free-wall strain was -13.16±6.3%. RV free-wall strain correlated well with functional class (r=.312, P=.01), NT-proBNP (r=.423, P=.0001), RA area (r=.427, P=.0001), FAC (r=-.637, P=.0001), TAPSE (r=-.524, P=.0001), tricuspid S (r=-.450, P=.0001), 6-minute walking distance (r=-.333, P=.002). RV free-wall strain significantly correlated with all follow-up adverse events, death, and clinical right heart failure (RHF) (P=.04, P=.03, P=.02, respectively). According to the receiver operator characteristic analysis, the cutoff value for RV free-wall strain for the development of clinical RHF was -12.5% (sensitivity: 71%, specificity: 67%) and for all cardiovascular adverse events (death included) was -12.5% (sensitivity: 54%, specificity: 64%). Assessment of RV free-wall strain is a feasible, easy-to-perform method and may be used as a predictor of RHF, clinical deterioration, and mortality in patients already under PAH-specific treatment. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A novel method for simultaneous production of two ribosome-inactivating proteins, α-MMC and MAP30, from Momordica charantia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Lin, Sen; Liu, Shuangfeng; Fan, Xiang; Li, Gangrui; Meng, Yanfa

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess anti-tumor and anti-virus activities. Traditional purification methods of these two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were separate which was time consuming and cost effective as well as low efficient. In order to obtain sufficient samples for researches, a strategy combining ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography was developed and optimized in this study. Using this novel purification method, averagely 1162 mg of α-MMC and 535 mg of MAP30 were obtained from 400 g of Momordica charantia L seeds. The homogeneities of them were assessed by electrophoresis analysis. Determination of molecular weights of α-MMC and MAP30 were 28.585 kDa and 29.094 kDa by MALDI-TOF/TOF and pI were 9.02 and 9.12, respectively. The single glycoproteins were identified by Periodate-Schiff's base (PAS) and the saccharide content was tested to be 1.25% and 1.1% by anthrone-sulfuric acid method. Biological activities were evidenced by their ability to inhibit proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell and to convert supercoiled plasmid pUC18 into relaxed forms. Finally, we also found that both two RIPs exhibited no superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.

  6. A Simple Method to Assess In Vivo Proliferation in Lung Vasculature with EdU: The Case of MMC-Induced PVOD in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigny Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU incorporation is becoming the gold standard method for in vitro and in vivo visualization of proliferating cells. The small size of the fluorescent azides used for detection results in a high degree of specimen penetration. It can be used to easily detect DNA replication in large tissue samples or organ explants with low proliferation and turnover of cells formerly believed to be in a “terminal” state of differentiation. Here we describe a protocol for the localization and identification of proliferating cells in quiescent or injured pulmonary vasculature, in a model of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD. PVOD is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension characterized by progressive obstruction of small pulmonary veins. We previously reported that mitomycin-C (MMC therapy is associated with PVOD in human. We demonstrated that MMC can induce PVOD in rats, which currently represents the sole animal model that recapitulates human PVOD lesions. Using the EdU assay, we demonstrated that MMC-exposed lungs displayed areas of exuberant microvascular endothelial cell proliferation which mimics pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis, one of the pathologic hallmarks of human PVOD. In vivo pulmonary cell proliferation measurement represents an interesting methodology to investigate the potential efficacy of therapies aimed at normalizing pathologic angioproliferation.

  7. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo W. T. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs with phased arrays (PAs. These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs, the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs. For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.

  8. Genetic algorithm with maximum-minimum crossover (GA-MMC) applied in optimization of radiation pattern control of phased-array radars for rocket tracking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo W T; Barros, Vitor F; Silva, Sandro G

    2014-08-18

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.

  9. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo W. T.; Barros, Vitor F.; Silva, Sandro G.

    2014-01-01

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence. PMID:25196013

  10. Patient-specific modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of individual sickle red blood cells under hypoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous morphology and abnormal dynamics under hypoxic conditions. We developed a time-dependent cell model that is able to simulate the dynamic processes of repeated sickling and unsickling of red blood cells (RBCs) under physiological conditions. By using the kinetic cell model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the dynamic behavior of individual sickle RBCs flowing in a microfluidic channel with multiple microgates. We investigate how individual sickle RBCs behave differently from healthy ones in channel flow, and analyze the alteration of cellular behavior and response to single-cell capillary obstruction induced by cell rheologic rigidification and morphological change due to cell sickling under hypoxic conditions. We also simulate the flow dynamics of sickle RBCs treated with hydroxyurea (HU) and quantify the relative enhancement of hemodynamic performance of HU. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant U01HL114476.

  11. Modular multilevel converter modelling, control and analysis under grid frequency deviations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal; da Silva, Rodrigo; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    A tool for component sizing for MMCs has been developed and tested through simulations in PLECS. The steady-state behaviour under grid frequency deviations — interesting for offshore wind farm connections — has been analysed, providing insights in MMC characteristics and further testing the propo......A tool for component sizing for MMCs has been developed and tested through simulations in PLECS. The steady-state behaviour under grid frequency deviations — interesting for offshore wind farm connections — has been analysed, providing insights in MMC characteristics and further testing...

  12. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)(2)-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%-70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%-70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with

  13. Nitric oxide is involved in light-specific responses of tomato during germination under normal and osmotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterková, Jana; Luhová, Lenka; Hofman, Jakub; Turecková, Veronika; Novák, Ondrej; Petrivalsky, Marek; Fellner, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the signalling and regulation of plant growth and development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The photoperiod-sensitive mutant 7B-1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) showing abscisic acid (ABA) overproduction and blue light (BL)-specific tolerance to osmotic stress represents a valuable model to study the interaction between light, hormones and stress signalling. The role of NO as a regulator of seed germination and ABA-dependent responses to osmotic stress was explored in wild-type and 7B-1 tomato under white light (WL) and BL. Germination data were obtained from the incubation of seeds on germinating media of different composition. Histochemical analysis of NO production in germinating seeds was performed by fluorescence microscopy using a cell-permeable NO probe, and endogenous ABA was analysed by mass spectrometry. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione stimulated seed germination, whereas the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) had an inhibitory effect. Under WL in both genotypes, PTIO strongly suppressed germination stimulated by fluridone, an ABA inhibitor. The stimulatory effect of the NO donor was also observed under osmotic stress for 7B-1 seeds under WL and BL. Seed germination inhibited by osmotic stress was restored by fluridone under WL, but less so under BL, in both genotypes. This effect of fluridone was further modulated by the NO donor and NO scavenger, but only to a minor extent. Fluorescence microscopy using the cell-permeable NO probe DAF-FM DA (4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate) revealed a higher level of NO in stressed 7B-1 compared with wild-type seeds. As well as defective BL signalling, the differential NO-dependent responses of the 7B-1 mutant are probably associated with its high endogenous ABA concentration and related impact on hormonal cross-talk in germinating seeds. These data confirm that light-controlled seed germination and

  14. Force measurements of postural sway and rapid arm lift in seated children with and without MMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrlin, Simone; Karlsson, Annica; Ahlsten, Gunnar; Lanshammar, Håkan; Silander, Hans C; Dahl, Margareta

    2002-03-01

    The aim was to investigate the horizontal ground reaction forces of seated postural sway and rapid arm lift in children with and without myelomeningocele. BACKGROUND; It is unclear whether children with myelomeningocele have limited control of body posture entirely caused by the impairment in the legs or also by other dysfunction. 11 children with myelomeningocele, 10-13 years, and 20 children without physical impairment were investigated. Data were collected by force plate measurements during quiet sitting and during rapid arm lift. The forces were expressed as the corresponding acceleration of the centre of mass. The amplitude and the frequency of the centre of mass acceleration quantified the sway. Movement time, onset and anteroposterior peak acceleration were analysed during arm lift. The children with myelomeningocele had a low sway frequency under both conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. The movement time was longer for these children compared to the controls. The onset of initial anteroposterior centre of mass acceleration preceded the arm lift and was directed forward in both groups. The peak centre of mass acceleration was usually directed backward. The control of postural sway was different in children with myelomeningocele compared to children without disabilities and this could not be explained by the cele level. The children with myelomeningocele had a slow motor performance of the seated sway and during arm lift. Slow motor performance involves functional limitations in the individual child and is important for the therapy program.

  15. Sorption measurements performed under site-specific conditions - Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Sorption coefficients have been determined using site-specific sediments and trench waters, collected from the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Experimental apparatus and procedures are described to preserve the anoxic character of the liquid phases during experiments. Experiments using anoxic and oxidized trench waters were performed as functions of solution pH, soil/solution ratio, water and soil composition. The lowest sorption was observed with the combination of anoxic waters and untreated soil - the combination most closely resembling the immediate trench environment. For best results in predictive applications, sorption data should be determined under conditions which simulate those in the field as closely as possible. The total radionuclide retention capacity of reducing geochemical environments is the sum of sorption processes on solid phases, as well as precicipation, and coprecipitation reactions involving iron mineral phases

  16. Irrigation water consumption modelling of a soilless cucumber crop under specific greenhouse conditions in a humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Alberto Salcedo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The irrigation water consumption of a soilless cucumber crop under greenhouse conditions in a humid tropical climate has been evaluated in this paper in order to improve the irrigation water and fertilizers management in these specific conditions. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted. Two trials were carried out during the years 2011 and 2014 in an experimental farm located in Vinces (Ecuador. In each trial, the complete growing cycle of a cucumber crop grown under a greenhouse was evaluated. Crop development was monitored and a good fit to a sigmoidal Gompertz type growth function was reported. The daily water uptake of the crop was measured and related to the most relevant indoor climate variables. Two different combination methods, namely the Penman-Monteith equation and the Baille equation, were applied. However, the results obtained with these combination methods were not satisfactory due to the poor correlation between the climatic variables, especially the incoming radiation, and the crop's water uptake (WU. On contrary, a good correlation was reported between the crop's water uptake and the leaf area index (LAI, especially in the initial crop stages. However, when the crop is fully developed, the WU stabilizes and becomes independent from the LAI. A preliminary model to simulate the water uptake of the crop was adjusted using the data obtained in the first experiment and then validated with the data of the second experiment.

  17. Arabidopsis seed-specific vacuolar aquaporins are involved in maintaining seed longevity under the control of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhilei; Sun, Weining

    2015-08-01

    The tonoplast intrinsic proteins TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 are specifically expressed during seed maturation and localized to the seed protein storage vacuole membrane. However, the function and physiological roles of TIP3s are still largely unknown. The seed performance of TIP3 knockdown mutants was analysed using the controlled deterioration test. The tip3;1/tip3;2 double mutant was affected in seed longevity and accumulated high levels of hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild type, suggesting that TIP3s function in seed longevity. The transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) is known to be involved in seed desiccation tolerance and seed longevity. TIP3 transcript and protein levels were significantly reduced in abi3-6 mutant seeds. TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 promoters could be activated by ABI3 in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis protoplasts. TIP3 proteins were detected in the protoplasts transiently expressing ABI3 and in ABI3-overexpressing seedlings when treated with ABA. Furthermore, ABI3 directly binds to the RY motif of the TIP3 promoters. Therefore, seed-specific TIP3s may help maintain seed longevity under the expressional control of ABI3 during seed maturation and are members of the ABI3-mediated seed longevity pathway together with small heat shock proteins and late embryo abundant proteins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Characteristic Tandem Mass Spectral Features Under Various Collision Chemistries for Site-Specific Identification of Protein S-Glutathionylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chi-Chi; Chiang, Bing-Yu; Lin, Jason Ching-Yao; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Lin, Chun-Hung; Khoo, Kay-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-glutathionylation is a reversible post-translational modification widely implicated in redox regulated biological functions. Conventional biochemical methods, however, often do not allow such a mixed disulfide modification to be reliably identified on specific cysteine residues or be distinguished from other related oxidized forms. To develop more efficient mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical strategies for this purpose, we first investigated the MS/MS fragmentation pattern of S-glutathionylated peptides under various dissociation modes, including collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD), and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), using synthetic peptides derived from protein tyrosine phosphatase as models. Our results indicate that a MALDI-based high energy CID MS/MS on a TOF/TOF affords the most distinctive spectral features that would facilitate rapid and unambiguous identification of site-specific S-glutathionylation. For more complex proteomic samples best tackled by LC-MS/MS approach, we demonstrate that HCD performed on an LTQ-Orbitrap hybrid instrument fairs better than trap-based CID and ETD in allowing more protein site-specific S-glutathionylation to be confidently identified by direct database searching of the generated MS/MS dataset using Mascot. Overall, HCD afforded more peptide sequence-informative fragment ions retaining the glutathionyl modification with less neutral losses of side chains to compromise scoring. In conjunction with our recently developed chemo-enzymatic tagging strategy, our nanoLC-HCD-MS/MS approach is sufficiently sensitive to identify endogenous S-glutathionylated peptides prepared from non-stressed cells. It is anticipated that future applications to global scale analysis of protein S-glutathionylation will benefit further from current advances in both speed and mass accuracy afforded by HCD MS/MS mode on the Orbitrap series.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 perfusion scintigrams under exercise in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verani, M.S.; Marcus, M.L.; Razzak, M.A.; Ehrhardt, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), under exercise, in patients with suspected coronary-obstructive disease was compared with graded exercise ECG tests (GTX) in patients with angiographically normal (N = 34) and obstructed (N = 48) coronary arteries. Of the 34 patients with normal coronaries, only one had a perfusion defect on the MPI (specificity 97%). Of the 48 patients with coronary obstructive disease (>50% obstruction of at least one coronary vessel), MPI was positive in 38 (sensitivity 79%). In contrast, the GTX had a specificity of 62% and sensitivity of 88% if nondiagnostic GTX tests are excluded. When the MPI and the GTX were used in combination, however, the sensitivity of detecting patients with coronary obstructive disease was increased to 94% (p < 0.01). The MPI was particularly useful in the evaluation of the 26 patients with nondiagnostic GTX. In this group, 24 of the 26 patients were correctly identified by the MPI with respect to the presence or absence of coronary-obstructive disease. In the 14 patients with a history of classical angina but with normal coronaries, the MPI was negative in 13 and positive in one, thus suggesting that in the majority of these patients transient transmural myocardial ischemia probably does not occur during exercise. The presence or absence of angiographically demonstrable coronary collateral vessels did not seem to influence the exercise MPI in patients with coronary-obstructive disease. Thus, although the MPI does not correctly identify all patients with either coronary-obstructive disease or normal coronary arteries, it is helpful in patients who have a nondiagnostic GTX. Furthermore, when used in combination with the GTX, the MPI significantly increases the likelihood that significant coronary-obstructive disease is present when both tests are positive, and that coronary disease is absent when both tests are negative

  20. PROCOV: maximum likelihood estimation of protein phylogeny under covarion models and site-specific covarion pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huai-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The covarion hypothesis of molecular evolution holds that selective pressures on a given amino acid or nucleotide site are dependent on the identity of other sites in the molecule that change throughout time, resulting in changes of evolutionary rates of sites along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. At the sequence level, covarion-like evolution at a site manifests as conservation of nucleotide or amino acid states among some homologs where the states are not conserved in other homologs (or groups of homologs. Covarion-like evolution has been shown to relate to changes in functions at sites in different clades, and, if ignored, can adversely affect the accuracy of phylogenetic inference. Results PROCOV (protein covarion analysis is a software tool that implements a number of previously proposed covarion models of protein evolution for phylogenetic inference in a maximum likelihood framework. Several algorithmic and implementation improvements in this tool over previous versions make computationally expensive tree searches with covarion models more efficient and analyses of large phylogenomic data sets tractable. PROCOV can be used to identify covarion sites by comparing the site likelihoods under the covarion process to the corresponding site likelihoods under a rates-across-sites (RAS process. Those sites with the greatest log-likelihood difference between a 'covarion' and an RAS process were found to be of functional or structural significance in a dataset of bacterial and eukaryotic elongation factors. Conclusion Covarion models implemented in PROCOV may be especially useful for phylogenetic estimation when ancient divergences between sequences have occurred and rates of evolution at sites are likely to have changed over the tree. It can also be used to study lineage-specific functional shifts in protein families that result in changes in the patterns of site variability among subtrees.

  1. Differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses to single epicutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Hong, Chien-Hui; Liu, Ching-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-12-01

    Epicutaneous immunization with allergens is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. We recently showed in addition to the Th2 response following single epicutaneous immunization, a remarkable Th1 response is induced in B6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice, mimicking the immune response to allergens in human non-atopics and atopics. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving this differential Th1 response between BALB/c and B6 mice. We characterized dermal dendritic cells by flow cytometric analysis. We measured the induced Th1/Th2 responses by measuring the IFN-γ/IL-13 contents of supernatants of antigen reactivation cultures of lymph node cells. We demonstrate that more dermal dendritic cells with higher activation status migrate into draining lymph nodes of B6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. Dermal dendritic cells of B6 mice have a greater ability to capture protein antigen than those of BALB/c mice. Moreover, increasing the activation status or amount of captured antigen in dermal dendritic cells induced a Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Further, differential activation behavior, but not antigen-capturing ability of dermal dendritic cells between BALB/c and B6 mice is dendritic cell-intrinsic. These results show that the differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses following single epicutaneous immunization. Furthermore, our findings highlight the potential differences between human atopics and non-atopics and provide useful information for the prediction and prevention of atopic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of Aflatoxin-producing mould isolates based on fluorescence production on a specific medium under ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaghi Abyaneh M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination of food and feedstuffs is a serious economic and health hazard. Over a period of two years, 35 samples of raw pistachio nuts collected from different parts of Iran were analysed for the presence of aflatoxigenic strains of the Aspergillus flavus group. Eighty-five isolates of A.flavus and A.parasiticuswere identified based on specific yello-orange pigment production in the reverse of the colonies on Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA medium and microscopic criteria. These isolates were present in 65.71% of the samples and their aflatoxin-producting ability was examined. At first , 12 out ot the 15 aflatoxin-producing isolates were selected based on bright blue fluorescence colour on aflatoxin-producing ability (APA medium. Later, all of the isolates were identifid after culturing on sucrose-low salts (SLS medium. Furthermore, aflatoxin production on APA and SLS media was confirmed when the mycelia and media were extracte and analysed fo aflatoxins on TLC plates. A.flavus strions produced mainly aflatoxin B1 with concentrations rangiong from 0.21 to 1.49 µg/g of APA medium, where as A.parasiticus strain produced all four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 with 3.71 µg aflatoxin B1/g of the medium. Isolates other than A.flavus and A.parasiticus grown on this specific culture medium failed to produce a characteristic fluorescence under UV light. Evidences from this study indicate that fluorescent production on APA medium is a reliable screening test for distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A.parasiticus from nontoxigenic strains.

  3. Device Loading and Efficiency of Modular Multilevel Converter under Various Modulation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    ), Phase Disposition PWM (PDPWM) and Nearest Level Modulation (NLM), are comprehensively investigated to uncover the desired solution for high transmission efficiency and system reliability. An important part of this paper is also devoted to reveal the impact of modulation schemes on the loading stress...... of the power devices in terms of power loss and thermal profiles, which are critical issues in terms of efficiency and reliability of the MMC. Special attention is given to the performance comparison of MMC under various modulation indexes as well as different switching frequencies when applying those...

  4. CZCSL3MMC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coastal Zone Color Scanner Experiment (CZCS) was the first instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color and flown on a spacecraft. Although other...

  5. Capacitor voltage balance performance comparison of MMC-STATCOM using NLC and PS-PWM strategies during negative sequence current injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Heverton A.; F. Cupertino, Allan; S. Xavier, Lucus

    2016-01-01

    modulation, during positive and negative sequence current injection. Results of a 15 MVA MMC STATCOM show that the nearest level control strategy has lower average switching frequency compared to the phase-shifted pulse width modulation strategy, considering comparable submodule capacitance voltage ripple.......This paper addresses the modular multilevel converter applied as a static synchronous compensator. The main objective of this work is to compare the converter performance considering two different submodule capacitor voltage balancing strategies: nearest level control and phase-shifted pulse width...

  6. Sem porta-voz na rua, sem dono em casa : as lutas do Movimento de Mulheres Camponesas (MMC Brasil) pelo direito a uma vida sem violência

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diana Melo

    2015-01-01

    Ao contrário do que vem sendo comumente trabalhado a respeito da temática da violência contra a mulher, o Movimento de Mulheres Camponesas (MMC Brasil), tem trabalhado uma visão mais ampla sobre a percepção da questão: tem defendido a necessidade do relacionamento entre opressões de sexo e classe social, no que diz respeito ao enfrentamento à violência. Compreendendo as ligações entre capitalismo e patriarcado, desenham sua atuação na luta pelo direito a uma vida sem violência para as mulhere...

  7. Compartment-specific distribution of human intestinal innate lymphoid cells is altered in HIV patients under effective therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Krämer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs, a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa and subsequent microbial translocation. However, although ILCs are preferentially localized at mucosal surfaces, only little is known regarding distribution and function of ILCs in the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we show that in HIV(- individuals composition and functional capacity of intestinal ILCs is compartment-specific with group 1 ILCs representing the major fraction in the upper gastrointestinal (GI tract, whereas ILC3 are the predominant population in ileum and colon, respectively. In addition, we present first data indicating that local cytokine concentrations, especially that of IL-7, might modulate composition of gut ILCs. Distribution of intestinal ILCs was significantly altered in HIV patients, who displayed decreased frequency of total ILCs in ileum and colon owing to reduced numbers of both CD127(+ILC1 and ILC3. Of note, frequency of colonic ILC3 was inversely correlated with serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14, surrogate markers for loss of gut barrier integrity and microbial translocation, respectively. Both expression of the IL-7 receptor CD127 on ILCs as well as mucosal IL-7 mRNA levels were decreased in HIV(+ patients, especially in those parts of the GI tract with reduced ILC frequencies, suggesting that impaired IL-7 responses of ILCs might contribute to incomplete reconstitution of ILCs under effective anti-retroviral therapy. This is the first report comparing distribution and function of ILCs along the intestinal mucosa of the entire human gastrointestinal tract in HIV(+ and HIV(- individuals.

  8. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Y

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yao Meng,1,2 Shuangfeng Liu,1 Juan Li,3 Yanfa Meng,3 Xiaojun Zhao2,41School of Medical Laboratory Science, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China; 2West China Hospital Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 3Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment Ministry of Education/Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 4Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USABackground: Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30 derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa.Methodology/principal findings: In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEGylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex

  9. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exem...... levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health....

  10. High sensitivity and specificity of clinical microscopy in rural health facilities in western Kenya under an external quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, Rebeccah; Sang, Edna; Cheruiyot, Olympia; Aboto, Angeline; Menya, Diana; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme

    2014-09-01

    Microscopic diagnosis of malaria is a well-established and inexpensive technique that has the potential to provide accurate diagnosis of malaria infection. However, it requires both training and experience. Although it is considered the gold standard in research settings, the sensitivity and specificity of routine microscopy for clinical care in the primary care setting has been reported to be unacceptably low. We established a monthly external quality assurance program to monitor the performance of clinical microscopy in 17 rural health centers in western Kenya. The average sensitivity over the 12-month period was 96% and the average specificity was 88%. We identified specific contextual factors that contributed to inadequate performance. Maintaining high-quality malaria diagnosis in high-volume, resource-constrained health facilities is possible. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Are specific testing protocols required for organic onion varieties? Analysis of onion variety testing under conventional and organic growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Osman, A.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Struik, P.C.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic growers need information on variety performance under their growing conditions. A 4-year onion variety research project was carried out to investigate whether setting up a variety testing system combining conventional and organic variety trials is feasible and efficient rather than

  12. Specific Colon Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Bacteriophage E Gene Expression under Transcriptional Control of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Ana R; Hernandez, Rosa; Perazzoli, Gloria; Burgos, Miguel; Melguizo, Consolación; Vélez, Celia; Prados, Jose

    2015-06-04

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Patients in advanced stages often develop metastases that require chemotherapy and usually show a poor response, have a low survival rate and develop considerable toxicity with adverse symptoms. Gene therapy may act as an adjuvant therapy in attempts to destroy the tumor without affecting normal host tissue. The bacteriophage E gene has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in several cancers, but without any tumor-specific activity. The use of tumor-specific promoters may help to direct the expression of therapeutic genes so they act against specific cancer cells. We used the carcinoembryonic antigen promoter (CEA) to direct E gene expression (pCEA-E) towards colon cancer cells. pCEA-E induced a high cell growth inhibition of human HTC-116 colon adenocarcinoma and mouse MC-38 colon cancer cells in comparison to normal human CCD18co colon cells, which have practically undetectable levels of CEA. In addition, in vivo analyses of mice bearing tumors induced using MC-38 cells showed a significant decrease in tumor volume after pCEA-E treatment and a low level of Ki-67 in relation to untreated tumors. These results suggest that the CEA promoter is an excellent candidate for directing E gene expression specifically toward colon cancer cells.

  13. Specific Colon Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Bacteriophage E Gene Expression under Transcriptional Control of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Rama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Patients in advanced stages often develop metastases that require chemotherapy and usually show a poor response, have a low survival rate and develop considerable toxicity with adverse symptoms. Gene therapy may act as an adjuvant therapy in attempts to destroy the tumor without affecting normal host tissue. The bacteriophage E gene has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in several cancers, but without any tumor-specific activity. The use of tumor-specific promoters may help to direct the expression of therapeutic genes so they act against specific cancer cells. We used the carcinoembryonic antigen promoter (CEA to direct E gene expression (pCEA-E towards colon cancer cells. pCEA-E induced a high cell growth inhibition of human HTC-116 colon adenocarcinoma and mouse MC-38 colon cancer cells in comparison to normal human CCD18co colon cells, which have practically undetectable levels of CEA. In addition, in vivo analyses of mice bearing tumors induced using MC-38 cells showed a significant decrease in tumor volume after pCEA-E treatment and a low level of Ki-67 in relation to untreated tumors. These results suggest that the CEA promoter is an excellent candidate for directing E gene expression specifically toward colon cancer cells.

  14. Characteristics of RSV-Specific Maternal Antibodies in Plasma of Hospitalized, Acute RSV Patients under Three Months of Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jop Jans

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause for respiratory illness that requires hospitalization in infancy. High levels of maternal antibodies can protect against RSV infection. However, RSV-infected infants can suffer from severe disease symptoms even in the presence of high levels of RSV-specific antibodies. This study analyzes several serological characteristics to explore potential deficiencies or surpluses of antibodies that could relate to severe disease symptoms. We compare serum antibodies from hospitalized patients who suffered severe symptoms as well as uninfected infants. Disease severity markers were oxygen therapy, tachypnea, oxygen saturation, admission to the intensive care unit and duration of hospitalization. Antibodies against RSV G protein and a prefusion F epitope correlated with in vitro neutralization. Avidity of RSV-specific IgG antibodies was lower in RSV-infected infants compared to uninfected controls. Severe disease symptoms were unrelated to RSV-specific IgG antibody titers, avidity of RSV-IgG, virus neutralization capacity or titers against pre- and postfusion F or G protein ectodomains and the prefusion F antigenic site Ø. In conclusion, the detailed serological characterization did not indicate dysfunctional or epitope-skewed composition of serum antibodies in hospitalized RSV-infected infants suffering from severe disease symptoms. It remains unclear, whether specific antibody fractions could diminish disease symptoms.

  15. Common and disease-specific dysfunctions of brain systems underlying attentional and executive control in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Tobias; Wolter, Sarah; Falck, Stefanie; Wild, Eva; Wild, Florian; Gruber, Eva; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder broadly overlap in multiple areas involving clinical phenomenology, genetics, and neurobiology. Still, the investigation into specific elementary (sub-)processes of executive functioning may help to define clear points of distinction between these categorical diagnoses to validate the nosological dichotomy and, indirectly, to further elucidate their pathophysiological underpinnings. In the present behavioral study, we sought to separate common from diagnosis-specific deficits in a series of specific elementary sub-functions of executive processing in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For our purpose, we administered a modern and multi-purpose neuropsychological task paradigm to equal-sized and matched groups of schizophrenia patients, patients with bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects. First, schizophrenia patients compared to the bipolar group exhibited a more pronounced deficit in general measures of task performance comprising both response speed and accuracy. Additionally, bipolar patients showed increased advance task preparation, i.e., were better able to compensate for response speed deficits when longer preparation intervals were provided. Set-shifting, on the other hand, was impaired to a similar degree in both patient groups. Finally, schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in conflict processing (inhibitory control) and the shielding of task-relevant processing from distraction (i.e., attentional maintenance). The present investigation suggests that specific neuropsychological measures of elementary executive functions may represent important points of dissociation between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which may help to differentiate the pathophysiological underpinnings of these major psychiatric disorders. In this context, the present findings highlight the measures of inhibitory control and attentional maintenance as promising candidates.

  16. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, David C. [Eck Industreis, Inc.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  17. Using plant growth modeling to analyse C source-sink relations under drought: inter and intra specific comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit ePallas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assimilate C and allocate NSC (non structural carbohydrates to the most appropriate organs is crucial to maximize plant ecological or agronomic performance. Such C source and sink activities are differentially affected by environmental constraints. Under drought, plant growth is generally more sink than source limited as organ expansion or appearance rate is earlier and stronger affected than C assimilation. This favors plant survival and recovery but not always agronomic performance as NSC are stored rather than used for growth due to a modified metabolism in source and sink leaves. Such interactions between plant C and water balance are complex and plant modeling can help analyzing their impact on plant phenotype. This paper addresses the impact of trade-offs between C sink and source activities and plant production under drought, combining experimental and modeling approaches. Two contrasted monocotyledonous species (rice, oil palm were studied. Experimentally, the sink limitation of plant growth under moderate drought was confirmed as well as the modifications in NSC metabolism in source and sink organs. Under severe stress, when C source became limiting, plant NSC concentration decreased. Two plant models dedicated to oil palm and rice morphogenesis were used to perform a sensitivity analysis and further explore how to optimize C sink and source drought sensitivity to maximize plant growth. Modeling results highlighted that optimal drought sensitivity depends both on drought type and species and that modeling is a great opportunity to analyse such complex processes. Further modeling needs and more generally the challenge of using models to support complex trait breeding are discussed.

  18. Mammary Specific Expression of Cre Recombinase Under the Control of an Endogenous MMTV LTR: A Conditional Knock-Out System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czarneski, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... Mice that carried the Mtv-17 Cre fusion vector would then be mated to mice that had the p53 locus flanked by loxP sites, resulting in the tissue-specific loss of p53 in the mammary gland only. The prediction is that these animals would only develop mammary and not other tumors. We believed that the cre-transgenic mice would also prove useful for other investigators in the mammary gland development and tumorigenesis field.

