WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying factors contributing

  1. Credit risk contributions under the Vasicek one-factor model: a fast wavelet expansion approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Gracia, Luís

    2011-01-01

    To measure the contribution of individual transactions inside the total risk of a credit portfolio is a major issue in financial institutions. VaR Contributions (VaRC) and Expected Shortfall Contributions (ESC) have become two popular ways of quantifying the risks. However, the usual Monte Carlo (MC) approach is known to be a very time consuming method for computing these risk contributions. In this paper we consider the Wavelet Approximation (WA) method for Value at Risk (VaR) computation pr...

  2. Credit risk contributions under the Vasicek one-factor model: a fast wavelet expansion approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Masdemont Soler, Josep; Ortiz-Gracia, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To measure the contribution of individual transactions inside the total risk of a credit portfolio is a major issue in financial institutions. VaR Contributions (VaRC) and Expected Shortfall Contributions (ESC) have become two popular ways of quantifying the risks. However, the usual Monte Carlo (MC) approach is known to be a very time consum- ing method for computing these risk contributions. In this paper we consider the Wavelet Approximation (WA) method for Value at Risk (VaR) computati...

  3. Software Piracy among College Students: A Comprehensive Review of Contributing Factors, Underlying Processes, and Tackling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhili; Yan, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    This article reviewed empirical studies published in the past 30 years that examined software piracy among college students. It focused on three areas of study: (a) major factors that affect college students' intentions, attitudes, and moral intensity regarding software piracy, (b) various decision-making processes that underlie software piracy…

  4. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  5. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Wea...

  6. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

  7. Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC model and Automatic Weather System (AWS were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.

  8. Factors Contributing to School Bus Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Anowar, Sabreena; Tay, Richard

    2013-01-01

    School bus safety is a community concern because parents expect their children to be transported to and from school safely. However, relatively few studies have been devoted to examining the factors contributing to school bus crashes. In this study, a logistic regression model is used to delineate the factors that contribute to school bus collisions from collisions involving other types of buses. As expected, we find significant differences in crash factors arising from differences in exposur...

  9. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  10. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of English in Indonesia has developed quickly in all of the fields. It is affected by many things in many ways. The need of English has also increased quickly in many parts of Indonesian life. To face it, teaching English at young ages or studentseems like the solution. Speaking is one of the skills that should be tough to the student. To get effective learning, it's useful to know what are factors contributing to the student speaking development. This research showed that there are some contributing factors to the students’ speaking development. Those factors are Teacher, Daily Practice, Listening to English Music, Family Support, Watching English Video and Movie, Motivation to Learn, Classroom Environment, Learning Material. Such as a good teacher would provide good learning. Support of the family would also give an effective outcome for the student's development. So, the factors should be known to get a better outcome for the students

  11. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  12. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  13. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  14. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  15. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200–300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgen erational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  16. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Kannan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when

  17. [Environmental factors: the contribution of infectious agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease resulting from complex interactions between predisposing genetic and environmental factors. Among the many potential environmental risk factors, several common infectious agents such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 and Chlamydia pneumoniae(C. pneumoniae) have been causatively implicated in the onset of MS. However, with the exception of EBV, consistent data are yet to be obtained regarding the involvement of infectious agents. With respect to the Japanese population, we found that EBV infection is a risk factor for the subgroup of Japanese MS patients not harboring the HLA-DRB1*0405 allele, a known genetic risk factor for MS in this ethnic group. By contrast, bacterial infections such as Helicobacter pylori and C. pneumoniae are risk factors for Japanese neuromyelitis optica, especially in patients with anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies.

  18. Contributing factors to disease outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallender, Erika K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Yoder, Jonathan S; Roberts, Virginia A; Brunkard, Joan M

    2014-01-01

    Disease outbreaks associated with drinking water drawn from untreated groundwater sources represent a substantial proportion (30.3%) of the 818 drinking water outbreaks reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971 to 2008. The objectives of this study were to identify underlying contributing factors, suggest improvements for data collection during outbreaks, and inform outbreak prevention efforts. Two researchers independently reviewed all qualifying outbreak reports (1971 to 2008), assigned contributing factors and abstracted additional information (e.g., cases, etiology, and water system attributes). The 248 outbreaks resulted in at least 23,478 cases of illness, 390 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. The majority of outbreaks had an unidentified etiology (n = 135, 54.4%). When identified, the primary etiologies were hepatitis A virus (n = 21, 8.5%), Shigella spp. (n = 20, 8.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (n = 14, 5.7%). Among the 172 (69.4%) outbreaks with contributing factor data available, the leading contamination sources included human sewage (n = 57, 33.1%), animal contamination (n = 16, 9.3%), and contamination entering via the distribution system (n = 12, 7.0%). Groundwater contamination was most often facilitated by improper design, maintenance or location of the water source or nearby waste water disposal system (i.e., septic tank; n = 116, 67.4%). Other contributing factors included rapid pathogen transport through hydrogeologic formations (e.g., karst limestone; n = 45, 26.2%) and preceding heavy rainfall or flooding (n = 36, 20.9%). This analysis underscores the importance of identifying untreated groundwater system vulnerabilities through frequent inspection and routine maintenance, as recommended by protective regulations such as Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Groundwater Rule, and the need for special consideration of the local hydrogeology. Published

  19. What Factors Contribute to Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Hildy; Bondie, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy of paraeducators serving students with moderate to severe disabilities in a specialized public school. Quantitative methods explored the relationship among paraeducator self-efficacy, personal factors (including work experience, age level of teaching assignment, and disability served), and organizational…

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected during 1996 and 1997 rainy seasons at the meteorological station of Institute for Agricultural Research, at Samaru, Nigeria, were analysed to assess the effect of climatic factors, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, sunshine hours, air and solar temperatures on microlysimetric PET and pan ...

  1. The Contribution of Environmental Factors to the Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest in factors contributing to women's ability to progress to management and leadership positions is gaining impetus. This article expands the body of knowledge on the major contributing factors external to the work environment, as well as factors internal to the organisation that impact on women's achievement of ...

  2. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  3. Physical Design Factors Contributing to Patient Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo; Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Freier, Patricia; Harvey, Thomas E; Lee, Jaehoon

    2017-02-03

    The aim of this study was to identify physical design elements that contribute to potential falls in patient rooms. An exploratory, physical simulation-based approach was adopted for the study. Twenty-seven subjects, older than 70 years (11 male and 16 female subjects), conducted scripted tasks in a mockup of a patient bathroom and clinician zone. Activities were captured using motion-capture technology and video recording. After biomechanical data processing, video clips associated with potential fall moments were extracted and then examined and coded by a group of registered nurses and health care designers. Exploratory analyses of the coded data were conducted followed by a series of multivariate analyses using regression models. In multivariate models with all personal, environmental, and postural variables, only the postural variables demonstrated statistical significance-turning, grabbing, pushing, and pulling in the bathroom and pushing and pulling in the clinician zone. The physical elements/attributes associated with the offending postures include bathroom configuration, intravenous pole, door, toilet seat height, flush, grab bars, over-bed table, and patient chair. Postural changes, during interactions with the physical environment, constitute the source of most fall events. Physical design must include simultaneous examination of postural changes in day-to-day activities in patient rooms and bathrooms. Among discussed testable recommendations in the article, the followings design strategies should be considered: (a) designing bathrooms to reduce turning as much as possible and (b) designing to avoid motions that involve 2 or more of the offending postures, such as turning and grabbing or grabbing and pulling, and so on.

  4. Orbital Contributions to the Electron g Factor in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Georg W.; Varjas, Dániel; Skolasinski, Rafal; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Troyer, Matthias; Wimmer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé g factor, several times larger than the bulk value—contrary to the expectation that confinement reduces the g factor. Here we assess the role of orbital contributions to the electron g factor in nanowires and quantum dots. We show that an L .S coupling in higher subbands leads to an enhancement of the g factor of an order of magnitude or more for small effective mass semiconductors. We validate our theoretical finding with simulations of InAs and InSb, showing that the effect persists even if cylindrical symmetry is broken. A huge anisotropy of the enhanced g factors under magnetic field rotation allows for a straightforward experimental test of this theory.

  5. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  6. Factors contributing to, and effects of, teenage pregnancy in Juba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. RESULTS: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: ...

  7. Factors contributing to delay in commencement of immunization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delay in receipt of immunization may result in a child being susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases for prolonged periods. Identification of factors which contribute to delay in receipt of immunization will help in developing targeted interventions. This study examined prospectively factors contributing to delay in the ...

  8. Pathophysiology and Contributing Factors in Postprostatectomy Incontinence: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesakkers, John; Farag, Fawzy; Bauer, Ricarda M; Sandhu, Jaspreet; De Ridder, Dirk; Stenzl, Arnulf

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and awareness of postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) has increased during the past few years, probably because of an increase in prostate cancer surgery. Many theories have been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of PPI. The current review scrutinizes various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the occurrence of PPI. A search was conducted on PubMed and EMBASE for publications on PPI. The primary search returned 2518 publications. Animal and basic research studies, letters, publications on prostatectomy for benign reasons, pathology of prostatic carcinoma, radiotherapy and hormone therapy of prostatic carcinoma, and review articles were all used as criteria for exclusion from the study. A total of 128 publications were selected for final analysis. Neuromuscular anatomic elements and pelvic support are known to influence PPI as evidenced by multiple publications. A number of non-anatomic and surgical elements have been postulated as contributing factors to PPI. Biological factors and preoperative parameters include: functional bladder changes, age, body mass index (BMI), pre-existing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), prostate size, and oncologic factors. Multiple studies reported the impact of specific anatomic/surgical factors, including fibrosis, shorter membranous urethral length (MUL), anastomotic stricture, damage to the neurovascular bundle, and extensive dissection, all of which have a negative impact on the continence status of patients following radical prostatectomy (RP). Investigation of the impact of techniques to spare the bladder neck and additional procedures to reconstruct the posterior or anterior support structures (eg, the Rocco stitch) on continence status is ongoing. Anatomic support and pelvic innervation appear to be important factors in the etiology of PPI. Biological/preoperative factors including greater age at time of surgery, pre-existing LUTS, high BMI, shorter MUL, and functional bladder changes have a

  9. Factors contributing to declining enrolments at the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors contributing to declining enrolments at the University of Transkei. ... This study investigated factors which could explain the decline of student numbers at the University of Transkei. The findings indicated that ... Catering and hostel facilities were not major factors in the students' choice of the institution. South African ...

  10. Prevalence of and contributing factors to dyslipidaemia in low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-28

    : cardiovascular disease, women, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, dietary fat intake. Prevalence of and contributing factors to dyslipidaemia in low-income women aged 18-90 years in the peri-urban Vaal region. Introduction.

  11. parasitology contributions of environmental factors to the estimations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    um chafe

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 6 (Supplement): November 2005. 12. PARASITOLOGY. Ibiwoye et al., SJVS, 6(suppl.): 1-4. CONTRIBUTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO THE. ESTIMATIONS OF EUSTRONGYLIDES AFRICANUS LARVAE DENSITIES IN. CLARIAS GARIEPINUS AND CLARIAS ...

  12. Frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Suzan; Kocaman, Gulseren; Ozturk, Candan; Seren, Seyda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors. This research used the undisguised observation method and Critical Incident Technique. Errors and contributing factors were classified through the Organizational Accident Model. Errors were made in 36.5% of the 2344 doses that were observed. The most frequent errors were those associated with administration at the wrong time. According to the results of this study, errors arise from problems within the system.

  13. Factors contributing to, and effects of, teenage pregnancy in Juba

    OpenAIRE

    Gwido Vincent; Fekadu Mazengia Alemu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational le...

  14. Factors influencing immunisation coverage among children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background This article explores the hypothesis that predisposing and enabling factors of households influence the vaccination status of the children under the age of five in Khartoum State, Sudan. Method The study was a cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 410 male and female children under five ...

  15. Factors Contributing to the Spread of Odontogenic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakathir, Abdulaziz A; Moos, Khursheed F; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Bagg, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Spreading odontogenic infections (SOI) are the commonest type of serious infections encountered in the orofacial region. A prospective multi-centre study was conducted in the West of Scotland to investigate the contributing role of social, systemic and microbial factors in the pathogenesis of SOI. Methods: Twenty-five patients with severe odontogenic infections were recruited over a period of six months. At admission, clinical assessment included temperature rise, haematological and biochemical investigations. Demographic data, social and past medical histories were obtained. Microbiology samples were collected to identify causative microorganisms and the clinical management of each infection was recorded. Results: Most infections were associated with teeth or roots. Eighty percent of the patients were tobacco smokers and 72% came from deprived areas. Five patients were intravenous drug users, four admitted chronic alcohol abuse, six had underlying systemic disorders and two were at high risk of malnutrition. A raised C-reactive protein at admission was a useful indicator of the severity of infection. Inappropriate prior antibiotic treatment in the absence of surgical drainage was common. Microbiology results showed a predominance of strict anaerobes, notably anaerobic streptococci, Prevotella and Fusobacterium species. Conclusion: SOIs remain surprisingly common and our present pilot study showed a particular association with social deprivation and tobacco smoking. Further elucidation of the role of malnutrition in SOI would be of interest. Molecular characterisation of the microflora associated with SOI may help to highlight whether bacterial factors play a role in converting a localised dentoalveolar abscess into a serious, spreading odontogenic infection. PMID:21509313

  16. The Contributing Factors of Pragmatic Failure in China's ELT Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic failure is the inability to understand what is meant by what is said, which can often lead to misunderstanding or confusion in cross-cultural communication. For this reason, the present article explores the contributing factors of pragmatic failure in China's ELT Classrooms. According to the exploration, the following factors are found…

  17. Factors contributing to physical gender based violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors contributing to physical gender based violence reported at Ndola Central Hospital, Ndola, Zambia: a case control study. ... Sensitization campaigns and educational programmesought to be intensified in order to address factors that make females more prone to GBV-physical assault than males. Living in a high ...

  18. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  19. Relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...

  20. Prevalence and assessment of factors contributing to adverse drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions account for the highest proportion among the causes of morbidity and mortality in clinical wards and are posing a considerable challenge. Hence, the objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of adverse drug reactions and the factors which contribute to their prevalence.

  1. Contributions Of Environmental And Haematological Factors To The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contributions of environmental and haematological factors to the distributions of Eustrongylides africanus larvae in Clarias gariepinus and C. anguillaris from Bida floodplain of Nigeria were investigated. Five environmental (rainfall, soil pH, water conductivity, sunshine and silt-clay) and four haematological (mean ...

  2. Factors contributing to morbidity and mortality among preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Prematurity is one of the highest global health challenges of the 21st century and has been named the first killer of young children. In Rwanda, it is the leading cause of death in neonates. It is expedient to explore the factors contributing to the observed high morbidity and mortality to plan appropriate interventions.

  3. Factors contributing to, and effects of, teenage pregnancy in Juba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: ...

  4. Factors contributing to defaulting scheduled therapy sessions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although all the caregivers could not distinguish occupational therapy from physiotherapy services they all reported that therapy was important. Conclusions: A combination of psychosocial, economic, child centred and service centred factors contributed to caregivers defaulting scheduled therapy. Interventions that may ...

  5. Factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District, Dodoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2009 in which women of child-bearing age were interviewed. The variables mainly included: accessibility of maternal health care, practicing TBA's, existence of ...

  6. Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1University of Rwanda, CMHS-School of Nursing and Midwifery, Rwanda. 2University ... The aim of the study was to explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used by nurses in ... of staff and materials, facing death and dying, dissatisfaction with the work environment, work overload and.

  7. Factors contributing to anemia after uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R. N.; Simpson, J. A.; Nosten, F.; Luxemburger, C.; Hkirjaroen, L.; ter Kuile, F.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; White, N. J.

    2001-01-01

    The factors contributing to anemia in falciparum malaria were characterized in 4,007 prospectively studied patients on the western border of Thailand. Of these, 727 patients (18%) presented with anemia (haematocrit < 30%), and 1% (55 of 5,253) required blood transfusion. The following were found to

  8. Nurses' perceptions on factors contributing to job dissatisfaction in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job dissatisfaction among nurses is a serious global concern. However, it seems that the numbers of studies on job dissatisfaction among nurses are limited. This study therefore seeks to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions on the factors contributing to job dissatisfaction in order to make recommendations aimed ...

  9. Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood mortality in Mozambique. ... Conclusion: Type of toilet facility and source of drinking water play an important role in the risk of childhood mortality in urban areas of Mozambique and the relationship seems to be mediated partly by demographic and ...

  10. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has brought with it some forms of extreme weather events. One of such is heavy rainfall which often leads to flood. In recent times, flood disaster has been a regular occurrence destroying lives and property. This study was carried out to identify and assess contributing factors to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

  11. Contributing Factors to Teacher Satisfaction for Jewish Day School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanner, Malka

    2010-01-01

    At a time of rising concern for hiring and retaining qualified Jewish educators, this study looked at factors contributing to the decision to enter or remain in the field of Jewish education. If Jewish day school administrators can determine what characteristics attract and retain qualified teachers then perhaps they can mitigate the current…

  12. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO YOLK RETENTION IN POULTRY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Khan, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, M. Rabbani1 and M.Y. Tipu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Yolk retention and yolk sac infection is considered as an important cause of death in chicken as well as in guinea fowl, duck, turkey, quail and goose. The factors which slow down the rate of yolk absorption and may in turn, lead to yolk retention are discussed. Yolk sac infection of bacterial origin is most important among these factors. Other factors which may contribute include posthatch starvation, type of initial feed, brooding temperature, prolonged exposure to hatcher environment and size of birds.

  13. Factors contributing to, and effects of, teenage pregnancy in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwido Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: school drop-out, health risk during and after childbirth, divorce, rejection by parents, stigmatism, and, sometimes if the baby is unwanted, abortion. Conclusions and recommendations: The factors driving teenage pregnancy are complex and varied and therefore require multifaceted interventions. We recommend improvements related to education, family planning, school-based health centres, youth-friendly clinics and youth development programmes.

  14. Factor structure underlying components of allostatic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available Allostatic load is a commonly used metric of health risk based on the hypothesis that recurrent exposure to environmental demands (e.g., stress engenders a progressive dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Prominent indicators of response to environmental challenges, such as stress-related hormones, sympatho-vagal balance, or inflammatory cytokines, comprise primary allostatic mediators. Secondary mediators reflect ensuing biological alterations that accumulate over time and confer risk for clinical disease but overlap substantially with a second metric of health risk, the metabolic syndrome. Whether allostatic load mediators covary and thus warrant treatment as a unitary construct remains to be established and, in particular, the relation of allostatic load parameters to the metabolic syndrome requires elucidation. Here, we employ confirmatory factor analysis to test: 1 whether a single common factor underlies variation in physiological systems associated with allostatic load; and 2 whether allostatic load parameters continue to load on a single common factor if a second factor representing the metabolic syndrome is also modeled. Participants were 645 adults from Allegheny County, PA (30-54 years old, 82% non-Hispanic white, 52% female who were free of confounding medications. Model fitting supported a single, second-order factor underlying variance in the allostatic load components available in this study (metabolic, inflammatory and vagal measures. Further, this common factor reflecting covariation among allostatic load components persisted when a latent factor representing metabolic syndrome facets was conjointly modeled. Overall, this study provides novel evidence that the modeled allostatic load components do share common variance as hypothesized. Moreover, the common variance suggests the existence of statistical coherence above and beyond that attributable to the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Factors contributing to outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury results in some distinctive patterns of cognitive, behavioural and physical impairment which impact significantly on independent living skills and participation in work or study, social and leisure activities and interpersonal relationships. There is, however, still considerable variability in outcome across individuals in each of the reported domains. This has led to a significant body of research examining factors associated with outcome. A range of injury-related, personal and social factors have been shown to influence survival, as well as cognitive, functional and employment outcome. This paper reviews the factors associated with each of these aspects of outcome specifically injury-related factors, including neuroimaging findings, GCS and PTA, other injuries, and cognitive and behavioural impairments; demographic factors, including age, gender, genetic status, education, pre-injury IQ and employment status; and social factors including family and other social support, cultural factors, pre-injury psychiatric history and coping style. The paper identifies contributions and complex interrelationships of all of these factors to outcome following TBI. It concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of these factors for the rehabilitation process.

  16. Factors contributing to the fluctuations in residential construction in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential construction is one of the most important pillars of Iran’s economy. Although this sector had an increasing trend over the past two decades, however, the growth rate of residential construction was very volatile. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate those factors contributing to this fluctuation over the 1991:Q2-2008:Q4. By applying cointegration approach, the empirical results show that housing prices, construction costs, GDP and gold prices are important factors to explain swings in residential construction in Iran.

  17. Systematic review: factors contributing to burnout in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Aulak, D S; Mangat, S S; Aulak, M S

    2016-01-01

    Dentists and dental students have been reported to be at high risk of burnout and risk factors have been identified. Despite research into burnout in dentists, only a few papers have identified significantly associated factors. To identify the most significant factors associated with burnout in dentists and dental students in published literature. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and HMIC electronic databases to source literature on the factors associated with burnout in dentists. We critically appraised and themed papers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme to find the most significant factors. From 115 studies identified by the search string, we deemed 33 papers to be relevant for review. The most prevalent and significant factors associated with burnout were: younger age, male gender, student status, high job-strain/working hours, those enrolled in clinical degree programmes and certain personality types. However, only a limited amount of literature explored the directional relationship between these factors and burnout. This review identified several significant factors contributing to burnout in dentists and dental students. Further longitudinal and prospective studies are required to assess causation. Burnout should be considered a multifactorial phenomenon that can develop early in a dental career. Screening programmes and coping strategies might help to identify and prevent it. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Zakria Jaija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment.

  19. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.

  20. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  1. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  2. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TOWARDS DIFFICULTIES IN GENERATING IDEAS AMONG TECHNICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yee Mei Heong

    2013-01-01

    Idea is a thought or collection of thoughts that are important to decision making and problem solving.  The purpose of this research was to analysis the factors contributing to difficulty in generating ideas among technical students.  A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples.  A set of questionnaires was developed and used as research instrument.  The findings indicated that a total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced...

  3. Factors contributing to the immunogenicity of meningococcal conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael; Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various glycoprotein conjugate vaccines have been developed for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease, having significant advantages over pure polysaccharide vaccines. One of the most important features of the conjugate vaccines is the induction of a T-cell dependent immune response, which enables both the induction of immune memory and a booster response after repeated immunization. The nature of the carrier protein to which the polysaccharides are chemically linked, is often regarded as the main component of the vaccine in determining its immunogenicity. However, other factors can have a significant impact on the vaccine's profile. In this review, we explore the physico-chemical properties of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which can significantly contribute to the vaccine's immunogenicity. We demonstrate that the carrier is not the sole determining factor of the vaccine's profile, but, moreover, that the conjugate vaccine's immunogenicity is the result of multiple physico-chemical structures and characteristics. PMID:26934310

  4. Factors contributing to malnutrition in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung R; Chung, Sun J; Yoo, Sung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and to identify clinical, psychosocial, and nutritional factors contributing to malnutrition in Korean patients with Parkinson's disease. We used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design. Of 102 enrolled patients, 26 (25.5%) were malnourished and 27 (26.5%) were at risk of malnutrition based on Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores. Malnutrition was related to activity of daily living score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, duration of levodopa therapy, Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory scores, body weight, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and body mass index. On multiple logistic regression analysis, anxiety score, duration of levodopa therapy, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and loss of body weight were significant factors predicting malnutrition in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, nutritional assessment, including psychological evaluation, is required for Parkinson's disease patients to facilitate interdisciplinary nutritional intervention for malnourished patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Factors contributing to nursing leadership: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Lee, How; Macgregor, Tara; Davey, Mandy; Wong, Carol; Paul, Linda; Stafford, Erin

    2008-10-01

    Leadership practices of health care managers can positively or negatively influence outcomes for organizations, providers and, ultimately, patients. Understanding the factors that contribute to nursing leadership is fundamental to ensuring a future supply of nursing leaders who can positively influence outcomes for health care providers and patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the multidisciplinary literature to examine the factors that contribute to nursing leadership and the effectiveness of educational interventions in developing leadership behaviours among nurses. The search strategy began with 10 electronic databases (e.g. CINAHL, Medline). Published quantitative studies were included that examined the factors that contribute to leadership or the development of leadership behaviours in nurse leaders. Quality assessments, data extraction and analysis were completed on all included studies. A total of 27,717 titles/abstracts were screened resulting in 26 included manuscripts reporting on 24 studies. Twenty leadership factors were examined and categorized into four groups - behaviours and practices of individual leaders, traits and characteristics of individual leaders, influences of context and practice settings, and leader participation in educational activities. Specific behaviours and practices of individual leaders, such as taking on or practising leadership styles, skills and roles, were reported as significantly influencing leadership in eight studies. Traits and characteristics of individual leaders were examined in six studies with previous leadership experience (three studies) and education levels (two of three studies) having positive effects on observed leadership. Context and practice settings had a moderate influence on leadership effectiveness (three of five studies). Nine studies that examined participation in leadership development programs all reported significant positive influences on observed leadership. These

  6. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia's Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-11-10

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host's fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia's genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia's riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. Conventionally, Wolbachia has been regarded as a parasitic bacterial endosymbiont that manipulates the host insect's reproduction in a

  7. Success factors of an enterprise under crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslava V Danilina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the impact of economic crisis in Russia on the enterprisesrsquo access to productive resources as well as on the level of their competencies. Methods historical abstractlogical. Results the article states that despite the influence of external factors the main activities of the company are internal capabilities and resources of the firm. It is shown that under crisis a company must adapt to the limited resources i.e. change the competences of using them. Under modern conditions the competitive advantage can be based on two components ndash access to resources and internal ability of the company to use them. Therefore under the resource constraints such competencies should be generated as 1 ability to use a smaller amount of resources 2 more efficient use of available resources 3 search for the new resources development of own resources. The study determined that the acquisition of new competencies by the company will be associated with the use and improvement of its cognitive capabilities which are a function of organizational and individual knowledge possessed by the enterprise i.e. its intellectual capital. The article analyses the experience of development of new competencies under crisis by the example of reorganization of quotPrompriborquot plant and activities of quotGalogenquot JSC. Analysis of the experience of these companies which not only survived during the crisis but also acquired new competences and skills have led to the conclusion that the key role in this process was played by working with the main part of a company39s intellectual capital i.e. human capital. Thus a conclusion is made about the value of people and their common interests during the transformations within the enterprise. Scientific novelty for the first time the cognitive aspects of the enterprisesrsquo modernization system are considered from the viewpoint of the new resource and competence theory of the enterprise. Practical significance the

  8. [Contributions of SGLT-2 and new drugs under investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla Bravo, J J

    2014-07-01

    DeFronzo spoke of the "ominous octet", in which he referred to the existence of distinct pathways and organs related to the physiopathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). One of these key organs is the kidney, which plays an important role in regulating glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and through glomerular filtration and glucose reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubules. Approximately 180 g of glucose are filtered to the renal tubule from the blood stream through the glomerulus. The filtrate is subsequently reabsorbed from the tubules to the peritubular capillaries through the action of sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLT). There are 2 main cotransporters in the kidney, SGLT1 and SGLT2, which reabsorb the glucose (10% and 90%, respectively) and return it to the blood. In persons with DM2, SGLT2 is increased, leading to greater renal absorption of glucose, which has adverse effects as it contributes to the maintenance of hyperglycemia. Selective pharmacological SGLT2 inhibition increases renal glucose excretion and secondarily reduces its plasma values. SGLT2 inhibitors act exclusively on the kidney, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by about 0.66%, decrease blood pressure, and induce a weight loss of approximately 1.8 kg. These drugs have a low risk of hypoglycemia but carry an increased risk of genitourinary infections. Several clinical trials have shown that dapagliflozin (10mg/day), the first SGLT2 inhibitor commercialized in Spain, produces a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c of 0.82-0.97%, both in monotherapy and in combination with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, or insulin. Its use produces a weight loss of between 2 and 3 kg and reduces both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the risk of hypoglycemias is low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  9. Public health leadership development: factors contributing to growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Linda G