  19. Implementation and experimental survey of passive design specifications used in new low-cost housing under tropical climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, F.; Adelard, L.; Boyer, H. [Universite de la Reunion (France). Laboratoire de Genie Industriel; Rat, C. [Agence Regionale de l' Energie a La Reunion, Saint-Pierre (France)

    2004-04-01

    This paper deals with a global approach in the thermal and airflow design of new dwellings and especially low-cost housing built in the French tropical overseas islands. The sizing of passive cooling techniques has been evaluated thanks to a simulation code. The solutions have been edited in a reference document that serves as work-base for the design of dwelling developments in the French tropical territories. An experimental and sociological survey has been carried out over two years (from 1998 to 1999) in order to validate the impact of these passive cooling specifications on the comfort of tenants and to have an immediate feedback and correct the solutions if necessary. The paper presents the implementation, the experimental survey and the results for the two first housing projects built according to the passive design specifications. This step is important because the aim of the public utilities is to expand the ECODOM specifications on a much broader scale and to prepare to future housing thermal regulations. The results indicated that the solar protection of the roof remains one of the main points in the thermal design of buildings in a tropical climate as well as the natural ventilation. The sociological study showed that the tenants were globally satisfied with their flat as far as the thermal aspects are concerned. However, dissatisfaction resulted from the bad acoustic design of the flats. (author)

  20. Age specific fast breathing in under-five diarrheal children in an urban hospital: Acidosis or pneumonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharika Nuzhat

    Full Text Available Children with diarrhea often present with fast breathing due to metabolic acidosis from dehydration. On the other hand, age specific fast breathing is the cornerstone for the diagnosis of pneumonia following classification of pneumonia recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. Correction of metabolic acidosis by rehydrating the diarrheal children requires time, which delays early initiation of appropriate antimicrobials for pneumonia and thereby increases the risk of deaths. We need to further investigate the simple clinical features other than fast breathing which might help us in earliest diagnosis of pneumonia in children with diarrhea Thus, the objective of our study was to identify other contributing clinical features that may independently help for early diagnosis of pneumonia in diarrheal children who present with age specific fast breathing.This was an unmatched case-control study. Diarrheal children aged 0-59 months, admitted to Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b during January 2014 to December 2014 having age specific fast breathing (11-59 months ≥40 breaths/min were studied. The study children with clinical and radiological pneumonia constituted the cases (n = 276 and those without pneumonia constituted the controls (n = 446. Comparison of clinical features and outcomes between the cases and the controls was made.The distribution of acidosis among the cases and the controls was comparable (35% vs. 41%, p = 0.12. The cases had proportionately higher deaths compared to the controls, however, the difference was not statistically significant (3% vs. 1%; p = 0.23. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with cough (OR = 62.19, 95% CI = 27.79-139.19; p<0.01 and chest wall indrawing (OR = 31.05, 95%CI = 13.43-71.82; p<0.01 and less often had severe acute malnutrition (OR = 0.33, 95%CI = 0

  1. Age specific fast breathing in under-five diarrheal children in an urban hospital: Acidosis or pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhat, Sharika; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kawser, Chowdhury Ali; Khan, Azharul Islam; Islam, S M Rafiqul; Shahrin, Lubaba; Shahunja, K M; Shahid, Abu S M S B; Al Imran, Abdullah; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

    2017-01-01

    Children with diarrhea often present with fast breathing due to metabolic acidosis from dehydration. On the other hand, age specific fast breathing is the cornerstone for the diagnosis of pneumonia following classification of pneumonia recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Correction of metabolic acidosis by rehydrating the diarrheal children requires time, which delays early initiation of appropriate antimicrobials for pneumonia and thereby increases the risk of deaths. We need to further investigate the simple clinical features other than fast breathing which might help us in earliest diagnosis of pneumonia in children with diarrhea Thus, the objective of our study was to identify other contributing clinical features that may independently help for early diagnosis of pneumonia in diarrheal children who present with age specific fast breathing. This was an unmatched case-control study. Diarrheal children aged 0-59 months, admitted to Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) during January 2014 to December 2014 having age specific fast breathing (11-59 months ≥40 breaths/min) were studied. The study children with clinical and radiological pneumonia constituted the cases (n = 276) and those without pneumonia constituted the controls (n = 446). Comparison of clinical features and outcomes between the cases and the controls was made. The distribution of acidosis among the cases and the controls was comparable (35% vs. 41%, p = 0.12). The cases had proportionately higher deaths compared to the controls, however, the difference was not statistically significant (3% vs. 1%; p = 0.23). In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with cough (OR = 62.19, 95% CI = 27.79-139.19; ppneumonia. The results underscore the importance of early identification of these simple clinical features that may help to minimize potential delay due to

  2. Performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific Canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Nadeau, Martin; Gagné, André; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Fortin, J André; Roy, Sébastien; Greer, Charles W; Khasa, Damase P

    2016-07-01

    Canadian oil sands tailings are predominately sodic residues contaminated by hydrocarbons such as naphthenic acids. These conditions are harsh for plant development. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inoculating roots of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa and Alnus incana ssp. rugosa with ectomycorrhizal fungi in the presence of tailings compounds. Seedlings were inoculated with 7 different strains of Paxillus involutus and Alpova diplophloeus and were grown under different treatments of NaCl, Na2SO4, and naphthenic acids in a growth chamber. Afterwards, seedling survival, height, dry biomass, leaf necrosis, and root mycorrhization rate were measured. Paxillus involutus Mai was the most successful strain in enhancing alder survival, health, and growth. Seedlings inoculated with this strain displayed a 25% increase in survival rate, 2-fold greater biomass, and 2-fold less leaf necrosis compared with controls. Contrary to our expectations, A. diplophloeus was not as effective as P. involutus in improving seedling fitness, likely because it did not form ectomycorrhizae on roots of either alder species. High intraspecific variation characterized strains of P. involutus in their ability to stimulate alder height and growth and to minimize leaf necrosis. We conclude that in vivo selection under bipartite symbiotic conditions is essential to select effective strains that will be of use for the revegetation and reclamation of derelict lands.

  3. The Site-Directed A184S Mutation in the HTH Domain of the Global Regulator IrrE Enhances Deinococcus radiodurans R1 Tolerance to UV Radiation and MMC Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Zhengfu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Song, Yuan; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Chen, Ming

    2015-12-28

    IrrE is a highly conserved global regulator in the Deinococcus genus and contributes to survival from high doses of UV radiation, ionizing radiation, and desiccation. Drad-IrrE and Dgob-IrrE from Deinococcus radiodurans and Deinococcus gobiensis I-0 each share 66% sequence identity. However, Dgob-IrrE showed a stronger protection phenotype against UV radiation than Drad- IrrE in the D. radiodurans irrE-deletion mutant (ΔirrE), which may be due to amino acid residues differences around the DNA-binding HTH domain. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a Drad-IrrE A184S single mutant, which has been characterized and compared with the ΔirrE mutant complemented strain with Drad-irrE, designated ΔirrE-E. The effects of the A184S mutation following UV radiation and mitomycin C (MMC) shock were determined. The A184S mutant displayed significantly increased resistance to UV radiation and MMC shock. The corresponding A184 site in Dgob-IrrE was inversely mutated, generating the S131A mutant, which exhibited a loss of resistance against UV radiation, MMC shock, and desiccation. qPCR analysis revealed that critical genes in the DNA repair system, such as recA, pprA, uvrA, and ddrB, were remarkably induced after UV radiation and MMC shock in the ΔirrE-IE and A184S mutants. These data suggested that A184S improves the ability against UV radiation and MMC shock, providing new insights into the modification of IrrE. We speculated that the serine residue may determine the efficiency of DNA binding, leading to the increased expression of IrrE-dependent genes important for protection against DNA damage.

  4. Conserved Molecular Mechanism of TyrA Dehydrogenase Substrate Specificity Underlying Alternative Tyrosine Biosynthetic Pathways in Plants and Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Schenck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available L-Tyrosine (Tyr is an aromatic amino acid synthesized de novo in plants and microbes. In animals, Tyr must be obtained through their diet or synthesized from L-phenylalanine. In addition to protein synthesis, Tyr serves as the precursor of neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine and epinephrine in animals and of numerous plant natural products, which serve essential functions in both plants and humans (e.g., vitamin E and morphine. Tyr is synthesized via two alternative routes mediated by a TyrA family enzyme, prephenate, or arogenate dehydrogenase (PDH/TyrAp or ADH/TyrAa, typically found in microbes and plants, respectively. Although ADH activity is also found in some bacteria, the origin of arogenate-specific TyrAa enzymes is unknown. We recently identified an acidic Asp222 residue that confers ADH activity in plant TyrAs. In this study, structure-guided phylogenetic analyses identified bacterial homologs, closely-related to plant TyrAs, that also have an acidic 222 residue and ADH activity. A more distant archaeon TyrA that preferred PDH activity had a non-acidic Gln, whose substitution to Glu introduced ADH activity. These results indicate that the conserved molecular mechanism operated during the evolution of arogenate-specific TyrAa in both plants and microbes.

  5. Neuron-specific chromatin remodeling: a missing link in epigenetic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity, memory, and intellectual disability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2014-05-01

    Long-term memory formation requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression. Until recently nucleosome remodeling, one of the major epigenetic mechanisms for controlling gene expression, had been largely unexplored in the field of neuroscience. Nucleosome remodeling is carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) that interact with DNA and histones to physically alter chromatin structure and ultimately regulate gene expression. Human exome sequencing and gene wide association studies have linked mutations in CRC subunits to intellectual disability disorders, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, how mutations in CRC subunits were related to human cognitive disorders was unknown. There appears to be both developmental and adult specific roles for the neuron specific CRC nBAF (neuronal Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor). nBAF regulates gene expression required for dendritic arborization during development, and in the adult, contributes to long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We propose that the nBAF complex is a novel epigenetic mechanism for regulating transcription required for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory processes and that impaired nBAF function may result in human cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Definition of a parameter for a typical specific absorption rate under real boundary conditions of cellular phones in a GSM networkd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gerhardt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cellular phones the specific absorption rate (SAR as a physical value must observe established and internationally defined levels to guarantee human protection. To assess human protection it is necessary to guarantee safety under worst-case conditions (especially maximum transmitting power using cellular phones. To evaluate the exposure to electromagnetic fields under normal terms of use of cellular phones the limitations of the specific absorption rate must be pointed out. In a mobile radio network normal terms of use of cellular phones, i.e. in interconnection with a fixed radio transmitter of a mobile radio network, power control of the cellular phone as well as the antenna diagram regarding a head phantom are also significant for the real exposure. Based on the specific absorption rate, the antenna diagram regarding a head phantom and taking into consideration the power control a new parameter, the typical absorption rate (SARtyp, is defined in this contribution. This parameter indicates the specific absorption rate under average normal conditions of use. Constant radio link attenuation between a cellular phone and a fixed radio transmitter for all mobile models tested was assumed in order to achieve constant field strength at the receiving antenna of the fixed radio transmitter as a result of power control. The typical specific absorption rate is a characteristic physical value of every mobile model. The typical absorption rate was calculated for 16 different mobile models and compared with the absorption rate at maximum transmitting power. The results confirm the relevance of the definition of this parameter (SARtyp as opposed to the specific absorption rate as a competent and applicable method to establish the real mean exposure from a cellular phone in a mobile radio network. The typical absorption rate provides a parameter to assess electromagnetic fields of a cellular phone that is more relevant to the consumer.

  7. Food specific inhibitory control under negative mood in binge-eating disorder: Evidence from a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehr, Elisabeth J; Schag, Kathrin; Dresler, Thomas; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2018-02-01

    Inhibitory control has been discussed as a developmental and maintenance factor in binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study is the first aimed at investigating inhibitory control in a negative mood condition on a psychophysiological and behavioral level in BED with a combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking (ET). We conducted a combined EEG and ET study with overweight individuals with BED (BED+, n = 24, mean age = 31, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and without BED (BED-, n = 23, mean age = 28, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and a normal-weight (NWC, n = 26, mean age 28, mean BMI = 22 kg/m 2 ) control group. We assessed self-report data regarding impulsivity and emotion regulation as well as the processing of food stimuli under negative mood in an antisaccade task. Main outcome variables comprise event-related potentials (ERP) regarding conflict processing (N2) and performance monitoring (error-related negativity [ERN/Ne]) assessed by EEG and inhibitory control (errors in the first and second saccade) assessed by ET. BED+ patients reported increased impulsivity and higher emotion regulation difficulties compared with the other groups. The eye tracking data revealed impaired inhibitory control in BED+ compared with both control groups. Further, we found preliminary evidence from EEG recordings that conflict processing might be less thorough in the BED+ sample as well as in the NWC sample. In the BED+ sample this might be connected to the inhibitory control deficits on behavioral level. While the BED- sample showed increased conflict processing latencies (N2 latencies), which might indicate a compensation mechanism, the BED+ sample did not show such a mechanism. Performance monitoring (ERN/Ne latencies and amplitudes) was not impaired in the BED+ sample compared with both control samples. Participants with BED reported higher impulsivity and lower emotion regulation capacities. The combined investigation of electrocortical processes and

  8. The specific tasks of RF TSO - FSUE VO 'Safety', related with Implementation of obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kapralov, E.

    2010-01-01

    It was more than 20 years ago that IAEA discussed the issue pertaining to the need in scientific and engineering support to the regulatory body. The Convention on Nuclear Safety being the keystone in assurance of the global nuclear safety and security regime was adopted in 1994. It is pointed out that two independent organizations supervised by Rostechnadzor have been established within the Russian TSO system, FSUE VO 'Safety' being one of them. The tasks of the organization comprise obligatory certification of equipment as well as acceptance of equipment before its delivery to the NPP both in Russia and in the countries constructing the power units based on the Russian designs. The acceptance procedure has been set forth in the new Russian document at the level of the federal rules and regulations for nuclear safety assurance. As far as its implementation decision is concerned, a task for selection and training of personnel has been set and allocated on the Training and Methodological Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety established with the support of FSUE VO 'Safety', which provides training programmes and specific lecture courses in the wide range of the relevant topics. (author)

  9. Growth arrest specific gene 2 in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): molecular characterization and functional analysis under low-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ChangGeng; Wu, Fan; Lu, Xing; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Yu, Lijuan; Tian, Juan; Wen, Hua

    2017-07-17

    Growth arrest specific 2 (gas2) gene is a component of the microfilament system that plays a major role in the cell cycle, regulation of microfilaments, and cell morphology during apoptotic processes. However, little information is available on fish gas2. In this study, the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) gas2 gene was cloned and characterized for the first time. The open reading frame was 1020 bp, encoding 340 amino acids; the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was 140 bp and the 3'-UTR was 70 bp, with a poly (A) tail. The highest promoter activity occurred in the regulatory region (-3000 to -2400 bp). The Gas2-GFP fusion protein was distributed within the cytoplasm. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses revealed that gas2 gene expression levels in the liver, muscle, and brain were clearly affected by low temperature stress. The results of gas2 RNAi showed decreased expression of the gas2 and P53 genes. These results suggest that the tilapia gas2 gene may be involved in low temperature stress-induced apoptosis.

  10. Large field-of-view and depth-specific cortical microvascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Dziennis, Suzan; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-02-01

    Ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify of blood flow, blood vessel morphology, oxygenation and tissue morphology is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of various neurovascular disorders, e.g., stroke. Currently, no imaging technique is available that can satisfactorily extract these parameters from in vivo microcirculatory tissue beds, with large field of view and sufficient resolution at defined depth without any harm to the tissue. In order for more effective therapeutics, we need to determine the area of brain that is damaged but not yet dead after focal ischemia. Here we develop an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which SDW-LSCI (synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle imaging) is used as a guiding tool for OMAG (optical microangiography) to investigate the fine detail of tissue hemodynamics, such as vessel flow, profile, and flow direction. We determine the utility of the integrated system for serial monitoring afore mentioned parameters in experimental stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. For 90 min MCAO, onsite and 24 hours following reperfusion, we use SDW-LSCI to determine distinct flow and oxygenation variations for differentiation of the infarction, peri-infarct, reduced flow and contralateral regions. The blood volumes are quantifiable and distinct in afore mentioned regions. We also demonstrate the behaviors of flow and flow direction in the arterials connected to MCA play important role in the time course of MCAO. These achievements may improve our understanding of vascular involvement under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitate clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke.

  11. studies on hair growth, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life on women with breast cancer under antineoplastic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of hair growth rates, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life under antineoplastic treatment. Participants in this prospective study were 34 women, suffering from breast cancer, receiving either chemotherapy (n = 17) or tamoxifen (n = 17). The following methods were used: TrichoScan for the evaluation of hair density, anagen and telogen hair rates, optical coherence tomography for the determina...

  12. Geographic disparities in pneumonia-specific under-five mortality rates in Mainland China from 1996 to 2015: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Leni; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Liang, Juan; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Qi; Wang, Yanping

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the disparities in pneumonia-specific under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) among and within three geographic regions in Mainland China from 1996 to 2015. Data were obtained from the national Under-Five Child Mortality Surveillance System and grouped into 2-year periods. The Cochran-Armitage trend test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were used to assess trends and differences in the pneumonia-specific U5MRs among and within geographic regions. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The pneumonia-specific U5MR decreased by 90.6%, 89.0%, and 83.5% in East, Middle, and West China, respectively, with a larger decrease in rural areas. The pneumonia-specific U5MR was highest in West China, and was 7.2 (95% CI 5.9-8.7) times higher than that in East China in 2014-2015. In 2014-2015, the RRs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.5), 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.1), and 3.4 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) between rural and urban areas in East, Middle, and West China, respectively. Pneumonia-specific U5MRs decreased from 1996 to 2015 across China, particularly in rural areas. However, disparities remained among and within geographic regions. Additional strategies and interventions should be introduced in West China, especially the rural areas, to further reduce the pneumonia-specific U5MR. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Thorough specification of the neurophysiologic processes underlying behavior and of their manifestation in EEG – Demonstration with the go/no-go task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goded eShahaf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate the principles of a systematic modeling approach of the neurophysiologic processes underlying a behavioral function. The modeling is based upon a flexible simulation tool, which enables parametric specification of the underlying neurophysiologic characteristics. While the impact of selecting specific parameters is of interest, in this work we focus on the insights, which emerge from rather accepted assumptions regarding neuronal representation. We show that harnessing of even such simple assumptions enables the derivation of significant insights regarding the nature of the neurophysiologic processes underlying behavior. We demonstrate our approach in some detail by modeling the behavioral go/no-go task . We further demonstrate the practical significance of this simplified modeling approach in interpreting experimental data – the manifestation of these processes in the EEG and ERP literature of normal and abnormal (ADHD function, as well as with comprehensive relevant ERP data analysis. In-fact we show that from the model-based spatiotemporal segregation of the processes, it is possible to derive simple and yet effective and theory-based EEG markers differentiating normal and ADHD subjects. We summarize by claiming that the neurophysiologic processes modeled for the go/no-go task are part of a limited set of neurophysiologic processes which underlie, in a variety of combinations, any behavioral function with measurable operational definition. Such neurophysiologic processes could be sampled directly from EEG on the basis of model-based spatiotemporal segregation.

  14. Impaired decision-making under risk is associated with gaming-specific inhibition deficits among college students with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan-Wei; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Yip, Sarah W; Chen, Pin-Ru; Li, Song; Xu, Jiansong; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-09-30

    A growing body of evidence indicates that both inhibition and decision-making deficits play essential roles in the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Clarifying whether impaired decision-making among individuals with IGD is related to poor inhibition will advance our understanding of IGD and contribute to intervention development. However, the relationship between these two functions remains unclear. In this study, we sought to systemically examine inhibitory processes, decision-making and the relationship between the two among individuals with IGD. Thirty-four individuals with IGD and 32 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects demonstrated inhibition deficits during performance of the gaming-related Go/No-Go task and impaired decision-making under risk. In addition, errors on No-Go trials during the gaming-related Go/No-Go task were positively associated with decision-making impairments under risk but not under ambiguity among IGD subjects. These results suggest individuals with IGD are impaired in some aspects of inhibition and decision-making functions, and that decision-making deficits under risk are linked to poor inhibition specifically related to gaming cues, which has implications for the development of novel intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Requirement of a specific group of sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme for growth of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under impaired metabolism of glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2010-10-01

    Sphingolipids play critical roles in many physiologically important events in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we screened for yeast mutants showing high sensitivity to Aureobasidin A, an inhibitor of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, and found that a lack of SAC1 encoding phosphoinositides phosphatase causes high sensitivity to the inhibitor. Double mutation analysis involving the SAC1 and non-essential sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme genes revealed that csg1Δ, csg2Δ, ipt1Δ or scs7Δ causes synthetic lethality with deletion of SAC1. As previously reported, SAC1-repressed cells exhibited a reduced cellular phosphatidylserine (PS) level, and overexpression of PSS1 encoding PS synthase complemented the growth defects of scs7Δ, csg1Δ and ipt1Δ cells under SAC1-repressive conditions. Furthermore, repression of PSS1 expression resulted in synthetic growth defect with the deletion of CSG1, IPT1 or SCS7. The growth defects of scs7Δ, csg1Δ and ipt1Δ cells under SAC1- or PSS1-repressive conditions were also complemented by overexpression of Arf-GAP AGE1, which encodes a protein related to membrane trafficking. Under SAC1-repressive conditions, scs7Δ, csg1Δ and ipt1Δ cells showed defects in vacuolar morphology, which were complemented by overexpression of each of PSS1 and AGE1. These results suggested that a specific group of sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme is required for yeast cell growth under impaired metabolism of glycerophospholipids.

  16. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  17. Integrative modeling of eQTLs and cis-regulatory elements suggests mechanisms underlying cell type specificity of eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Brown

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in cis-regulatory elements or trans-acting regulators frequently influence the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of gene transcription. Recent interest in expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping has paralleled the adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the analysis of complex traits and disease in humans. Under the hypothesis that many GWAS associations tag non-coding SNPs with small effects, and that these SNPs exert phenotypic control by modifying gene expression, it has become common to interpret GWAS associations using eQTL data. To fully exploit the mechanistic interpretability of eQTL-GWAS comparisons, an improved understanding of the genetic architecture and causal mechanisms of cell type specificity of eQTLs is required. We address this need by performing an eQTL analysis in three parts: first we identified eQTLs from eleven studies on seven cell types; then we integrated eQTL data with cis-regulatory element (CRE data from the ENCODE project; finally we built a set of classifiers to predict the cell type specificity of eQTLs. The cell type specificity of eQTLs is associated with eQTL SNP overlap with hundreds of cell type specific CRE classes, including enhancer, promoter, and repressive chromatin marks, regions of open chromatin, and many classes of DNA binding proteins. These associations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms generating the cell type specificity of eQTLs and the mode of regulation of corresponding eQTLs. Using a random forest classifier with cell specific CRE-SNP overlap as features, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting the cell type specificity of eQTLs. We then demonstrate that CREs from a trait-associated cell type can be used to annotate GWAS associations in the absence of eQTL data for that cell type. We anticipate that such integrative, predictive modeling of cell specificity will improve our ability to understand the mechanistic basis of human

  18. Integrated BMS-MMC Balancing Technique Highlighted by a Novel Space-Vector Based Approach for BEVs Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brando

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new mathematical model of modular multilevel converters for battery electric vehicles with space-vectors enabling a critical analysis of cell balancing for the battery management system. In particular, the requirements for power balancing and the actual number of degrees of freedom of the control are investigated. The paper shows that the traditional approach of cell balancing is a special case of the proposed control methodology. Numerical analyses with Matlab/Simulink™ highlight the reasons of the slow response of the standard balancing technique for specific operating conditions of the battery electric vehicle. The paper suggests potential improvements that could be introduced through the proposed generalised approach.

  19. 2-Nitrobenzoate 2-Nitroreductase (NbaA) Switches Its Substrate Specificity from 2-Nitrobenzoic Acid to 2,4-Dinitrobenzoic Acid under Oxidizing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Seok; Go, Hayoung; Cha, Chang-Jun; Lee, Cheolju; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Lau, Peter C. K.

    2013-01-01

    2-Nitrobenzoate 2-nitroreductase (NbaA) of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 is a unique enzyme, transforming 2-nitrobenzoic acid (2-NBA) and 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,4-DNBA) to the 2-hydroxylamine compounds. Sequence comparison reveals that NbaA contains a conserved cysteine residue at position 141 and two variable regions at amino acids 65 to 74 and 193 to 216. The truncated mutant Δ65-74 exhibited markedly reduced activity toward 2,4-DNBA, but its 2-NBA reduction activity was unaffected; however, both activities were abolished in the Δ193-216 mutant, suggesting that these regions are necessary for the catalysis and specificity of NbaA. NbaA showed different lag times for the reduction of 2-NBA and 2,4-DNBA with NADPH, and the reduction of 2,4-DNBA, but not 2-NBA, failed in the presence of 1 mM dithiothreitol or under anaerobic conditions, indicating oxidative modification of the enzyme for 2,4-DNBA. The enzyme was irreversibly inhibited by 5,5′-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and ZnCl2, which bind to reactive thiol/thiolate groups, and was eventually inactivated during the formation of higher-order oligomers at high pH, high temperature, or in the presence of H2O2. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry revealed the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds by involvement of the two cysteines at positions 141 and 194. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the cysteines at positions 39, 103, 141, and 194 played a role in changing the enzyme activity and specificity toward 2-NBA and 2,4-DNBA. This study suggests that oxidative modifications of NbaA are responsible for the differential specificity for the two substrates and further enzyme inactivation through the formation of disulfide bonds under oxidizing conditions. PMID:23123905

  20. Characterization of toluene and ethylbenzene biodegradation under nitrate-, iron(III)- and manganese(IV)-reducing conditions by compound-specific isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorer, Conrad; Vogt, Carsten; Neu, Thomas R.; Stryhanyuk, Hryhoriy; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Ethylbenzene and toluene degradation under nitrate-, Mn(IV)-, or Fe(III)-reducing conditions was investigated by compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) using three model cultures (Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1, Georgfuchsia toluolica G5G6, and a Azoarcus-dominated mixed culture). Systematically lower isotope enrichment factors for carbon and hydrogen were observed for particulate Mn(IV). The increasing diffusion distances of toluene or ethylbenzene to the solid Mn(IV) most likely caused limited bioavailability and hence resulted in the observed masking effect. The data suggests further ethylbenzene hydroxylation by ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EBDH) and toluene activation by benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS) as initial activation steps. Notably, significantly different values in dual isotope analysis were detected for toluene degradation by G. toluolica under the three studied redox conditions, suggesting variations in the enzymatic transition state depending on the available TEA. The results indicate that two-dimensional CSIA has significant potential to assess anaerobic biodegradation of ethylbenzene and toluene at contaminated sites. - Highlights: • Toluene/ethylbenzene isotope effects were studied in 3 cultures with varying TEAs. • BTEX biodegradation under solid Mn(IV) was investigated by CSIA for the first time. • Solid Mn(IV) as TEA always caused significant lower C and H isotope enrichment. • Always similar correlation of C–H-isotopes upon ethylbenzene activation was shown. • Subtypes of benzylsuccinate synthase may cause varying correlation of C–H-isotopes.