    2013-01-01

    This study compares pre- and posttest Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores for public health leaders who completed the Regional Institute for Health and Environmental Leadership (RIHEL) training program at least 2 years earlier; it seeks to identify factors contributing to changes in practices and overall leadership development for public health and environment leaders. Sixty-seven alumni who completed the yearlong RIHEL program between 1999 and 2002 participated through mailed surveys and phone interviews. The Leadership Practices Inventory, an alumni leadership development survey, and interviews provided evidence for positive change in leadership practices. Alumni experienced significant increases in pre- to post-LPI scores, collaborative leadership practices, and communication skills consistent with those taught in the RIHEL program. Women presented higher Encourage the Heart scores than men. Years of public health service negatively correlated with Total Change scores of LPI. The RIHEL program as a training intervention was credited significantly with changes in leadership practices for alumni studied. Nine influencing factors were identified for leadership development and are embedded in a Leadership Development Influence Model. These include self-awareness, a leadership development framework, and skills important in multiple leadership situations. Confidence was both an encouraging factor and a resulting factor to the increased exemplary leadership practices. Leadership development in public health must include multiple factors to create consistent increases in exemplary leadership practices. While the study focused on the leadership development process itself, RIHEL training was reported as having a positive, significant impact overall in participant leadership development. This study adds research data as a foundation for training content areas of focus. Studies to further test the Leadership Development Influence Model will allow public health

  10. Factors contributing to migraine headache surgery failure and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelsey; Lee, Michelle; Davis, Janine; Guyuron, Bahman

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to migraine headache surgery failure and success. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who underwent surgery for migraine headaches performed by the senior author (B.G.) and had at least 11 months of follow-up. The study population included three groups: migraine surgery success, improvement, and failure. Thirty-six unique data points were collected for each patient. A total of 169 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 66 patients comprised the migraine surgery success group (S, complete elimination of migraine headaches); 67 comprised the migraine surgery improvement group (I, >50 percent reduction in migraine frequency, intensity, or duration); and 36 comprised the migraine surgery failure group (F, I, p=0.02), migraine frequency (SI, p=0.003; S>F, p=0.04), history of head or neck injury (SI, p=0.02), increased intraoperative bleeding (SF, p=0.0006; I>F, p=0.0004), site II (S>F, p=0.015), single operative site (SI, p=0.05; S>F, p=0.04). Factors associated with migraine surgery failure include increased intraoperative bleeding and surgery on fewer trigger sites. Factors associated with migraine surgery success are older age of migraine onset, higher rate of visual symptoms versus improvement group, surgery at site I or II, and deactivating all four operative sites. Risk, III.

  11. Contributing Factors for Protein Calorie Malnutrition in Distsrict Mardan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, D.M.; Khan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) is a common health problem in developing countries resulting in high mortality in children under five years of age. It is also known as protein energy malnutrition. Objectives: To calculate the incidence and risk factors for Protein Calorie Malnutrition in children attending hospitals of district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Study design, settings and duration: Retrospective hospital case record analysis of admitted children diagnosed as suffers of PCM and were admitted in hospitals from 2011-15 was done. Subjects and Methods: Children < 5 years fulfilling the inclusion criteria and reporting at four major hospitals of district Mardan from 2011-15 were included in the study. Data of children fulfilling the definition of PCM were further analyzed using SPSS software. Chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to determine the significance of the risk factors with the PCM disease. Results: Out of 448 children, 58.5 percent (n=262) had PCM and 41.5 percent (n=186) did not have PCM. The significant risk factors in the logistic model fitted for male children included economic status, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, skin changes. Risk factors for PCM in female children were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, hair changes, time to time monitoring of the child and clean water availability. In the logistic model for both genders; the risk factors that showed significant association with PCM were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, hair changes, time to time monitoring of the child health, clean water availability and hypothermia. Conclusion: Almost 58 percent children admitted in different hospitals of district Mardan had PCM and the significant risk factors were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation

  12. Top Five Physical Design Factors Contributing to Fall Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Lee, Jaehoon; Mihandoust, Sahar; Kazem-Zadeh, Mahshad; Oh, Youngha

    2018-01-01

    To develop a prioritized list of physical design questions/interventions to reduce patient falls by conducting expanded analysis (Phase II) of data generated from a completed study phase. Patient falls continue to be a critical concern for healthcare providers, patients, and families. While substantial literature exist on intrinsic factors, scientific evidence on the role of the physical environment is scarce. Expanded analysis of data from 180 videos of trials conducted in a physical mock-up of a medical-surgical inpatient room in a previously completed study phase. The odds of subject's exhibited postures (predictors) on fall initiation (outcome) were examined in a series of generalized linear mixed effects models. Physical design elements and attributes associated with postures exhibiting statistical significance were examined. Turning, pulling, pushing, and bending forward exhibited the highest odds of contributing to fall initiation in the bathroom. Grabbing, pushing, and sitting exhibited the highest odds of contributing to fall initiation around the patient bed. Physical design elements/attributes associated with the above postures are the (1) bathroom door; (2) bathroom spatial configuration-relative locations of door, toilet bowl, and the sink; (3) door, toilet, and sink hardware; (4) space availability/tightness inside the clinician zone; and (5) spatial configuration around patient bed-relative locations of bed, patient chair, and overbed table, in relation to bathroom door, and resulting obstructions originating from the configuration. Patient falls during unassisted ambulation may be reduced through appropriate examination of these five physical elements/attributes.

  13. Bipolar disorder in Asia: Illness course and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Karthick; Sarkar, Siddharth; Kattimani, Shivanand

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological studies analysing the course of Bipolar Disorder (BD) are relatively rare in the Asian context, contributing to the uncertainty regarding the prevalent course patterns and factors influencing such patterns. The current review identifies the regional characteristics of BD course patterns and the associated factors. A review of the existing literature was done using 'PubMed' and 'Cochrane' databases which yielded 145 studies including those from all 48 Asian countries. Relevant discussions from the Western literature were incorporated. Regional and cross-national studies reveal a mania-predominant course in BD in Asian countries. Prolonged depressive episodes and comorbid anxiety disorders worsen the course of BD-II. Certain risk factors such as the young age of onset and greater episode frequency are useful predictors of bipolar diatheses. Substance use disorder comorbidity is more prevalent in males whereas depression and suicidal behaviours are more frequent in females with BD. Comorbid anxiety and personality disorders also encumber the illness course. Logistic reasons and ignorance of side-effects were specifically associated with poor adherence. An 'eveningness' chronotype and poor sleep quality were associated with frequent recurrences. Seasonal patterns vary among men and women, especially for depressive episodes. The effects of treatment and childhood BD course features were not discussed. There are region-specific characteristics in bipolar illness course and factors influencing such course patterns compared to the rest of the World. Future research from Asia shall attempt to study the neurobiological underpinnings of such characteristics and plan appropriate strategies to address the same. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of environmental factors to the risk of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Spira, A; Multigner, L

    2001-08-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. We investigated the relationships between exposure to environmental agents and seminal characteristics, and the concentrations of reproductive hormones in the serum of men seeking infertility treatment. We studied 225 male partners from consecutively recruited couples, who had their first infertility consultation between 1995 and 1998, in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina, one of the most productive farming regions in the world. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that exposure to pesticides and solvents is significantly associated with sperm threshold values well below the limit for male fertility. We also found that men exposed to pesticides had higher serum oestradiol concentrations, and that men exposed to solvents had lower LH concentrations than non-exposed men. All of these effects were greater in men with primary infertility than in men with secondary infertility. We have shown that environmental factors contribute to the severity of infertility, and that this may worsen the effects of pre-existing genetic or medical risk factors.

  15. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  16. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  17. Hearing loss and contributing factors among airport workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, H M; Rampal, K G

    2012-02-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common and important source of disability among the workers and often caused by occupational noise exposure. Aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and contributing factors of hearing loss among airport workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an airport in Malaysia. This study used stratified sampling method that involved 358 workers who were working in 3 different units between November 2008 and March 2009. Data for this study were collected by using questionnaires eliciting sociodemographic, occupational exposure history (previous and present), life-style including smoking habits and health-related data. Otoscopic and pure-tone audiometric tests were conducted for hearing assessment. Noise exposure status was categorize by using a noise logging dosimeter to obtain 8-hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA). Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0.1 and EpiInfo 6.04. The prevalence of hearing loss was 33.5%. Age >40 years old (aOR 4.3, 95%CI 2.2-8.3) is the main risk factors for hearing loss followed by duration of noise exposure >5 years (aOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.4-4.7), smoking (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.4), duration of service >5 years (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-3.9), exposure to explosion (aOR 6.1, 95%CI 1.3-29.8), exposure to vibration (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.1-4.3) and working in engineering unit (aOR 5.9, 95%CI 1.1-30.9). The prevalence rate ratio of hearing loss for nonsmokers aged 40 years old and younger, smokers aged 40 years old and younger, non-smokers older than 40 years old and smokers older than 40 years old was 1.0, 1.7, 2.8 and 4.6 respectively. This result contributes towards better understanding of risk factors for hearing loss, which is relatively common among Malaysian workers.

  18. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  19. A common genetic factor underlies hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spector Tim D

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain conditions characterised by blood vessel occlusion or vascular spasm have been found to cluster together in epidemiological studies. However the biological causes for these associations remain controversial. This study used a classical twin design to examine whether these conditions are linked through shared environmental exposures or by a common underlying genetic propensity to vasospasm. Methods We investigated the association between hypertension, migraine, Raynaud's phenomenon and coronary artery disease in twins from a national register. Phenotype status was determined using a questionnaire and the genetic and environmental association between phenotypes was estimated through variance components analysis. Results Responses were obtained from 2,204 individuals comprising 525 monozygotic and 577 dizygotic pairs. There was a significant genetic contribution to all four traits with heritabilities ranging from 0.34 to 0.64. Multivariate model-fitting demonstrated that a single common genetic factor underlies the four conditions. Conclusions We have confirmed an association between hypertension, migraine, Raynaud's phenomenon and coronary artery disease, and shown that a single genetic factor underlies them. The demonstration of a shared genetic factor explains the association between them and adds weight to the theory of an inherited predisposition to vasospasm.

  20. Potentially modifiable factors contributing to sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Romain; de Montmollin, Etienne; Poujade, Julien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Souweine, Bertrand; Darmon, Michael; Mariotte, Eric; Argaud, Laurent; Barbier, François; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Marcotte, Guillaume; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Jamali, Samir; Lacave, Guillaume; Ruckly, Stéphane; Mourvillier, Bruno; Timsit, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    Identifying modifiable factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy may help improve patient care and outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) was defined by a score on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) sepsis at ICU admission, of whom 1341 (53%) had sepsis-associated encephalopathy. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, site of infection, and type of admission, the following factors remained independently associated with sepsis-associated encephalopathy: acute renal failure [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.67], hypoglycemia 10 mmol/l (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.72), hypercapnia >45 mmHg (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.53-2.38), hypernatremia >145 mmol/l (aOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.48-3.57), and S. aureus (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.25). Sepsis-associated encephalopathy was associated with higher mortality, higher use of ICU resources, and longer hospital stay. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, year of admission, and non-neurological SOFA score, even mild alteration of mental status (i.e., a score on the GCS of 13-14) remained independently associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.76). Acute renal failure and common metabolic disturbances represent potentially modifiable factors contributing to sepsis-associated encephalopathy. However, a true causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. Our study confirms the prognostic significance of mild alteration of mental status in patients with sepsis.

  1. Breast cancer as heterogeneous disease: contributing factors and carcinogenesis mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-07-01

    The observed bimodal patterns of breast cancer incidence in the U.S. suggested that breast cancer may be viewed as more than one biological entity. We studied the factors potentially contributing to this phenomenon, specifically focusing on how disease heterogeneity could be linked to breast carcinogenesis mechanisms. Using empirical analyses and population-based biologically motivated modeling, age-specific patterns of incidence of ductal and lobular breast carcinomas from the SEER registry (1990-2003) were analyzed for heterogeneity and characteristics of carcinogenesis, stratified by race, stage, grade, and estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR) receptor status. The heterogeneity of breast carcinoma age patterns decreased after stratification by grade, especially for grade I and III tumors. Stratification by ER/PR status further reduced the heterogeneity, especially for ER(+)/PR(-) and ER(-)/(-) tumors; however, the residual heterogeneity was still observed. The number of rate-limiting events of carcinogenesis and the latency of ductal and lobular carcinomas differed, decreasing from grade I to III, with poorly differentiated tumors associated with the least number of carcinogenesis stages and the shortest latency. Tumor grades play important role in bimodal incidence of breast carcinoma and have distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Race and cancer subtype could play modifying role. ER/PR status contributes to the observed heterogeneity, but is subdominant to tumor grade. Further studies on sources of "remaining" heterogeneity of population with breast cancer (such as genetic/epigenetic characteristics) are necessary. The results of this study could suggest stratification rather than unification of breast cancer prevention strategies, risk assessment, and treatment.

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-16 - Limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-16 Limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans. A trust will... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on benefits and contributions under...

  3. 24 CFR 985.109 - Default under the Annual Contributions Contract (ACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Contributions Contract (ACC). 985.109 Section 985.109 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... § 985.109 Default under the Annual Contributions Contract (ACC). HUD may determine that an PHA's failure... required by HUD constitutes a default under the ACC. ...

  4. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Cognitive and system factors contributing to diagnostic errors in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cindy S; Nagy, Paul G; Weaver, Sallie J; Newman-Toker, David E

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we describe some of the cognitive and system-based sources of detection and interpretation errors in diagnostic radiology and discuss potential approaches to help reduce misdiagnoses. Every radiologist worries about missing a diagnosis or giving a false-positive reading. The retrospective error rate among radiologic examinations is approximately 30%, with real-time errors in daily radiology practice averaging 3-5%. Nearly 75% of all medical malpractice claims against radiologists are related to diagnostic errors. As medical reimbursement trends downward, radiologists attempt to compensate by undertaking additional responsibilities to increase productivity. The increased workload, rising quality expectations, cognitive biases, and poor system factors all contribute to diagnostic errors in radiology. Diagnostic errors are underrecognized and underappreciated in radiology practice. This is due to the inability to obtain reliable national estimates of the impact, the difficulty in evaluating effectiveness of potential interventions, and the poor response to systemwide solutions. Most of our clinical work is executed through type 1 processes to minimize cost, anxiety, and delay; however, type 1 processes are also vulnerable to errors. Instead of trying to completely eliminate cognitive shortcuts that serve us well most of the time, becoming aware of common biases and using metacognitive strategies to mitigate the effects have the potential to create sustainable improvement in diagnostic errors.