  1. Gender-Specific Mechanisms Underlying the Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance in B-Cell-Activating Factor Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobae Kim

    Full Text Available It has recently been found that B cell activating factor (BAFF plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We also have previously reported that BAFF deficiency reverses high-fat (HF diet-induced glucose intolerance by potentiating adipose tissue function. In the present study, we found that BAFF deficient (BAFF-/- mice exhibit gender-specific differences in protection against diet-induced glucose intolerance, and aimed to characterize the gender-dependent molecular alterations in energy metabolism. Under HF feeding conditions, serum BAFF level of female wild-type (WT mice was considerably higher than that of male mice. Despite increased body weight gain, both male and female BAFF-/- mice showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to their WT counterparts. Expressions of genes involved in glucose transport, thermogenesis and lipid oxidation were up-regulated in brown adipose tissues of both male and female BAFF-/- mice. Interestingly, the expression of thermogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly enhanced in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but the difference was not observed between male BAFF-/- and WT mice. The enhanced thermogenic program was confirmed by higher protein levels of UCP1 and irisin in female BAFF-/- than in WT mice. Additionally, adiponectin production in white adipose tissues and AMPK phosphorylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also significantly elevated in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but not in male BAFF-/- mice. Our findings define a comprehensive scenario for the enhancing effect of BAFF depletion on glucose tolerance wherein the underlying mechanism is, at least in part, gender-specific, and suggest that gender difference should be considered as an important factor in the use of BAFF blockade as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Qualification of an out-of-pile Thermohydraulic test Bench (BETHY) developed to calibrate calorimetric cells under specific JHR experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, C.; Brun, J.; Carette, M.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Online in-pile measurement methods are crucial during irradiations in material testing reactors to better understand the behavior of materials under accelerated ageing conditions and of nuclear fuels under high irradiation levels. Thus, the construction of a new Material Testing Reactor such as the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) leads to new research and development programs devoted to innovative instrumentation and measurement methods. The presented works are performed in the framework of the IN-CORE program, 'Instrumentation for Nuclear radiations and Calorimetry Online in Reactor', between CEA and Aix-Marseille University. The program aim is to develop experimental devices and test bench to quantify more precisely the nuclear heating parameter in the JHR experimental channels. This in-pile parameter is usually measured by means of calorimeter or gamma thermometer. This paper focuses on a new out-of-pile test bench called BETHY. This bench was developed to study the response of a differential calorimeter during its preliminary calibration step according to specific thermal and hydraulic conditions occurring inside one type of JHR core channel. The first section of this paper is dedicated to a detailed description of the bench. The second part presents the study of the thermal characteristics established in the bench for two main thermal running modes. The last one concerns the calibration curve of the reference cell of the differential calorimeter in the case of homogenous temperature. (authors)

  3. Molecular Determinants Underlying Binding Specificities of the ABL Kinase Inhibitors: Combining Alanine Scanning of Binding Hot Spots with Network Analysis of Residue Interactions and Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Amanda; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying binding specificity and drug resistance of protein kinase inhibitors is of fundamental importance and remains highly challenging due to complex interplay of structural and thermodynamic factors. In this work, molecular simulations and computational alanine scanning are combined with the network-based approaches to characterize molecular determinants underlying binding specificities of the ABL kinase inhibitors. The proposed theoretical framework unveiled a relationship between ligand binding and inhibitor-mediated changes in the residue interaction networks. By using topological parameters, we have described the organization of the residue interaction networks and networks of coevolving residues in the ABL kinase structures. This analysis has shown that functionally critical regulatory residues can simultaneously embody strong coevolutionary signal and high network centrality with a propensity to be energetic hot spots for drug binding. We have found that selective (Nilotinib) and promiscuous (Bosutinib, Dasatinib) kinase inhibitors can use their energetic hot spots to differentially modulate stability of the residue interaction networks, thus inhibiting or promoting conformational equilibrium between inactive and active states. According to our results, Nilotinib binding may induce a significant network-bridging effect and enhance centrality of the hot spot residues that stabilize structural environment favored by the specific kinase form. In contrast, Bosutinib and Dasatinib can incur modest changes in the residue interaction network in which ligand binding is primarily coupled only with the identity of the gate-keeper residue. These factors may promote structural adaptability of the active kinase states in binding with these promiscuous inhibitors. Our results have related ligand-induced changes in the residue interaction networks with drug resistance effects, showing that network robustness may be compromised by targeted mutations of key mediating

  4. Is splash erosion potential species specific? Measuring of splash erosion potential under forest in different succession stages along a biodiversity gradient in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, C.; Kühn, P.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that (forest) vegetation is a key control for the type and intensity of soil erosion. The current paradigm is that natural or quasi-natural vegetation protects the soil from erosion and that agricultural vegetation or land use generally enhances erosion. The latter was in focus of most research during the last decades and less interest was paid on natural systems, which are more difficult to study. Nevertheless, afforestation is widely used as a measure of soil protection against soil erosion. Rainfall can be highly erosive particularly in the humid subtropics. Regarding climate change, also precipitation regime may change in direction to even more severe storms and higher rainfall intensities; it is a research field of growing importance. Key mechanisms of a vegetation cover in reducing or enhancing erosion are modifications of drop-size distribution, retention of raindrop impact on the soil and changes in amount and spatial distribution of rainfall at the ground surface. Controlling determinants are rainfall intensity, drop size distribution, drop fall velocity, height of the canopy as well as density of the canopy, crown and leaf traits, LAI and coverage by a litter layer. Large drops are supposed to be significant sources of splash detachment in forests (Brandt 1989; Vis 1986). However, the mechanisms of reducing (or enhancing?) splash detachment under forest in relation to species richness and species composition are not well understood. Some studies indicate that raindrop impact is species specific (Calder 2001; Nanko et al. 2006) and some neglect the effects of species specific impacts (Foot & Morgan 2005). Our research uses different methods of rainfall characterization (splash cups, tipping-bucket rain gauge, laser distrometer) to reveal the described mechanisms from the canopy through different vegetation layers to the ground. First results of splash cup measurements (revised after Ellison 1947) show that sand loss under vegetation

  5. Direct estimates of cause-specific mortality fractions and rates of under-five deaths in the northern and southern regions of Nigeria by verbal autopsy interview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka Adewemimo

    Full Text Available Nigeria's under-five mortality rate is the eighth highest in the world. Identifying the causes of under-five deaths is crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 by 2030 and improving child survival. National and international bodies collaborated in this study to provide the first ever direct estimates of the causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted of a representative sample of 986 neonatal and 2,268 1-59 month old deaths from 2008 to 2013 identified by the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Cause of death was assigned by physician coding and computerized expert algorithms arranged in a hierarchy. National and regional estimates of age distributions, mortality rates and cause proportions, and zonal- and age-specific mortality fractions and rates for leading causes of death were evaluated. More under-fives and 1-59 month olds in the South, respectively, died as neonates (N = 24.1%, S = 32.5%, p<0.001 and at younger ages (p<0.001 than in the North. The leading causes of neonatal and 1-59 month mortality, respectively, were sepsis, birth injury/asphyxia and neonatal pneumonia, and malaria, diarrhea and pneumonia. The preterm delivery (N = 1.2%, S = 3.7%, p = 0.042, pneumonia (N = 15.0%, S = 21.6%, p = 0.004 and malaria (N = 34.7%, S = 42.2%, p = 0.009 fractions were higher in the South, with pneumonia and malaria focused in the South East and South South; while the diarrhea fraction was elevated in the North (N = 24.8%, S = 13.2%, p<0.001. However, the diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria mortality rates were all higher in the North, respectively, by 222.9% (Z = -10.9, p = 0.000, 27.6% (Z = -2.3, p = 0.020 and 50.6% (Z = -5.7, p = 0.000, with the greatest excesses in older children. The findings support that there is an epidemiological transition ongoing in southern Nigeria, suggest the way forward to a similar transition in the North, and can help guide maternal, neonatal and child health

  6. Uniqueness of Specific Interfacial Area–Capillary Pressure–Saturation Relationship Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions in Two-Phase Porous Media Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, Vahid

    2012-02-23

    The capillary pressure-saturation (P c-S w) relationship is one of the central constitutive relationships used in two-phase flow simulations. There are two major concerns regarding this relation. These concerns are partially studied in a hypothetical porous medium using a dynamic pore-network model called DYPOSIT, which has been employed and extended for this study: (a) P c-S w relationship is measured empirically under equilibrium conditions. It is then used in Darcy-based simulations for all dynamic conditions. This is only valid if there is a guarantee that this relationship is unique for a given flow process (drainage or imbibition) independent of dynamic conditions; (b) It is also known that P c-S w relationship is flow process dependent. Depending on drainage and imbibition, different curves can be achieved, which are referred to as "hysteresis". A thermodynamically derived theory (Hassanizadeh and Gray, Water Resour Res 29: 3389-3904, 1993a) suggests that, by introducing a new state variable, called the specific interfacial area (a nw, defined as the ratio of fluid-fluid interfacial area to the total volume of the domain), it is possible to define a unique relation between capillary pressure, saturation, and interfacial area. This study investigates these two aspects of capillary pressure-saturation relationship using a dynamic pore-network model. The simulation results imply that P c-S w relation not only depends on flow process (drainage and imbibition) but also on dynamic conditions for a given flow process. Moreover, this study attempts to obtain the first preliminary insights into the global functionality of capillary pressure-saturation-interfacial area relationship under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions and the uniqueness of P c-S w-a nw relationship. © 2012 The Author(s).

  7. Antimicrobial drugs for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under six in low and middle income countries: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Sinfield, Rebecca; Hart, C Anthony; Garner, Paul

    2009-03-03

    A high proportion of children with persistent diarrhoea in middle and low income countries die. The best treatment is not clear. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial drug treatment for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause. We included randomized comparisons of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under the age of six years in low and middle income countries. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to May 2008 for relevant randomized or quasi randomized controlled trials. We summarised the characteristics of the eligible trials, assessed their quality using standard criteria, and extracted relevant outcomes data. Where appropriate, we combined the results of different trials. Three trials from South East Asia and one from Guatemala were included, all were small, and three had adequate allocation concealment. Two were in patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause, and two were in patients in whom known bacterial or parasitological causes of diarrhoea had been excluded. No difference was demonstrated for oral gentamicin compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 6 or 7 days; 2 trials, n = 151); and for metronidazole compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 3, 5 and 7 days; 1 trial, n = 99). In one small trial, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim appeared better than placebo in relation to diarrhoea at seven days and total stool volume (n = 55). There is little evidence as to whether or not antimicrobials help treat persistent diarrhoea in young children in low and middle income countries.

  8. Enhancing Flower Color through Simultaneous Expression of the B-peru and mPAP1 Transcription Factors under Control of a Flower-Specific Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower color is a main target for flower breeding. A transgenic approach for flower color modification requires a transgene and a flower-specific promoter. Here, we expressed the B-peru gene encoding a basic helix loop helix (bHLH transcription factor (TF together with the mPAP1 gene encoding an R2R3 MYB TF to enhance flower color in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., using the tobacco anthocyanidin synthase (ANS promoter (PANS to drive flower-specific expression. The transgenic tobacco plants grew normally and produced either dark pink (PANSBP_DP or dark red (PANSBP_DR flowers. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR revealed that the expression of five structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway increased significantly in both PANSBP_DP and PANSBP_DR lines, compared with the non-transformed (NT control. Interestingly, the expression of two regulatory genes constituting the active MYB-bHLH-WD40 repeat (WDR (MBW complex decreased significantly in the PANSBP_DR plants but not in the PANSBP_DP plants. Total flavonol and anthocyanin abundance correlated with flower color, with an increase of 1.6–43.2 fold in the PANSBP_DP plants and 2.0–124.2 fold in the PANSBP_DR plants. Our results indicate that combinatorial expression of B-peru and mPAP1 genes under control of the ANS promoter can be a useful strategy for intensifying flower color without growth retardation.

  9. Antimicrobial drugs for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under six in low and middle income countries: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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    Hart C Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high proportion of children with persistent diarrhoea in middle and low income countries die. The best treatment is not clear. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial drug treatment for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause. Methods We included randomized comparisons of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under the age of six years in low and middle income countries. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL to May 2008 for relevant randomized or quasi randomized controlled trials. We summarised the characteristics of the eligible trials, assessed their quality using standard criteria, and extracted relevant outcomes data. Where appropriate, we combined the results of different trials. Results Three trials from South East Asia and one from Guatemala were included, all were small, and three had adequate allocation concealment. Two were in patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause, and two were in patients in whom known bacterial or parasitological causes of diarrhoea had been excluded. No difference was demonstrated for oral gentamicin compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 6 or 7 days; 2 trials, n = 151; and for metronidazole compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 3, 5 and 7 days; 1 trial, n = 99. In one small trial, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim appeared better than placebo in relation to diarrhoea at seven days and total stool volume (n = 55. Conclusion There is little evidence as to whether or not antimicrobials help treat persistent diarrhoea in young children in low and middle income countries.

  10. Associations of suboptimal growth with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in children under five years: a pooled analysis of ten prospective studies.

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    Ibironke Olofin

    Full Text Available Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally. We investigated associations between suboptimal growth and mortality by pooling large studies.Pooled analysis involving children 1 week to 59 months old in 10 prospective studies in Africa, Asia and South America. Utilizing most recent measurements, we calculated weight-for-age, height/length-for-age and weight-for-height/length Z scores, applying 2006 WHO Standards and the 1977 NCHS/WHO Reference. We estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality hazard ratios (HR using proportional hazards models comparing children with mild (-2≤Z<-1, moderate (-3≤Z<-2, or severe (Z<-3 anthropometric deficits with the reference category (Z≥-1.53 809 children were eligible for this re-analysis and contributed a total of 55 359 person-years, during which 1315 deaths were observed. All degrees of underweight, stunting and wasting were associated with significantly higher mortality. The strength of association increased monotonically as Z scores decreased. Pooled mortality HR was 1.52 (95% Confidence Interval 1.28, 1.81 for mild underweight; 2.63 (2.20, 3.14 for moderate underweight; and 9.40 (8.02, 11.03 for severe underweight. Wasting was a stronger determinant of mortality than stunting or underweight. Mortality HR for severe wasting was 11.63 (9.84, 13.76 compared with 5.48 (4.62, 6.50 for severe stunting. Using older NCHS standards resulted in larger HRs compared with WHO standards. In cause-specific analyses, all degrees of anthropometric deficits increased the hazards of dying from respiratory tract infections and diarrheal diseases. The study had insufficient power to precisely estimate effects of undernutrition on malaria mortality.All degrees of anthropometric deficits are associated with increased risk of under-five mortality using the 2006 WHO Standards. Even mild deficits substantially increase mortality, especially from infectious diseases.

  11. Fruit-specific overexpression of wound-induced tap1 under E8 promoter in tomato confers resistance to fungal pathogens at ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesanakurti, Divya; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bhardwaja

    2012-10-01

    Based on high economic importance and nutritious value of tomato fruits and as previous studies employed E8 promoter in fruit ripening-specific gene expression, we have developed transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato anionic peroxidase cDNA (tap1) under E8 promoter. Stable transgene integration was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern analysis for nptII. Northern blotting confirmed elevated tap1 levels in the breaker- and red-ripe stages of T(1) transgenic fruits, whereas wild-type (WT) plants did not show tap1 expression in these developmental stages. Further, tap1 expression levels were significantly enhanced in response to wounding in breaker- and red-ripe stages of transgenic fruits, whereas wound-induced expression of tap1 was not detected in WT fruits. Confocal microscopy revealed high accumulation of phenolic compounds at the wound site in transgenic fruits suggesting a role of tap1 in wound-induced phenolic polymerization. Total peroxidase activity has increased remarkably in transgenic pericarp tissues in response to wounding, while very less or minimal levels were recorded in WT pericarp tissues. Transgenic fruits also displayed reduced post-harvest decay and increased resistance toward Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani infection with noticeable inhibition in lesion formation. Conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. solani were severely inhibited when treated with E8-tap1 fruit extracts compared to WT fruits. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed reduced spore viability when incubated in E8-tap1 fruit extracts. Thus, fruit-specific expression of tap1 using E8 promoter is associated with enhanced total peroxidase activity and high phenolic accumulation in fruits with minimized post-harvest deterioration caused by wounding and fungal attack in tomato fruits. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  12. Estudio y optimización del proceso de soldadura por fricción batida (FSW) de materiales compuestos de matriz metálica (MMC) con elevado contenido de refuerzo

    OpenAIRE

    Cioffi, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    La soldadura por fricción batida (FSW, del inglés Friction Stir Welding) es una técnica que, por ser en estado sólido, resulta interesante para unir compuestos de matriz metálica (MMC, del inglés Metal Matrix Composite). Especialmente aquellos que presentan excelentes propiedades mecánicas pero se consideran «no soldables» por técnicas tradicionales de fusión. La principal aplicación de la soldadura por FSW se encuentra en aleaciones de aluminio. A pesar de que en la última década se ha exten...

  13. Pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (δ13C and δD Py-CSIA) of soil organic matter size fractions under four vegetation covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Almendros, Gonzalo; De la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.

    2015-04-01

    A chemical characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) under different ground cover from a Mediterranean climate (Doñana National Park, Andalusia, Spain) is approached using bulk δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and δD isotopic analysis (C/TC-IRMS) and δ13C and δD pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA: Py-GC-C/TC-IRMS). Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: soil. A complete conventional analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) of these samples have been studied in detail (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2015). Bulk isotopic analysis of stable light elements (δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and δD) revealed particular isotopic signatures showing differences related with the main vegetation cover and the different soil size fraction. All samples had a carbon isotopic signature between -26 and -29 ‰, which indicated that the organic matter in the two fractions of each soil sample derived from C3-type plants. The bulk δD isotopic signature in whole soil sample indicate a lower deuterium fractionation occurs in SOM under arboreal than under no-arboreal vegetation, this can be caused by the occurrence of a higher water evaporation rate under bush vegetation and/or to differences due to leaf morphology as previously described (Leaney et al., 1985). A δ15N vs. δ18O chart may provide some clues about N origin in the soil and particularly about the original source of nitrates (Kendall et al., 1996). In in all sample and size fractions our values are in the chart area corresponding to NO3 in precipitation, with lighter δ18O (c. 20 ‰) values compatible with fertilizers may be from adjacent crops. In addition we were able to assign δ13C and δD values for a number of specific SOM compounds released

  14. Underlying mechanism of the cyclic migrating motor complex in Suncus murinus: a change in gastrointestinal pH is the key regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anupom; Koyama, Kouhei; Mikami, Takashi; Horita, Taichi; Takemi, Shota; Tsuda, Sachiko; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    In the fasted gastrointestinal (GI) tract, a characteristic cyclical rhythmic migrating motor complex (MMC) occurs in an ultradian rhythm, at 90-120 min time intervals, in many species. However, the underlying mechanism directing this ultradian rhythmic MMC pattern is yet to be completely elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the possible causes or factors that involve in the occurrence of the fasting gastric contractions by using Suncus murinus a small model animal featuring almost the same rhythmic MMC as that found in humans and dogs. We observed that either intraduodenal infusion of saline at pH 8 evoked the strong gastric contraction or continuously lowering duodenal pH to 3-evoked gastric phase II-like and phase III-like contractions, and both strong contractions were essentially abolished by the intravenous administration of MA 2029 (motilin receptor antagonist) and D-Lys3-GHRP6 (ghrelin receptor antagonist) in a vagus-independent manner. Moreover, we observed that the prostaglandin E2-alpha (PGE2 - α) and serotonin type 4 (5HT4) receptors play important roles as intermediate molecules in changes in GI pH and motilin release. These results suggest a clear insight mechanism that change in the duodenal pH to alkaline condition is an essential factor for stimulating the endogenous release of motilin and governs the fasting MMC in a vagus-independent manner. Finally, we believe that the changes in duodenal pH triggered by flowing gastric acid and the release of duodenal bicarbonate through the involvement of PGE2 - α and 5HT4 receptor are the key events in the occurrence of the MMC. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Intercropping Induces Changes in Specific Secondary Metabolite Concentration in Ethiopian Kale (Brassica carinata and African Nightshade (Solanum scabrum under Controlled Conditions

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    Benard Ngwene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is widespread in small-holder farming systems in tropical regions and is also practiced in the cultivation of indigenous vegetables, to alleviate the multiple burdens of malnutrition. Due to interspecific competition and/or complementation between intercrops, intercropping may lead to changes in plants accumulation of minerals and secondary metabolites and hence, alter nutritional quality for consumers. Intercropping aims to intensify land productivity, while ensuring that nutritional quality is not compromised. This study aimed to investigate changes in minerals and secondary plant metabolites in intercropped Brassica carinata and Solanum scabrum, two important African indigenous vegetables, and evaluated the suitability of this combination for dryer areas. B. carinata and S. scabrum were grown for 6 weeks under controlled conditions in a greenhouse trial. Large rootboxes (8000 cm3 volume were specifically designed for this experiment. Each rootbox was planted with two plants, either of the same plant species (mono or one of each plant species (mixed. A quartz sand/soil substrate was used and fertilized adequately for optimal plant growth. During the last 4 weeks of the experiment, the plants were either supplied with optimal (65% WHC or low (30% WHC irrigation, to test the effect of a late-season drought. Intercropping increased total glucosinolate content in B. carinata, while maintaining biomass production and the contents of other health related minerals in both B. carinata and S. scabrum. Moreover, low irrigation led to an increase in carotene accumulation in both mono and intercropped S. scabrum, but not in B. carinata, while the majority of kaempferol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of both species were decreased by intercropping and drought treatment. This study indicates that some health-related phytochemicals can be modified by intercropping or late-season drought, but field validation of these results is

  16. EFEITO DOS MEIOS DILUÍDORES MMC (MÍNIMA CONTAMINAÇÃO E LGM (LACTOSE-GEMA MODIFICADO NA VIABILIDADE DO SÊMEN DE CÃES CONSERVADO POR 24 HORAS EM EQUITAINER®.

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    Tania Goes de Pinho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the viability of canine semen after dilution in Minimum Contamination Medium (MMC and Modified Lactose-Egg yolk extender (LGM and incubation at 4 ºC for 12 and 24 hours. Thirteen ejaculates were collected from 5 adult dogs by digital manipulation. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were assessed right after collection. Semen was divided to be diluted (1:3 in MMC and LGM and subsequently chilled in Equitainer®. Seminal parameters of motility and spermatic morphology, membrane integrity (hyposmotic test, spermatic viability and spontaneous acrosome reaction (Trypan-blue Giemsa stain were evaluated in fresh and chilled semen after 12 and 24 hours of incubation at 4 ºC. No difference between extenders was identified in semen conservation after 12 hours. After 24 hours just spermatic motility was different (p>0.05. But, after both periods of conservation, semen diluted in LGM maintained most of the characteristics verified in the fresh semen. The mean of true and false acrosome reaction did not exceed 2% in both semen extenders, which demonstrates no influence of media component and incubation period on these phenomena at 4 ºC. In conclusion, these results indicate that both extenders can be used in canine semen conservation at 4 ºC in contêiner during 12 hours without significant changes in semen characteristics.

  17. Characteristic Analysis and Fault-Tolerant Control of Circulating Current for Modular Multilevel Converters under Sub-Module Faults

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    Wen Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A modular multilevel converter (MMC is considered to be a promising topology for medium- or high-power applications. However, a significantly increased amount of sub-modules (SMs in each arm also increase the risk of failures. Focusing on the fault-tolerant operation issue for the MMC under SM faults, the operation characteristics of MMC with different numbers of faulty SMs in the arms are analyzed and summarized in this paper. Based on the characteristics, a novel circulating current-suppressing (CCS fault-tolerant control strategy comprised of a basic control unit (BCU and virtual resistance compensation control unit (VRCCU in two parts is proposed, which has three main features: (i it can suppress the multi-different frequency components of the circulating current under different SM fault types simultaneously; (ii it can help fast limiting of the transient fault current caused at the faulty SM bypassed moment; and (iii it does not need extra communication systems to acquire the information of the number of faulty SMs. Moreover, by analyzing the stability performance of the proposed controller using the Root-Locus criterion, the election principle of the value of virtual resistance is revealed. Finally, the efficiency of the control strategy is confirmed with the simulation and experiment studies under different fault conditions.

  18. Production of transgenic mice expressing tumor virus A under ovarian‑specific promoter 1 control using testis‑mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhang, Zujuan; Chang, Xiaohong; Niu, Yidong; Cui, Heng

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to produce transgenic mice expressing tumor virus A (TVA) in the ovary under ovarian specific promoter 1 (OSP1) control. A transgenic mouse model was established in which TVA, an avian retroviral receptor gene driven by OSP1, was selectively expressed in the ovary. A recombinant plasmid containing TVA cDNA and an OSP1 promoter was constructed. The DNA fragment was repeatedly injected into male mouse testes at multiple sites. At 4‑7, 7‑10 and 10‑13 weeks following the final injection, two DNA‑injected male mice were mated with four wild‑type female mice to produce transgenic mice. The transgenic positive rate in mouse F1 offspring was 39.69%. When the positive F1 individuals were mated with wild‑type Imprinting Control Region mice (PxW) or with positive F1 individuals (PxP), the F2 individuals had a transgenic rate of 12.44%. The transgenic rates in the F1 offspring, produced following mating at the three time intervals, were 55.71 (39/70), 30.77 (4/13) and 18.75% (9/48), respectively. The transgenic rates of the F2 offspring decreased with the age of the F1 offspring, from 26.67% when PxP were mated at 6‑8 weeks of age to 6.52% when PxW were mated at 5‑6 months of age. The results indicate a high efficiency of gene transfer to F1 offspring using testis‑mediated gene transfer (TMGT). The transgenic rate in the F2 offspring was lower than that in the F1 offspring. The results reveal that TMGT is suitable for creating transgenic animals among F1 offspring. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that TVA was expressed in the mice ovaries. The results demonstrate the importance of using the replication‑competent avian sarcoma‑leukosis virus long terminal repeat with a splice acceptor‑TVA system in ovarian tumorigenesis research.

  19. Geographic disparities in pneumonia-specific under-five mortality rates in Mainland China from 1996 to 2015: a population-based study

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    Leni Kang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Pneumonia-specific U5MRs decreased from 1996 to 2015 across China, particularly in rural areas. However, disparities remained among and within geographic regions. Additional strategies and interventions should be introduced in West China, especially the rural areas, to further reduce the pneumonia-specific U5MR.

  20. STRONG POSITIVE SELECTION AND HABITAT SPECIFIC AMINO ACID SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS IN A MHC FROM AN ESTUARINE FISH UNDER INTENSE POLLUTION STRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population-level studies using the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) have linked specific alleles with specific diseases, but data requirements are high and power to detect disease association is low. A novel use of Mhc population surveys is that they map allelic substituti...

  1. Juzentaihoto Failed to Augment Antigen-Specific Immunity but Prevented Deterioration of Patients’ Conditions in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer under Personalized Peptide Vaccine

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    Shigeru Yutani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juzentaihoto (JTT is a well-known Japanese herbal medicine, which has been reported to modulate immune responses and enhance antitumor immunity in animal models. However, it is not clear whether JTT has similar effects on humans. In particular, there is little information on the effects of JTT in antigen-specific immunity in cancer patients. Here we conducted a randomized clinical study to investigate whether combined usage of JTT could affect antigen-specific immunity and clinical findings in advanced pancreatic cancer patients undergoing personalized peptide vaccination (PPV, in which HLA-matched vaccine antigens were selected based on the preexisting host immunity. Fifty-seven patients were randomly assigned to receive PPV with (n=28 or without (n=29 JTT. Unexpectedly, JTT did not significantly affect cellular or humoral immune responses specific to the vaccine antigens, which were determined by antigen-specific interferon-γ secretion in T cells and antigen-specific IgG titers in plasma, respectively. Nevertheless, JTT prevented deterioration of patients’ conditions, such as anemia, lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, plasma IL-6 elevation, and reduction of performance status, which are frequently observed in advanced cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical study that examined the immunological and clinical effects of JTT in cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy in humans.

  2. Generation and characterization of peptide-specific, MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T cell lines from unprimed T cells under microculture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambhara, S R; Upadhya, A G; Miller, R G

    1990-06-12

    We describe a microculture system for the generation of CTL and T helper cells against peptides. Tryptic digest and cyanogen bromide fragments of chicken ovalbumin and synthetic peptides of ovalbumin (323-339) and influenza virus (NP 365-380) were used to generate CTL and T helper lines from unprimed T cells. These lines were both peptide-specific and MHC-restricted. The relative ease of generating peptide-specific, MHC-restricted CTL and helper T cell lines with as few as 10(6) unprimed lymphocytes can be an efficient method of detecting potential immunogenic determinants of an antigen.

  3. Inter-specific competition in mixed forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) under climate change – a model-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyer, C.; Lasch, P.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sterck, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed forests feature competitive interactions of the contributing species which influence their response to environmental change. • We analyzed climate change effects on the inter-specific competition in a managed Douglas-fir/beech mixed forest. • Therefore, we initialised the process-based forest

  4. Structure-function relationships in human testis-determining factor SRY: an aromatic buttress underlies the specific DNA-bending surface of a high mobility group (HMG) box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Maloy, James D; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2014-11-21

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in SRY cause 46 XY gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype (Swyer syndrome) and confer a high risk of malignancy (gonadoblastoma). Such mutations cluster in the SRY high mobility group (HMG) box, a conserved motif of specific DNA binding and bending. To explore structure-function relationships, we constructed all possible substitutions at a site of clinical mutation (W70L). Our studies thus focused on a core aromatic residue (position 15 of the consensus HMG box) that is invariant among SRY-related HMG box transcription factors (the SOX family) and conserved as aromatic (Phe or Tyr) among other sequence-specific boxes. In a yeast one-hybrid system sensitive to specific SRY-DNA binding, the variant domains exhibited reduced (Phe and Tyr) or absent activity (the remaining 17 substitutions). Representative nonpolar variants with partial or absent activity (Tyr, Phe, Leu, and Ala in order of decreasing side-chain volume) were chosen for study in vitro and in mammalian cell culture. The clinical mutation (Leu) was found to markedly impair multiple biochemical and cellular activities as respectively probed through the following: (i) in vitro assays of specific DNA binding and protein stability, and (ii) cell culture-based assays of proteosomal degradation, nuclear import, enhancer DNA occupancy, and SRY-dependent transcriptional activation. Surprisingly, however, DNA bending is robust to this or the related Ala substitution that profoundly impairs box stability. Together, our findings demonstrate that the folding, trafficking, and gene-regulatory function of SRY requires an invariant aromatic "buttress" beneath its specific DNA-bending surface. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Kerry, Joseph P; Gaffney, Michael; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-06-28

    We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties ('Hyskin' and 'Red Baron') grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive content over an extensive time period in a single crop type within the same trial. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonol content, and levels of Q 3,4' D and Q 3 G were higher in both varieties under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. Total flavonoids were higher in 'Red Baron' and when onions were grown under organic soil treatment. Differences were primarily due to different soil management practices used in organic agriculture rather than pesticide/ herbicide application.

  6. Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion from Isolated Pancreatic β-cells Using Post-translational Modification Specific Proteomics (PTMomics)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Taewook; Jensen, Pia; Huang, Honggang

    2018-01-01

    understanding of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) mechanisms under normal conditions is a prerequisite for developing better interventions against diabetes. Here, we aimed at identifying novel signaling pathways involved in the initial release of insulin from PBCs after glucose stimulation using......-cell interaction, cell movement, cell-ECM interaction and Focal Adhesion (e.g. integrins, semaphorins, and plexins) were found regulated at the level of sialylation, but not in protein expression. Collectively, we believe that this comprehensive Proteomics and PTMomics survey of signaling pathways taking place...