  6. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  7. Incidence and evaluation of factors contributing towards postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saldanha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy and childbirth produce a variety of physiological, psychological and social consequences. Attitudes toward pregnancy and childbirth vary from culture to culture. There is evidence to suggest mothers with young infants experience depressive symptoms and 10-15% major depression. Aim: To study the incidence and factors contributing toward postpartum depression Materials and Methods: Married women 18-35 years of age attending the antenatal and postnatal out-patient clinic were studied during 2007 and January 2008. 200 women who had delivered between 1 June 2007 and 1 January 2008 were included in the postpartum phase to calculate the incidence of postpartum depression. The prospective mothers were approached in their 3 rd trimester of pregnancy. Critically ill, past history of depression, co morbid medical or psychiatric illnesses were excluded. The diagnosis of postpartum depression (PPD was made as per international classification of diseases (ICD 10. They were administered the beck depression inventory (BDI, Presumptive stressful life event scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 scale. The women were subsequently reviewed in their postpartum phase in the postnatal out-patient/child immunization clinic at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. The non-depressed mothers acted as the controls. Results: A Total of 186 women out of 200 registered for the study 40 had scores above 13 on EPDS and grouped as depressive met ICD 10 diagnostic criteria. The remaining 146 were non depressive. 14 women dropped out of the study. Incidence of PPD was 21.51%. The study found 14/27 (51.8% of the risk factors associated with PPDs were statistically significant. Significant number of mothers had high antenatal GHQ and both antenatal and postnatal BDI scores. BDI and EPDS scores remained high during the postnatal follow-up in the depressed group, which showed the presence of PPD in mothers with

  8. Investigation of plasma induced electrical and chemical factors and their contribution processes to plasma gene transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Motomura, Hideki; Kido, Yugo; Satoh, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    This study has been done to know what kind of factors in plasmas and processes on cells induce plasma gene transfection. We evaluated the contribution weight of three groups of the effects and processes, i.e. electrical, chemical and biochemical ones, inducing gene transfection. First, the laser produced plasma (LPP) was employed to estimate the contribution of the chemical factors. Second, liposomes were fabricated and employed to evaluate the effects of plasma irradiation on membrane under the condition without biochemical reaction. Third, the clathrin-dependent endocytosis, one of the biochemical processes was suppressed. It becomes clear that chemical factors (radicals and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species) do not work by itself alone and electrical factors (electrical current, charge and field) are essential to plasma gene transfection. It turned out the clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the process of the transfection against the 60% in all the transfected cells. The endocytosis and electrical poration are dominant in plasma gene transfection, and neither permeation through ion channels nor chemical poration is dominant processes. The simultaneous achievement of high transfection efficiency and high cell survivability is attributed to the optimization of the contribution weight among three groups of processes by controlling the weight of electrical and chemical factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution factor of wood properties of three poplar clones to strength of laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucheng Bao; Feng Fu; Elvin Choong; Chung-Yun Hse

    2001-01-01

    The term "Contribution Factor" (c.) was introduced in this paper to indicate the contribution ratio of solid wood properties to laminated veneer lumber (LVL) strength. Three poplar (Populus sp.) clones were studied, and the results showed that poplar with good solid wood properties has high Contribution Factor. The average Contribution...

  10. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  11. Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under the Clean Air Act, signed by the Administrator on December 7, 2009. The final findings were published in the Federal Register under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0171.

  12. Investigating the Factors Contributing to the Disempowerment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uncovered that culture, lack of financial family support, lack of information and limited government assistance have all contributed to the disempowerment of women. Similarly, dual legal systems and funding have also made it difficult for NGOs in Swaziland to empower women. On the contrary, empowerment ...

  13. Factors Most Likely to Contribute to Positive Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMaaren, Victoria G.; Jaquett, Caroline M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which students differentially rated ten factors likely to affect their ratings on overall course evaluations. Students (N = 148) in several sections of an undergraduate educational psychology course indicated their preferences among several designated factors. We found remarkable similarity…

  14. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  15. Underlying Factors for Practicality of the Production Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, Emrah; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives indications to important factors that must be considered for effectiveness of the production control systems under uncertainty. Five key factors have been identified by the literature study. Production schedule generation and execution approach under uncertainty, information...... and communication technology, coordination and feedback, human factors and decision making, and measurement are the identified factors to be taken into account. Industrial interviews with three case companies, that are participating to the research program called The Norwegian Manufacturing Future (SFI NORMAN...

  16. Elite Coaches Views on Factors Contributing to Excellence in Orienteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Ferreira Celestino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el deporte de orientación, los estudios en el contexto de la excelencia deportiva son aún escasos. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en el análisis aislado de los factores específicos que contribuyen a la excelencia. El objetivo de este estudio, por tanto, fue identificar los factores que los entrenadores consideran de mayor prevalencia en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en este deporte. Diez entrenadores portugueses e españoles de orientación de nivel elite completaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas y los datos fueran analizados mediante el análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que los entrenadores pusieron gran énfasis en un conjunto de factores personales, designados por factores de influencia primaria, donde se incluyen los atributos psicológicos, la preparación deportiva y los factores genéticos. Los entrenadores también identificaron los factores ambientales que ejercen una influencia secundaria, con especial énfasis en la familia, los aspectos socioculturales y los grupos de pares y de amistad. Por último, los entrenadores de elite reconocieron la necesidad de la interacción e interconexión entre estos factores de influencia primaria y secundaria para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en la orientación.

  17. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  18. Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to Socioeconomic Differences in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael G.; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Ettner, Susan L.; Marks, Nadine F.; Bumpass, Larry L.; Ryff, Carol D.

    1998-01-01

    The National Survey of Mid-life Developments in the United States (MIDUS) is one of several studies that demonstrate socioeconomic gradients in mortality during midlife. When MIDUS findings on self-reported health, waist to hip ratio, and psychological well-being were analyzed for their possible roles in generating socioeconomic differences in health, they revealed clear educational gradients for women and men (i.e., higher education predicted better health). Certain potential mediating variables, like household income, parents’ education, smoking behavior, and social relations, contributed to an explanation of the socioeconomic gradient. In addition, two census-based measures, combined into an area poverty index, independently predicted ill health. The results suggest that a set of both early and current life circumstances cumulatively contribute toward explaining why people of lower soeioeconomic status have worse health and lower psychological well-being. PMID:9738169

  19. Factors Contributing to De Qi in Acupuncture Randomized Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available De qi is a core concept of acupuncture and is necessary to produce therapeutic effect. In 2010, de qi has been received as a term in the official extension of the CONSORT Statement. However, there are few articles that discuss which factors have influences on obtaining de qi in clinical trials. This paper aims to explore these factors and give advice on trial design in order to optimize de qi in acupuncture RCTs.

  20. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hsien Wang; Kwang Sik Kim

    2013-01-01

    E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis, and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Recent reports of E. coli meningitis caused by antimicrobial resistant strains are a particular concern. These findings indicate that a novel strategy is needed to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a bacterial virulence factor associ...

  1. Cult membership: What factors contribute to joining or leaving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet, M; Duretete, O; Hardouin, J B; Grall-Bronnec, M

    2017-11-01

    We assumed that, as in the case of addiction disorders, former cult members exhibit vulnerability and protective factors for cult commitment and membership. Thus, the aim of our study was to identify vulnerability factors that are involved in the commitment and in the retention in the group, as well as protective factors that are involved in the departure. We interviewed 31 former cult members, using semi-structured interviews to evaluate their clinical profile, characteristics of the cultic group and their experience in the group. Cult membership and addictive disorders share some characteristics: persistence despite damage, initial psychological relief, occupation of an exclusive place in the thoughts of members, high psychiatric comorbidity prevalence, high accessibility, leading to social precariousness and the importance of familial support when leaving. Three main axes of improvement were highlighted: regulations concerning cults in order to limit their social presence, which appears to be a vulnerability factor for commitment; social and therapeutic follow-up when a member leaves a group so that social precariousness does not become an obstacle to departure; and familial support to maintain a link with the member, as the intervention of a person from outside of the group is an important protective factor for leaving. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors contributing to the life satisfaction of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three factors include monthly income, job satisfaction and meaningful work. Ninety-two secondary school teachers working in public and private schools within Jos North participated in the study. A correlational research design was employed for the study. Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (1985), Steger, Dik and ...

  3. Factors Contributing to Poor Management Outcome of Sinonasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    Factors which included self-medication, wrong advice from relations/ ... some hospital staff, lack of confidence in orthodox medicine and ... The reports of the histologic subtypes were retrieved from patients' medi- cal records. Patients less than15years of age were cate- gorized as children. All the data were entered into the.

  4. Commitment to Community Practice among Social Work Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Amnon; Cohen, Ayala

    2013-01-01

    It is important to develop commitment to community practice among social work students to encourage their engagement in this field as professionals later in life. This research examines factors that affect commitment to community practice among social work students. A structured questionnaire was administered to 277 social work students in one…

  5. Factors Contributing to Use of Biomass as Domestic Fuel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass energy dominates household cooking energy in developing countries and Nigeria is not exceptional. However, a number of implications such as indoor air pollution, environmental degradation and social burden have been associated with the use of biomass energy. The paper discusses factors that determine the ...

  6. factors contributing to the accessibility of opinion leaders in lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    within a radius of 2 km. Factors affecting the accessibility are gender and friendship, while variables like education and status had no influence, which, ... Extension and Rural Development,. University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002/Lecturer Lesotho Agricultural College,. Department of Agricultural Extension and Economics. 2.

  7. Caesarean risk factors and their measuring contribution by place of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, By the independent component analysis (ICA), the study also reveals that the number of private patients on component score are more interlink to some remain hidden factors (doctor motivation, greed for money to doctor, socio-economic status), where this pattern not shown in public patients. Conclusion: ...

  8. Factors contributing to bacterial bulb rots of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of bacterial rots of onion bulbs is increasing and has become a serious problem for growers. This increase is likely due to a combination of factors, such as high bacterial populations in soils and irrigation water, heavy rains flooding production fields, higher temperatures, etc. It m...

  9. Analysis of Factors Contributing to Leadership Skills Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These factors account for 63.8% of leadership skills development among the students. Based on the findings, the study concludes that academic institutions provide a good avenue for grooming future leaders. It was also recommended that similar research should be carried out in African countries for comparative purpose.

  10. Factors Contributing to Low Uptake of Cervical Screening in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Many factors have been attributed to the unacceptably high incidences of cervical cancer and deaths from cervical cancer in developing countries and include lack of organized cervical cancer screening services and especially lack of information on cervical cancer by women. Aims and Objectives: This study ...

  11. Factors contributing to patients' satisfaction with public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out among patients to assess the factor structure of their satisfaction with Primary Health Care (PHC) services. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted exit interviews with a sample of 19 136 patients aged 18+ years in 266 PHC facilities, Eastern Cape, South Africa. To determine ...

  12. Factors Contributing to Adult Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.; Needham, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, most efforts to improve public knowledge of science and technology have focused on improvements in K-12 schooling, although post-secondary education and informal education have also been mentioned as important factors. Currently, little empirical data exist to determine how or when to best leverage science and technology education…

  13. Prevalence of geophagia and its contributing factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Geophagia is very common among pregnant women, particularly in Africa. There are many reasons given for geophagia such as cultural, medicinal and religious, making it an acceptable norm regardless of health risks involved. Objectives: The study explored prevalence and factors influencing geophagia ...

  14. Factors contributing to uterine rupture in women having vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study shows socio economic factors, dependency on family decisions and belief in supernatural powers as major reasons our women chose unorthodox delivery despite prior caesarean section and recommend ways of preventing it. Keywords: vaginal birth after caesarean section, uterine rupture. Tropical ...

  15. Contributing factors to poor service delivery by administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a study that was conducted among non-managerial administrative employees in the public sector in Gauteng. The researchers attempted to determine the effect of specified job factors on the wellbeing and service delivery of these employees. Poor service delivery in the country triggered the research.

  16. Factors contributing to poor management outcome of sinonasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common presentations were epistaxis, nasal obstruction and facial asymmetry and 96.7% patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented in advanced disease stage (Stage 3 & 4). Over 47% patients presented a year after onset of symptoms. Factors which included self-medication, wrong advice from relations/ ...

  17. Factors Contribute to Headache-Related Disability in Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Heyer, Geoffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Binkley, Philip F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to describe the relationship between risk factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety and potentially protective factors against pediatric headache-related disability, such as mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion, and to determine teens’ interest in mind-body skills training to help reduce headache-related disability. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents seen in an academic neurology clinic reporting four or more headaches monthly using standardized instruments to determine the relationship between putative risk and protective factors as well as physiologic markers of inflammation and vagal tone and headache-related disability. Results Among the 29 participants, 31% were male, the average age was 14.8 years, average headache frequency was 11.6 per month, and the most commonly reported trigger was stress (86%). The only risk or protective factor significantly associated with headache-related disability was depression (r=0.52, P=0.004). Depression was negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion (Pheadache-related disability or depression. There was strong interest in learning skills like slow, deep breathing practices supported by a smart phone app to reduce stress and the negative impact of headaches on daily life. Discussion Among teens with frequent migraine headaches, depression is the strongest risk factor for headache-related disability. Stress is viewed as a headache trigger, and teens reported wanting to learn simple stress management strategies supported by a smart phone application to help reduce headache-related disability. PMID:26810775

  18. Techniques and factors contributing to developing critical thinking skills

    OpenAIRE

    GLUKHOVA IRINA VLADIMIROVNA

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author g...

  19. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female. 45 (51). 21 (57). 24 (46). Smoker. 0.63. Yes. 14 (16). 5 (14). 9 (17). No. 75 (84). 32 (86). 43 (83). Height above sea level of permanent residence. 0.23 .... al.[13] showed no correlation between AMS scores and hypoxic ventilatory response or. VO2 max. One of the risk factors proposed by Hackett et al.[4] is that of ...

  20. Hip instability: a review of hip dysplasia and other contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Garabekyan, Tigran; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hip instability has classically been associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in newborns and children. However, numerous factors may contribute to hip instability in children, adolescents, and adults. Purpose This review aims to concisely present the literature on hip instability in patients of all ages in order to guide health care professionals in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various disorders which may contribute to an unstable hip. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and surgical management of hip dysplasia and other causes of hip instability. Conclusions Multiple intra- and extra-articular variables may contribute to hip instability, including acetabular bony coverage, femoral torsion, femoroacetabular impingement, and soft tissue laxity. Physical examination and advanced imaging studies are essential to accurately diagnose the pathology contributing to a patient’s unstable hip. Conservative management, including activity modification and physical therapy, may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with intra-articular hip pathology. Patients who continue to experience symptoms of pain or instability should proceed with arthroscopic or open surgical treatment aimed at correcting the underlying pathology. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066739

  1. Contributing factors to the use of health-related websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci

    2006-03-01

    This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.

  2. Vitamin D and Infectious Diseases: Simple Bystander or Contributing Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, Pedro Henrique França; Ferreira, Daniela; Olenski, Simon; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2017-06-24

    Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble steroid essential for life in higher animals. It is technically a pro-hormone present in few food types and produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. In recent decades, several studies have suggested that VD contributes to diverse processes extending far beyond mineral homeostasis. The machinery for VD production and its receptor have been reported in multiple tissues, where they have a pivotal role in modulating the immune system. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major global public healthcare burden. VDD is highly prevalent throughout different regions of the world, including tropical and subtropical countries. Moreover, VDD may affect host immunity leading to an increased incidence and severity of several infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss new insights on VD physiology as well as the relationship between VD status and various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, respiratory tract infections, human immunodeficiency virus, fungal infections and sepsis. Finally, we critically review the latest evidence on VD monitoring and supplementation in the setting of infectious diseases.

  3. Understanding contributing factors to verbal coercion while studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, Tiffany; Angelone, D J; Joppa, Meredith

    2018-02-06

    Verbal coercion (VC) is a common sexual assault (SA) tactic whereby men and women can be victims or perpetrators. College study abroad students report engagement in casual sex, alcohol consumption, and immersion in a sexualized environment (eg, an environment that supports or encourages sexual activity); factors highly associated with SA in general. The purpose of this study was to examine casual sex, alcohol use, and sexualized environments with VC victimization (VCV) and perpetration (VCP) while abroad. Study abroad students (N = 130) completed questionnaires on alcohol use, casual sex, immersion in a sexualized environment, and VC experiences. Participants were more likely to report both VCV and VCP while abroad if they immersed themselves in a sexualized environment; identifying as male was associated with VCP. Results can inform intervention by providing directors with specific constructs to discuss in pre-departure meetings, such as the influence of the environment on VC.

  4. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  5. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  6. Factors contributing to institutionalization in patients with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam; Kumar, Brahma V; Margolis, Russell L; Welsh, Claire S; Ross, Christopher A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which factors are predictive of institutionalization in Huntington's disease. Seven hundred and ninety-nine subjects with 4313 examinations from the Baltimore Huntington's Disease Center were included in the data set; 88 of these patients with an average follow-up time of 9.2 years went from living at home to being institutionalized while being observed in our clinic. We examined demographic, genetic, and clinical variables for a relationship with institutionalization using linear regressions, a Cox proportional hazards model, and χ2 or t tests in certain cases. In our linear models, scores on the Quantified Neurologic Examination (R2=0.203, Pinstitutionalization. In addition, CAG repeat length (R2=0.248, Pinstitutionalization, when controlling for age at onset. In the Cox proportional hazards model, scores on the Activities of Daily Living Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Quantified Neurologic Examination, and Motor Impairment Score all significantly predicted placement in long-term care. Finally, institutionalized patients were shown to have a higher CAG number and a lower level of educational attainment than patients who avoided institutionalization for at least 15 years after disease onset. Neurologic findings, functional capacity, cognitive impairment, and CAG repeat length are all likely determinants of institutionalization. In contrast with other dementing conditions like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, psychiatric symptoms were not shown to predict institutionalization in Huntington's disease. This may illustrate the especially debilitating nature of the movement disorder of Huntington's disease in comparison with the other dementias. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  8. Nutritional status of children under five years and associated factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on nutritional status of children under five years is an indicator of the nutritional situation in society. Identification of core factors influencing nutrition of this population supports plans to alleviate child malnutrition and its consequences. This study sought to determine the nutritional status of children under five ...

  9. A Cyclodissipativity Condition for Power Factor Improvement under Nonsinusoidal Source with Significant Impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puerto-Flores, Dunstano del; Ortega, Romeo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is an extension of a recent result that reformulates and solves the power factor compensation for nonlinear loads under nonsinusoidal regime in terms of cyclodissipativity. In the aforementioned result the generator was assumed to be ideal, that is, with

  10. Factors contributing to utilization of health care services in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Low, Wah Yun; Aziz, Jemain Abdul; Indran, Tishya; Ramachandran, Padma; Hamid, Abdul Rahman Abdul; Patel, Vikram

    2009-10-01

    This paper examines the factors contributing to the under utilisation of health care services in the Malaysian population. Using data derived from Malaysian Mental Health Survey (MMHS) information on utilisation of four basic health services in the previous three months, namely contact with health care professionals, ward admissions, having diagnostic or laboratory tests done and being on any medications were obtained. A total of 2202 out of 3666 or 60% of the MMHS participants were included in this study. Thirty percent of the subjects (n = 664) had contacts with health care professionals. Those with health complications, disabilities and those aged 50 years and above utilised health services more significantly as compared to those who lacked health facilities near their homes, had little family support during illnesses and were from the Chinese ethnic group. Factors leading to the under utilisation of health care services need to be further studied and needs in certain groups in the population should be addressed. Healthcare providers must be prepared to fulfil these needs.

  11. TMDL for phosphorus and contributing factors in subtropical watersheds of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cen; Li, Yuyuan; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Meihui; Zhang, Manyi; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-08-01

    Water eutrophication, particularly that caused by phosphorus runoff, is of major concern in China due to the serious threats it poses to watershed environments. We investigated one forested and nine agricultural watersheds with areas of 9-5212 ha in a hilly region of Hunan Province in a subtropical region of southern China from 2010 to 2012 to study total phosphorus (TP) loads and contributing factors. The annual TP loads varied from 35.7 to 222.1 kg P km(-2) year(-1) among the different watersheds, with the rainy season of spring and summer accounting for 56.3-82.0% of TP loss. The highest total maximum daily load (TMDL, 0.5 kg P km(-2) day(-1)) and existing exported daily TP loads (DTPL, 1.8 kg P km(-2) day(-1)) were observed under high flow and moist flow conditions in the ten watersheds. However, the target daily reduction ratios for the DTPLs to reach the water quality standard of 0.05 mg P L(-1) varied little with flow condition in the stream but depended on the type of watershed, i.e., soil available phosphorous (SAP), cropland percentage, and mean shape index (SHMN) were notable factors for daily reduction rate (DRR) under high and moist flow conditions. Therefore, to protect the local watershed environments, watershed management approaches that include the regulation of livestock production are recommended as the most effective means of reducing P loads at the watershed scale in subtropical areas of southern China.

  12. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Heuvelink, E; Dueck, T A; Janse, J; Gort, G; Marcelis, L F M

    2014-07-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when

  13. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township ...

  14. Searching for the Final Answer: Factors Contributing to Medication Administration Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Tess M.

    2001-01-01

    Causal factors contributing to errors in medication administration should be thoroughly investigated, focusing on systems rather than individual nurses. Unless systemic causes are addressed, many errors will go unreported for fear of reprisal. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  15. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Cho, Sang Hyun; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Krishnan, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (<2%). MC simulations showed highly localized dose enhancement (up to a factor 17) in the immediate vicinity (<100 nm) of GNRs, compared with hypothetical water nanorods (WNRs), mostly due to GNR-originated Auger/secondary electrons; however, the average dose enhancement over the entire GNR-loaded vial was found to be minimal (0.1%). The dose enhancement due to the activation products from GNPs was minimal (<0.1%) as well. In conclusion, under the

  16. Biological factors underlying regularity and chaos in aquatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 26; Issue 1. Biological factors underlying regularity and chaos in aquatic ecosystems: Simple models of complex dynamics. A B Medvinsky S V Petrovskii D A Tikhonov I A Tikhonova G R Ivanitsky E Venturino H Malchow. Articles Volume 26 Issue 1 March 2001 pp 77-108 ...

  17. Production Of Some Virulence Factors Under Different Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of some virulence factors under different growth conditions and antibiotic susceptbility pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this sudy. The virulence actors tested on the isolates included haemolytic activity, exopolysaccharide (capsule) and toxin production. Other cell property evaluated was ...

  18. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less

  19. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  20. Socio-Demographic Factors in Under Five Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute diarrhoea. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Children's Emergency Room and Children's Outpatient Clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects: One hundred and seventy-four ...

  1. Increased contribution of wheat nocturnal transpiration to daily water use under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Elodie; Meunier, Félicien; Javaux, Mathieu; Sadok, Walid

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that in crops, nocturnal water use could represent 30% of daytime water consumption, particularly in semi-arid and arid areas. This raises the questions of whether nocturnal transpiration rates (TR N ) are (1) less influenced by drought than daytime TR (TR D ), (2) increased by higher nocturnal vapor pressure deficit (VPD N ), which prevails in such environments and (3) involved in crop drought tolerance. In this investigation, we addressed those questions by subjecting two wheat genotypes differing in drought tolerance to progressive soil drying under two long-term VPD N regimes imposed under naturally fluctuating conditions. A first goal was to characterize the response curves of whole-plant TR N and TR N /TR D ratios to progressive soil drying. A second goal was to examine the effect of VPD N increase on TR N response to soil drying and on 13 other developmental traits. The study revealed that under drought, TR N was not responsive to progressive soil drying and - intriguingly - that TR N seemingly increased with drought under high VPD N consistently for the drought-sensitive genotype. Because TR D was concomitantly decreasing with progressive drought, this resulted in TR N representing up to 70% of TR D at the end of the drydown. In addition, under drought, VPD N increase was found not to influence traits such as leaf area or stomata density. Overall, those findings indicate that TR N contribution to daily water use under drought might be much higher than previously thought, that it is controlled by specific mechanisms and that decreasing TR N under drought might be a valuable trait for improving drought tolerance. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. A Model of Factors Contributing to STEM Learning and Career Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Welch, Greg; Grandgenett, Neal; Wu, ChaoRong; Nelson, Carl

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of factors contributing to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning and career orientation, examining the complex paths and relationships among social, motivational, and instructional factors underlying these outcomes for middle school youth. Social cognitive career theory provided the foundation for the research because of its emphasis on explaining mechanisms which influence both career orientations and academic performance. Key constructs investigated were youth STEM interest, self-efficacy, and career outcome expectancy (consequences of particular actions). The study also investigated the effects of prior knowledge, use of problem-solving learning strategies, and the support and influence of informal educators, family members, and peers. A structural equation model was developed, and structural equation modeling procedures were used to test proposed relationships between these constructs. Results showed that educators, peers, and family-influenced youth STEM interest, which in turn predicted their STEM self-efficacy and career outcome expectancy. STEM career orientation was fostered by youth-expected outcomes for such careers. Results suggest that students' pathways to STEM careers and learning can be largely explained by these constructs, and underscore the importance of youth STEM interest.

  3. Factors contributing to radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks in west Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Wright, S.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep within upland areas of the UK because radiocaesium activity concentrations in their meat exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. Some farms remain under restriction in 2007. From 1991 to 1993 detailed studies were conducted on three sheep farms within the restricted area of west Cumbria to systematically assess the various parameters which may contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks. This paper reports the spatial variation in soil and vegetation activity concentrations across the grazed areas at these farms and determines the influence of grazing behaviour on variability in 137 Cs activity concentrations between individual sheep within the flocks. Together with previously reported results, these new data are used to draw conclusions on the factors determining variability within the three flocks. However, the factors are too site specific to be able to generalise the findings to other farms within the restricted areas of the UK

  4. Swallowing disturbances in Parkinson's disease: a multivariate analysis of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Cilia, Roberto; Klersy, Catherine; Canesi, Margherita; Zecchinelli, Anna Lena; Mariani, Claudio Bruno; Tesei, Silvana; Sacilotto, Giorgio; Meucci, Nicoletta; Zini, Michela; Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Cassani, Erica; Goldwurm, Stefano; Barichella, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2014-12-01

    Swallowing disturbances are an important issue in Parkinson's disease (PD) as several studies have shown that they are associated with increased risk of aspiration pneumonia and mortality. Information about factors related to swallowing disturbances, such as disease duration, age at assessment and concomitant dementia, is limited and would be useful for their management. All consecutive PD out-patients evaluated at a movement disorders clinic over a 7-year period (2007-2014), were included in the present retrospective study. Presence of symptomatic swallowing disturbances was assessed using the specific item of the Non Motor Symptom Questionnaire. In the whole PD population (N = 6462), prevalence of symptomatic swallowing disturbances was 11.7% (95%CI, 10.9-12.5). Multivariable logistic regression analysis (adjusted for education) disclosed a significant interaction between disease duration and gender (P = 0.009). In both gender strata, swallowing disturbances were significantly associated with longer disease duration and dementia (P disease duration (P disease duration (P disease duration and dementia all seem to contribute to the occurrence of swallowing disturbances independently. However, the role played by these factors in sub-groups of patients stratified by gender and concomitant dementia suggests that swallowing disturbances are likely related to different neuro-degenerative patterns within the brain. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contributing factors of teenage pregnancy among African-American females living in economically disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Lauren; Lee, Young-Me; Lee, Hyeonkyeong

    2017-10-01

    To identify contributing factors that increased the risk of pregnancy among African-American adolescent females living in economically disadvantaged communities and to evaluate the current pregnancy prevention programs addressing these factors in order to provide suggestions for the development of tailored pregnancy prevention programs for this target population. Pregnancy rates among adolescents in the United States have declined over the past several years. Despite this trend, the pregnancy rate for African-American adolescent females is disproportionately higher than the adolescent pregnancy rates for other ethnicities. Limited attempts have been made to compile and synthesize the factors that increase risk of pregnancy in this population or to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs for African-American females that incorporate these risk factors. An integrative literature review was conducted to identify the major contributing factors of pregnancy among African American adolescents living in economically disadvantaged areas. Of the identified contributing risk factors for early pregnancy among African-American adolescent females, the five most supported risk factors were: parental influence, peer influence, social messages, substance use including alcohol, and pregnancy desire. Twelve pregnancy prevention programs were identified that addressed one or more of the five contributing factors to pregnancy. Parental influence and social messages were the most addressed factors among these programs. This review found five contributing factors related to teenage pregnancy; however, current intervention programs are not well addressed substance use as a component of alcohol use. Thus, development of a tailored pregnancy prevention program incorporating those factors will help decrease the high pregnancy rate among this target population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors Contributing to Teachers' Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors for teachers to use computer technology in their classrooms. The goal of this study is to identify some of the important factors contributing the teachers' use of computer technology. The first goal of this paper is to discuss computer self-efficacy. The second goal is to explain teaching experience. The third goal is to…

  7. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  8. Factors contributing to the decision by pregnant women to be tested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors contributing to the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV. K Minnie, H Klopper, C van der Walt. Abstract. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the factors that influence the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV. This was achieved through a qualitative research study that was ...