  7. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Hartmann, Mechthild; Seidler, Günther H; Eich, Wolfgang

    2013-08-30

    Non-specific chronic back pain (CBP) is often accompanied by psychological trauma, but treatment for this associated condition is often insufficient.Nevertheless, despite the common co-occurrence of pain and psychological trauma, a specific trauma-focused approach for treating CBP has been neglected to date. Accordingly, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), originally developed as a treatment approach for posttraumatic stress disorders, is a promising approach for treating CBP in patients who have experienced psychological trauma.Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether a standardized, short-term EMDR intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces pain intensity in CBP patients with psychological trauma vs. TAU alone. The study will recruit 40 non-specific CBP patients who have experienced psychological trauma. After a baseline assessment, the patients will be randomized to either an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Individuals in the EMDR group will receive ten 90-minute sessions of EMDR fortnightly in addition to TAU. The control group will receive TAU alone. The post-treatment assessments will take place two weeks after the last EMDR session and six months later.The primary outcome will be the change in the intensity of CBP within the last four weeks (numeric rating scale 0-10) from the pre-treatment assessment to the post-treatment assessment two weeks after the completion of treatment.In addition, the patients will undergo a thorough assessment of the change in the experience of pain, disability, trauma-associated distress, mental co-morbidities, resilience, and quality of life to explore distinct treatment effects. To explore the mechanisms of action that are involved, changes in pain perception and pain processing (quantitative sensory testing, conditioned pain modulation) will also be assessed.The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis

  8. Measurements of free and total PSA, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS), and CYFRA 21-1 in prostate cancer patients under intermittent androgen suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyer, G; Dürer, A; Theyer, U; Haberl, I; Ulsperger, E; Baumgartner, G; Hamilton, G

    1999-10-01

    The present study evaluated monthly measurements of free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and the tumor proliferation markers tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) in patients with advanced prostate cancer receiving intermittent androgen suppression therapy (IAS). Thirty-four men received alternating cycles of 8 month androgen suppression and treatment cessation (mean duration, 10.3 months) until PSA increased to >20 microg/l. Measurements of testosterone, percentage of free PSA, TPS, and CYFRA 21-1 were performed using ELISA and RIA assays. Periods of androgen suppression resulted in reversible reductions of testosterone (from 6 +/- 0.8 to IAS cycle. TPS showed a decrease of 50% after 3 months, and CYFRA 21-1 a 25% decrease after 7 months of androgen suppression treatment. During treatment cessation, TPS exceeded the normal cutoff value of 90 U/l late in tumor regrowth (9-11 months), whereas CYFRA 21-1 remained below the normal cutoff value of 3.3 ng/ml. PSA is the best and most sensitive marker of prostate cancer regression and regrowth during IAS cycles of the markers tested in this study. Free PSA constitutes approximately 15% of total PSA (range, 5-32%), and its percentage showed no significant change during IAS cycles. The TPS and CYFRA 21-1 proliferation marker changes in IAS seem to be related mainly to effects on normal androgen-dependent tissues. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. An Experimental Insight into Extracellular Phosphatases – Differential Induction of Cell-Specific Activity in Green Algae Cultured under Various Phosphorus Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Vrba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular phosphatase activity (PA has been used as an overall indicator of P depletion in lake phytoplankton. However, detailed insights into the mechanisms of PA regulation are still limited, especially in the case of acid phosphatases. The novel substrate ELF97 phosphate allows for tagging PA on single cells in an epifluorescence microscope. This fluorescence-labeled enzyme activity (FLEA assay enables for autecological studies in natural phytoplankton and algal cultures. We combined the FLEA assay with image analysis to measure cell-specific acid PA in two closely related species of the genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta isolated from two acidic lakes with distinct P availability. The strains were cultured in a mineral medium supplied with organic (beta-glycerol phosphate or inorganic (orthophosphate P at three concentrations. Both strains responded to experimental conditions in a similar way, suggesting that acid extracellular phosphatases were regulated irrespectively of the origin and history of the strains. We found an increase in cell-specific PA at low P concentration and the cultures grown with organic P produced significantly higher (ca. 10-fold PA than those cultured with the same concentrations of inorganic P. The cell-specific PA measured in the cultures grown with the lowest organic P concentration roughly corresponded to those of the original Coccomyxa population from an acidic lake with impaired P availability. The ability of Coccomyxa strains to produce extracellular phosphatases, together with tolerance for both low pH and metals can be one of the factors enabling the dominance of the genus in extreme conditions of acidic lakes. The analysis of frequency distribution of the single-cell PA documented that simple visual counting of ‘active’ (labeled and ‘non-active’ (non-labeled cells can lead to biased conclusions regarding algal P status because the actual PA of the ‘active’ cells can vary from

  10. Evolution of variety-specific regulatory schema for expression of osa-miR408 in indica rice varieties under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutum, Roseeta D; Balyan, Sonia C; Kansal, Shivani; Agarwal, Preeti; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Mukesh; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh

    2013-04-01

    Evolution of differential regulatory mechanisms can lead to quite distinct physiological attributes. In the present study, we have identified one such regulatory schema that regulates osa-miR408 and responds differentially in drought-sensitive and -tolerant indica rice varieties. A comparison of the drought stress response in drought-sensitive (Pusa Basmati 1 and IR64) and drought-tolerant (Nagina 22 and Vandana) indica rice varieties revealed that, during drought stress, levels of miR408 transcript decrease significantly in sensitive cultivars, whereas they remain elevated in the tolerant cultivars. The trend is reflected in young seedlings, as well as in flag leaf and spikelets of adult plants (heading stage). Members of the plastocyanin-like protein family targeted by miR408 also show the inverse expression profile and thus accumulate at a lower level in tolerant cultivars during drought. Interestingly, some members of this family are implicated in maintaining the cellular redox state and spikelet fertility in Arabidopsis. An investigation of miR408 loci (including promoter) in all four cultivars did not reveal any significant sequence variation indicating an involvement of the upstream regulatory schema. Indeed, a similar variety-specific stress response was found in the Oryza sativa squamosa promoter-binding-like 9 transcription factor that regulates miR408 expression. We further demonstrate that drought-mediated induction of miR408 in Nagina 22 is regulated by [Ca(2+)]cyt levels. However, [Ca(2+)]cyt does not appear to regulate miR408 levels in Pusa Basmati 1, suggesting a variety-specific evolution of regulatory schema in rice. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  11. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  12. Sex- and diet-specific changes of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation in mouse placenta under a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gallou-Kabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in imprinted gene dosage in the placenta may compromise the prenatal control of nutritional resources. Indeed monoallelic behaviour and sensitivity to changes in regional epigenetic state render imprinted genes both vulnerable and adaptable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated whether a high-fat diet (HFD during pregnancy modified the expression of imprinted genes and local and global DNA methylation patterns in the placenta. Pregnant mice were fed a HFD or a control diet (CD during the first 15 days of gestation. We compared gene expression patterns in total placenta homogenates, for male and female offspring, by the RT-qPCR analysis of 20 imprinted genes. Sexual dimorphism and sensitivity to diet were observed for nine genes from four clusters on chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 17. As assessed by in situ hybridization, these changes were not due to variation in the proportions of the placental layers. Bisulphite-sequencing analysis of 30 CpGs within the differentially methylated region (DMR of the chromosome 17 cluster revealed sex- and diet-specific differential methylation of individual CpGs in two conspicuous subregions. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that these differentially methylated CpGs might lie within recognition elements or binding sites for transcription factors or factors involved in chromatin remodelling. Placental global DNA methylation, as assessed by the LUMA technique, was also sexually dimorphic on the CD, with lower methylation levels in male than in female placentae. The HFD led to global DNA hypomethylation only in female placenta. Bisulphite pyrosequencing showed that neither B1 nor LINE repetitive elements could account for these differences in DNA methylation. CONCLUSIONS: A HFD during gestation triggers sex-specific epigenetic alterations within CpG and throughout the genome, together with the deregulation of clusters of imprinted genes important in the control of many cellular, metabolic and

  13. Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer Studies of Parameters Specific to the IGCC-Requirements: Endwall Contouring, Leading Edge and Blade Tip Ejection under Rotating Turbine Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobeiri, Meinhard; Han, Je-Chin

    2014-09-30

    This report deals with the specific aerodynamics and heat transfer problematic inherent to high pressure (HP) turbine sections of IGCC-gas turbines. Issues of primary relevance to a turbine stage operating in an IGCC-environment are: (1) decreasing the strength of the secondary flow vortices at the hub and tip regions to reduce (a), the secondary flow losses and (b), the potential for end wall deposition, erosion and corrosion due to secondary flow driven migration of gas flow particles to the hub and tip regions, (2) providing a robust film cooling technology at the hub and that sustains high cooling effectiveness less sensitive to deposition, (3) investigating the impact of blade tip geometry on film cooling effectiveness. The document includes numerical and experimental investigations of above issues. The experimental investigations were performed in the three-stage multi-purpose turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL), Texas A&M University. For the numerical investigations a commercial Navier-Stokes solver was utilized.

  14. Monitoramento localizado da produtividade de milho cultivado sob irrigação Site-specific monitoring of corn yield cultivated under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio O. Santos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O aprimoramento do poder de gerenciamento agrícola, através do aumento do nível de informação sobre etapas da produção, tem sido discutido como estratégia de decisão/manejo. O georreferenciamento obtido em tempo real na lavoura, pode permitir o estudo localizado das variáveis de solo e planta. No Brasil, a produção de grãos apresenta grande demanda nesta linha, por ser expressiva e de grande potencial de absorção tecnológica. Com o objetivo de se abordar alguns aspectos do aumento do nível de informação tecnológica em um ambiente agrícola, um experimento foi instalado no ano de 1998, com a perspectiva de abordagem de lavoura de grãos. O experimento foi estabelecido em Angatuba, SP. Em uma área de 34,3 ha, onde está instalado um sistema de irrigação tipo pivô central, monitorou-se a produtividade do milho na estação de crescimento 99/00, além do parâmetro fertilidade do solo. Os resultados evidenciaram regiões distintas na lavoura, com padrão de variabilidade diferenciado, que suscita discussão sobre suas causas de variação. Dados preliminares de análise química do solo apresentaram baixa correlação com a produtividade, em áreas localizadas. A observação da variação de produtividade sugere o desenvolvimento de estratégias de manejo por zonas de atuação, com base numa análise de tendência dos fatores mais importantes que compõem a produtividade.Improvement of agricultural management through the increased knowledge on production activities has been discussed as decision-making strategies. Real-time field level positioning may allow site-specific investigation of soil and plant variables. In Brazil, the grain crops show great need for research in this area, due to their importance and technological demand. Aimed at discussing some aspects of the increased level of information on an agricultural environment, a field experiment was installed in 1998 in Angatuba, SP, on a grain crop. In an area of 34

  15. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Alessio; Frangi, Piero; Amoroso, Gabriele; Piatti, Riccardo; Faoro, Marco; Bellasio, Chandra; Ferrini, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of selected mycorrhiza obtained in the urban environment on growth, leaf gas exchange, and drought tolerance of containerized plants growing in the nursery. Two-year-old uniform Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Quercus robur L. were inoculated with a mixture of infected roots and mycelium of selected arbuscular (maple, linden) and/or ectomycorrhiza (linden, oak) fungi and grown in well-watered or water shortage conditions. Plant biomass and leaf area were measured 1 and 2 years after inoculation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water relations were measured during the first and second growing seasons after inoculation. Our data suggest that the mycelium-based inoculum used in this experiment was able to colonize the roots of the tree species growing in the nursery. Plant biomass was affected by water shortage, but not by inoculation. Leaf area was affected by water regime and, in oak and linden, by inoculation. Leaf gas exchange was affected by inoculation and water stress. V(cmax) and J(max) were increased by inoculation and decreased by water shortage in all species. F(v)/F(m) was also generally higher in inoculated plants than in control. Changes in PSII photochemistry and photosynthesis may be related to the capacity of inoculated plants to maintain less negative leaf water potential under drought conditions. The overall data suggest that inoculated plants were better able to maintain physiological activity during water stress in comparison to non-inoculated plants.

  16. The grapevine root-specific aquaporin VvPIP2;4N controls root hydraulic conductance and leaf gas exchange under well-watered conditions but not under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Irene; Gambino, Giorgio; Chitarra, Walter; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Riccomagno, Nadia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Uehlein, Norbert; Gribaudo, Ivana; Schubert, Andrea; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2012-10-01

    We functionally characterized the grape (Vitis vinifera) VvPIP2;4N (for Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein) aquaporin gene. Expression of VvPIP2;4N in Xenopus laevis oocytes increased their swelling rate 54-fold. Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that VvPIP2;4N is the most expressed PIP2 gene in root. In situ hybridization confirmed root localization in the cortical parenchyma and close to the endodermis. We then constitutively overexpressed VvPIP2;4N in grape 'Brachetto', and in the resulting transgenic plants we analyzed (1) the expression of endogenous and transgenic VvPIP2;4N and of four other aquaporins, (2) whole-plant, root, and leaf ecophysiological parameters, and (3) leaf abscisic acid content. Expression of transgenic VvPIP2;4N inhibited neither the expression of the endogenous gene nor that of other PIP aquaporins in both root and leaf. Under well-watered conditions, transgenic plants showed higher stomatal conductance, gas exchange, and shoot growth. The expression level of VvPIP2;4N (endogenous + transgene) was inversely correlated to root hydraulic resistance. The leaf component of total plant hydraulic resistance was low and unaffected by overexpression of VvPIP2;4N. Upon water stress, the overexpression of VvPIP2;4N induced a surge in leaf abscisic acid content and a decrease in stomatal conductance and leaf gas exchange. Our results show that aquaporin-mediated modifications of root hydraulics play a substantial role in the regulation of water flow in well-watered grapevine plants, while they have a minor role upon drought, probably because other signals, such as abscisic acid, take over the control of water flow.

  17. Novel P−O codoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with large specific surface area: Hydrothermal synthesis assisted by dissolution–precipitation process and their visible light activity under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Li, Yang; Li, Shuang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: Naliujlu@163.com [College of Environment and Resources, Key Lab of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • P−O codoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with large S{sub BET} and oxygen-free photoactivity is prepared. • P−O codoping increases the anoxic photocatalytic RhB degradation constants by 27 times. • O doping increases the adsorption ability and captures the electrons to produce holes under anoxic conditions. • This study provides new insight into the design and fabrication of anoxic photocatalysts. - Abstract: Novel P−O codoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with large specific surface area is hydrothermal synthesized assisted by dissolution–precipitation process. The XRD, UV–vis, SEM and PL results indicate that the introduction of phosphorus and oxygen enhances the specific surface area of graphitic carbon nitride (from 12.8 to 92.5 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), restrains the crystal growth, decreases the band gap energy (from 2.68 to 2.51 eV) and increases the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, which increases the anoxic photocatalytic RhB degradation constants by approximately 27 times under visible light. Oxygen doping not only promotes the adsorption ability of reactant but also captures the photogenerated electrons to produce photogenerated holes for RhB degradation under anoxic condition. This study provides new insight into the design and fabrication of oxygen-free photocatalysts.

  18. Life stage-specific effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil and temperature on the snail Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) disclose the pitfalls for the aquatic risk assessment under global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, Anne; Albrand, Jennifer; Oehlmann, Jörg; Müller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    It can be suggested that the combined stress of pesticide pollution and suboptimal temperature influences the sensitivity of life stages of aquatic invertebrates differently. The embryo, juvenile, half- and full-life-cycle toxicity tests performed with the snail Physella acuta at different concentrations (0.06–0.5 or 1.0 mg L −1 ) of the model fungicide pyrimethanil at 15, 20 and 25 °C revealed, that pyrimethanil caused concentration-dependent effects at all test temperatures. Interestingly, the ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil was higher at lower (suboptimal) temperature for embryo hatching and F 1 reproduction, but its ecotoxicity for juvenile growth and F 0 reproduction increased with increasing temperature. The life-stage specific temperature-dependent ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil and the high fungicide susceptibility of the invasive snail clearly demonstrate the complexity of pesticide–temperature interactions and the challenge to draw conclusions for the risk of pesticides under the impact of global climate change. -- Highlights: ► Physella acuta reacts highly sensitively to exposure to pyrimethanil. ► The ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil is life-stage specific. ► Pyrimethanil and temperature stress influenced the development interactively. -- The aquatic risk of pesticides under climate change cannot be adequately assessed by recent strategies for the regular risk assessment of agrochemicals

  19. BCG+MMC trial: adding mitomycin C to BCG as adjuvant intravesical therapy for high-risk, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a randomised phase III trial (ANZUP 1301)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayne, Dickon; Stockler, Martin; McCombie, Steve P.; Chalasani, Venu; Long, Anne; Martin, Andrew; Sengupta, Shomik; Davis, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite adequate trans-urethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT), non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is associated with high rates of recurrence and progression. Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) into the urinary bladder after TURBT (adjuvant intravesical administration) reduces the risk of both recurrence and progression, and this is therefore the standard of care for high-risk tumours. However, over 30 % of people still recur or progress despite optimal delivery of BCG. Our meta-analysis suggests that outcomes might be improved further by using an adjuvant intravesical regimen that includes both mitomycin and BCG. These promising findings require corroboration in a definitive, large scale, randomised phase III trial using standard techniques for intravesical administration. The BCG + MMC trial (ANZUP 1301) is an open-label, randomised, stratified, two-arm multi-centre phase III trial comparing the efficacy and safety of standard intravesical therapy (BCG alone) against experimental intravesical therapy (BCG and mitomycin) in the treatment of adults with resected, high-risk NMIBC. Participants in the control group receive standard treatment with induction (weekly BCG for six weeks) followed by maintenance (four-weekly BCG for ten months). Participants in the experimental group receive induction (BCG weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8; mitomycin weeks 3, 6, and 9) followed by four-weekly maintenance (mitomycin weeks 13, 17, 25, 29, 37, and 41; BCG weeks 21, 33, and 45). The trial aims to include 500 participants who will be centrally randomised to one of the two treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio stratified by T-stage, presence of CIS, and study site. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival; secondary endpoints are disease activity, time to recurrence, time to progression, safety, health-related quality of life, overall survival, feasibility, and resource use

  20. Nanotube MMC for structural applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aluminum based metal matrix composites are particularly attractive in aviation and aerospace applications because of their exceptional strength and...

  1. Magnesium MMC for Aerospace Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA will return to the IIS by 2014 and the moon by 2020. To accomplish these missions, NASA will exploit to the maximum degree possible the Apollo architecture and...

  2. F-16 MMC Strafe in Mountainous Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 Background ...identification by analyzing the geometry of the two attack options against various degrees of rising terrain. Background On 27 November 2007...Operating in “mountainous” terrain requires the pilot to execute different IFR terrain clearance. Air Force Instruction 11-202 volume 3 defines

  3. Nanotube MMC for Structural Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aluminum based metal matrix composites are particularly attractive in aviation and aerospace applications because of their exceptional strength and...

  4. Specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wendy K; Moreno, Jacqueline

    2005-10-01

    This article describes specific phobia of childhood and its clinical presentation, discusses issues related to the differential diagnosis of specific phobia, considers the issue of comorbidity among phobic and anxiety disorders and developmental trends in the manifestation of fears, summarizes the epidemiology, causes, and course of specific phobia, and presents assessment and treatment issues. Finally, a case study is offered that serves to illuminate the major topics outlined in the article.

  5. Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter STATCOM under internal and external unbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Kontos, E.; Parikh, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a complete control scheme for the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) in a STATCOM application. The focus is laid on the internal balancing of the converter and its reliable operation under internal mismatches as well as under external unbalanced conditions. The leg energy...... and the simulation results verified the capability to provide maximum reactive power to the AC grid while maintaining internal balance through the individual control of each arm energy level....... controller ensures that the sum of the capacitor voltages of each phase are equal. An intuitive arm energy controller is also implemented which allows the decoupled control of the energy levels of every arm. The control performance of the STATCOM was evaluated under asymmetrical grid faults...

  6. GlnR negatively regulates the transcription of the alanine dehydrogenase encoding gene ald in Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32 under nitrogen limited conditions via specific binding to its major transcription initiation site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Ammonium assimilation is catalyzed by two enzymatic pathways, i.e., glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT and alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH in Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32. Under nitrogen-rich conditions, the AlaDH pathway is the major route for ammonium assimilation, while the GS/GOGAT pathway takes over when the extracellular nitrogen supply is limited. The global nitrogen regulator GlnR was previously characterized to activate the transcription of the GS encoding gene glnA in response to nitrogen limitation and is demonstrated in this study as a repressor for the transcription of the AlaDH encoding gene ald, whose regulation is consistent with the switch of the ammonium assimilation pathways from AlaDH to GS/GOGAT responding to nitrogen limitation. Three transcription initiation sites (TISs of ald were determined with primer extension assay, among which transcription from aldP2 contributed the major transcripts under nitrogen-rich conditions but was repressed to an undetectable level in response to nitrogen limitation. Through DNase I footprinting assay, two separate regions were found to be protected by GlnR within ald promoter, within which three GlnR binding sites (a1, b1 sites in region I and a2 site in region II were defined. Interestingly, the major TIS aldP2 is located in the middle of a2 site within region II. Therefore, one may easily conclude that GlnR represses the transcription of ald via specific binding to the GlnR binding sites, which obviously blocks the transcription initiation from aldP2 and therefore reduces ald transcripts.

  7. Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines and proposes an approach to writing software specifications, based on research in systems theory, cognitive psychology, and human-machine interaction. The goal is to provide specifications that support human problem solving and the tasks that humans must perform in software development and evolution. A type of specification, called intent specifications, is constructed upon this underlying foundation.

  8. Phase transition studies of Na3Bi system under uniaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Tiaoping; Meng, Lijun; Li, Yanru; Luan, Yanhua; Yu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the electronic properties and phase transitions of Na3Bi in four structural phases (space groups P63/mmc, P \\overline{3} c1, Fm \\overline{3} m and Cmcm) under constant-volume uniaxial strain using the first-principles method. For P63/mmc and P \\overline{3} c1-Na3Bi, an important phase transition from a topological Dirac semimetal (TDS) to a topological insulator appears under compression strain around 4.5%. The insulating gap increases with the increasing compressive strain and up to around 0.1 eV at a strain of 10%. However, both P63/mmc and P \\overline{3} c1-Na3Bi still keep the properties of a TDS within a tensile strain of 0–10%, although the Dirac points move away from the Γ point along Γ–A in reciprocal space as the tensile strain increases. The Na3Bi with space group Fm \\overline{3} m is identified as a topological semimetal with the inverted bands between Na-3s and Bi-6p and a parabolic dispersion in the vicinity of Γ point. Interestingly, for Fm \\overline{3} m-Na3Bi, both compression and tensile strain lead to a TDS which is identified by calculating surface Fermi arcs and topological invariants at time-reversal planes (k z   =  0 and k z   =  π/c) in reciprocal space. Additionally, we confirmed the high pressure phase Cmcm-Na3Bi is an ordinary insulator with a gap of about 0.62 eV. It is noteworthy that its gap almost keeps constant around 0.60 eV within a compression strain of 0–10%. In contrast, a remarkable phase transition from an insulator to a metal phase appears under tensile strain. Moreover, this phase transition is highly sensitive to tensile strain and takes place only at a strain 1.0%. These strain-induced electronic structures and phase transitions of the Na3Bi system in various phases are important due to their possible applications under high pressure in future electronic devices.

  9. Nutritional status and specific leaf area of mahogany and tonka bean under two light environments Estado nutricional e área foliar específica de mogno e cumaru sob dois ambientes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco de C. Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nutritional status and leaf traits were carried out in two tropical tree species Swietenia macrophylla King (mahogany and Dipetryx odorata Aubl. Willd. (tonka bean planted under contrasting light environments in Presidente Figueiredo-AM, Brazil. Leaves of S. macrophylla and D. odorata were collected in three year-old trees grown under full sunlight (about 2000 µmol m-2 s-1 and natural shade under a closed canopy of Balsa-wood plantation (Ochroma pyramidale Cav. Ex. Lam.Urb about 260 µmol m-2 s-1. The parameters analysed were leaf area (LA, leaf dry mass (LDM, specific leaf area (SLA and leaf nutrient contents. It was observed that, S. macrophylla leaves grown under full sunlight showed LA 35% lower than those grown under shade. In D. odorata leaves these differences in LA were not observed. In addition, it was observed that S. macrophylla shade leaves, for LDM, were 50% smaller than sun leaves, while in D. odorata, there differences were not observed. SLA in S. macrophylla presented that sun leaves were three times smaller than those grown under shade. In D. odorata, no differences were observed. Nutrient contents in S. macrophylla, regardless of their light environments, showed higher contents for P and Ca than those found in D. odorata. The N, K, Fe and Mn contents in S. macrophylla leaves decreased under shade. Finally, we suggest that the decreasing in leaf nutrient contents may have a negative influence on leaf growth. The results demonstrated that the tested hypothesis is true for leaf traits, which D. odorata, late-successional species, showed lower plasticity for leaf traits than Swietenia macrophylla, mid-successional species.Estudou-se a nutrição mineral e as características foliares de duas espécies arbóreas tropicais Switenia macrophylla King (mogno e Dipteryx odorata Aubl Willd (cumaru plantadas sob dois ambientes de luz em Presidente Figueiredo - AM, Brasil. Folhas de S. macrophylla e de D. odorata, com três anos

  10. The Role of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, With Emphasis on the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board - 12482

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santistevan, Menice B. [Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board, 1660 Old Pecos Trail, Suite B, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is comprised of eight Citizens' Advisory Boards, chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the EM SSAB is to provide the DOE with recommendations regarding Environmental Management issues from legacy waste produced at major sites across the DOE Complex. The Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB) is the site specific advisory board to the DOE on issues of environmental monitoring, remediation, waste management and long-term stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The other boards are located at: Hanford, Idaho, Nevada, Paducah, Portsmouth, Oak Ridge and Savannah River. Using broad citizen outreach and input, the SSAB provides an official mechanism for the citizenry at each of these sites to monitor current activities affecting the region and also to have input into the prioritization of future activities. 'The mission of the EM SSAB is to more directly involve stakeholders in EM Planning and decision-making processes for the nuclear weapons complex cleanup. DOE has various means of involving the public in its planning and decision-making processes; the EM SSAB is only one component of EM's public participation program, and is not intended to be an exclusive means of public participation. It is the policy of DOE and EM to conduct it programs in an open and responsive manner, thereby encouraging and providing the opportunity for public participation in its planning and decision-making processes. EM SSAB members are appointed to a two year term and may serve up to three terms. During this time, members are able to hear many presentation from subject matter experts, attend several site tours at their site and across the DOE complex and are able to express their concerns and give input to the prioritization of clean up at each

  11. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Berhe, D. F.; van Boven, J. F. M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify

  12. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Background: \\ud \\ud Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality betwee...

  13. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  14. Atributos químicos e área superficial específica em Latossolo subtropical de altitude sob usos e manejos distintos Chemical attributes and specific surface area in highland subtropical Oxisol under different use and managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Albino Tomasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A interferência antrópica tem modificado a condição original do solo nos Campos de Cima da Serra. O estudo avaliou atributos químicos e físicos de um Latossolo sob campo nativo (CN, campo nativo manejado com queima (CNq, mata nativa (MN, florestamento de pinus (FP e lavoura em sistema plantio convencional (LA, nas camadas de 0,00-0,025, 0,025-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,20, 0,20-0,30m. A mineralogia foi avaliada por difratometria de raios X. Foram avaliados o C orgânico total (COT, pH (H2O; Ca, Mg, K, Na e Al trocáveis; H+Al e P; e calculou-se a soma de bases, a capacidade de troca de cátions, a saturação por bases e por Al. Estimou-se a área superficial específica (ASE e a capacidade máxima de adsorção de fósforo (CMAP. O solo apresentou mineralogia caulinítica e oxídica. No CN, o COT variou entre 15,3 e 56,4g kg-1, o pH foi ≤4,8, a CTC foi alta (18The original landscape of Campos de Cima da Serra region has changed by anthropogenic interference. The study aimed to evaluate soil chemical and physical attributes of an Oxisol under natural grassland (CN, burned natural grassland (CNq, natural forest (MN, pine afforestation (PF and annual crops in conventional tillage system (LA, in the 0.00-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30m layers. The mineralogy was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. It was evaluated the total organic carbon (TOC; pH (H2O; exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na and Al; H+Al and P contents; and calculated bases sum (S, cation exchange capacity (CEC and bases and Al saturation on CEC. It was estimated soil specific surface area (SSA and maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (MPAC. The soil showed kaolinitic and oxidic mineralogy. In the CN soil TOC content ranged between 15.3 and 56.4g kg-1, pH values ≤4.8; CEC was high (18

  15. Effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on non-specific immune responses and hepatic antioxidant abilities and mRNA expression of two heat shock proteins (HSPs) in juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus under pH stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Huang, Zhong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Yu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    This study determined the effect of dietary soybean isoflavones on non-specific immunity and on mRNA expression of two HSPs in juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus under pH stress. Six diets were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg of soybean isoflavones. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish in cylindrical tanks. After 56 days of feeding, 15 fish per tank were exposed to pH stress (pH ≈ 9.2) for 24 h. Serum total protein (TP), respiratory burst activity (RBA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lysozyme (LYZ), complement 3 (C3), complement 4 (C4), cortisol, hepatic total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and the relative mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 90 (HSP90) were investigated. The results showed that after pH stress, serum TP, RBA, LYZ, C4, hepatic T-AOC and CAT levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) while serum ALT, hepatic MDA and HSP70 and HSP90 mRNA expression levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). On the other hand, supplementation with soybean isoflavones significantly reduced levels of serum ALT (20, 40, 60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) and hepatic MDA (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups). Supplemented groups had increased serum TP content (40 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), RBA (20 and 40 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), LYZ (40 and 60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), C3(20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), hepatic SOD activity (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) as well as increased relative mRNA expression of hepatic HSP70 (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) and HSP90 (40 and 60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) (P < 0.05). These results indicate that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 40-60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones could enhance resistance against pH stress in T. Ovatus to some degree

  16. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  17. Reversible lacrimal gland-protective regulatory T-cell dysfunction underlies male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of Sjögren syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Scott M; Kreiger, Portia A; Koretzky, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to maintain immunological tolerance; however, defects in specific organ-protective Treg cell functions have not been demonstrated in organ-specific autoimmunity. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop lacrimal and salivary gland autoimmunity and are a well-characterized model of Sjögren syndrome. Lacrimal gland disease in NOD mice is male-specific, but the role of Treg cells in this sex-specificity is not known. This study aimed to determine if male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren syndrome is the result of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cell dysfunction. An adoptive transfer model of Sjögren syndrome was developed by transferring cells from the lacrimal gland-draining cervical lymph nodes of NOD mice to lymphocyte-deficient NOD-SCID mice. Transfer of bulk cervical lymph node cells modelled the male-specific dacryoadenitis that spontaneously develops in NOD mice. Female to female transfers resulted in dacryoadenitis if the CD4+ CD25+ Treg-enriched population was depleted before transfer; however, male to male transfers resulted in comparable dacryoadenitis regardless of the presence or absence of Treg cells within the donor cell population. Hormone manipulation studies suggested that this Treg cell dysfunction was mediated at least in part by androgens. Surprisingly, male Treg cells were capable of preventing the transfer of dacryoadenitis to female recipients. These data suggest that male-specific factors promote reversible dysfunction of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cells and, to our knowledge, form the first evidence for reversible organ-protective Treg cell dysfunction in organ-specific autoimmunity. PMID:25581706

  18. Mycophenolic acid suppresses human pterygium and normal tenon fibroblast proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Radgonde; Rabinowich, Liane; Maftsir, Genia; Puxeddu, Ilaria; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca; Solomon, Abraham

    2010-10-01

    To investigate whether mycophenolic acid (MPA) exerts antifibrotic effects on pterygium fibroblasts (PFB) with and without stimulation with fibrogenic cytokines, and to compare the efficacy of MPA with mitomycin (MMC) and dexamethasone (DXM) on PFB and tenon fibroblasts (TFB). TFB and PFB were obtained from tissue explants during strabismus or pterygium surgery. Proliferation of subconfluent fibroblasts ± basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (10 ng/ml) was assessed by using the (3H) thymidine-incorporation assay. Cell cultures were incubated with MPA, MMC or DXM. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantifying Annexin V and propidium iodide positive cells with flow cytometry. MPA showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation of PFB ± bFGF as well as TFB ± bFGF. The antiproliferative effect of MPA was comparable with that of MMC and DXM. Short exposure of PFB to MPA under profibrogenic conditions was significantly inhibitory. No apoptotic effect was found on TFB. MPA suppressed tenon and pterygium fibroblast proliferation in vitro under basal and profibrogenic conditions. It was comparable with MMC under long-term exposure, but MMC was more suppressive under short-term exposure. MPA may be safer than MMC due to a more specific mechanism of action and lack of cytotoxicity. Further investigation is warranted regarding MPA concentrations that will lead to a potent antiproliferative effect in vivo.

  19. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were det...