  9. Nerve growth factor in bladder dysfunction: contributing factor, biomarker, and therapeutic target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnický, Peter; Cruz, Célia D.; Yoshimura, Naoki; Michel, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, nerve growth factor (NGF), initially described as a prototypical trophic factor in the development of sensory and sympathetic innervation, has emerged as a complex regulator of neural plasticity along the micturition pathways. This review aims to summarize the current

  10. Contribution of raindrop impact to the change of soil physical properties and water erosion under semi-arid rainfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Morvarid; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is a three-phase process that consists of detachment of soil particles from the soil mass, transportation of detached particles either by raindrop impact or surface water flow, and sedimentation. Detachment by raindrops is a key component of the soil erosion process. However, little information is available on the role of raindrop impact on soil losses in the semi-arid regions where vegetation cover is often poor and does not protect the soil from rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of raindrop impact to changes in soil physical properties and soil losses in a semiarid weakly-aggregated agricultural soil. Soil losses were measured under simulated rainfalls of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70mmh -1 , and under two conditions: i) with raindrop impact; and, ii) without raindrop impact. Three replications at each rainfall intensity and condition resulted in a total of 42 microplots of 1m×1.4m installed on a 10% slope according to a randomized complete block design. The contribution of raindrop impact to soil loss was computed using the difference between soil loss with raindrop impact and without raindrop impact at each rainfall intensity. Soil physical properties (aggregate size, bulk density and infiltration rate) were strongly damaged by raindrop impact as rainfall intensity increased. Soil loss was significantly affected by rainfall intensity under both soil surface conditions. The contribution of raindrop impact to soil loss decreased steadily with increasing rainfall intensity. At the lower rainfall intensities (20-30mmh -1 ), raindrop impact was the dominant factor controlling soil loss from the plots (68%) while at the higher rainfall intensities (40-70mmh -1 ) soil loss was mostly affected by increasing runoff discharge. At higher rainfall intensities the sheet flow protected the soil from raindrop impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors limiting the operation of structures under high gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    Factors limiting the operation of rf structures under high-gradient conditions are described. Included are recent rf measurements at laboratories in Europe, Asia, and North America and how these measurements relate to earlier data as exemplified by the use of the Kilpatrick criterion (Kp). Operation limitations will cover mechanical, geometry, thermal, and surface constraints and the associated impact on structure design, fabrication, and material selection. Generally, structures operating continuous wave (100% duty factor) appear to be limited to peak surface fields at about twice the Kilpatrick limit, whereas pulsed structures operating with pulse lengths less than a millisecond can attain peak surface fields five times the Kilpatrick limit

  12. Factors contributing to nurse job satisfaction in the acute hospital setting: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Pryor, Julie

    2010-10-01

    To explore and discuss from recent literature the common factors contributing to nurse job satisfaction in the acute hospital setting. Nursing dissatisfaction is linked to high rates of nurses leaving the profession, poor morale, poor patient outcomes and increased financial expenditure. Understanding factors that contribute to job satisfaction could increase nurse retention. A literature search from January 2004 to March 2009 was conducted using the keywords nursing, (dis)satisfaction, job (dis)satisfaction to identify factors contributing to satisfaction for nurses working in acute hospital settings. This review identified 44 factors in three clusters (intra-, inter- and extra-personal). Job satisfaction for nurses in acute hospitals can be influenced by a combination of any or all of these factors. Important factors included coping strategies, autonomy, co-worker interaction, direct patient care, organizational policies, resource adequacy and educational opportunities. Research suggests that job satisfaction is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. Collaboration between individual nurses, their managers and others is crucial to increase nursing satisfaction with their job. Recognition and regular reviewing by nurse managers of factors that contribute to job satisfaction for nurses working in acute care areas is pivotal to the retention of valued staff. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Factors Involved in Sludge Granulation under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….

  14. Physiological mechanisms contributing to the increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qingwu; Zhu, Zixi; Musick, Jack T; Stewart, B A; Dusek, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Deficit irrigation in winter wheat has been practiced in the areas with limited irrigation water resources. The objectives of this study were to (i) understand the physiological basis for determinations of grain yield and water-use efficiency in grain yield (WUE) under deficit irrigation; and (ii) investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on dry matter accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves during grain filling. A field experiment was conducted in the Southern High Plains of the USA and winter wheat (cv. TAM 202) was grown on Pullman clay loam soil (fine mixed thermic Torretic Paleustoll). Treatments consisted of rain-fed, deficit irrigation from jointing to the middle of grain filling, and full irrigation. The physiological measurements included leaf water potential, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and leaf area index. The rain-fed treatment had the lowest seasonal evapotranspiration (ET), biomass, grain yield, harvest index (HI) and WUE as a result of moderate to severe water stress from jointing to grain filling. Irrigation application increased seasonal ET, and ET increased as irrigation frequency increased. The seasonal ET increased 20% in one-irrigation treatments between jointing and anthesis, 32-46% in two-irrigation treatments, and 67% in three- and full irrigation treatments. Plant biomass, grain yield, HI and WUE increased as the result of increased ET. The increased yield under irrigation was mainly contributed by the increased number of spikes, and seeds per square meter and per spike. Among the irrigation treatments, grain yield increased significantly but the WUE increased slightly as irrigation frequency increased. The increased WUE under deficit irrigation was contributed by increased HI. Water stress during grain filling reduced Pn and Gs, and accelerated leaf senescence. However, the water stress during grain filling induced remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves to grains, and the

  15. Contractors' Perception of factors Contributing to Project Delay: Case Studies of Commercial Projects in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Shah Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Delay in construction projects is a situation where the project cannot be completed under the planned time. It is a common issue faced in the construction industry all over the world especially in developing countries. In the Malaysian construction industry, 17.3% of construction projects experience more than 3 months delay and some of them are abandoned. Hence, the study of factors contributing to delay is very important in order to reduce the number of projects that experience delay in project delivery. Three objectives of the research have been formulated, namely (1 to identify factors that contribute to delay in construction projects; (2 to analyse and rank the causes of delay rated by contractors; and (3 to study the effects of delay in construction projects. One hundred questionnaires were distributed during data collection stage and only 36 responses received. The respondents only consist of contractors and sub-contractors because the scope of the research focuses on contractors' perception. The data collected was analysed using SPSS software. Seven factors that contribute to delay were identified through literature review, namely contractors' financial difficulties, construction mistakes and defective work, labour shortage, coordination problems, shortage of tools and equipment, material shortage and poor site management. Of those factors, the three most important factors were found to be labour shortage, contractors' financial difficulties and construction mistakes and defective works. Besides project delay, the research shows that cost overrun and extension of time (EOT are the most common effects of delay in construction projects.

  16. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2009-05-01

    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  17. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  18. The mining and minerals sector: factors weakening its contribution to African development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkala, T. [University of Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia). School of Mines

    2002-03-01

    Africa's great mineral wealth has the potential to contribute significantly to its development. In this article some factors responsible for poor realization of this wealth are outlined. Proposals are made for ensuring that the mining sector contributes to regional, national and local sustainable development. Conflict minimization would make it possible to redirect resources to civil development. South Africa is estimated to have 10.9% of the world's coal reserves. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Contribution of anaerobic digesters to emissions mitigation and electricity generation under U.S. climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, David P M; Winchester, Niven; Kucharik, Christopher J; Barford, Carol C; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M

    2011-08-15

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria that produce methane, which can be collected and combusted to generate electricity. ADs also reduce odors and pathogens that are common with manure storage and the digested manure can be used as a fertilizer. There are relatively few ADs in the U.S., mainly due to their high capital costs. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to test the effects of a representative U.S. climate stabilization policy on the adoption of ADs which sell electricity and generate methane mitigation credits. Under such policy, ADs become competitive at producing electricity in 2025, when they receive methane reduction credits and electricity from fossil fuels becomes more expensive. We find that ADs have the potential to generate 5.5% of U.S. electricity.

  20. Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Rosenblum, Ida; Nicholas, David; Phan, Quyen; Jones, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens.

  1. On the integration and standardization of medication error data: taxonomies, terminologies, causes and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Ibrahim Adham; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2010-12-01

    A reliable database on the causes and contributing factors of medication errors can inform strategies for their prevention. To form a single database from multiple databases requires a process of integration that both maximizes the utility of the new data and minimizes the loss of information. Unfortunately, the terminologies used by different studies and databases may limit integration; therefore, terminologies must be standardized prior to integration. The National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) Taxonomy of Medication Errors was applied to standardize the different terminologies in 11 studies that reported the causes or contributing factors of medication errors. After standardization, 57% of the reported causes and contributing factors were integrated to form a database while 43% were not integrated because the terminologies could not be standardized or were not similar to the taxonomy. This study highlights the challenges to standardizing and integrating databases and the importance of adopting and applying a standardized terminology to record medical errors.

  2. Contributing factors in self-poisoning leading to hospital admission in adolescents in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisanantti, Janne Henrik; Ala-Kokko, Tero Ilmari; Dunder, Teija Sinikka; Ebeling, Hanna Elina

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequencies of different agents used in self-poisonings and acute factors contributing to intoxication of patients aged 12-18 years in northern Finland. Retrospective medical record review of all hospitalized patients during the period from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2006. Cause of the admission, contributing factors, readmissions within one year. There were 309 admissions during the period, 54% were females. The leading cause of admission was alcohol, in 222 cases (71.8%). Hospitalizations related to alcohol consumption were associated with accidental poisoning in recreational use. There were no acute contributing factors in the majority of all patients. Over one-third of all intoxications were intentional self-harm, although previously diagnosed psychiatric diseases were rare. It is crucial to recognize adolescent psychiatric disorders in time and consult child and adolescent psychiatrist in case of poisoning.

  3. Contribution of macroporosity to water flux of a soil under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Germán Soracco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the importance of the macroporosity for the water transport properties of soils, its quantitative assessment is a challenging task. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity (K at different soil water tensions and the quantification of water-conducting macropores (θM of a soil under different tillage systems could help understand the effects on the soil porous system and related hydraulic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Conventional Tillage (CT, Chisel Plow (CP and No Tillage (NT on θM and on K; and to quantify the contribution of macroporosity to total water flux in a loam soil. A tension disc infiltrometer was used at two soil water pressure heads (-5 cm, and 0 to infer θM and K, during fallow. Macroporosity was determined based on the flow contribution between 0 and -5 cm water potentials (K0, K5, respectively, according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The K0 values were statistically higher for CT than for NT and CP. The K5 values did not differ statistically among treatments. The mean K values varied between 0.20 and 3.70 cm/h. For CT, θM was significantly greater than for CP and NT, following the same trend as K0. No differences in θM were detected between CP and NT. With CT, the formation of water-conducting macropores with persistence until post-harvest was possible, while under CP preparation, the water-conducting macropores were not persistent. These results support the idea that tillage affects the soil water movement mainly by the resulting water-conducting macropores. Future studies on tillage effects on water movement should focus on macroporosity.

  4. Genetic Factors Influencing Coagulation Factor XIII B-Subunit Contribute to Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanscombe, Ken B; Traylor, Matthew; Hysi, Pirro G; Bevan, Stephen; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Worrall, Bradford B; Seshadri, Sudha; Sudlow, Cathie; Williams, Frances M K; Markus, Hugh S; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls-the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10(-04)); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10(-04)) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10(-04)). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=-0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=-0.80, P=0.03). Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels increase risk of ischemic stroke cardioembolic subtype. © 2015 The

  5. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability (as described in § 404.1535...

  6. Contribution of the D-Serine-dependent pathway to the cellular mechanisms underlying cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Rouaud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An association between age-related memory impairments and changes in functional plasticity in the aging brain has been under intense study within the last decade. In this article, we show that an impaired activation of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDA-R by its agonist D-serine contributes to deficits of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of memory-impaired aged rats. Supplementation with exogenous D-serine prevents the age-related deficits of isolated NMDA-R-dependent synaptic potentials as well as those of theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation and synaptic depotentiation. Endogenous levels of D-serine are reduced in the hippocampus with aging, that correlates with a weaker expression of serine racemase synthesizing the amino acid. On the contrary, the affinity of D-serine binding to NMDA-R is not affected by aging. These results point to a critical role for the D-serine-dependent pathway in the functional alterations of the brain underlying memory impairment and provide key information in the search for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of memory deficits in the elderly.