  20. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  1. The Use of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the RAND VSQ9 to Measure the Quality of Life and Visit-Specific Satisfaction of Pregnant Patients Under Chiropractic Care Utilizing the Webster Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Joel; Nazarenko, Andrea Lamont; Ohm, Jeanne; Alcantara, Junjoe

    2018-01-01

    To quantify the quality of life (QoL) and visit-specific satisfaction of pregnant women. A prospective cohort within a practice-based research network (PBRN). Setting/Locations: Individual chiropractic offices. Pregnant women (age ≥18 years) attending chiropractic care. Chiropractic care (i.e., The Webster Technique, spinal adjustments, and adjunctive therapies). The RAND VSQ9 to measure visit-specific satisfaction and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® )-29 to measure QoL. A convenience sample of 343 pregnant patients (average age = 30.96 years) comprised their study population. They were highly educated with 75% attaining a 2-year associate's degree or higher. The pregnant patients presented for chiropractic care with a mean week of gestation of 25.67 weeks (median = 28 weeks; range = 0-42 weeks) and parity (i.e., the number of live births) of 0.92 live births (median = 1; range = 0-6). From baseline (i.e., at study entrance with minimum first visit) and comparative (i.e., following a course of chiropractic care), the VSQ9 measurements revealed increasingly high satisfaction on the part of the subjects (i.e., the mean difference of baseline minus comparative measures = -0.7322; p < 0.005). The median number of visits (i.e., visits attended) at baseline and comparative measures was 1.00 (standard deviation [SD] = 22.69) and 3.30 (SD = 22.71), respectively. Across outcomes, QoL improved from baseline to comparative measurement after holding constant for visit number and time lapse, trimester of pregnancy, and care provider type. There was a reduction in mean T scores associated with fatigue (p < 0.05), pain interference (p < 0.05), sleep disturbance (p < 0.05), and an improvement in satisfaction with social roles (p < 0.05). A significant decrease was also found with pain interference (p < 0.05). No evidence was found that anxiety (p = 0.1404) or depression (p = 0

  2. Comparative radiochemical and radio-immunometrical study on trophoblast-dependent serum parameters under parturition, and radio-immunological detection of pregnancy-specific β1-glycoprotein [SP1] in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.A.E.

    1982-01-01

    77 deliveries were studied clinically and chemically bench-scale using data acquisition sheets applicable for computer operation. According to a catalog 30 normal, 32 abnormal and 15 births featuring EPH gestosis were clearly defined and classified. Radiochemical or radio-immunometrical methods were used to simultaneously analyse and evaluate statistically the following 'trophoblast-dependent serum parameters' in subpartem and postpartem maternal blood, and in aterialized or pooled venous-arterialized umbilicalchord blood in the case groups mentioned above: - 17 β-hydroxysteroid; NAD(P)-oxydoreductase (17 β-HSD; - free oestriol (fE 3 ); -β-subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG); - Human Chorionic Somatomammatropin (hCS=hPL); - and pregnancy-specific β 1 -glycoprotein (SP 1 ). A systematic study was made for the statistical correlations between trophoblast - dependent serum parameters and plancental and neonatal findings as well as for possible correlations between the serum parameters in both the maternal and fetal blood distribution spaces. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Proteomics analysis of 3 different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under in vitro hypoxia and evaluation of hypoxia associated antigen’s specific memory T cells in healthy household contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi Devasundaram

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro mimicking conditions are thought to reflect the environment experienced by M. tuberculosis inside the host granuloma. The majority of the in vitro dormancy experimental models used laboratory adapted strain H37Rv or Erdman strain over the prevalent clinical strains involved during disease outbreaks. Thus, we included the most prevalent clinical strains (S7 and S10 of M. tuberculosis from south India in addition to H37Rv for our in vitro oxygen depletion (hypoxia experimental model. Cytosolic proteins were prepared from the hypoxic cultures, resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and protein spots were characterized by mass spectrometry. Totally 49 spots were characterized as over-expressed or newly appeared between the 3 strains. Two antigens (ESAT-6, Lpd out of the 49 characterized spots were readily available in recombinant form in our lab. Hence, these 2 genes were overexpressed, purified and used for in vitro stimulation of whole blood collected from healthy household contacts (HHC and active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB. Multicolour flow cytometry analysis showed high levels of antigen specific CD4+ central memory T cells in circulation of HHC when compared to PTB (p<0.005 for ESAT-6 and p<0.0005 for Lpd. This shows proteins that are predicted to be upregulated during in vitro hypoxia in most prevalent clinical strains would bring the possible potential immunogens. In vitro hypoxia experiments with most prevalent clinical strains would also bring the probable true representative antigens that involved during adaption mechanism.

  4. Type II collagen in cartilage evokes peptide-specific tolerance and skews the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, V; Kjellén, P; Holmdahl, R

    1998-06-01

    T cell recognition of type II collagen (CII) is a crucial event in the induction of collagen-induced arthritis in the mouse. Several CII peptides have been shown to be of importance, dependent on which MHC haplotype the mouse carries. By sequencing the rat CII and comparing the sequence with mouse, human, bovine and chicken CII, we have found that the immunodominant peptides all differ at critical positions compared with the autologous mouse sequence. Transgenic expression of the immunodominant Aq-restricted heterologous CII 256-270 epitope inserted into type I collagen (TSC mice) or type II collagen (MMC-1 mice) led to epitope-specific tolerance. Immunization of TSC mice with chick CII led to arthritis and immune responses, dependent on the subdominant, Aq-restricted and chick-specific CII 190-200 epitope. Immunization of F1 mice, expressing both H-2q and H-2r as well as transgenic expression of the Aq-restricted CII 256-270 epitope in cartilage, with bovine CII, led to arthritis, dependent on the Ar-restricted, bovine-specific epitope CII 607-621. These data show that the immunodominance of CII recognition is directed towards heterologous determinants, and that T cells directed towards the corresponding autologous epitopes are tolerated without evidence of active suppression.

  5. Esporte olímpico e paraolímpico: coincidências, divergências e especificidades numa perspectiva contemporânea Olympic and paraolympic sports: coincidences, divergences and specifities under a contemporary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Francisco Rodrigues Marques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta uma análise do esporte adaptado, tendo como objeto principal os Jogos Paraolímpicos, evento realizado de forma associada com os Jogos Olímpicos. Procura apontar similaridades e diferenças entre os dois eventos, considerando-os como formas de expressão do esporte contemporâneo, destacando características como a organização, relação com o mercado de consumo e formas de divulgação. As principais diferenças descritas se referem à gênese dos dois objetos, além da maior vocação do esporte olímpico para a inserção mercadológica. Quanto às similaridades, destaca-se a presença em ambos das características do esporte moderno gerado no século XIX, além das estruturas organizacionais conceitualmente similares. Podem-se apontar ainda alguns pontos específicos do esporte adaptado, como modalidades próprias, a exemplo do "Goalball".This text presents an analysis of the adapted sport, focusing on the Paralympics games, an event realized in association with the Olympic Games. It tries to point similarities and differences between the two events, considered as forms of expression of the contemporary sport, detaching characteristics as the organization, relationship with the market and popularization forms. The main described differences refer to the genesis of the two objects, besides the largest vocation of the Olympic sport for the market insertion. As for the similarities, it stands out the presence in both of the characteristics of the modern sport generated in the XIX century, besides the similar organizational conceptual structures. It can still be pointed some specific points of the adapted sport, as own modalities as an example of the "Goalball."

  6. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TheListeria monocytogenesBile Stimulon under Acidic Conditions Is Characterized by Strain-Specific Patterns and the Upregulation of Motility, Cell Wall Modification Functions, and the PrfA Regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia-Oropeza, Veronica; Orsi, Renato H; Guldimann, Claudia; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes uses a variety of transcriptional regulation strategies to adapt to the extra-host environment, the gastrointestinal tract, and the intracellular host environment. While the alternative sigma factor SigB has been proposed to be a key transcriptional regulator that facilitates L. monocytogenes adaptation to the gastrointestinal environment, the L. monocytogenes ' transcriptional response to bile exposure is not well-understood. RNA-seq characterization of the bile stimulon was performed in two L. monocytogenes strains representing lineages I and II. Exposure to bile at pH 5.5 elicited a large transcriptomic response with ~16 and 23% of genes showing differential transcription in 10403S and H7858, respectively. The bile stimulon includes genes involved in motility and cell wall modification mechanisms, as well as genes in the PrfA regulon, which likely facilitate survival during the gastrointestinal stages of infection that follow bile exposure. The fact that bile exposure induced the PrfA regulon, but did not induce further upregulation of the SigB regulon (beyond that expected by exposure to pH 5.5), suggests a model where at the earlier stages of gastrointestinal infection (e.g., acid exposure in the stomach), SigB-dependent gene expression plays an important role. Subsequent exposure to bile induces the PrfA regulon, potentially priming L. monocytogenes for subsequent intracellular infection stages. Some members of the bile stimulon showed lineage- or strain-specific distribution when 27 Listeria genomes were analyzed. Even though sigB null mutants showed increased sensitivity to bile, the SigB regulon was not found to be upregulated in response to bile beyond levels expected by exposure to pH 5.5. Comparison of wildtype and corresponding Δ sigB strains newly identified 26 SigB-dependent genes, all with upstream putative SigB-dependent promoters.

  8. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  9. Anti-tumor effect of adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy under control of tumor-specific and radio-inducible chimeric promoter in combination with γ-ray irradiation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjie; Yu Haijun; Xiongjie; Xu Yu; Liao Zhengkai; Zhou Fuxiang; Xie Conghua; Zhou Yunfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect the selective inhibitory effects of irradiation plus adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) suicide gene system using tumor-specific and radio-inducible chimeric promoter on human hepatocellular carcinoma subcutaneously xenografted in nude mouse. Methods: Recombinant replicated-deficient adenovirus vector containing HRP gene and chimeric human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter carrying 6 radio-inducible CArG elements was constructed. A human subcutaneous transplanting hepatocellular carcinoma (MHCC97 cell line) model was treated with γ-ray irradiation plus intra-tumor injections of adenoviral vector and intra-peritoneal injections of prodrug IAA. The change of tumor volume and tumor growth inhibiting rate, the survival time of nude mice, as well as histopathology of xenograft tumor and normal tissues were evaluated. Results: Thirty one days after the treatment, the relative tumor volumes in the negative, adenovirus therapy, irradiation, and combination groups were 49.23±4.55, 27.71±7.74, 28.53±10.48 and 11.58±3.23, respectively.There was a significantly statistical difference among them (F=16.288, P<0.01).The inhibition effect in the combination group was strongest as compared with that in other groups, and its inhibition ratio was 76.5%. The survival period extended to 43 d in the combination group, which showed a significantly difference with that in the control group (χ 2 =18.307, P<0.01). The area of tumors necrosis in the combination group was larger than that in the other groups, and the normal tissues showed no treatment-related toxic effect in all groups. However, multiple hepatocellular carcinoma metastases were observed in the liver in the control group, there were a few metastases in the monotherapy groups and no metastasis in the combination group. Conclusions: Adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy plus radiotherapy dramatically could inhibit tumor growth and prolong

  10. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  11. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  12. Category Specific Spatial Dissociations of Parallel Processes Underlying Visual Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Christopher R.; Chen, Gang; Pieters, Thomas A.; Tandon, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    The constituent elements and dynamics of the networks responsible for word production are a central issue to understanding human language. Of particular interest is their dependency on lexical category, particularly the possible segregation of nouns and verbs into separate processing streams. We applied a novel mixed-effects, multilevel analysis to electrocorticographic data collected from 19 patients (1942 electrodes) to examine the activity of broadly disseminated cortical networks during t...

  13. Organization of Rural Microbusinesses Under Specific Family Owners Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sposito Maylis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Le projet de recherche Interreg IV-A a pour objectif d’analyser les conséquences socio-économiques des situations de rupture de trajectoire dans les Très Petites Entreprises rurales de l’Arc jurassien franco-suisse. Plusieurs chercheur.e.s sont réunis autour de cette recherche en fonction des différentes institutions engagées dans le projet3. J’axerai davantage sur les caractéristiques communes des TPE de chaque côté de la frontière. Ces caractéristiques communes relèvent d’une superposition des sphères familiale et professionnelle entrainant souvent une superposition des statuts, des rapports de genre au travail que cette superposition induit, ainsi que les situations économiques fragiles dans ces petites structures. Cet article se propose donc de mettre en perspective la typologie élaborée à la suite des entretiens biographiques réalisés. Cette typologie met en regard la figure de l’héritier de l’entreprise familiale avec celle du créateur autodidacte. De cette différence de mode d’accès à l’indépendance professionnelle découle un apanage stratégique de séparation/fusion privé-professionnel différent entre les deux idéaux-type énoncées précédemment. Cette typologie sera davantage affinée mais elle permet de mettre en exergue les stratégies développées par les acteurs pour séparer ou non la sphère familiale de la sphère professionnelle. Ainsi, en abordant la problématique de la rupture par le biais de cette typologie des chef.fe.s d’entreprise, cet article montrera les divers éléments infléchissant en cas de rupture aussi bien sur la viabilité de l’entreprise que sur la destinée des individus.

  14. Isothermal Gravitational Segregation: Algorithms and Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsson, Snorri; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    New algorithms for calculating the isothermal equilibrium state of reservoir fluids under the influence of gravity are presented. Two types of specifications are considered: the specification of pressure and composition at a reference depth; and the specification of the total overall content of t...

  15. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  16. First-principles study on the phase transitions, crystal stabilities and thermodynamic properties of TiN under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinjun; Liu, Changdong; Guo, Yongliang; Sun, Deyan; Ke, Xuezhi

    2018-03-01

    The structural and thermodynamic properties of titanium nitride (TiN) have been investigated by merging first-principles calculations and particle-swarm algorithm. The three phases are identified for TiN, including the B1, the P63 / mmc, and the B2 phases. A new phase of anti-TiP structure with the space group P63 / mmc has been predicted. The calculated phase transition from the B1 to the P63 / mmc occurs at 270 GPa. The vibrational, elastic, and thermodynamic properties for the three phases have been calculated and discussed.

  17. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  18. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  19. Physical Properties of Copper Based MMC Strengthened with Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmar J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the development of Cu-Al2O3 composites of copper Cu-ETP matrix composite materials reinforced by 20 and 30 vol.% Al2O3 particles and study of some chosen physical properties. Squeeze casting technique of porous compacts with liquid copper was applied at the pressure of 110 MPa. Introduction of alumina particles into copper matrix affected on the significant increase of hardness and in the case of Cu-30 vol. % of alumina particles to 128 HBW. Electrical resistivity was strongly affected by the ceramic alumina particles and addition of 20 vol. % of particles caused diminishing of electrical conductivity to 20 S/m (34.5% IACS. Thermal conductivity tests were performed applying two methods and it was ascertained that this parameter strongly depends on the ceramic particles content, diminishing it to 100 Wm-1K-1 for the composite material containing 30 vol.% of ceramic particles comparing to 400 Wm-1K-1 for the unreinforced copper. Microstructural analysis was carried out using SEM microscopy and indicates that Al2O3 particles are homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix. EDS analysis shows remains of silicon on the surface of ceramic particles after binding agent used during preparation of ceramic preforms.

  20. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatica efficiency under irradiation. A study in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.; Getoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the last decades the research of malignant tumors (oncology) became a complex interdisciplinary branch of the modern sciences. In addition to other disciplines the radiation chemistry and radiation biology, applied in this respect, led to new and deeper understanding and knowledge in the radiation therapy of cancer. Following this line and by a combined use of both methods, studies in vitro for testing cytostatica activity and pulse radiolysis for characterisation of the corresponding transients, it was possible to gain a deeper and extensive understanding of complex reaction mechanisms. In addition to valuable biological data we have established that the cytostatica efficiency, e.g. of mitomycin C (MMC) can be very strongly increased in the presence of the vitamins C, E and β-carotene. As an essential step in this respect a cascade electron transfer with the sequence: vit. C → vit. E· + /vit. E → β-car. · + /β-car. → MMC/MMC· - was established. In the present work the ability of vitamin B1 (thiamine) to act under given conditions as cytostaticum or/and as radiation protecting agent will be reported. Extensive investigations in vitro (E. coli bacteria AB 1157 were used as a model) in different media showed that with a combination of vitamin B1 with sanazole (AK-2123) a synergistic effect occurs, which results in a very strong cytostatica enhancement. The presence of vitamin C in the system strongly contributes in this respect. The influence on the sanazole efficiency by other vitamins (E and β-carotene) added individually or in mixture will also be reported. The obtained results are of importance for the radiation therapy of cancer patients. The paper also demonstrates the significant role of radiation chemistry in radiation biology and medicine

  1. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  2. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  3. Cancer Chemotherapy Specific to Acidic Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-20

    The realization of cancer therapeutics specific to cancer cells with less of an effect on normal tissues is our goal. Many trials have been carried out for this purpose, but this goal is still far from being realized. It was found more than 80 years ago that solid cancer nests are acidified, but in vitro studies under acidic conditions have not been extensively studied. Recently, in vitro experiments under acidic conditions were started and anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic areas have been identified. Many genes have been reported to be expressed at a high level under acidic conditions, and such genes may be potent targets for anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests. In this review article, recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical achievements in anti-cancer drugs with marked efficacy under acidic conditions are summarized, and the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests is discussed.

  4. How specific is specific self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Makransky, Guido; Vang, Maria Louison

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy is an important and much used construct in psychology and social science studies. The validity of the measurements used is not always sufficiently evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the self-efficacy subscale of The Motivated...... academic learning self-efficacy (SAL-SE) and specific academic exam self-efficacy (SAE-SE), each scale being measurement invariant relative to age, Gender, admission method and specific course targeted. Furthermore, significant and relevant differences between the SAL-SE and SAE-SE scores dependent...... on university and admission method were found, and these results were replicated with two further samples. The SAL-SE and SAE-SE scales hold promise for more detailed studies of student self-efficacy....

  5. 10 CFR 60.43 - License specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License specification. 60.43 Section 60.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Issuance and Amendment § 60.43 License specification. (a) A license issued under this part shall...

  6. Efficient modelling of a modular multilevel converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Holbøll, Joachim; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2013-01-01

    Looking at the near future, we see that offshore wind penetration into the electrical grid will continue increasing rapidly. Until very recently, the trend has been to place the offshore wind farms close to shore within the reach for transmission using HVAC cables but for larger distances HVDC...... are calculated for the converter. Time-domain simulations on a MMC HVDC test system are performed in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment based on the new model. The results demonstrate that the modeled MMC-HVDC system with or without converter transformer is able to operate under specific fault conditions....

  7. FOXP3-specific immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3+ malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network ...

  8. 22 CFR 505.14 - Specific exemptions (Subsection (k)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Specific exemptions (Subsection (k)). 505.14... exemptions (Subsection (k)). The specific exemptions focus more on the nature of the records in the system of...) Subsection (k)(1). Records which are specifically authorized under criteria established under an Executive...

  9. Review of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrich, M.; Scholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with position and function of technical specifications before and during the manufacturing of reactor components, their structure and reasons for specific regulations due to safety philosophy and explains the cooperation of supplier, manufacturer, utilities and supervisory organizations. (RW)

  10. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    2009-01-01

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design...... that addresses the shaping of interactions among people, place-specific resources and global socio-technical networks, mediated by digital technology, and influenced by the structuring conditions of place. The theoretical grounding for place-specific computing is located in the meeting between conceptions...... examples of place-specific computing are presented from a series of pilot studies, conducted in close collaboration with design students in Malmö, Berlin, Cape Town and Rome, that generated 36 design concepts in the genre. Reflecting on these examples, issues in the design of place-specific computing...

  11. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  12. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  13. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Johansson, Michael

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design. Proliferation of wireless infrastructure, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing provides the base for place-specific computing as a suggested new genre of interaction design. In the REcult...... project place- specific computing is explored through design oriented research. This article reports six pilot studies where design students have designed concepts for place-specific computing in Berlin (Germany), Cape Town (South Africa), Rome (Italy) and Malmö (Sweden). Background and arguments...... for place-specific computing as a genre of interaction design are described. A total number of 36 design concepts designed for 16 designated zones in the four cities are presented. An analysis of the design concepts is presented indicating potentials, possibilities and problems as directions for future...

  14. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  15. Test Equipment Specifications Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Didiek Andiana Ramadan; Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we design a test apparatus Transistor Specification. Specification is atype of transistor is a transistor and common emitter current reinforcement value ( βDC ). The system will provide information in the form of an LED display emits greenlight when the tested types of NPN transistor and the second LED emits blue lightwhen the tested types of PNP transistors.To test the value of β, whose value is proportional to the display used by the collectorcurrent Ic.

  16. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  17. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  18. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly...... desired. Key inputs to such frameworks are protein residues that modulate the specificity of TF under consideration. Simple measures like mutual information (MI) to delineate specificity influencing residues (SIRs) from alignment fail due to structural constraints imposed by the three...

  19. Vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality....

  20. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    Enterprise systems are complex artifacts. They are hard to build, manage, understand, and evolve. Existing software development paradigms fail to properly address challenges such as system size, domain complexity, and software evolution when development is scaled to enterprise systems. We propose...... domain-specific multimodeling as a development paradigm to tackle these challenges in a language-oriented manner. The different concerns of a system are conceptually separated and made explicit as independent domain-specific languages. This approach increases productivity and quality by raising...... this coordination problem. By systematically identifying language interactions, we can specify a coordination model for the system. Specifically, we explicitly identify name bindings and references across language boundaries. We argue that such a coordination model facilitates consistency, navigation, and guidance...

  1. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    , which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory elements......The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint....... In the design methodology literature we find guidelines and methods to compile a product design specification. The contributions are based on the common underlying assumption that it is meaningful and the only feasible approach to interpret the result of a need analysis into a set of technical specifications...

  2. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  3. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first Level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second Level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  4. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  5. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  6. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  7. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  8. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  9. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  10. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  11. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  12. Damage and failure behavior of metal matrix composites under biaxial loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Steven Wayne

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are being considered for increased use in structures that require the ductility and damage tolerance of the metal matrix and the enhanced strength and creep resistance at elevated temperatures of high performance fibers. Particularly promising for advanced aerospace engines and airframes are SiC fiber/titanium matrix composites (TMCs). A large program was undertaken in the Air Force to characterize the deformation and failure behaviors of TMCs and to develop computational models that can be used for component design. The effort reported here focused on a SiC SCS-6/Timetal 21S composite under biaxial loading conditions. Biaxial loading conditions are important because multiaxial stresses have been shown to influence the strength and ductility of engineering materials and, in general, structural components are subjected to multiaxial loads. The TMC material response, including stress-strain curves and failure surfaces, was measured using a combination of off-axis uniaxial tension and compression tests and biaxial cruciform tests. The off-axis tests produce combinations of in-plane tension, compression, and shear stresses, the mix of which are controlled by the relative angle between the fiber and specimen axes. The biaxial cruciform tests allowed independent control over the tensile or compressive loads in the fiber and transverse directions. The results of these characterization tests were used to develop a microstructural constitutive model and failure criteria. The basis of the micromechanical constitutive model is a representative unit volume of the MMC with a periodic array of fibers. The representative unit volume is divided into a fiber and three matrix cells for which the microstructural equilibrium and compatibility equations can be analyzed. The resulting constitutive model and associated failure criteria can be used to predict the material behavior under general loading conditions.

  13. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    , with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar....... We present symbolic versions of the algorithms used in Ecdar, and demonstrate the use of the tool using a small case study in compositional verification....

  14. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  15. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  16. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAILY, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) has established a document hierarchy as part of its integrated management system. The Strategic Plan defines the vision, values, missions, strategic goals, high-level outcomes, and the basic strategies in achieving those outcomes. As shown in Figure 1-1, the Site Specification derives requirements from the Strategic Plan and documents the top-level mission technical requirements for the work involved in the RL Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (EM). It also provides the basis for all contract technical requirements. Since this is limited to the EM work, neither the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) nor the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) non-EM science activities are included. Figure 1-1 also shows the relationship between this Site Specification and the other Site management and planning documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this document represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents

  18. VSAT networks in India - Specifications and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, A. K.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes briefly the evolution of VSATs in India, including the existing and proposed networks and their applications. The salient specifications of the various types of VSATs are described. Some of the VSATs under advanced stages of development as well as those to be used in proposed networks due for implementation soon are also covered.

  19. Component processes underlying future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Ortoleva, Claudia; Jumentier, Sabrina; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the component processes underlying the ability to imagine future events, using an individual-differences approach. Participants completed several tasks assessing different aspects of future thinking (i.e., fluency, specificity, amount of episodic details, phenomenology) and were also assessed with tasks and questionnaires measuring various component processes that have been hypothesized to support future thinking (i.e., executive processes, visual-spatial processing, relational memory processing, self-consciousness, and time perspective). The main results showed that executive processes were correlated with various measures of future thinking, whereas visual-spatial processing abilities and time perspective were specifically related to the number of sensory descriptions reported when specific future events were imagined. Furthermore, individual differences in self-consciousness predicted the subjective feeling of experiencing the imagined future events. These results suggest that future thinking involves a collection of processes that are related to different facets of future-event representation.

  20. Safety detaching hook specification.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JD

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Single-sided Impact Tests 14 Appendix C Record of Amendments 15 5. REFERENCES 17 4 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subiect The subject of this specification is safety detaching hooks for mine shaft conveyances. According to South African Law1 it is a legal... after a full detachment in the catch plate or bell. Engineer The Mine Engineer, or his authorised sub-ordinate, legally appointed in terms of an Act to be responsible for shaft equipment. NDE Non-Destructive Examination. OEM Original Equipment...

  1. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  2. Task Specific Tremors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph H

    2015-07-01

    A patient reported bilateral hand tremors when writing but not with other tasks. These "task specific" tremors are considered subcategories of essential tremor. Primary writing tremor, in which the tremor occurs only with writing, is probably the most common. The important teaching point is that the "standard" tremor assessment, watching the patient holding a sustained posture and touching his finger to the examiner's and then back to the nose is not adequate. Patients should be tested doing the activity that causes them the most difficulty.

  3. [Pregnancy-specific dermatoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutou, B; Aractingi, S

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy-specific dermatoses include polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and impetigo herpetiformis are not real pregnancy-specific dermatoses but they are important to know considering the fetal and maternal risks. Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy is a pruritic disease that usually occurs in primiparous women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Atopic eczema of pregnancy is still controversial as an entity covering conditions with eczematous lesions, prurigo, or folliculitis, and inconstantly associated with a personal history of atopy. Skin biopsy with direct immunofluorescence or search for serum anti-BPAg1 (180kD) NC16a antibodies is mandatory in pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy in order to rule out pemphigoid gestationis. Serum bile salts levels should be tested whenever a generalized pruritus develops during pregnancy in order to rule out intrahepatic cholestasis. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  5. Solidarity under Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Goffredo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack......https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack...

  6. PET's indsats under lup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    2006-01-01

    En undersøgelseskommission nedsat i 1999. Fem medlemmer skal undersøge PET's efterretningsvirksomhed i forhold til politiske partier, faglige konflikter og politisk ideologiske bevægelser i Danmark under den kolde krig. Kommissionens rapport forventes færdig næste år. Udgivelsesdato: 2. juli 2006...

  7. Site specific plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs

  8. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  9. [Dermatomyositis-specific antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoki, L; Nagy-Vincze, M; Griger, Z; Dankó, K

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are chronic systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. The clinicopathological subdivision nowadays appears to be obsolete which is why the immunoserological classification has been developed. Dermatomyositis represents one the most important subsets of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and dermatomyositis-specific autoantibodies play a significant role in this subset. The aim of this article was to present these autoantibodies with the help of the literature. This article presents the most important information about dermatomyositis including not only the classical anti-Mi-2 autoantibody but also the recently detected anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE and anti-MDA5 autoantibodies. The focus is on the frequency of these autoantibodies, the associated symptoms in adult and juvenile dermatomyositis cases and some special aspects from the literature. All of the studies confirmed that these autoantibodies are particularly detectable in dermatomyositis. The results from the literature have recently shown that the frequency of the autoantibodies detected in juvenile cases is higher than the frequency of traditional autoantibodies (e.g. anti-Jo-1, anti-Mi-2 and anti-SRP). It is useful to detect these autoantibodies in order to be able to make a better assessment of the clinical symptoms and prognosis during the course of the disease.

  10. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-07-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  11. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vyatkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  12. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzon Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  13. An mRNA-specific tRNAi carrier eIF2A plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation under stress conditions: stress-resistant translation of c-Src mRNA is mediated by eIF2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sung; An, Sihyeon; Kim, Eunah; Yu, Jinbae; Hong, Ka Young; Lee, Jae Seung; Jang, Sung Key

    2017-01-01

    c-Src, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, activates NF-κB and STAT3, which in turn triggers the transcription of anti-apoptosis- and cell cycle-related genes. c-Src protein regulates cell proliferation, cell motility and programmed cell death. And the elevated level of activated c-Src protein is related with solid tumor generation. Translation of c-Src mRNA is directed by an IRES element which mediates persistent translation under stress conditions when translation of most mRNAs is inhibited by a phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2 carrying the initiator tRNA (tRNAi) to 40S ribosomal subunit under normal conditions. The molecular basis of the stress-resistant translation of c-Src mRNA remained to be elucidated. Here, we report that eIF2A, an alternative tRNAi carrier, is responsible for the stress-resistant translation of c-Src mRNA. eIF2A facilitates tRNAi loading onto the 40S ribosomal subunit in a c-Src mRNA-dependent manner. And a direct interaction between eIF2A and a stem-loop structure (SL I) in the c-Src IRES is required for the c-Src IRES-dependent translation under stress conditions but not under normal conditions. Finally, we showed that the eIF2A-dependent translation of c-Src mRNA plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation under stress conditions. PMID:27899592

  14. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  15. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector

  16. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  17. Non-specific immunization against babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)

  18. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Michal; Nagy, Roman; Fisch, Dominik

    2014-12-01

    The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework) - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  19. Flexicurity under afvikling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Crumlin, Jens Voldby

    2009-01-01

    Flexicurity-strategien er under angreb fra højrefløjen - mens Socialdemokrater og fagbevægelse er lammet Udgivelsesdato: 10 marts......Flexicurity-strategien er under angreb fra højrefløjen - mens Socialdemokrater og fagbevægelse er lammet Udgivelsesdato: 10 marts...

  20. Creativity under the Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.; Hadley, Constance N.; Kramer, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Although many employers think that people are most creative when under time pressure, research indicates that the opposite is true. Data from 177 employees' diaries showed that creative thinking under extreme time pressure is unlikely when people feel on a treadmill or on autopilot; more likely when they feel they are on an expedition or a…

  1. Undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    Cykelryttere får for lidt energidrik - og det koster dyrt på de lange distancer. Opsigtsvækkende resultater fra en ny undersøgelse afslører at væske- og energiindtaget under langvarig cykling har stor betydning for præstationen....

  2. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain general biases have domain specific effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eCulbertson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which the linguistic system—its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to—is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be specific to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain­-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain­-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in a domain-­specific way.

  3. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-01-01

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year''s prototypes, the application functionality needed for test will be provided by sample maintenance controls. These are early precursors of controls that can be used for low level device control. Since the devices under test will be represented by

  4. Computational network design from functional specifications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi Han

    2016-07-11

    Connectivity and layout of underlying networks largely determine agent behavior and usage in many environments. For example, transportation networks determine the flow of traffic in a neighborhood, whereas building floorplans determine the flow of people in a workspace. Designing such networks from scratch is challenging as even local network changes can have large global effects. We investigate how to computationally create networks starting from only high-level functional specifications. Such specifications can be in the form of network density, travel time versus network length, traffic type, destination location, etc. We propose an integer programming-based approach that guarantees that the resultant networks are valid by fulfilling all the specified hard constraints and that they score favorably in terms of the objective function. We evaluate our algorithm in two different design settings, street layout and floorplans to demonstrate that diverse networks can emerge purely from high-level functional specifications.

  5. Adequate procedures for specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Gattringer, D.K.; Dal Mas, C.R.; Tessman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ideal procedures for specific radiographic exams are briefly presented. The aim is to improve the quality standard, establishing a specific method for each exam in order to decrease films waste and reduce the patient dose exposure

  6. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  7. 76 FR 189 - Notice of Availability of the Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... [pressurized water reactor] Operability Requirements and Actions for RCS [reactor coolant system] Leakage...) and non- concurrence, are available electronically under ADAMS Accession Numbers ML101340278 and... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Matthew Hamm, Reactor Systems Engineer, Technical Specifications Branch...

  8. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report

  9. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    OpenAIRE

    M. Benmohammed; S. Merniz

    2005-01-01

    Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is t...

  10. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of coherence and phase synchronization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterhalder, Matthias; Schelter, Bjoern; Kurths, Juergen; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Timmer, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we show that coherence and phase synchronization analysis are sensitive but not specific in detecting the correct class of underlying dynamics. We propose procedures to increase specificity and demonstrate the power of the approach by application to paradigmatic dynamic model systems

  12. 42 CFR 1000.20 - Definitions specific to Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions specific to Medicare. 1000.20 Section... GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; GENERAL DEFINITIONS Definitions § 1000.20 Definitions specific to... for services covered under Part B of Title XVIII of the Act. Supplier means a physician or other...

  13. Distribution measurement of 60Co target radioactive specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyan; Chen Zigen; Ren Min

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive specific activity distribution of cobalt 60 target by irradiation in HFETR is a key parameter. With the collimate principle, the under water measurement device and conversion coefficient which is get by experiments, and the radioactive specific activity distribution is obtained. The uncertainty of measurement is less than 10%

  14. Isoform Specificity of Protein Kinase Cs in Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, Wayne S.

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are implicated in many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the specific isoform(s) of PKC that underlie(s) these events are often not known. We have used "Aplysia" as a model system in order to investigate the isoform specificity of PKC actions due to the presence of fewer isoforms and a large number of documented…

  15. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing of specific commodities. 780.816 Section 780.816... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.816 Processing of specific commodities. Only the...

  16. Generic Guide Specification for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, WKT

    2000-04-12

    The attached Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pump (GHP) Guide Specifications have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the intent to assist federal agency sites and engineers in the preparation of construction specifications for GHP projects. These specifications have been developed in the industry-standard Construction Specification Institute (CSI) format and cover several of the most popular members of the family of GHP systems. These guide specifications are applicable to projects whether the financing is with conventional appropriations, arranged by GHP specialty ESCOs under the U.S. Department of Energy's Technology-Specific GHP Super ESPCs, arranged by utilities under Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) or arranged by generalist ESCOs under the various regional ESPCs. These specifications can provide several benefits to the end user that will help ensure successful GHP system installations. GHP guide specifications will help to streamline the specification development, review, and approval process because the architecture and engineering (AE) firm will be working from the familiar CSI format instead of developing the specifications from other sources. The guide specifications help to provide uniformity, standardization, and consistency in both the construction specifications and system installations across multiple federal sites. This standardization can provide future benefits to the federal sites in respect to both maintenance and operations. GHP guide specifications can help to ensure that the agency is getting its money's worth from the GHP system by preventing the use of marginal or inferior components and equipment. The agency and its AE do not have to start from scratch when developing specifications and can use the specification as a template and/or a checklist in developing both the design and the contract documents. The guide specifications can save project costs by reducing the engineering effort required

  17. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  18. Eliminating Direction Specificity in Visuomotor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cong; Bi, Yuqing; Yu, Cong; Wei, Kunlin

    2016-03-30

    The generalization of learning offers a unique window for investigating the nature of motor learning. Error-based motor learning reportedly cannot generalize to distant directions because the aftereffects are direction specific. This direction specificity is often regarded as evidence that motor adaptation is model-based learning, and is constrained by neuronal tuning characteristics in the primary motor cortices and the cerebellum. However, recent evidence indicates that motor adaptation also involves model-free learning and explicit strategy learning. Using rotation paradigms, here we demonstrate that savings (faster relearning), which is closely related to model-free learning and explicit strategy learning, is also direction specific. However, this new direction specificity can be abolished when the participants receive exposure to the generalization directions via an irrelevant visuomotor gain-learning task. Control evidence indicates that this exposure effect is weakened when direction error signals are absent during gain learning. Therefore, the direction specificity in visuomotor learning is not solely related to model-based learning; it may also result from the impeded expression of model-free learning and explicit strategy learning with untrained directions. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying motor learning, and may have important implications for practical applications such as motor rehabilitation. Motor learning is more useful if it generalizes to untrained scenarios when needed, especially for sports training and motor rehabilitation. However, as a form of motor learning, motor adaptation is typically direction specific. Here we first show that savings with motor adaptation, an index for model-free learning and explicit strategy learning in motor learning, is also direction specific. However, the participants' additional exposure to untrained directions via an irrelevant gain-learning task can enable the complete

  19. Efeito de doses de adubo 4-14-8 na competição entre tomateiro e Solanum americanum em convivência intra e interespecífica Effect of fertilizer 4-14-8 doses on competition between tomato and Solanum americanum under intra- and inter-specific coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro (Lycopersicum esculentum é uma das mais importantes hortaliças produzidas no mundo, porém sua produtividade pode ser reduzida em função da convivência com Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da adubação na relação de interferência intra e interespecífica entre plantas de tomateiro e S. americanum. Duas plantas em condições de convivência intra e interespecífica, por espécie, foram plantadas em vasos e adubadas com 13, 18 e 24 g de 4-14-8 por vaso, sendo avaliadas características de crescimento de ambas as espécies aos 90 dias após o transplante das plantas. A adubação com 4-14-8 estimulou o desenvolvimento da área foliar e da massa seca de caules, folhas e frutos de S. americanum, além da área foliar e da massa seca de folhas e frutos do tomateiro. A convivência interespecífica proporcionou maior altura de plantas de S. americanum, bem como menor altura e massa seca de folhas e frutos do tomateiro. Houve interação dos fatores adubação e convivência somente para o tomateiro, sendo a altura e a massa seca de folhas da cultura influenciadas negativamente quando submetidas às maiores doses de adubo e à competição com S. americanum.Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum is one of the leading vegetable crops grown worldwide, but its productivity may be reduced due to coexistence with Solanum americanum (black nightshade. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of fertilization on intra- and inter-specific interference between tomato and S. americanum plants. Two plants in intra- and inter-specific coexistence conditions of both species were planted in pots and fertilized with 13, 18 and 24 g of 4-14-8 per pot to evaluate the growth characteristics of both species at 90 days after transplanting. The 4-14-8 fertilization stimulated the development of the leaf area and dry mass of stems, leaves and fruit of S. americanum, consequently and equally influencing the leaf

  20. Modal and Mixed Specifications: Key Decision Problems and their Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    Modal and mixed transition systems are specification formalisms that allow mixing of over- and under-approximation. We discuss three fundamental decision problems for such specifications: whether a set of specifications has a common implementation, whether a sole specification has an implementation......, and whether all implementations of one specification are implementations of another one. For each of these decision problems we investigate the worst-case computational complexity for the modal and mixed case. We show that the first decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for modal as well as for mixed...... specifications. We prove that the second decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications (while it is known to be trivial for modal ones). The third decision problem is furthermore demonstrated to be EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications....

  1. Age-specific serum prostate specific antigen ranges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the ...

  2. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant...

  3. Equity valuation : Under Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, António Rafael Mendes

    2016-01-01

    The present dissertation aims to value Under Armour, an American sportswear company. Since Valuation is not an exact science, during the literature review will be presented several valuation methods. Most of the authors mention DCF Valuation as one of the best but it seems impossible for them to reach a consensus about which one is in fact the best. In order to get Under Armour’s target price, a DCF valuation will be made and accompanied by a Relative Valuation that, when it is properly us...

  4. Danmark under overfladen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M.; Danø, R.

    "Danmark under overfladen" er et nyt undervisningstilbud til de danske skoler. På Internettet, www.danmarkunderoverfladen.dk kan man downloade grundbogen og fire andre temahæfter, samt se film og løse opgaver. "Danmark under overfladen" henvender sig til alle som er interesseret i havbiologi, men...... som undervisningsmateriale retter bogen sig særligt til de ældste klasser i folkeskolen og til det naturfaglige grundforløb i gymnasiet. Denne bog starter med at introducere den naturvidenskabelige arbejdsmetode i kapitel 1. Det er en tankegang som man må gå ind på,...

  5. Conservation of wave action under multisymplectic discretizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Frank (Jason)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss the conservation of wave action under numerical discretization by variational and multisymplectic methods. Both the general wave action conservation defined with respect to a smooth, periodic, one-parameter ensemble of flow realizations and the specific wave

  6. Solidification under microgravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper outlines the broad areas where studies are being conducted under microgravity conditions worldwide viz., biotechnology, combustion science, materials science and fluid physics. The paper presents in particular a review on the various areas of research being pursued in materials science. These include studies ...

  7. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses such

  8. Care profession under change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask Eriksen, Tine; Engel, Lisbeth Vinberg; Vedsegaard, Helle

    Backgound and aims: Sygeplejerskemanglen i Danmark er stor. Udfordringerne består i disse år i at rekruttere og fastholde sygeplejestuderende i studiet. Hensigten med projektet er dels at undersøge hvilke livshistoriske omsorgsforudsætninger, de studerende møder med i uddannelsen og dels at beskr...

  9. The Roles of Alpha-Momorcharin and Jasmonic Acid in Modulating the Response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Meng, Yao; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia , and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia - cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA) and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor) and (α-MMC+ibuprofen)-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway.

  10. The Roles of Alpha-Momorcharin and Jasmonic Acid in Modulating the Response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Meng, Yao; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia–cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA) and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor) and (α-MMC+ibuprofen)-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway. PMID:27881976

  11. Network planning under uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

    2008-11-01

    One of the main focuses for network planning is on the optimization of network resources required to build a network under certain traffic demand projection. Traditionally, the inputs to this type of network planning problems are treated as deterministic. In reality, the varying traffic requirements and fluctuations in network resources can cause uncertainties in the decision models. The failure to include the uncertainties in the network design process can severely affect the feasibility and economics of the network. Therefore, it is essential to find a solution that can be insensitive to the uncertain conditions during the network planning process. As early as in the 1960's, a network planning problem with varying traffic requirements over time had been studied. Up to now, this kind of network planning problems is still being active researched, especially for the VPN network design. Another kind of network planning problems under uncertainties that has been studied actively in the past decade addresses the fluctuations in network resources. One such hotly pursued research topic is survivable network planning. It considers the design of a network under uncertainties brought by the fluctuations in topology to meet the requirement that the network remains intact up to a certain number of faults occurring anywhere in the network. Recently, the authors proposed a new planning methodology called Generalized Survivable Network that tackles the network design problem under both varying traffic requirements and fluctuations of topology. Although all the above network planning problems handle various kinds of uncertainties, it is hard to find a generic framework under more general uncertainty conditions that allows a more systematic way to solve the problems. With a unified framework, the seemingly diverse models and algorithms can be intimately related and possibly more insights and improvements can be brought out for solving the problem. This motivates us to seek a

  12. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  13. Creativity under the gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M; Hadley, Constance N; Kramer, Steven J

    2002-08-01

    If you're like most managers, you've worked with people who swear they do their most creative work under tight deadlines. You may use pressure as a management technique, believing it will spur people on to great leaps of insight. You may even manage yourself this way. If so, are you right? Not necessarily, these researchers say. There are instances where ingenuity flourishes under extreme time pressure--for instance, a NASA team within hours comes up with a primitive but effective fix for the failing air filtration system aboard Apollo 13. But when creativity is under the gun, it usually ends up getting killed, the authors say. They recently took a close look at how people experience time pressure, collecting and analyzing more than 9,000 daily diary entries from individuals who were working on projects that required high levels of creativity and measuring their ability to innovate under varying levels of time pressure. The authors describe common characteristics of time pressure and outline four working environments under which creativity may or may not flourish. High-pressure days that still yield creativity are full of focus and meaningful urgency--people feel like they are on a mission. High-pressure days that yield no creativity lack such focus--people feel like they are on a treadmill, forced to switch gears often. On low-pressure days that yield creativity, people feel like they are on an expedition--exploring ideas rather than just identifying problems. And on low-pressure days that yield no creative thinking, people work on autopilot--doing their jobs without engaging too deeply. Managers should avoid extreme time pressure when possible; after all, complex cognitive processing takes time. For when they can't, the authors suggest ways to mollify its effects.

  14. Specification and thermodynamical properties of semigroup actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fagner B.; Varandas, Paulo

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, we study the thermodynamical properties of finitely generated continuous subgroup actions. We propose a notion of topological entropy and pressure functions that do not depend on the growth rate of the semigroup and introduce strong and orbital specification properties, under which the semigroup actions have positive topological entropy and all points are entropy points. Moreover, we study the convergence and Lipschitz regularity of the pressure function and obtain relations between topological entropy and exponential growth rate of periodic points in the context of semigroups of expanding maps, obtaining a partial extension of the results obtained by Ruelle for ℤd-actions [D. Ruelle, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., 187, 237-251 (1973)]. The specification properties for semigroup actions and the corresponding one for its generators and the action of push-forward maps are also discussed.

  15. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kjellman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface. A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  16. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Howieson, J.Q.; Frescura, G.M.; King, F.; Rogers, J.T.; Tamm, H.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10 -6 /year. CANDU nuclear plant designers and owner/operators share information and operational experience nationally and internationally through the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The research program generally emphasizes the unique aspects of the CANDU concept, such as heat removal through the moderator, but it has also contributed significantly to areas generic to most power reactors such as hydrogen combustion, containment failure modes, fission product chemistry, and high temperature fuel behaviour. Abnormal plant operating procedures are aimed at first using event-specific emergency operating procedures, in cases where the event can be diagnosed. If this is not possible, generic procedures are followed to control Critical Safety Parameters and manage the accident. Similarly, the on-site contingency plans include a generic plan covering overall plant response strategy, and a specific plan covering each category of contingency

  17. Polyamine biosynthesis in rice cultivars under salt stress and comparison with observations under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Thi Do

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity affects a large proportion of rural area and limits agricultural productivity. To investigate differential adaptation to soil salinity, we studied salt tolerance of 18 varieties of Oryza sativa using a hydroponic culture system. Based on visual inspection and photosynthetic parameters, cultivars were classified according to their tolerance level. Additionally, biomass parameters were correlated with salt tolerance. Polyamines have frequently been demonstrated to be involved in plant stress responses and therefore soluble leaf polyamines were measured. Under salinity, putrescine (Put content was unchanged or increased in tolerant, while dropped in sensitive cultivars. Spermidine (Spd content was unchanged at lower NaCl concentrations in all, while reduced at 100 mM NaCl in sensitive cultivars. Spermine (Spm content was increased in all cultivars. A comparison with data from 21 cultivars under long-term, moderate drought stress revealed an increase of Spm under both stress conditions. While Spm became the most prominent polyamine under drought, levels of all three polyamines were relatively similar under salt stress. Put levels were reduced under both, drought and salt stress, while changes in Spd were different under drought (decrease or salt (unchanged conditions. Regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcript level during exposure to salinity was studied for genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and compared to expression under drought stress. Based on expression profiles, investigated genes were divided into generally stress-induced genes (ADC2, SPD/SPM2, SPD/SPM3, one generally stress-repressed gene (ADC1, constitutively expressed genes (CPA1, CPA2, CPA4, SAMDC1, SPD/SPM1, specifically drought-induced genes (SAMDC2, AIH, one specifically drought-repressed gene (CPA3 and one specifically salt-stress repressed gene (SAMDC4, revealing both overlapping and specific stress responses under these

  18. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Standard technical specifications, Westinghouse Plants: Specifications. Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency.

  20. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings...... military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower......: The public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail...

  1. Child abuse: underlying mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Gladys S.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confi rmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I...

  2. Poland under "Solidarity" Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislaw Wellisz

    1991-01-01

    The coalition cabinet in which Solidarity played a leading role, but which also included Communists and their allies, won Parliamentary approval on September 12, 1989. This coalition inherited from the Communists an economy in deep crisis: inflation was raging, shortages of virtually all goods were rampant, and the black market was all-pervasive. The new government pledged to restore the market economy. This paper discusses the economy under Solidarity rule, focusing on stabilization and the ...

  3. R gas under diaphragm

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachar Sreevathsa, Maddibande; Melanta, Khyati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most common cause of gas under diaphragm is hollow viscous perforation. In 10% of cases it can be due to rare causes, both abdominal and extra-abdominal, one of them being intra abdominal infection by gas forming organisms. Presentation of the case: A 51 year old male patient, a poorly controlled diabetic, presented with a second episode of severe pain abdomen and abdominal distention, with lower abdominal tenderness. Plain Xray of the abdomen in erect posture showed gas ...

  4. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Estefanía

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses patient-specific modeling. It integrates computational modeling, experimental procedures, imagine clinical segmentation and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine and bioengineering. Specific areas of interest include cardiovascular problems, ocular and muscular systems and soft tissue modeling. Patient-specific modeling has been the subject of serious research over the last seven years and interest in the area is continually growing and this area is expected to further develop in the near future.

  5. Specificity of immunoassays. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.J.; Woldring, M.G.; Boonman, R.; Kittikool, J.

    1979-01-01

    Practical aspects of the measurement of the specificity of immunoassay are reviewed. Antibody heterogeneity in an antiserum makes a pragmatic rather than a theoretical approach necessary. A new method for the measurement of immunoassay specificity is described. This method is based on the errors caused by the cross-reacting antigens and is directly relevant to the validity of results obtained by immunoassay methods. The effect of selectively blocking the least specific antibodies in antisera raised against steroid haptens is tested. The practical consequences of these considerations are tested using steroid radioimmunoassay and enzyme-immunoassay. (orig.) [de

  6. Bid specifications and bid evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Bid specifications are in view of the size of these projects important and comprehensive documents. The basic content and set up of the specifications are discussed such as: 1) Bid invitation letter, 2) instruction to bidders, 3) draft contract (terms and conditions), 4) technical specifications, 5) side data and information. - The evaluations of bids for nuclear power stations is due to the complexity of such bids a difficult undertaking. Evaluation methods and approaches which can be applied for such bid evaluations are discussed as well as the preparations which are required for carrying out such evaluations. (orig.) [de

  7. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  8. GPS Civil Monitoring Performance Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  9. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  10. [Specific immunotherapy in allergic asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K-Ch

    2003-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways considered as the result of a deregulated immune response, with a pivotal role played the TH2 cytokine phenotype. The treatment of allergic asthma is based on allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, allergen-specific immunotherapy, and patient education. Specific immunotherapy is able to normalize the upraised TH2 cytokine phenotype and indicated for patients who have demonstrable evidence of IgE-mediated clinically relevant sensitisation to pollens, house-dust mites and cat or dog allergens. The exposure to the allergens must be related to the appearance of symptoms. Randomised controlled trials in asthma have found that immunotherapy was effective (evidence 1a, strength of recommendation A) in reducing specific and non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity, asthmatic symptoms, and medication requirements. Patient selection is important and efficacy must be balanced against the risk of side effects. Immunotherapy should be used by pneumologists with a training in allergology in patients with mild asthma.

  11. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  12. ATR technical specification upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications were initially developed with the content and format specified in ANSI/ANS-15.1, The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors. The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  13. GFF Specification for SAR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bielek, Timothy P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matthews, John D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coakley, Henry John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pan, Len [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document provides the basic GFF format definition for a GFF file. This document covers the contents of the main header and the basic GFF file structure. The contents of specific extensions are covered in a separate document.

  14. Patient-specific surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Technological innovations of the twentieth century have provided medicine and surgery with new tools for education and therapy definition. Thus, by combining Medical Imaging and Virtual Reality, patient-specific applications providing preoperative surgical simulation have become possible.

  15. Base compaction specification feasibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research is to establish the technical engineering and cost : analysis concepts that will enable WisDOT management to objectively evaluate the : feasibility of switching construction specification philosophies for aggregate base...

  16. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  17. XML specifications DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now......XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now...

  18. Mutational specificity of γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebee, Barbara.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis was to get more information on the mutagenic properties of radiation-induced DNA modifications and the possible mechanisms involved in radiation-induced mutagenesis, principally by investigating the kinds of mutations by DNA sequence analysis. The mutations were analyzed after γ-irradiation of recombinant bacteriophage M13 and plasmide pUC DNA in diluted aqueous solutions, followed by transfection or transformation to E. coli cells, in which the damaged DNA molecules are repaired and replicated. Error-prone repair, misrepair or bypass of lesions during replication may lead to the introduction of mutations. Both the M13 and the plasmid DNA used in our mutation studies contain a mutation target sequence, which makes an easy selection and sequence analysis of mutant DNA molecules possible. Under the radiation conditions used, e.g. irradiation of diluted aqueous DNA solutions, only DNA damage occurs introduced by the water derived OH* and H* radicals and the hydrated electrons. By using different gas conditions during irradiation the relative yields of these reaction species can be manipulated, which opens up the opportunity to determine their effects separately. The mutation spectrum obtained in double-stranded (ds) M13DNA after irradiation under oxic conditions and the mutation spectrum obtained under the same conditions and in the same mutation target but cloned in plasmid DNA, are described. The mutation specificity under anoxic conditions in ds M13DNA is given. Results obtained after irradiation of ds M13DNA under N 2 conditions are discussed together with experiments with single-stranded DNA. Similarities and differences between radiation-induced mutation spectra obtained by other groups and those presented in this thesis are discussed. (author). 155 refs.; 134 figs.; 16 tabs

  19. Thermal resolution specification in infrared scene projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; Danielson, Tom

    2015-05-01

    Infrared scene projectors (IRSPs) are a key part of performing dynamic testing of infrared (IR) imaging systems. Two important properties of an IRSP system are apparent temperature and thermal resolution. Infrared scene projector technology continues to progress, with several systems capable of producing high apparent temperatures currently available or under development. These systems use different emitter pixel technologies, including resistive arrays, digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs), liquid crystals and LEDs to produce dynamic infrared scenes. A common theme amongst these systems is the specification of the bit depth of the read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) or projector engine , as opposed to specifying the desired thermal resolution as a function of radiance (or apparent temperature). For IRSPs, producing an accurate simulation of a realistic scene or scenario may require simulating radiance values that range over multiple orders of magnitude. Under these conditions, the necessary resolution or "step size" at low temperature values may be much smaller than what is acceptable at very high temperature values. A single bit depth value specified at the RIIC, especially when combined with variable transfer functions between commanded input and radiance output, may not offer the best representation of a customer's desired radiance resolution. In this paper, we discuss some of the various factors that affect thermal resolution of a scene projector system, and propose some specification guidelines regarding thermal resolution to help better define the real needs of an IR scene projector system.

  20. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  1. Optimizing production under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    This Working Paper derives criteria for optimal production under uncertainty based on the state-contingent approach (Chambers and Quiggin, 2000), and discusses po-tential problems involved in applying the state-contingent approach in a normative context. The analytical approach uses the concept...... of state-contingent production functions and a definition of inputs including both sort of input, activity and alloca-tion technology. It also analyses production decisions where production is combined with trading in state-contingent claims such as insurance contracts. The final part discusses...

  2. Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on Federal Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These standard specifications were issued primarily for constructing roads and bridges on Federal Highway projects under the direct administration of the Federal Highway Administration. These specifications are cited as "FP-96" indicating Standard Sp...

  3. CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald

    2008-01-01

    CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...

  4. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 -5 to 10 -11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  5. Industry specific financial distress modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Sayari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates uncertainty levels of various industries and tries to determine financial ratios having the greatest information content in determining the set of industry characteristics. It then uses these ratios to develop industry specific financial distress models. First, we employ factor analysis to determine the set of ratios that are most informative in specified industries. Second, we use a method based on the concept of entropy to measure the level of uncertainty in industries and also to single out the ratios that best reflect the uncertainty levels in specific industries. Finally, we conduct a logistic regression analysis and derive industry specific financial distress models which can be used to judge the predictive ability of selected financial ratios for each industry. The results show that financial ratios do indeed echo industry characteristics and that information content of specific ratios varies among different industries. Our findings show diverging impact of industry characteristics on companies; and thus the necessity of constructing industry specific financial distress models.

  6. Standard Technical Specifications, Westinghouse plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the Westinghouse Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  7. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  8. Age‑specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethnic differences.[16] Although similar studies have been presented for a number of different groups of men and few studies have looked at the pattern of serum PSA among Nigerians[17‑20] but no such studies on normal serum PSA ranges and the age‑specific pattern have been carried out among healthy Nigerian men.

  9. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  10. Skolegang under anbringelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perthou, Anette; Dam Mortensøn, Marie; Andersen, Dines

    Børn og unge, der er anbragt uden for hjemmet, klarer sig ofte dårligt i skolen. Det er især på døgninstitutioner og socialpædagogiske opholdssteder, at børnene halter bagefter, og der er derfor behov for et øget fokus på skolegangen på disse institutioner. SFI har via kvalitative interview med...... ledere, pædagoger og lærere på otte institutioner samt tilknyttede medarbejdere fra den kommunale PPR undersøgt, hvilke forhold der har betydning for anbragte børns skolegang. Rapporten fokuserer dels på samarbejdet mellem de professionelle faggrupper, der er involveret i de anbragte børns og unges...

  11. Attractors under discretisation

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the preservation of attractors and saddle points of ordinary differential equations under discretisation. In the 1980s, key results for autonomous ordinary differential equations were obtained – by Beyn for saddle points and by Kloeden & Lorenz for attractors. One-step numerical schemes with a constant step size were considered, so the resulting discrete time dynamical system was also autonomous. One of the aims of this book is to present new findings on the discretisation of dissipative nonautonomous dynamical systems that have been obtained in recent years, and in particular to examine the properties of nonautonomous omega limit sets and their approximations by numerical schemes – results that are also of importance for autonomous systems approximated by a numerical scheme with variable time steps, thus by a discrete time nonautonomous dynamical system.

  12. Chilean economy under Pinochet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Žídek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Period of Pinochet rule in Chile is still in the centre of interest of many experts. This article concentrates (mostly on the economic side of the military rule. Pinochet took responsibility for the country in situation near to economic collapse caused by policy of the previous – Allendeęs government. The new government after the coup dęétat in 1973 had to stabilize economy. Soldiers at the same time start to implement economic reforms that improved the long run ability of the economy to grow. The economic uplift was interrupted by debt crisis at the beginning of 1980s. Pinochetęs government was able to deal with these obstacles and at the end passed the economy to the democratic government (at the end of 1980s in good shape. The following positive development in the 1990s is thus based on the foundations built under the military rule.

  13. A life under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Microvessels live 'a life under pressure' in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must...... continuously strive to meet the changing demands of the surrounding tissue. The 'principle of optimal operation' as formulated by Y. C. Fung states that living tissues adapts structurally through remodelling and growth until a level of tensile and compressive stresses is reached at which tissue performance...... stress component has a huge impact on the state of the vascular wall. It is involved as a unifying factor on vastly different timescales in processes as diverse as acute regulation of vessel diameter, structural vessel remodelling and growth or atrophy of the vascular wall. The aim of this Mini...

  14. Communities under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of species on Earth and the interactions among them are tightly linked to historical and contemporary climate, so that global climate change will transform the world in which we live. Biological models can now credibly link recent decadal trends in field data to climate change......, but predicting future impacts on biological communities is a major challenge. Attempts to move beyond general macroecological predictions of climate change impact on one hand, and observations from specific, local-scale cases, small-scale experiments, or studies of a few species on the other, raise a plethora...... of unanswered questions. On page 1124 of this issue, Harley (1) reports results that cast new light on how biodiversity, across different trophic levels, responds to climate change....

  15. Trajectory Adjustments Underlying Task-Specific Intermittent Force Behaviors and Muscular Rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Yen-Ting; Huang, Chien-Ting; Shih, Chia-Li; Yang, Zong-Ru; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2013-01-01

    Force intermittency is one of the major causes of motor variability. Focusing on the dynamics of force intermittency, this study was undertaken to investigate how force trajectory is fine-tuned for static and dynamic force-tracking of a comparable physical load. Twenty-two healthy adults performed two unilateral resistance protocols (static force-tracking at 75% maximal effort and dynamic force-tracking in the range of 50%-100% maximal effort) using the left hand. The electromyographic activi...

  16. Feeding under predation risk: potential sex-specific response of perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Estlander, Satu; Nurminen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2014), s. 478-480 ISSN 0906-6691 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : foraging * sexual size dimorphism * predation * perch * pike Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2014

  17. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  18. Specific features of the hemorrhagic syndrome manifestation under chronic, prolonged and acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlashchenko, N.I.; Gorlov, V.G.; Maksimova, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    To make the hemorrhagic syndrome manifest itself, two phenomena are necessary to coincide in time, they are: a fall in the elasticity of the vascular wall and reduction in the amount of thrombocytes in blood. Depending upon the radiation dose, the vascular wall and the thrombocytic function may be either simultaneously impaired after acute exposure) or dissociated (following prolonged irradiation). Chronic irradiation at small (subliminal) dose rates fails to induce hemorrhagic disorders and death of rats caused by pathologic hemophilia

  19. The specification and testing of radioactive sources designated as ''special form'' under the IAEA transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Bodimeade, A.H.; Hall, E.G.; Taylor, C.B.G.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this study is to remove some of the uncertainties associated with the application of the IAEA Regulations insofar as they apply to Special Form materials. The first part of this project involved a comparison of the ISO and IAEA Regulations. An analysis of the physical tests has been carried out. The second and most important part of the project involved an assessment of the leakage tests used to evaluate the capsules after each of the physical tests. The work has defined and confirmed by experiment the relationship between the IAEA and ISO impact and percussion tests. The practical application of the tests particularly with regard to specimen orientation will be aided by the data now available. The work has established the sensitivities of the primary volumetric leak test methods and practical procedures are outlined. Volumetric leak test methods, with sentivities approximately 10 - 5 mbar l/s, are considered to be more reliable in detecting leakage paths in capsules than methods using solid leachable or non-leachable radioactive contents. The work reported should assist in the updating and clarification and harmonisation of IAEA Safety Series Nos 6 and 37 and ISO 4919 and ISO TR 4826

  20. Site-Specific Variations in Bone Mineral Density under Systemic Conditions Inducing Osteoporosis in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Schulz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. There is conflicting opinion about whether osteoporosis affects the alveolar bone of the jaws and whether it poses a risk to the osseointegration of dental implants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic glucocorticoid administration on the jaw bone density of minipigs. Thirty-seven adult female minipigs were randomly divided into two groups. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT was used to assess bone mineral density BMD of the lumbar spine as well as the mandible and maxilla, and blood was drawn. One group of minipigs initially received 1.0 mg prednisolone per kg body weight daily for 2 months. The dose was tapered to 0.5 mg per kg body weight per day thereafter. The animals in the other group served as controls and received placebo. QCT and blood analysis were repeated after 6 and 9 months. BMD was compared between the two groups by measuring Hounsfield units, and serum levels of several bone metabolic markers were also assessed. A decrease in BMD was observed in the jaws from baseline to 9 months. This was more pronounced in the prednisolone group. Statistically significant differences were reached for the mandible (p < 0.001 and the maxilla (p < 0.001. The administration of glucocorticoids reduced the BMD in the jaws of minipigs. The described model shows promise in the evaluation of osseointegration of dental implants in bone that is compromised by osteoporosis.