  7. The Contribution of Sociotechnical Factors to Health Information Technology-Related Sentinel Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Gerard M; Buczkowski, Lisa; Hafner, Joanne M

    2016-02-01

    An understanding of how health information technology (health IT) can contribute to sentinel events is necessary to learn how to safely implement and use health IT. An analysis was conducted to explore how health IT may contribute to adverse events that result in death or severe harm to the patient. For 3,375 de-identified sentinel events voluntarily reported to The Joint Commission between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2013, categorical and keyword queries were used to search for potential health IT-related events. Each of the identified events was reviewed on the basis of findings from root cause analyses (RCAs) to determine if health IT contributed to or caused the event, and if so, how and why. The contributing factors were classified using a composite of existing classification schemes. A total of 120 health IT-related sentinel events (affecting 125 patients) were identified. More than half resulted in patient death, 30% resulted in unexpected or additional care, and 11% resulted in permanent loss of function. The three most frequently identified event types were (1) medication errors, (2) wrong-site surgery (including the wrong side, wrong procedure, and wrong patient), and (3) delays in treatment. Contributing factors were most frequently associated with the human-computer interface, workflow and communication, and clinical content-related issues. The classification of health IT-related contributing factors indicates that health IT-related events are primarily associated with the sociotechnical dimensions of human-computer interface, workflow and communication, and clinical content. Improved identification of health IT-related contributing factors in the context of the sociotechnical dimensions may help software developers, device manufacturers, and end users in health care organizations proactively identify vulnerabilities and hazards, ultimately reducing the risk of harm to patients.

  8. Contribution of nursing to risk factor management as perceived by patients with established coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte op Reimer, Wilma J M; Jansen, Chris H; de Swart, Esther A M; Boersma, Eric; Simoons, Maarten L; Deckers, Jaap W

    2002-06-01

    Guidelines stress the importance of risk factor management in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). To evaluate whether guidelines on patient education in risk factor management are followed in clinical practice and to assess the contribution of nursing to risk factor management as perceived by patients with established CHD. Within three Dutch hospitals consecutive patients were identified after a first coronary-artery bypass graft, a first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or hospital admission for acute myocardial infarction or ischaemia (n=357). Data were collected through patient interviews at least 6 months after hospital admission. Among smokers, overweight patients, patients with hypertension, high cholesterol, and sedentary lifestyle, respectively 75, 36, 67, 61 and 49% reported that information on presence or management of these risk factors was provided. The proportion of patients informed by nurses ranged from 14% (lowering cholesterol) to 23% (increasing physical activity), while 55% (lowering cholesterol) to 71% (stop smoking) were informed by physicians. Many patients with established CHD and cardiovascular risk factors do not remember ever having received information about management of their risk factors. Clearly, there is a substantial potential to improve professionals' compliance to guidelines on risk factor management, including those on patient education. The perceived contribution of nurses to risk factor management is small compared to that of physicians and other caregivers. If risk factor management is felt to be a main responsibility of nurses, current nursing activities in this area should be reconsidered within an improved organisational structure.

  9. Contributing factors associated with impulsivity-related falls in hospitalized, older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marisa A; Harrison, Barbara E; Campbell, Cathy; Maddens, Michael; Whall, Ann L

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity-related falls (IRFs) sustained by hospitalized, older adults can lead to critical adverse events. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 7 common fall risk factors contributed to the occurrence of IRF in hospitalized, older adults. This study found that 31% of falls were classified as IRF. Logistic regression indicated that inattention and mobility were contributors to IRF. Early identification of these 2 risk factors could improve identification of potential IRFs and reduce fall rates.

  10. Contributing factors for the willingness to donate organs in the Hispanic American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Schulman, Danielle; Ley, Eric J; Berry, Cherisse; Navarro, Sonia; Chan, Linda S

    2010-07-01

    To identify factors that contribute to intent to donate organs in Hispanic American individuals. Cross-sectional telephone surveys. Four southern California neighborhoods with a high percentage of Hispanic American individuals. Respondents 18 years or older were drawn randomly from lists of Hispanic surnames. Telephone surveys were conducted that measured demographic and socioeconomic factors, cultural factors, awareness and knowledge, and perception and belief regarding organ donation, as well as the intent to become an organ donor. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent contributing factors to intent to register for organ donation. Five hundred twenty-four telephone surveys were conducted over a 3-week period. Seventy-three percent of those surveyed were between the ages of 18 and 44 years and the sample was equally divided between men and women. The following independent risk factors contributed to intent to register: low acculturation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.62; P acculturation, religion, belief, and family influence affect the intent to register for organ donation. To improve organ donation, these risk factors should be considered using specific, effective educational programs.

  11. Personality factors underlying suicidal behavior among military youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare

    2014-04-01

    Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide.

  12. Factors contributing to the recalcitrance of herbaceous dicotyledons (forbs) to enzymatic deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Dina; Angelos, Evan R; Mukhopadhyay, Achira; Womboldt, Alec; Borrusch, Melissa S; Walton, Jonathan D

    2014-04-05

    Many different feedstocks are under consideration for the practical production of biofuels from lignocellulosic materials. The best choice under any particular combination of economic, agronomic, and environmental conditions depends on multiple factors. The use of old fields, restored prairie, or marginal lands to grow biofuel feedstocks offers several potential benefits including minimal agronomic inputs, reduced competition with food production, and high biodiversity. However, a major component of such landscapes is often herbaceous dicotyledonous plants, also known as forbs. The potential and obstacles of using forbs as biofuel feedstocks compared to the more frequently considered grasses and woody plants are poorly understood. The factors that contribute to the yield of fermentable sugars from four representative forbs were studied in comparison with corn stover. The forbs chosen for the study were lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album), goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota). These plants are taxonomically diverse, widely distributed in northern temperate regions including the continental United States, and are weedy but not invasive. All of the forbs had lower total glucose (Glc) content from all sources (cell walls, sucrose, starch, glucosides, and free Glc) compared to corn stover (range 16.2 to 23.0% on a dry weight basis compared to 39.2% for corn stover). When digested with commercial enzyme mixtures after alkaline pretreatment, yields of Glc as a percentage of total Glc were lower for the forbs compared to corn stover. Enzyme inhibition by water-extractable compounds was not a significant contributor to the lower yields. Based on experiments with optimized cocktails of pure glycosyl hydrolases, enzyme imbalance probably accounted for much of the lower yields. Addition of xyloglucanase and α-xylosidase, two enzymes targeting Glc-containing polysaccharides that are more abundant in dicotyledonous

  13. Enhancing maya women's development through cooperative associations : what factors support or restrict the contribution of cooperatives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Vazquez, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of Mayan women living in the Yucatan Peninsula, this research focused on determine the factors that support or inhibit the sustainability of micro-businesses cooperatives, which are organizations with innovative elements that allow Mayan women to work

  14. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity-tree damage by Hurricane Rita: an evaluation of contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bainbridge; Kristen A. Baum; Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered species inhabiting pine savannas of the southeastern United States. Because the intensity of hurricanes striking the southeastern United States is likely to increase as global temperatures rise, it is important to identify factors contributing to hurricane damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity-trees. Our...

  15. Complementary Factors Contributing To The Rapid Spread Of HIV-I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine and establish complementary factors that contribute to the alarmingly high prevalence of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to create awareness and suggest possible measures to avert the spread of the pandemic. Data sources: Review of literature via Medline, the Internet, articles in refereed ...

  16. Wait Not, Want Not: Factors Contributing to the Development of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…

  17. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  18. Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hanan Azzam

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the risk of thrombotic disorders development (venous and arterial): A case-control study. Hanan Azzam a, Reham M. El-Farahaty a,*. , Nashwa K. Abousamra a, Hossam Elwakeel b, Sherif Sakr c,. Ayman Helmy c, Eman Khashaba d.

  19. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  20. Factors contributing to the variation in feline urinary oxalate excretion rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, Judith; Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Everts, Henk; Queau, Yann; Biourge, Vincent; Hendriks, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors (season, animal, and diet) contributing to the variation in urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion rate, Uox concentration, and urine volume in healthy adult cats. A data set (1,940 observations) containing information on Uox excretion rate of 65 cats fed 252 diets

  1. Factors Contributing to the Success of Undergraduate Business Students in Management Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Robert G.; Palocsay, Susan W.

    2005-01-01

    The introductory management science (MS) course has historically been recognized as one of the most difficult core courses in the business school curriculum. This study uses multiple regression to examine the factors that contribute to the success of undergraduate business students in an MS course, based on data gathered from the college…

  2. An Investigation into Factors Contributing to Iranian Secondary School English Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Doosti, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of male and female Iranian secondary school English teachers. A Likert-scale 58-item questionnaire was developed which was completed by 210 participants. The questionnaire also included three open-ended questions which investigated participants' motivation and…

  3. Social exclusion as a contributing factor for the addition of harmful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social exclusion elements (poverty, high unemployment and lack of social contacts) have generally been found to be contributing factors to the increased prominence of home-made alcohol in South African society and in the Mopani District of Limpopo Province in particular. These major elements of exclusion combined ...

  4. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  5. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  6. Contributing and Damaging Factors Related to the Psychological Capital of Teachers: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Ismail; Özgan, Habib

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, psychological capital has gained prominence in the literature on positive organisational behaviour. However, further investigation is still needed in relation to this issue, particularly in the context of educational organisations. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the contributing and damaging factors relating to…

  7. Factors Contributing to Student Engagement in an Instructional Facebook Group for Undergraduate Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter L.; Gregory, Karen M.; Eddy, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates factors contributing to student engagement in an educational Facebook group. The study is based on survey results of 138 undergraduate mathematics students at a highly diverse urban public university. Survey measures included engagement in the Facebook group, access to Facebook, comfort using technology, and interest in the…

  8. Contributing factors in the final performance of a common mode choke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In order to avoid retro-designed common mode chokes in power system application, a predictive model is used to analyze the contributing factors in the final in-situ performance of the component. Designable parameters, together with environmental and installation aspects are analyzed. A hierarchic

  9. Contributing Factors to Student Success in Anatomy and Physiology: Lower outside Workload and Better Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Hannum, Lynn; Gupta, Sat

    2004-01-01

    A study of students of a traditional two-semester Anatomy and Physiology class was made to determine factors that contributed to success in the coursework. The test established a co-relation between the amount of study in mathematics and science done previously in school and final grades in the subject.

  10. Factors contributing to the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is one of the hallmarks of dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, the mechanisms that cause hemorrhage are unclear. In this review we focus on the possible factors that may be involved in the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis during dengue virus (DENV infection. Factors such as autoantibodies and cytokines induced by DENV infection as well as hemostatic molecules expressed on DENV-infected cells, and DENV viral proteins may all contribute to the defect of hemostasis during DENV infection. It is the combination of these viral and host factors that may tilt the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis toward bleeding in dengue patients.

  11. THE LIFE EXPERIENCES OF ADOLESCENT SEXUAL OFFENDERS: FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OFFENDING BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis

  12. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE BREAKDOWN OF FOSTER CARE PLACEMENTS: THE PERSPECTIVES OF FOSTER PARENTS AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnisi, Rosina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the factors contributing to the breakdown of foster care placements of adolescents from the perspective of the foster parents and adolescents involved. It was found that all the placements in the sample were kinship foster care placements. Although similar factors were identified, the perspectives of foster parents and adolescents differed. Disruptive behaviour of adolescents, including substance abuse, inappropriate sexual behaviour and involvement in the occult were identified. Physical and emotional abuse by foster parents and the involvement of biological parents were also isolated as contributory factors. Recommendations for practice and further research were made

  13. Replication and recombination factors contributing to recombination-dependent bypass of DNA lesions by template switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vanoli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Damage tolerance mechanisms mediating damage-bypass and gap-filling are crucial for genome integrity. A major damage tolerance pathway involves recombination and is referred to as template switch. Template switch intermediates were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis in the proximity of replication forks as X-shaped structures involving sister chromatid junctions. The homologous recombination factor Rad51 is required for the formation/stabilization of these intermediates, but its mode of action remains to be investigated. By using a combination of genetic and physical approaches, we show that the homologous recombination factors Rad55 and Rad57, but not Rad59, are required for the formation of template switch intermediates. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 mutant is normal in triggering a checkpoint response following DNA damage but is impaired in X-structure formation. The Exo1 nuclease also has stimulatory roles in this process. The checkpoint kinase, Rad53, is required for X-molecule formation and phosphorylates Rad55 robustly in response to DNA damage. Although Rad55 phosphorylation is thought to activate recombinational repair under conditions of genotoxic stress, we find that Rad55 phosphomutants do not affect the efficiency of X-molecule formation. We also examined the DNA polymerase implicated in the DNA synthesis step of template switch. Deficiencies in translesion synthesis polymerases do not affect X-molecule formation, whereas DNA polymerase δ, required also for bulk DNA synthesis, plays an important role. Our data indicate that a subset of homologous recombination factors, together with DNA polymerase δ, promote the formation of template switch intermediates that are then preferentially dissolved by the action of the Sgs1 helicase in association with the Top3 topoisomerase rather than resolved by Holliday Junction nucleases. Our results allow us to propose the choreography through which different

  14. Factors Contributing to the Subjective Career Success among Islamic Educators in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnan Supa`ad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on the Five Factor Model, Gould Planning Model, and the support of previous researches, this paper discusses how these three factors can contribute to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. This paper also discusses its impact towards Islamic education teachers in Malaysia, schools management, District Education Office, Ministry of Education, and teachers education institutions.