  1. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quality assurance. Periodic tests and quality assurance inspections shall be carried out by the American... registered symbol which identifies the grading agency; (2) Species or species combination; (3) Grade; (4) Identification of the applicable grading rules when not indicated by the species identification or agency symbol...

  2. 24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., “Construction and Industrial Plywood” (published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of.... E30K, “APA Design/Construction Guide-Residential and Commercial” (published by the American Plywood....935(d)(6) concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's validation mark and the manufacturer's...

  3. Coolant stratification and its thermohydrodynamic specificity under natural circulation in horizontal steam generator collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitriukhin, A. [Saint-Petersburg Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The experiments and the test facilities for the study of the stratification phenomenon in the hot plenum of reactor and the upper parts of the steam generator collectors in a nuclear power plant are described. The aim of the experiments was to define the conditions of the stratification initiation, to study the temperature field in the upper part, the definition of the characteristics in the stratification layer, and also to study the factors which cause the intensity of the stagnant volume cooling.

  4. An Optimization-Based Approach to Determine System Requirements Under Multiple-Domain Specific Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    prior efforts to develop a quantitative approach that identifies optimum design requirements of new, yet-to-be-designed systems that, when serving...requirements may have on fleet-level metrics of interest (e.g., choice of an aircraft may affect fleet-level productivity and fuel burn —quantities...between the same bases. Figure 1a shows the fluctuation in the number of pallets transported daily between a representative base pair in the Global Air

  5. Fruit Fiber Consumption Specifically Improves Liver Health Status in Obese Subjects under Energy Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Irene; Abete, Itziar; Monreal, J Ignacio; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2017-06-28

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months of follow-up and to assess the role of fiber content in metabolic outcomes. Seventy obese individuals from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra) study were evaluated at baseline and after six months of energy-restricted nutritional intervention (American Heart Association (AHA) and RESMENA dietary groups). Dietary records, anthropometrical data, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and routine laboratory measurements were analyzed by standardized methods. Regarding liver status, cytokeratin-18 fragments and several non-invasive scores of fatty liver were also assessed. The RESMENA strategy was a good and complementary alternative to AHA for the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. Participants with higher insoluble fiber consumption (≥7.5 g/day) showed improvements in fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HIS), and NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD_LFS), while gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and transaminases evidenced significant improvements as a result of fruit fiber consumption (≥8.8 g/day). Remarkably, a regression model evidenced a relationship between liver status and fiber from fruits. These results support the design of dietary patterns based on the consumption of insoluble fiber and fiber from fruits in the context of energy restriction for the management of obese patients suffering fatty liver disease.

  6. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  7. Retrieval-specific endocytosis of GluA2-AMPARs underlies adaptive reconsolidation of contextual fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao-Ruiz, P.; Rotaru, D.C.; Loo, R.J.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Stiedl, O.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.

    2011-01-01

    Upon retrieval, fear memories are rendered labile and prone to modification, necessitating a restabilization process of reconsolidation to persist further. This process is also crucial for modulating both strength and content of an existing memory and forms a promising therapeutic target for

  8. 24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the following standards: (i) AATCC 20A-81—Fiber Analysis: Quantitative; (ii) AATCC 16E-82... Energy Source; (viii) ASTM D2646-79—Standard Methods of Testing Backing Fabrics; (ix) ASTM D3936-80...-81—Standard Methods for Rubber Products—Chemical Analysis; (xi) ASTM D418-82—Standard Methods of...

  9. Fruit Fiber Consumption Specifically Improves Liver Health Status in Obese Subjects under Energy Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Irene; Abete, Itziar; Monreal, J. Ignacio; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Zulet, M. Angeles

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months of follow-up and to assess the role of fiber content in metabolic outcomes. Seventy obese individuals from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra) study were evaluated at...

  10. 16 CFR 503.2 - Status of specific items under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (wooden, plastic). Compacts and mirrors. Diaries and calendars. Flower seeds. Footwear. Garden tools. Gift... gloves (household). Safety flares. Safety pins. School supplies. Sewing accessories. Silverware...

  11. Remote Testing of Timed Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2013-01-01

    We present a study and a testing framework on black box remote testing of real-time systems using UPPAAL TIGA. One of the essential challenges of remote testing is the communication latency between the Tester and the System Under Test (IUT) that may lead to interleaving of inputs and outputs...

  12. 76 FR 7482 - Operations Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ...: The final rule provides administrative process for a an administrative appeals process foreign... administrative appeals process, the rule may result in some benefits to foreign air carriers and foreign persons... will apply for operations specifications. Furthermore, it creates an administrative appeals process...

  13. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  14. THE SPECIFICITY OF INTRACOMMUNITY TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU-POPA LUCIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered from the perspective of Romania's accession to the European Union, we can say that starting with 1 January 2007, foreign trade transactions were delimited in relation to the customs borders in intra-Community transactions and international transactions. In this context, the way of conducting these operations is influenced by both the economic and financial features specific to both categories of transactions, that relate to the economic character of the activity, the diversity and specificity of the foreign trade activity, transport of goods, the complexity and regulation of intra-Community and international commercial transactions, and by the specific features of each category of transaction. Starting from the consideration that the economic and financial characteristics of foreign trade activity, specific to intra-Community commercial transactions, have a significant influence in the organization and management of accounting of the entities involved in such transactions, determining in a greater or lesser extent, the way of capitalization of the financial and accounting information in the processes of analysis, decision and control, in this paper we proposed to address the features of intra-Community trade.

  15. [Specificities in children wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Antonicelli, F; Tuton, D; Mazouz Dorval, S; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children have specific characteristics of wound healing. The aim of this study was to describe the specific clinical characteristics of wounds healing in children and to present the current knowledge on the specific mechanisms with regard to infant age. The tissue insult or injury in fetus can heal without scar, mainly due to reduced granulation tissue associated to diminished or even no inflammatory phase, modified extracellular matrix such as the concentration of hyaluronic acid in amniotic liquid, expression and arrangement of collagen and tenascin. Thickness of children skin is a serious negative factor in case of trauma, whereas poor co-morbidities and efficient growth tissue mechanisms are beneficial to good evolution, even in cases of extensive damage and loss of tissue. The subsequent tissue mechanical forces, wound healing during childhood, spanning from the age of 2 until the end of puberty, is associated with more hypertrophic scars, both in duration and in intensity. Consequently, unnecessary surgery has to be avoided during this period when possible, and children with abnormal or pathologic wound healing should benefit from complementary treatments (hydration, massage, brace, silicone, hydrotherapy…), which represent efficient factors to minimize tissue scarring. After wound healing, the growth body rate can be responsible for specific complications, such as contractures, alopecia, and scar intussusceptions. Its evolutionary character implies the need of an attentive follow-up until adult age. Psychologic repercussions, as a consequence of pathologic scars, must be prevented and investigated by the surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Lightweight Specifications for Parallel Correctness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    that typically no pro- grammer specification is needed. However, manually determining which reported races are benign and which are bugs can be time...marked by the pro- grammer , but no statement is enclosed with if(true∗) — i.e., the set S∗ is empty. We are given a set T of parallel execution traces, and

  17. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  18. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  19. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  20. LOTOS specification style for OSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, K.J.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Bolognesi, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Vissers, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The architecture of OSI is used to derive guidelines for writing LOTOS specifications of distributed systems. In particular, the architectural concepts that underlie service and protocol designs are examined in detail. For each of these concepts a representation in LOTOS is given. Examples are

  1. LOTOS specification style for OSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Turner, K.J.; Bolognesi, T.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The architecture of OSI is used to derive guidelines for writing LOTOS specifications of distributed systems. In particular, the architectural concepts that underlie service and protocol designs are examined in detail. For each of these concepts a representation in LOTOS is given. Examples are

  2. Niche-specific cognitive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should ...... the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning.......Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should...... rely more on object memory than on spatial memory for finding food and that the opposite is true of frugivorous and nectivorous species. Specifically, we predicted that: (1) predatory bats would readily learn to associate shapes with palatable prey and (2) once bats had made such associations...

  3. Embedded System Synthesis under Memory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm to solve the system synthesis problem of mapping a time constrained single-rate system specification onto a given heterogeneous architecture which may contain irregular interconnection structures. The synthesis is performed under memory constraints, that is......, the algorithm takes into account the memory size of processors and the size of interface buffers of communication links, and in particular the complicated interplay of these. The presented algorithm is implemented as part of the LY-COS cosynthesis system....

  4. Gene-Specific Demethylation as Targeted Therapy in MDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0161 TITLE: Gene-Specific Demethylation as Targeted Therapy in MDS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daniel G. Tenen, M.D...15JUN2016-14JUN2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gene-Specific Demethylation as Targeted Therapy in MDS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... magnetic beads capture all newly synthesized transcripts. To compare the transcriptional profiles under these conditions with our previous results, we

  5. Injury, inflammation and the emergence of human specific genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any...injury and infers that a selection of human-specific genes, driven in part by the response to injury, may have facilitated the emergence of...investigated. Neuro- scientists posit that human-specific genes were selected to regulate traits that are uniquely human: size of the human brain

  6. Concentric and eccentric time-under-tension during strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal Rathleff, Michael; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation.......Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation....

  7. Noise exposure under hyperbaric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Objective evidence exists that divers demonstrate a hearing deficit greater than would be expected from ageing effects alone. Deafness in divers may be caused by a number of factors other than exposure to excessive noise levels, eg barotrauma, ear infection etc. This review concentrates on the concern that exposure of commercial divers to noise while at work may cause a hearing deficit. Sound pressure levels recorded both underwater and in diving chambers often exceed those allowable to workers onshore. However, the sound perceived by the diver is modified both in amplitude and in frequency when he is either underwater or in pressurised chambers. Broadly the effect of this modification is to attenuate the sound and thus offer some protection from high noise levels. The degree of attentuation varies with the frequency of the sound, however it is also possible under specific conditions associated with gas density for the sensitivity to particular frequencies to be amplified above that for normal atmospheric air. The levels of sound observed from some underwater tools are of concern even after allowing for a significant de-sensitisation of the divers` hearing. Reports of tinnitus and temporary hearing loss following a dive are sure signs that the noise levels have been harmful. It is not possible at present to describe risk criteria for hearing damage due to noise exposure associated with diving. (author)

  8. Calibration Under Uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2005-03-01

    This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

  9. Politics Under Electronic Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery P. Terin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contradistinction to the book and the other typographic products, the electronic media operates on a 24-hour-a-day basis evoking simultaneity as the guiding mode of perception and thinking for all those under its influence. The discovery of this fact manifested itself in the formation and development of the managerial technologies operating by means of the electronic information environment and following the principle of simultaneity in the first place. Thus, at the end of the 1960s already the election campaigns in the U.S.A. began to operate on the basis of the final cause as the guiding principle of the country's mass consciousness motivating to carry out each particular event as if already rejoicing at the victory. With this in mind, there emerged a problem of applying this approach with its enormous managerial potential elsewhere. To add, simultaneity as a norm of perception and thinking turned out to be increasingly important with the advent of the electrical telegraph and the press relying on its short disconnected messages instantaneously arriving from all parts of the world. All the other media, which emerged in the wake of this development, has served to fortify this mode of thought as governing in the electronic information environment. The potential of the electronically operating global managerial technologies is quickly growing. The article also deals with the information overload and pattern recognition problem understood in managerial terms as well as mythologization and demythologization processes as they are necessitated by the electronic media coverage worldwide.

  10. Undersøgelsesdesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2014-01-01

    Delrapport fra LUG-projektet, delprojekt A - Uddannelsesinstitutionelle Grænser. I 2014 udvikler og forsker UCSJ og RUC i en gratis og fleksibel måde at udbyde uddannelse på, inspireret af flere universiteter i USA – via MOOCs (Multiple Open Online Courses). MOOC-projektet er en del af et større...... innovationsprojekt “Læring Uden Grænser” - støttet af den Den Europæiske Fond for Regionaludvikling. Projektet undersøger hvordan digitale teknologier og nye koblinger i form af netværk- og institutionssamarbejde kan mindske grænser for læring i Region Sjælland. Den næste år udvikles og udbydes en række MOOCs, der...... skal generere og formidle ny viden om, hvordan MOOCs kan udvikles på måder, så også regionale hensyn tages. Projektet arbejder designbaseret og der vil derfor gennem input fra brugere, partnere, arrangerede workshops, og lignende foregå en løbende redesignproces. Projektet vil munde ud i en række...

  11. WHn under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Ashcroft, N W; Labet, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Roald; Strobel, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    An initial observation of the formation of WH under pressure from W gaskets surrounding hydrogen in diamond anvil cells led to a theoretical study of tungsten hydride phases. At P = 1 atm no stoichiometry is found to be stable with respect to separation into the elements, but as the pressure is raised WH n (n = 1-6, 8) stoichiometries are metastable or stable. WH and WH 4 are calculated to be stable at P > 15 GPa, WH 2 becomes stable at P > 100 GPa and WH 6 at P > 150 GPa. In agreement with experiment, the structure computed for WH is anti-NiAs. WH 2 shares with WH a hexagonal arrangement of tungsten atoms, with hydrogen atoms occupying octahedral and tetrahedral holes. For WH 4 the W atoms are in a distorted fcc arrangement. As the number of hydrogens rises, the coordination of W by H increases correspondingly, leading to a twelve-coordinated W in WH 6 . In WH 8 H 2 units also develop. All of the hydrides considered should be metallic at high pressure, though the Fermi levels of WH 4 and WH 6 lie in a deep pseudogap. Prodded by these theoretical studies, experiments were then undertaken to seek phases other than WH, exploring a variety of experimental conditions that would favor further reaction. Though a better preparation and characterization of WH resulted, no higher hydrides have as yet been found. (paper)

  12. The impact of specific and non-specific immunity on the ecology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the implications for vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Flasche, Stefan; Edmunds, W. John; Miller, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Robertson, Chris; Choi, Yoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    More than 90 capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae coexist despite competing for nasopharyngeal carriage and a gradient in fitness. The underlying mechanisms for this are poorly understood and make assessment of the likely population impact of vaccination challenging. We use an individual-based simulation model to generalize widely used deterministic models for pneumococcal competition and show that in these models short-term serotype-specific and serotype non-specific immunity could...

  13. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  14. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  15. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.; Jaldo, H.

    1999-01-01

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  16. UNBIASED ESTIMATORS OF SPECIFIC CONNECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Jernot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the specific connectivity of a stationary random set in IRd. It turns out that the "natural" estimator is only asymptotically unbiased. The example of a boolean model of hypercubes illustrates the amplitude of the bias produced when the measurement field is relatively small with respect to the range of the random set. For that reason unbiased estimators are desired. Such an estimator can be found in the literature in the case where the measurement field is a right parallelotope. In this paper, this estimator is extended to apply to measurement fields of various shapes, and to possess a smaller variance. Finally an example from quantitative metallography (specific connectivity of a population of sintered bronze particles is given.

  17. UTM UAS Service Supplier Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Within the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) system, the UAS Service Supplier (USS) is a key component. The USS serves several functions. At a high level, those include the following: Bridging communication between UAS Operators and Flight Information Management System (FIMS) Supporting planning of UAS operations Assisting strategic deconfliction of the UTM airspace Providing information support to UAS Operators during operations Helping UAS Operators meet their formal requirements This document provides the minimum set of requirements for a USS. In order to be recognized as a USS within UTM, successful demonstration of satisfying the requirements described herein will be a prerequisite. To ensure various desired qualities (security, fairness, availability, efficiency, maintainability, etc.), this specification relies on references to existing public specifications whenever possible.

  18. Lighting technology specifications for relighting federal buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.; Purcell, C.W.; Gordon, H.; McKay, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Relighting Initiative, under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), now offers a comprehensive process to assist agencies in meeting the DOE energy mandate that states that Federal facilities shall use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption, and shall improve lighting to increase productivity with relighting projects. The process provides a systematic approach in the screening, selection, design, implementation and evaluation of relighting projects. The Master Specifications help assure the acquisition of high-quality, life-cycle cost-effective lighting systems. The process begins with the screening of the agency's building stock to identify the most promising relighting candidates and concludes with implementation support and system performance assessment. The tools developed by FRI are designed to assist agencies during each phase of the relighting process. The tools are based upon the Federal life-cycle cost approach, thereby complying with 10 CFR, part 436, and the Federal life-cycle cost requirement

  19. Refining System Requirements to Program Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Ruediger; Ravn, Anders P.; Skakkebæk, Jens Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    A coherent and mathematically well-founded approach to the design ofreal-time and hybrid systems is presented.It covers requirementsanalysis and specification, design of controlling automatasatisfying the requirements, and derivation ofoccam-like communicating programs from these automata.......The generalized railroad crossing due to Heitmeyer and Lynchillustrates the approach.Requirements are analyzed within aconventional dynamic systems model of a plant, where states arefunctions of the reals, representing time. The requirements arespecified in an assumption-commitment style using Duration Calculus...... to component descriptions in asystems design language that uses timed trace assertions over statetransition events to constrain control flow.Components can under certain conditions be transformed tooccam-like communicating programs....

  20. Specification of a commercial SFAT device prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiitta, A.; Pitkaenen, V.; Tarvainen, M.

    1992-02-01

    The project for the development of the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT) under the Task-A-563 of the Finnish Support Programme has proceeded to the prototype design phase. Radiation data of the AFR Storage (TVO KPA-Store) of the TVO Power Company, Finland, relevant to the optimal design of the measurement geometry has been measured and will be shortly reported. The requirements and constraints imposed to this kind of device by the user (IAEA), nuclear safety authorities (represented by STUK) and the nuclear power companies (represented by TVO) have been worked out. The feasibility of a design that can be approved by all parties has been established. The specifications relevant for the design for the design of a commercial SFAT prototype, will be given. Considerations as for the operation procedure, maintenance and safety will be made. Finally, some recommendations for the further advancement of the SFAT prototype project will be given. (orig.). (1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.)

  1. Specific patterns in portfolio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Victoria ANGHELACHE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-twentieth century, under an unprecedented growth of the business of trading in securities, the need to provide a modern framework for assessing the performance of portfolios of financial instruments was felt. To that effect, it is noted that over this period, more and more economists have attempted to develop statistical mathematical models that ensure the evaluation of profitability and portfolio risk securities. These models are considered to be part of "the modern portfolio theory".

  2. Technical specifications, Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.D. [comp.

    1962-06-25

    These technical specifications are applicable to the eight operating production reactor facilities, B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE, and KW. Covered are operating and performance restrictions and administrative procedures. Areas covered by the operating and performance restrictions are reactivity, reactor control and safety elements, power level, temperature and heat flux, reactor fuel loadings, reactor coolant systems, reactor confinement, test facilities, code compliance, and reactor scram set points. Administrative procedures include process control procedures, training programs, audits and inspections, and reports and records.

  3. Genre specificity of political discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Aleshina E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of political discourse genre specificity has been in the center of attention of Russian and foreign scholars, which is determined by the relevance of political discourse as a multidimensional object of study with its linguistic properties in particular. The ambiguity of principles for genre gradation of political discourse is linked to the variability of understanding genre proper. The definition of genre as goal-oriented text characteristics allows accentuating some genres of pol...

  4. Strategy under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, H; Kirkland, J; Viguerie, P

    1997-01-01

    At the heart of the traditional approach to strategy lies the assumption that by applying a set of powerful analytic tools, executives can predict the future of any business accurately enough to allow them to choose a clear strategic direction. But what happens when the environment is so uncertain that no amount of analysis will allow us to predict the future? What makes for a good strategy in highly uncertain business environments? The authors, consultants at McKinsey & Company, argue that uncertainty requires a new way of thinking about strategy. All too often, they say, executives take a binary view: either they underestimate uncertainty to come up with the forecasts required by their companies' planning or capital-budging processes, or they overestimate it, abandon all analysis, and go with their gut instinct. The authors outline a new approach that begins by making a crucial distinction among four discrete levels of uncertainty that any company might face. They then explain how a set of generic strategies--shaping the market, adapting to it, or reserving the right to play at a later time--can be used in each of the four levels. And they illustrate how these strategies can be implemented through a combination of three basic types of actions: big bets, options, and no-regrets moves. The framework can help managers determine which analytic tools can inform decision making under uncertainty--and which cannot. At a broader level, it offers executives a discipline for thinking rigorously and systematically about uncertainty and its implications for strategy.

  5. Contextuality under weak assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Andrew W; Rudolph, Terry; Wallman, Joel J; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove

  6. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  7. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  8. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  9. Specification test for Markov models with measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonjin; Zhao, Zhibiao

    2014-09-01

    Most existing works on specification testing assume that we have direct observations from the model of interest. We study specification testing for Markov models based on contaminated observations. The evolving model dynamics of the unobservable Markov chain is implicitly coded into the conditional distribution of the observed process. To test whether the underlying Markov chain follows a parametric model, we propose measuring the deviation between nonparametric and parametric estimates of conditional regression functions of the observed process. Specifically, we construct a nonparametric simultaneous confidence band for conditional regression functions and check whether the parametric estimate is contained within the band.

  10. An Integrated Framework to Specify Domain-Specific Modeling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an integrated framework that can be used by DSL designers to implement their desired graphical domain-specific languages. This framework relies on Microsoft DSL Tools, a meta-modeling framework to build graphical domain-specific languages, and an extension of ForSpec, a ...... language to define their semantics. Integrating these technologies under the umbrella of Microsoft Visual Studio IDE allows DSL designers to utilize a single development environment for developing their desired domain-specific languages....

  11. Lipopolysaccharide Specific Immunochromatography Based Lateral Flow Assay for Serogroup Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Vanithamani

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that is under-recognized due to low-sensitivity and cumbersome serological tests. MAT is the gold standard test and it is the only serogroup specific test used till date. Rapid reliable alternative serogroup specific tests are needed for surveillance studies to identify locally circulating serogroups in the study area.In the present investigation the serological specificity of leptospiral lipopolysaccharides (LPS was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, dot blot assay and rapid immunochromatography based lateral flow assay (ICG-LFA. Sera samples from 120 MAT positive cases, 174 cases with febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 121 seronegative healthy controls were evaluated for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed assays. LPS was extracted from five locally predominant circulating serogroups including: Australis (27.5%, Autumnalis (11.7%, Ballum (25.8%, Grippotyphosa (12.5%, Pomona (10% and were used as antigens in the diagnostics to detect IgM antibodies in patients' sera. The sensitivity observed by IgM ELISA and dot blot assay using various leptospiral LPS was >90% for homologous sera. Except for Ballum LPS, no other LPS showed cross-reactivity to heterologous sera. An attempt was made to develop LPS based ICG-LFA for rapid and sensitive serogroup specific diagnostics of leptospirosis. The developed ICG-LFA showed sensitivity in the range between 93 and 100% for homologous sera. The Wilcoxon analysis showed LPS based ICG-LFA did not differ significantly from the gold standard MAT (P>0.05.The application of single array of LPS for serogroup specific diagnosis is first of its kind. The developed assay could potentially be evaluated and employed for as MAT alternative.

  12. Specific expression of bioluminescence reporter gene in cardiomyocyte regulated by tissue specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Tae, Seong Ho; Le, Nguyen Uyen Chi; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As the human heart is not capable of regenerating the great numbers of cardiac cells that are lost after myocardial infarction, impaired cardiac function is the inevitable result of ischemic disease. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have gained popularity as a potentially ideal cell candidate for tissue regeneration. In particular, hESCs are capable of cardiac lineage-specific differentiation and confer improvement of cardiac function following transplantation into animal models. Although such data are encouraging, the specific strategy for in vivo and non-invasive detection of differentiated cardiac lineage is still limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established the gene construction in which the optical reporter gene Firefly luciferase was controlled by Myosin Heavy Chain promoter for specific expressing in heart cells. The vector consisting of - MHC promoter and a firefly luciferase coding sequence flanked by full-length bovine growth hormone (BGH) 3'-polyadenylation sequence based on pcDNA3.1- vector backbone. To test the specific transcription of this promoter in g of MHC-Fluc or CMV-Flue (for control) plasmid DNA in myocardial tissue, 20 phosphate-buffered saline was directly injected into mouse myocardium through a midline sternotomy and liver. After 1 week of injection, MHC-Fluc expression was detected from heart region which was observed under cooled CCD camera of in vivo imaging system but not from liver. In control group injected with CMV-Flue, the bioluminescence was detected from all these organs. The expression of Flue under control of Myosin Heavy Chain promoter may become a suitable optical reporter gene for stem cell-derived cardiac lineage differentiation study.

  13. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  14. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  15. Modality-specificity of selective attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jamieson Stewart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT, the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA, and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL. These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled ‘general attention’. The third component was labeled ‘auditory attention’, as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as ‘spatial orienting’ and ‘spatial conflict’, respectively – they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT and TAiL attend-location task – all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location. Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  16. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled "general attention." The third component was labeled "auditory attention," as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as "spatial orienting" and "spatial conflict," respectively-they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT, and TAiL attend-location task-all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location). These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  17. 18 CFR 12.35 - Specific inspection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT WORKS Inspection by Independent Consultant § 12.35 Specific inspection requirements. (a) Scope of inspection. The inspection by the independent consultant shall include: (1) Due consideration of all relevant...

  18. Compiling graphical real-time specifications into silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Lüth, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The basic algorithms underlying an automatic hardware synthesis environment using fully formal graphical requirements specifications as source language are outlined. The source language is real-time symbolic timing diagrams [FeyerabendJosko97], which are a metric-time temporal logic such that har...

  19. Dimensions and disorder specificity of impulsivity in pathological gambling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kräplin, Anja; Bühringer, Gerhard; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van den Brink, Wim; Goschke, Thomas; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a core characteristic of pathological gambling (PG), even though the underlying structure and disorder specificity is unclear. This study aimed to explore different dimensions of impulsivity in a clinical sample including PG. Furthermore, we aimed to test which alterations of the

  20. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  1. JBK-75 microstructure specification recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the ASTM-E-45 standard for microcleanliness is not applicable to superalloys like JBK-75 stainless steel (Modified A-286), Rocky Flats should adopt the Ladish microcleanliness standard (APML Cleanliness Classification of High Temperature Alloys Chart, 1971), as a guide for setting material acceptance specifications for JBK-75. Inclusion ratings of S-2, N-2, C-2, and M-2 should be acceptable. The microstructure should have a grain size of 5 or finer, but not smaller than 9, and microsegregation (banding) should be kept to a minimum

  2. Specific circuit design: electrocardiogram amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laribiere, Laurent

    1991-01-01

    The electrocardiogram amplifier is a specific integrated circuit. It is based on a linear array of Raytheon. This circuit is fitted with the following functions and characteristics: - electrocardiogram signals amplification, - pacemaker detection, - electrode un-sticking detection, - defibrillator overload protection, - battery-powered, - internal regulation 5 V, - low supply current 2.5 mA, - according to French norms on electrocardiogram surveillance devices - 28 pin package, available in CMS version It can be used for any surveillance device, requiring an analog processing of cardiac signals. (author) [fr

  3. Gender specific determinants of goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamshid, F.; Kerstin, C.; Elena, G.; Wilhelm, O.; Karl, W.; Hwe, M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the strong implications of differences between females and males in the risk of goitre, gender-specific issues have not been extensively addressed in investigations of goitre prevalence. The Objective of our analysis was to investigate the gender-specific determinants of goitre. Methods: A total of 853 healthy employees from 4 institutions in western part of Germany aged between 18 and 68 years were examined by ultrasound of the neck to determine the thyroid volume between April 2001 and April 2002. Information on sex, age, daily use of iodised salt, the history of goitre in the first degree relatives, type and amount of' smoking, oral contraceptives and number of pregnancies were assessed by standardised questionnaires. Gender-specific predictors of goitre prevalence were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The overall prevalence of goitre among study subjects was (204/853) 23.9%. Goitre was present in 80 out of 370 females (21.6%) vs. 124/483 (25.7%) in males.In general smoking (<0.0001), increasing age (p<0.0001) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.004) associated with goitre prevalence, but not sex (0.4) and family history of goitre (p=0.2). In 370 females, parity (p=0.004) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.01) were the major determinants for goitre, whereas, age (p=0.2), oral contraceptives (p=0.8), family history of goitre (p=0.3), and smoking (p=0.1) did not affect the goitre prevalence. In 483 males, smoking (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.001) affected the goitre prevalence, but not family history of goitre (p=0.4) and the iodine status failed just to reach the significant level (p=0.08) in this analysis. Conclusions: Gender specific determinants of goitre are parity and iodine status in females and smoking and increasing age in males. (authors)

  4. 100 Areas water treatment specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1952-07-11

    This memorandum discussed review of the data from tests using alum in the treatment of pile process water, and using activated silica as a coagulant aid during period of low water temperature, which shows that this method should be substituted for the present method of treating pile process water in all 100 Areas. It was recommended that the water treatment procedures and specifications attached to this memorandum be initiated as standard practice in all 100 Areas as soon as it is possible to make the necessary equipment modifications and installations.

  5. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  6. Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriët F. A. Zoon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury, determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-weight females smelled four odours differing in the energy density and taste they signalled, one non-food odour, and one odourless solution (control, in random order, for three minutes each. Appetite for 15 food products was rated in the following two minutes. Mixed model analyses revealed that exposure to an odour signalling a specific taste (respectively sweet, savoury led to a greater appetite for congruent food products (sweet/savoury compared to incongruent food products (savoury p < 0.001; sweet p < 0.001 or neutral food products (p = 0.02; p = 0.003. A similar pattern was present for the energy-density category (respectively high-energy dense, low-energy dense signalled by the odours (low-energy products p < 0.001; high-energy products p = 0.008. Hunger state did not have a significant impact on sensory-specific appetite. These results suggest that exposure to food odours increases appetite for congruent products, in terms of both taste and energy density, irrespective of hunger state. We speculate that food odours steer towards intake of products with a congruent macronutrient composition.

  7. Specification of ROP flux shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Gray, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The CANDU 9 480/SEU core uses 0.9% SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) fuel. The use f SEU fuel enables the reactor to increase the radial power form factor from 0.865, which is typical in current natural uranium CANDU reactors, to 0.97 in the nominal CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The difference is a 12% increase in reactor power. An additional 5% increase can be achieved due to a reduced refuelling ripple. The channel power limits were also increased by 3% for a total reactor power increase of 20%. This report describes the calculation of neutron flux distributions in the CANDU 9 480/SEU core under conditions specified by the C and I engineers. The RFSP code was used to calculate of neutron flux shapes for ROP analysis. Detailed flux values at numerous potential detector sites were calculated for each flux shape. (author). 6 tabs., 70 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  9. The Specificity of Human Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Today, humankind is being reintroduced within nature. Humankind is no longer presented as supernatural to nature. There is no longer a clear divide between animal and human. What makes us human is neither culture, nor language nor labor, nor art, but the degree of complexity those products and ca...... creativity. Art is fundamentally about shaping visions and very closely related to this specific human ability to make projects. Especially in times of crisis, when the old sources of meaning hardly can make sense in a new context, imagination must be used in order to survive........ Today, what is regarded as the essential characteristic of humankind is the ability to use a complex articulated language, to have thoughts entailing abstraction and conceptualization. It is the ability to operate with deferred representations, the necessity to relate to inner worlds of representation...

  10. Testing of badminton specific endurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) was developed and tested in elite (n=17) and skilled (n=9) badminton players as well as in age-matched physically active men (non-badminton players; n=8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility...... was evaluated in nine badminton players.B-ENDURANCE is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton specific actions towards the four corners on the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence he must...... decreases until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo.B-ENDURANCE performance for elite players was better (PENDURANCE performance correlated (r=0.8; P

  11. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate...... for an automatic metric simulating the post-editors’ usability judgements. LSP tests show 67% saved time in post-editing for the tested domain. Finally, the use of weighted sub-domain phrase tables in a SMT system is shown to improve translation quality.......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  12. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health...

  13. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: February... Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: New Data Compensation Claims... required recipients to submit specific screening data on hormonal effects under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor...

  14. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  15. Wear behaviour of A356 aluminium alloy reinforced with micron and nano size SiC particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Camagu, ST

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A method for producing metal matrix composites MMC was successfully implemented for mixing nano and low micron (“Hybrid”) sized SiC reinforcing particles in an aluminium alloy matrix. Due to the improved specific modulus and strength, MMC...

  16. Metal matrix composites synthesis, wear characteristics, machinability study of MMC brake drum

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Nanjappan; Davim, J Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to composite materials, presenting different synthesis processes, composite properties and their machining behaviour. The book describes also the problems on manufacturing of metal matrix composite components. Among others, it provides procedures for manufacturing of metal matrix composites and case studies.

  17. Reproducibility and calibration of MMC-based high-resolution gamma detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C. R.; Friedrich, S., E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C. [Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    We describe a prototype γ-ray detector based on a metallic magnetic calorimeter with an energy resolution of 46 eV at 60 keV and a reproducible response function that follows a simple second-order polynomial. The simple detector calibration allows adding high-resolution spectra from different pixels and different cool-downs without loss in energy resolution to determine γ-ray centroids with high accuracy. As an example of an application in nuclear safeguards enabled by such a γ-ray detector, we discuss the non-destructive assay of {sup 242}Pu in a mixed-isotope Pu sample.

  18. Surface roughness prediction model in end milling of Al/SiC p MMC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focuses on study and analyses of surface quality improvement in end milling operation of Al/SiCp metal matrix composite. These materials are selected as they are most widely used in automobile and aerospace industry. This research paper develops an improved mathematical model for surface roughness ...

  19. Pre-charging of module capacitors of MMC when the module ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamkant D Joshi

    The resistor R in figure 5 is selected to limit the initial charging current and its value is taken as 50 X . After pre- charging, it is reduced to 5 X . The resistance R1 is eval- uated based on constant-power load for the IGBT driver circuit equal to 2.5 W. It varies with the module capacitor voltage. The graph for the same is given in ...

  20. Capacitor voltage ripple reduction and arm energy balancing in MMC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parikh, Harsh; Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánches; Tsolaridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    variations is utilized in order to achieve better performance. By injecting a second order harmonic component into the circulating current, the energy variation and consequently the capacitor voltage ripple is reduced allowing for a capacitor size reduction. At the same time, an arm energy balancing...

  1. Experimental Studies on Al (5.7% Zn) Alloy based Hybrid MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprakash, Y. M.; Ramu, H. C.; Chiranjivee; Kumar, Roushan; Kumar, Deepak

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, an attempt is made to disperse SiC (20-25 microns) and Gr (15-20 microns) in the aluminium alloy having Zn, Mg and coper as major alloying elements. The composite is further subjected to mechanical testing to determine various properties like hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance. The alloy and composite samples were tested in the un heat treated conditions. All the tests were done at the laboratory conditions as per ASTM standards. The Pin-On-Disc tribometer is used to test the two-body abrasive sliding wear behaviour in dry conditions. The wear pattern is analysed by the optical images of worn surface taken in an inverted metallurgical microscope. The calculated density is found to be reducing as the SiC and Gr quantity is increased in the base alloy. The as cast Al alloy was found to be having highest hardness. The introduction of SiC tend to increase the hardness and UTS, since Gr is also introduced simultaneously which tends to reduce the hardness and UTS of composite. The composite having highest quantity of Gr showed superior wear resistance which is mainly because the Gr particulates provide an inbuilt lubricating properties to composite. The analysis of images of worn surface showed the abrasive and delamination pattern of wear. The composites developed in the present work can be used in the automobile and aerospace parts that are light in weight and require self-lubricating properties to enhance the wear resistance.

  2. Self-synchronisation of wind farm in MMC-based HVDC system

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohammad; Molinas Cabrera, Maria Marta

    2016-01-01

    The stability of an offshore wind power network connected through a high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission line is a critical problem since there is no direct connection to a strong ac collection (ACC) bus. Field experience has shown that sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) and harmonic resonance can occur between the wind farms and the HVDC systems. The oscillations can appear in the presence of background harmonics and is arguably resulting from the controller interaction of the Wind Energy Conv...

  3. Sujecion de piezas durante las mediciones con M.M.C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sellés Cantó

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This Coordinate Measuring Machines (C.M.M. has had an increasingly important role throughout history. We are talking to an enterprise-level quality control. A system that is being implemented in all companies, and has developed some tools to control a variety of parameters such as production stabilization.In this paper, we first set out an introduction to the use of C.M.M. as tools for quality control in SME's. Then we explore the importance of piece positioning and clamping before being measured in a C.M.M. We finally analyze four possible moorings, and deviations are obtained. These moorings are designed in order to place the same work piece in the four cases.Finally, the results obtained are compared and show which is the best way to put the part on the C.M.M.

  4. A pharmacoeconomic analysis of the use of single MMC instillation in low risk NMIBC in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Colombo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer accounts for 5-10% of all cancers in Europe and up to 85% patients presents a noninvasive tumor, whose treatment of choice is the transurethral bladder resection (TURB paired with adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Despite several clinical trials showed that this treatment is safe and decreases recurrences by 17% to 44% this practice is limited for many reasons. The study objective is to analyze the economical advantages of the single immediate post operative Mitomycin C instillation in Non Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC low-risk patients.METHODS: A cost-benefit analysis was performed evaluating the economical gain that would raised from a scenario with a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in each low-risk NMIBC patient who underwent to TURB. Net present value and cost-benefit ratio were calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed. Base case analysis was performed considering tumor recurrence rate reduction of 11.7% and a TURB costs of 2,167.0 €, while sensitivity analyses were performed using a recurrence rate reduction of 19.2% and 15.0% and a TURB cost of 2,472.93 €. The discount rate was 2%.RESULTS: The single immediate post operative instillation of mitomycin C resulted to be cost-beneficial with a cost-benefit ratio that goes from 0.48 to 0.79 when compared to TURB alone raising a Net Present Value that goes from 660,284.39 € to 2,650,530.79 €.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that even assuming conservative parameters for recurrence rates reduction, a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in low risk NMIBC patients would lower not only the recurrence rate but also the caring cost for bladder cancer.

  5. Pre-charging of module capacitors of MMC when the module ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamkant D Joshi

    linear regulator. It was observed experimentally in [9] that the capacitor voltage stabilizes for two modules in series. Figure 8 shows capacitors of two modules charging through a resistor R and an inductor L. The resistor R is included to limit the initial current. The load across the module capacitor is represented by negative- ...

  6. Mechanical Characterization of Thermomechanical Matrix Residual Stresses Incurred During MMC Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been spent examining the residual stress-strain states of advanced composites. Such examinations are motivated by a number of significant concerns that affect composite development, processing, and analysis. The room-temperature residual stress states incurred in many advanced composite systems are often quite large and can introduce damage even prior to the first external mechanical loading of the material. These stresses, which are induced during the cooldown following high-temperature consolidation, result from the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the fiber and matrix. Experimental techniques commonly used to evaluate composite internal residual stress states are non-mechanical in nature and generally include forms of x-ray and neutron diffraction. Such approaches are usually complex, involving a number of assumptions and limitations associated with a wide range of issues, including the depth of penetration, the volume of material being assessed, and erroneous effects associated with oriented grains. Furthermore, and more important to the present research, these techniques can assess only "single time" stress in the composite. That is, little, if any, information is obtained that addresses the time-dependent point at which internal stresses begin to accumulate, the manner in which the accumulation occurs, and the presiding relationships between thermoelastic, thermoplastic, and thermoviscous behaviors. To address these critical issues, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center developed and implemented an innovative mechanical test technique to examine in real time, the time-dependent thermomechanical stress behavior of a matrix alloy as it went through a consolidation cycle.

  7. Application of capillary hysteresis phenomenon for evaluation of recycling possibility of selected MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagolska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Properties of composites made through saturation of ceramic reinforcement preforms with liquid metal are the cause of growing use of these materials. Taking increasing requirements regarding environment protection into consideration, already during design of such materials one should think of a way of their recycling at the end of life. The recycling of these materials is conducted by separation of components. Determining optimal superficial conditions of a recycling system: liquid metal matrix – reinforcement preform – medium enables automatic course of the recycling process, but does not guarantee high yield of metal. With identical superficial conditions of the recycling system and different structure of reinforcement preforms significant differences in metal yield can be obtained. Identification of a type of a capillary present in reinforcement preforms may allow to determine, already during stage of material design, which types of composites will undergo the recycling process better and for which types one has to accept decreased yield of matrix metal. This identification can be done on the basis of an analysis of results obtained during examination conducted with mercury porosimetry, comparing acquired hysteresis graphs with model graphs proposed by de Boer for adsorbent analysis. Considering the analysis of image of structure of examined reinforcement preforms makes the identification process easier and faster.

  8. Surface roughness prediction model in end milling of Al/SiCp MMC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Surface roughness (Ra), Response surface method (RSM), End milling, Metal matrix composites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijest.v3i6.7. 1. Introduction. The recent advancements in the CNC machine tool technology and the wide availability in manufacturing of mechanical components made it possible to ...

  9. A comparison of numerical predictions and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements of MMC phase response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentzen, T.; Soerensen, N.J.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used for in-situ measurements of the phase response of an Al/SiC whisker composite during a tensile test. The in-situ neutron diffraction measurements have been made with a special loading device, which allows for the diffraction measurements to be performed during the tensile test. The measurements are compared with 3D finite element (FEM) simulations using a cell model with a short fiber embedded in the centre of the cell. (au) (14 refs.)

  10. Effect of sol gel coating on wettability and interfacial reaction in Al-SiC MMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.L.; Breivik, T.R.; Kindl, B.

    1995-01-01

    The control of the interfacial reaction between the matrix and the SiC reinforcement in Al-SiC metal matrix composites (MMCs) is an important production parameter. The reaction causes degradation of the reinforcement, weakening of the interface and a decrease of the mechanical properties...... of the products. Much recent work has been carried out to characterize the Al/SiC interface and to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes and compares the effects of surface coatings on two interface properties, the wettability of SiC in pure A1 and the interface reaction of the same SiC...... for uncoated SiC particles....

  11. Application of capillary hysteresis phenomenon for evaluation of recycling possibility of selected MMC

    OpenAIRE

    D. Nagolska; K. Gawdzińska

    2011-01-01

    Properties of composites made through saturation of ceramic reinforcement preforms with liquid metal are the cause of growing use of these materials. Taking increasing requirements regarding environment protection into consideration, already during design of such materials one should think of a way of their recycling at the end of life. The recycling of these materials is conducted by separation of components. Determining optimal superficial conditions of a recycling system: liquid metal matr...

  12. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungjun; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2010-01-01

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  13. Flexible MOFs under stress: pressure and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-03-14

    In the recent past an enormous number of Metal-Organic Framework type compounds (MOFs) have been synthesized. The novelty resides in their extremely high surface area and the ability to include additional features to their structure either during synthesis or as additives to the MOF. This versatility allows for MOFs to be designed for specific applications. However, the question arises as to whether a particular MOF can withstand the stress that may be encountered in fulfillment of the designated application. In this study we describe the behavior of two flexible MOFs under pressure and several others under temperature increase. The pressure study includes both experimental and theoretical calculations. In the thermal processes evidence for colossal negative thermal expansion were encountered.

  14. Querying metabolism under different physiological constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ali; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin; Hanson, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Metabolism is a representation of the biochemical principles that govern the production, consumption, degradation, and biosynthesis of metabolites in living cells. Organisms respond to changes in their physiological conditions or environmental perturbations (i.e. constraints) via cooperative implementation of such principles. Querying inner working principles of metabolism under different constraints provides invaluable insights for both researchers and educators. In this paper, we propose a metabolism query language (MQL) and discuss its query processing. MQL enables researchers to explore the behavior of the metabolism with a wide-range of predicates including dietary and physiological condition specifications. The query results of MQL are enriched with both textual and visual representations, and its query processing is completely tailored based on the underlying metabolic principles.

  15. 31 CFR 596.309 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.309 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or...

  16. Advances in bacterial specific imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wareham

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear medicine is a powerful diagnostic technique able to detect inflammatory foci in human disease. A wide range of agents have been evaluated for their ability to distinguish lesions due to microbial infection from those due to sterile inflammation. Advances continue to be made on the use of radiolabelled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection may be useful in monitoring the treatment and course of disease. Here we provide an update on in-vitro and clinical studies with a number of established and novel radiopharmaceuticalsA medicina nuclear é uma técnica poderosa de diagnóstico capaz de detectar focos inflamatórios em doenças humanas. Uma ampla gama de agentes tem sido avaliada em sua capacidade de distinguir lesões, devidas a infecções microbianas daquelas causadas por inflamações estéreis. Avanços continuam sendo realizados no uso de antibióticos radiomarcados que, da mesma forma que têm sido usados no diagnóstico altamente específico de infecções, podem ser úteis na monitoração do tratamento e do curso da doença. Neste estudo, nós apresentamos uma atualização sobre estudos in vitro e clínicos, com alguns novos radiofármacos e outros já consagrados.

  17. Specificities of sustainable tourism planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.

  18. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.

  19. [Amusia and its topic specification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklina, S B; Skvortsova, V B

    2007-01-01

    A historical development of views on amusia and its clinical phenomenology is reviewed. The authors present a case of atypical amusia in a patient aged 32 years with glioma of the right temporal lobe including the upper temporal gyrus. Amusia was combined with euphoria and disturbances of evaluation of speech intonation. It has been assumed that different mechanisms implicated with different regions of both brain hemispheres may underlie amusia. Sometimes these mechanisms appear to be universal, e.g. disorders of symbolic gnosis in posterior hemisphere lesions, being comorbid with amusia as disturbances in reading music and letter agnosia. In our case, the right temporal lobe lesion, especially with involvement of the upper temporal gyrus, caused specific music agnosia with disturbances of perception of some notes and duration of their phonation or a musical contour of the whole melody. Motor amusia is developed due to additional disturbances of motor and premotor brain functions, with significant contribution of the Broca's speech area. Music may be a model for investigation into processes of multimodal integration and hemisphere interaction.

  20. Radioactive hospital wastes. Radiations under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeelle, A.; Delmotte, H.; Gauron, C.

    2006-07-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of legal and regulatory evolutions regarding radioactive hospital wastes. These legal measures and evolutions are notably present in the Public Health code, in the Labour code. An article outlines the role of the radiation protection expert in the process of elimination of contaminated wastes (four major steps for this elimination are indicated; peculiarities of the hospital are outlined, as well as control procedures and the importance of training and information). An article describes the specific activity of the Creteil incinerator which comprises a unit for the incineration of care activity wastes under a very constraining regulation

  1. On the Enforcement of Specific Performance in Civil Law Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik; Rose, Caspar

    2003-01-01

    requires actions to beundertaken, and we relate this to costs of enforcement. We arguethat it is administratively costly to run a system of enforcementthat renders specific performance attractive to the aggrieved party,and that the Civil Law countries have (like Common Law countries)chosen not to incur......Abstract:Proponents of specific performance as a remedy for breach ofcontract have found support in the alleged use of the remedy inCivil Law countries. However, we provide evidence that specificperformance is in fact a rare remedy in Denmark, Germany andFrance, and under CISG, when performance...

  2. Recent trends in the study of specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2008-01-01

    Specific phobias are prevalent and often disabling anxiety disorders. The present review examines relevant investigations that have been published during the last 2 years on major aspects of this group of disorders. Recent studies have come mainly from epidemiology, brain imagery and cognitive-behavioral therapy, including virtual reality exposure therapy. Studies published in the last 2 years confirm the high prevalence of specific phobias in the general population and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the fear reaction after exposure to a phobic stimulus.

  3. A powerful tool for plant specific simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, J.; Ofstun, R.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, special emphasis has been placed by the Utilities and Safety Authorities on the training of plant operators and engineers to make them more familiar with the dynamic behavior of the plant in post-accident conditions. With a view to providing transient response under realistic operating conditions, concerns were raised over: the use of conservative safety analysis models for analyzing operational and accident transients; the ability to dynamically simulate the expected operator actions, and the need to simulate the plant during long term cooling recovery. To meet these requirements, an interactive, user friendly, cost efficient dynamic model capable of simulating two-phase conditions is needed. In response to these post-TMI concerns, Westinghouse has developed, the Transient Real-Time Engineering Analysis Tool (TREAT) which is a general purpose interactive thermal-hydraulic network code for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis. The applications of TREAT are numerous and range from engineering studies to plant operator training using the newly developed TREAT SIMULATOR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the TREAT program and potential applications. Special emphasis will be drawn at a plant specific training application performed for a French 4-loop plant

  4. Underlying Event Measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of Underlying Event activity using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS detector will be presented. To check the energy dependence of the underlying event activity, results are compared with previous measurements from different experiments at different centre-of-mass energies.

  5. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  6. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alister U.; Sanchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Collado, Paloma; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odors and whether they can be investigated under anesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odor smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odor under anesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes) electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odor was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odor during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odor. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50%) of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odors prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odor many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odors as well as in evoked glutamate and GABA

  7. Prevalence of Under Nutrition among Under Five Year Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria. ... International Journal of Community Research ... The nutritional status of under-five children is a reflection of the health of children in the community and this forms the basis for the development of success–oriented interventional ...

  8. Evaluating EU Regional Policy: Many Empirical Specifications, One (Unpleasant) Result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidenbach, Philipp; Mitze, Timo; Schmidt, Christoph

    results: First, one should take the theoretical underpinnings of regional growth models more serious, and second, a likewise careful account of the role of spatial dependence in the underlying data is needed. Though research has increasingly become aware of the latter point as important control factor...... in various econometric specifications to point out the effectiveness of these funding. Our results all hint to the unpleasant result that EU structural funds objective 1 funding has...

  9. Age-specific prostate specific antigen cutoffs for guiding biopsy decision in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Na

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-specific prostate specific antigen (PSA cutoffs for prostate biopsy have been widely used in the USA and European countries. However, the application of age-specific PSA remains poorly understood in China. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2012, 1,848 men over the age of 40, underwent prostate biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Clinical information and blood samples were collected prior to biopsy for each patient. Men were divided into three age groups (≤60, 61 to 80, and >80 for analyses. Digital rectal examination (DRE, transrectal ultrasound (prostate volume and nodule, total PSA (tPSA, and free PSA (fPSA were also included in the analyses. Logistic regression was used to build the multi-variate model. RESULTS: Serum tPSA levels were age-dependent (P = 0.008, while %fPSA (P = 0.051 and PSAD (P = 0.284 were age-independent. At a specificity of 80%, the sensitivities for predicting PCa were 83%, 71% and 68% with tPSA cutoff values of 19.0 ng/mL (age≤60,21.0 ng/mL (age 61-80, and 23.0 ng/mL (age≥81. Also, sensitivities at the same tPSA levels were able to reach relatively high levels (70%-88% for predicting high-grade PCa. Area (AUC under the receive operating curves (ROCs of tPSA, %fPSA, PSAD and multi-variate model were different in age groups. When predicting PCa, the AUC of tPSA, %fPSA, PSAD and multi-variate model were 0.90, 0.57, 0.93 and 0.87 respectively in men ≤60 yr; 0.82, 0.70, 0.88 and 0.86 respectively in men 61-80 yr; 0.79, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.88 respectively in men>80 yr. When predicting Gleason Score ≥7 or 8 PCa, there were no significant differences between AUCs of each variable. CONCLUSION: Age-specific PSA cutoff values for prostate biopsy should be considered in the Chinese population. Indications for prostate biopsies (tPSA, %fPSA and PSAD should be considered based on age in the Chinese population.

  10. Age-specific prostate specific antigen cutoffs for guiding biopsy decision in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Rong; Wu, Yishuo; Xu, Jianfeng; Jiang, Haowen; Ding, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Age-specific prostate specific antigen (PSA) cutoffs for prostate biopsy have been widely used in the USA and European countries. However, the application of age-specific PSA remains poorly understood in China. Between 2003 and 2012, 1,848 men over the age of 40, underwent prostate biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa) at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Clinical information and blood samples were collected prior to biopsy for each patient. Men were divided into three age groups (≤60, 61 to 80, and >80) for analyses. Digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (prostate volume and nodule), total PSA (tPSA), and free PSA (fPSA) were also included in the analyses. Logistic regression was used to build the multi-variate model. Serum tPSA levels were age-dependent (P = 0.008), while %fPSA (P = 0.051) and PSAD (P = 0.284) were age-independent. At a specificity of 80%, the sensitivities for predicting PCa were 83%, 71% and 68% with tPSA cutoff values of 19.0 ng/mL (age≤60),21.0 ng/mL (age 61-80), and 23.0 ng/mL (age≥81). Also, sensitivities at the same tPSA levels were able to reach relatively high levels (70%-88%) for predicting high-grade PCa. Area (AUC) under the receive operating curves (ROCs) of tPSA, %fPSA, PSAD and multi-variate model were different in age groups. When predicting PCa, the AUC of tPSA, %fPSA, PSAD and multi-variate model were 0.90, 0.57, 0.93 and 0.87 respectively in men ≤60 yr; 0.82, 0.70, 0.88 and 0.86 respectively in men 61-80 yr; 0.79, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.88 respectively in men>80 yr. When predicting Gleason Score ≥7 or 8 PCa, there were no significant differences between AUCs of each variable. Age-specific PSA cutoff values for prostate biopsy should be considered in the Chinese population. Indications for prostate biopsies (tPSA, %fPSA and PSAD) should be considered based on age in the Chinese population.

  11. Microchimerism is strongly correlated with tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Partha; Molitor-Dart, Melanie; Bobadilla, Joseph L; Roenneburg, Drew A; Yan, Zhen; Torrealba, Jose R; Burlingham, William J

    2009-10-22

    In mice and humans, the immunologic effects of developmental exposure to noninherited maternal antigens (NIMAs) are quite variable. This heterogeneity likely reflects differences in the relative levels of NIMA-specific T regulatory (T(R)) versus T effector (T(E)) cells. We hypothesized that maintenance of NIMA-specific T(R) cells in the adult requires continuous exposure to maternal cells and antigens (eg, maternal microchimerism [MMc]). To test this idea, we used 2 sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) tests to detect MMc in different organs of NIMA(d)-exposed H2(b) mice. MMc was detected in 100% of neonates and a majority (61%) of adults; nursing by a NIMA+ mother was essential for preserving MMc into adulthood. MMc was most prevalent in heart, lungs, liver, and blood, but was rarely detected in unfractionated lymphoid tissues. However, MMc was detectable in isolated CD4+, CD11b+, and CD11c+ cell subsets of spleen, and in lineage-positive cells in heart. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and in vivo lymphoproliferation correlated with MMc levels, suggesting a link between T(R) and maternal cell engraftment. In the absence of neonatal exposure to NIMA via breastfeeding, MMc was lost, which was accompanied by sensitization to NIMA in some offspring, indicating a role of oral exposure in maintaining a favorable T(R) > T(E) balance.

  12. Maintaining Information Flow Security under Refinement and Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Seehusen, Fredrik; Stølen, Ketil

    2006-01-01

    - We address the problem of maintaining information flow security under refinement and transformation. To this end we define a schema for the specification of secure information flow properties and show that all security properties defined in the schema are preserved by a notion of refinement. Refinement is a process that requires human guidance and is in general not subject for automation. A transformation on the other hand, is an executable function mapping specifications to specificatio...

  13. Efficient Bayesian inference under the structured coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy G; Kühnert, Denise; Popinga, Alex; Welch, David; Drummond, Alexei J

    2014-08-15

    Population structure significantly affects evolutionary dynamics. Such structure may be due to spatial segregation, but may also reflect any other gene-flow-limiting aspect of a model. In combination with the structured coalescent, this fact can be used to inform phylogenetic tree reconstruction, as well as to infer parameters such as migration rates and subpopulation sizes from annotated sequence data. However, conducting Bayesian inference under the structured coalescent is impeded by the difficulty of constructing Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms (samplers) capable of efficiently exploring the state space. In this article, we present a new MCMC sampler capable of sampling from posterior distributions over structured trees: timed phylogenetic trees in which lineages are associated with the distinct subpopulation in which they lie. The sampler includes a set of MCMC proposal functions that offer significant mixing improvements over a previously published method. Furthermore, its implementation as a BEAST 2 package ensures maximum flexibility with respect to model and prior specification. We demonstrate the usefulness of this new sampler by using it to infer migration rates and effective population sizes of H3N2 influenza between New Zealand, New York and Hong Kong from publicly available hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences under the structured coalescent. The sampler has been implemented as a publicly available BEAST 2 package that is distributed under version 3 of the GNU General Public License at http://compevol.github.io/MultiTypeTree. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Standard Specification for Nuclear Facility Transient Worker Records

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the required content and provides retention requirements for records needed for in-processing of nuclear facility transient workers. 1.2 This specification applies to records to be used for in-processing only. 1.3 This specification is not intended to cover specific skills records (such as equipment operating licenses, ASME inspection qualifications, or welding certifications). 1.4 This specification does not reduce any regulatory requirement for records retention at a licensed nuclear facility. Note 1—Nuclear facilities operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are not licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), nor are other nuclear facilities that may come under the control of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) or individual agreement states. The references in this specification to licensee, the U.S. NRC Regulatory Guides, and Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations are to imply appropriate alternative nomenclature with respect to DOE, DOD...

  15. Frivillig og under eget ansvar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karin

    2002-01-01

    Ifølge Lou Andreas-Salomé drejer flere af Henrik Ibsens dramaer sig om problemet med at skabe balance mellem selvbefrielse og selvbegrænsning, og nøgleordene er: Frivillig og under eget ansvar....

  16. Refugee scientists under the spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extance, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of people are forced to flee war-torn regions every year, but the struggles of scientists who have to leave their homeland often goes under the radar. Andy Extance reports on initiatives to help

  17. Logistics systems optimization under competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Tsan Ming; Govindan, Kannan; Ma, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, optimization on logistics and supply chain systems is a crucial and critical issue in industrial and systems engineering. Important areas of logistics and supply chain systems include transportation control, inventory management, and facility location planning. Under a competitive market...

  18. Science Underlying 2008 Nobel Prizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Bernadette A.

    2009-01-01

    JCE offers a wealth of materials for teaching and learning chemistry that you can explore online. In the list below, Bernadette Caldwell of the Editorial Staff suggests additional resources that are available through JCE for teaching the science behind some of the 2008 Nobel Prizes . Discovering and Applying the Chemistry of GFP The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP to three scientists: Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien. These scientists led the field in discovering and introducing a fluorescing protein from jellyfish into cells and genes under study, which allows researchers to witness biochemistry in action. Now tags are available that emit light in different colors, revealing myriad biological processes and their interactions simultaneously. Identifying HPV and HIV, HIV's Replication Cycle, and HIV Virus-Host Interactions The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to two scientists: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier; and for his discovery of human papilloma viruses [HPV] causing cervical cancer to one scientist, Harald zur Hausen. Diseases caused by these infectious agents significantly affect global health. While isolating and studying the virus, researchers discovered HIV is an uncommon retrovirus that infects humans and relies on the host to make its viral DNA, infecting and killing the host's white blood cells, ultimately destroying the immune systems of infected humans. Related Resources at JCE Online The Journal has published articles relating to GFP specifically, and more generally to fluorescing compounds applied to biochemistry. The Journal has also published an article and a video on protease inhibition—a strategy to suppress HIV's biological processes. With the video clips, an accompanying guide

  19. Graphene cantilever under Casimir force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras-Chouk, Amel; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Garanin, Dmitry A.; Jaafar, Reem

    2018-05-01

    The stability of graphene cantilever under Casimir attraction to an underlying conductor is investigated. The dependence of the instability threshold on temperature and flexural rigidity is obtained. Analytical work is supplemented by numerical computation of the critical temperature above which the graphene cantilever irreversibly bends down and attaches to the conductor. The geometry of the attachment and exfoliation of the graphene sheet is discussed. It is argued that graphene cantilever can be an excellent tool for precision measurements of the Casimir force.

  20. On the Enforcement of Specific Performance in Civil Law Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik; Rose, Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Abstract:Proponents of specific performance as a remedy for breach ofcontract have found support in the alleged use of the remedy inCivil Law countries. However, we provide evidence that specificperformance is in fact a rare remedy in Denmark, Germany andFrance, and under CISG, when performance...... requires actions to beundertaken, and we relate this to costs of enforcement. We arguethat it is administratively costly to run a system of enforcementthat renders specific performance attractive to the aggrieved party,and that the Civil Law countries have (like Common Law countries)chosen not to incur...... these costs of enforcement. This is especiallyclear in the case of Denmark, where specific performance of actionshas been abandoned as a legal remedy.At the normative level, we argue that enforcement costs providesan additional rationale, over and above the rationales of the theoryof efficient breach...