  15. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  16. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  17. Study of particles clouds ejected under shock: the contributions of Photonic Doppler Velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudhomme, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    A metal plate subjected to a shock (tin, 10 GPa) undergoes a variety of damages such as spalling or the ejection of a cloud of particles. Two main mechanisms govern the formation of this cloud: the micro-jetting and the melting under shock. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV, a.k.a. LDV or het-V) is a multi-velocity time-resolved diagnostic. Developed from 2000's, the all-fibered conception makes its integration easy into shock experiments. The purpose of the thesis is to describe the contributions of PDV systems for high-velocity (several km/s) particle-cloud characterization, including micro-jetting cloud. This document presents a state of the art of shock generators, diagnostics and (numerical and experimental) studies involved in metallic micro-machined jetting. An extensive study of a PDV system is proposed. It leads to the definition of time-velocity spectrogram, evaluated in units of collected power, and a detection capability limit. Thanks to photon diffusion models, a threshold in the diameter of the measured particle is estimated. A PDV spectrogram simulation program is shown within the framework of particle clouds. Finally, several experimental campaigns are exposed. They emphasize the remarkable capacities of the system; results are compared to simulations. Diameter distributions are inferred using slowing down in air or in other gazes. Some radiometric analyses are also performed. (author) [fr

  18. Older folks in hospitals: the contributing factors and recommendations for incident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansah, Martha; Griffiths, Rhonda; Fernandez, Ritin; Chang, Esther; Thuy Tran, Doung

    2014-09-01

    To identify the most common errors and adverse events and their contributing factors among the older patients admitted to hospital and examine recommendations from an expert review panel for prevention and reduction of the adverse events. Older patients are at an increased risk of errors and adverse events while hospitalized. The increasing evidence suggests that understanding the risks factors that contribute to these errors and adverse events facilitates the education of health professionals and the reduction and preventions of the harm. A retrospective audit of the Incident Information Management System and Root Cause Analysis databases from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006, was undertaken in 1 large tertiary metropolitan hospital in New South Wales, Australia. Of the 643 incidents identified, falls (n = 309), medication errors (n = 136), and clinical management (n = 104) were the most common errors among older patients, and the failure of clinicians to follow policies and procedures and poor communication between clinicians contributed to these incidents. Although systems are in place for incident reporting and analysis of the contributing factors, improvement depends upon clinicians taking responsibility for anticipating and moderating risk using previous data to identify system weaknesses and monitoring improvements especially in hospitalized older patients.

  19. Hypoxia inducible factorcontributes to regulation of autophagy in retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Shameka J.; Angadi, Pavan S.; Zheng, Qiong-Duon; Yao, Jingyu; Jia, Lin; Zacks, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptor (PR) cells receive oxygen and nutritional support from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Retinal detachment results in PR hypoxia and their time-dependent death. Detachment also activates autophagy within the PR, which serves to reduce the rate of PR apoptosis. In this study, we test the hypothesis that autophagy activation in the PR results, at least in part, from the detachment-induced activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). Retina-RPE separation was created in Brown-Norway rats and C57BL/6J mice by injection of 1% hyaluronic acid into the subretinal space. Retinas were harvested and assayed for HIF protein levels. Cultured 661W photoreceptor cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions and assayed for induction of HIF and autophagy. The requirement of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in regulating photoreceptor autophagy was tested using siRNA in vitro and in vivo. We observed increased levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α within 1 day post-detachment, as well as increased levels of BNIP3, a downstream target of HIF-1α that contributes to autophagy activation. Exposing 661W cells to hypoxia resulted in increased HIF-1α and HIF-2α levels and increase in conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Silencing of HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, reduced the hypoxia-induced increase in LC3-II formation and increased cell death in 661W cells. Silencing of HIF-1α in rat retinas prevented the detachment-induced increase in BNIP3 and LC3-II, resulting in increased PR cell death. Our data support the hypothesis that HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, serves as an early response signal to induce autophagy and reduce photoreceptor cell death. PMID:26093278

  20. Mechanism of hyperphagia contributing to obesity in brain-derived neurotrophic factor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, E A; Biddinger, J E; Jones, K R; McAdams, J; Worman, A

    2013-01-15

    Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KOs) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from the gut to the brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Variations of Histone Modification Patterns: Contributions of Inter-plant Variability and Technical Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylva Brabencová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variability of conspecific plants is governed by differences in their genetically determined growth and development traits, environmental conditions, and adaptive responses under epigenetic control involving histone post-translational modifications. The apparent variability in histone modifications among plants might be increased by technical variation introduced in sample processing during epigenetic analyses. Thus, to detect true variations in epigenetic histone patterns associated with given factors, the basal variability among samples that is not associated with them must be estimated. To improve knowledge of relative contribution of biological and technical variation, mass spectrometry was used to examine histone modification patterns (acetylation and methylation among Arabidopsis thaliana plants of ecotypes Columbia 0 (Col-0 and Wassilewskija (Ws homogenized by two techniques (grinding in a cryomill or with a mortar and pestle. We found little difference in histone modification profiles between the ecotypes. However, in comparison of the biological and technical components of variability, we found consistently higher inter-individual variability in histone mark levels among Ws plants than among Col-0 plants (grown from seeds collected either from single plants or sets of plants. Thus, more replicates of Ws would be needed for rigorous analysis of epigenetic marks. Regarding technical variability, the cryomill introduced detectably more heterogeneity in the data than the mortar and pestle treatment, but mass spectrometric analyses had minor apparent effects. Our study shows that it is essential to consider inter-sample variance and estimate suitable numbers of biological replicates for statistical analysis for each studied organism when investigating changes in epigenetic histone profiles.

  2. Variations of Histone Modification Patterns: Contributions of Inter-plant Variability and Technical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabencová, Sylva; Ihnatová, Ivana; Potěšil, David; Fojtová, Miloslava; Fajkus, Jiří; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Lochmanová, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Inter-individual variability of conspecific plants is governed by differences in their genetically determined growth and development traits, environmental conditions, and adaptive responses under epigenetic control involving histone post-translational modifications. The apparent variability in histone modifications among plants might be increased by technical variation introduced in sample processing during epigenetic analyses. Thus, to detect true variations in epigenetic histone patterns associated with given factors, the basal variability among samples that is not associated with them must be estimated. To improve knowledge of relative contribution of biological and technical variation, mass spectrometry was used to examine histone modification patterns (acetylation and methylation) among Arabidopsis thaliana plants of ecotypes Columbia 0 (Col-0) and Wassilewskija (Ws) homogenized by two techniques (grinding in a cryomill or with a mortar and pestle). We found little difference in histone modification profiles between the ecotypes. However, in comparison of the biological and technical components of variability, we found consistently higher inter-individual variability in histone mark levels among Ws plants than among Col-0 plants (grown from seeds collected either from single plants or sets of plants). Thus, more replicates of Ws would be needed for rigorous analysis of epigenetic marks. Regarding technical variability, the cryomill introduced detectably more heterogeneity in the data than the mortar and pestle treatment, but mass spectrometric analyses had minor apparent effects. Our study shows that it is essential to consider inter-sample variance and estimate suitable numbers of biological replicates for statistical analysis for each studied organism when investigating changes in epigenetic histone profiles.

  3. Factors contributing to low participation in mammography screening in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.; Spuur, K.M.; Umo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the current state of mammography screening services in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to document factors thought to contribute to low participation in the free mammography screening service at the Pacific International Hospital (PIH), Port Moresby. Method: Women attending for mammography screening at PIH between August 2006 and July 2010 were invited to complete a survey investigating environmental, political, social, financial, cultural and health factors thought to be contributing to low participation in the mammography screening service. Ethics approval and permission to collect data was granted through the University of Papua New Guinea, School of Medicine and Health Sciences Research and Ethics Committee and by the Medical Director and Chief Operating Officer of PIH. Results: The reasons for low participation were found to be multifactorial; difficult environmental factors 42.86%; financial dependency factors 40.54%; cultural factors related to exposing the body 50.03%, social factors (sexual harassment) 77.6%, political factors 4.29% and health factors including poor health 54.54%. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that in this snapshot of PNG women, the low participation rate in the free mammography screening program at PIH was influenced by various interrelated factors inherent in both the PNG environment and culture, in particular lack of transport infrastructure, financial burden and sexual harassment. As low participation directly impacts upon the high breast cancer mortality in PNG women, a more comprehensive study of the women of PNG is required to validate this research. - Highlights: • Snap shot of issues surrounding low participation in the free screening program. • Geography and poor transport infrastructure made participation almost impossible. • Lack of funds for transport by either road or air deterred participation. • Sexual harassment was the main social factor that deterred access.

  4. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  5. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  6. Developing a contributing factor classification scheme for Rasmussen's AcciMap: Reliability and validity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, N; Salmon, P M; Taylor, N Z; Lenné, M G; Finch, C F

    2017-10-01

    One factor potentially limiting the uptake of Rasmussen's (1997) Accimap method by practitioners is the lack of a contributing factor classification scheme to guide accident analyses. This article evaluates the intra- and inter-rater reliability and criterion-referenced validity of a classification scheme developed to support the use of Accimap by led outdoor activity (LOA) practitioners. The classification scheme has two levels: the system level describes the actors, artefacts and activity context in terms of 14 codes; the descriptor level breaks the system level codes down into 107 specific contributing factors. The study involved 11 LOA practitioners using the scheme on two separate occasions to code a pre-determined list of contributing factors identified from four incident reports. Criterion-referenced validity was assessed by comparing the codes selected by LOA practitioners to those selected by the method creators. Mean intra-rater reliability scores at the system (M = 83.6%) and descriptor (M = 74%) levels were acceptable. Mean inter-rater reliability scores were not consistently acceptable for both coding attempts at the system level (M T1  = 68.8%; M T2  = 73.9%), and were poor at the descriptor level (M T1  = 58.5%; M T2  = 64.1%). Mean criterion referenced validity scores at the system level were acceptable (M T1  = 73.9%; M T2  = 75.3%). However, they were not consistently acceptable at the descriptor level (M T1  = 67.6%; M T2  = 70.8%). Overall, the results indicate that the classification scheme does not currently satisfy reliability and validity requirements, and that further work is required. The implications for the design and development of contributing factors classification schemes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors contributing to variability of quantitative viral PCR results in proficiency testing samples: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, R T; Yan, X; Wick, M T; Rodriguez, A B; Xiong, X; Ginocchio, C C; Mitchell, M J; Caliendo, A M

    2012-02-01

    While viral load testing has gained widespread acceptance, a primary limitation remains the variability of results, particularly between different laboratories. While some work has demonstrated the importance of standardized quantitative control material in reducing this variability, little has been done to explore other important factors in the molecular amplification process. Results of 185 laboratories enrolled in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) 2009 viral load proficiency testing (PT) survey (VLS) were examined. This included 165 labs (89.2%) testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 99 (53.5%) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and 64 (34.6%) for BK virus (BKV). At the time of PT, laboratories were asked a series of questions to characterize their testing methods. The responses to these questions were correlated to mean viral load (MVL) and result variability (RV). Contribution of individual factors to RV was estimated through analysis of variance (ANOVA) modeling and the use of backward selection of factors to fit those models. Selection of the quantitative calibrator, commercially prepared primers and probes, and amplification target gene were found most prominently associated with changes in MVL or RV for one or more of the viruses studied. Commercially prepared primers and probes and amplification target gene made the largest contribution to overall variability. Factors contributing to MVL and RV differed among viruses, as did relative contribution of each factor to overall variability. The marked variability seen in clinical quantitative viral load results is associated with multiple aspects of molecular testing design and performance. The reduction of such variability will require a multifaceted approach to improve the accuracy, reliability, and clinical utility of these important tests.

  8. Gully erosion: A comparison of contributing factors in two catchments in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mararakanye, Ndifelani; Sumner, Paul D.

    2017-07-01

    Gully erosion is an environmental, agricultural and social problem requiring extensive research and mitigation actions to control. This study assesses the influence of factors contributing to gully erosion using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Information Value (InfVal) statistics from two catchments coded X12 and W55 in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Existing spatial data representing contributing factors; soil, geology, vegetation and land use were analyzed. Topographic variables were extracted from a 10 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) interpolated from map contours, and gullies were mapped from aerial photos with 0.5 m spatial resolution. A zonal approach was used to extract the proportion of gullies in each of the contributing factor classes using GIS software packages, and InfVal weighting was performed to determine the influence of each class. Comparison of the results shows the variation in the level of influence of factors contributing to gully erosion. The findings in catchment X12 support a commonly held assumption that gully formation is influenced by duplex soils underlain by colluvium and alluvial deposits on a lower slope position where overland flow converges and accumulates, resulting in high soil moisture. Gullies were also influenced by soils developed over weathered granite, gneiss and ultramafic rocks. The influence of a granite rock was further highlighted in catchment W55 where there is a variable thickness of very deep Hutton dominant soil form and shallow Lithosols with sandy texture, on an area of moderate to steep slopes where overland flow converges and accumulates, with high stream power in overgrazed grassland. An understanding of these factors will assist future modelling of the vulnerability to gully erosion over a wider geographical area.

  9. Statistical modeling of road contribution as emission sources to total suspended particles (TSP) under MCF model downtown Medellin - Antioquia - Colombia, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Miryam; Saldarriaga, Julio; Correa, Mauricio; Posada, Enrique; Castrillon M, Francisco Javier

    2007-01-01

    Sand fields, constructions, carbon boilers, roads, and biologic sources are air-contaminant-constituent factors in down town Valle de Aburra, among others. the distribution of road contribution data to total suspended particles according to the source receptor model MCF, source correlation modeling, is nearly a gamma distribution. Chi-square goodness of fit is used to model statistically. This test for goodness of fit also allows estimating the parameters of the distribution utilizing maximum likelihood method. As convergence criteria, the estimation maximization algorithm is used. The mean of road contribution data to total suspended particles according to the source receptor model MCF, is straightforward and validates the road contribution factor to the atmospheric pollution of the zone under study

  10. Contribution of underlying processes to improved visuospatial working memory associated with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qingchun; Wang, Yingying; Guo, Wei; Zhou, Chenglin

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is critical for various cognitive processes and can be separated into two stages: short-term memory storage and manipulation processing. Although previous studies have demonstrated that increased physical activity (PA) improves working memory and that males outperform females on visuospatial working memory tasks, few studies have determined the contribution of the two underlying stages to the visuospatial working memory improvement associated with PA. Thus, the aims of the present study were to verify the relationship between physical activity and visuospatial working memory, determine whether one or both stages were affected by PA, and investigate any sex differences. A total of 56 undergraduate students were recruited for this study. Their scores on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to separate them into either a lower PA ( n  = 26; IPAQ score ≤3,000 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min/week) or higher PA ( n  = 30; IPAQ score >3,000 MET-min/week) group. Participants were required to complete three tasks: a visuospatial working memory task, a task that examines the short-term memory storage stage, and a mental rotation task that examines the active manipulation stage. Participants in the higher PA group maintained similar accuracy but displayed significantly faster reaction times (RT) than those in the lower PA group on the visuospatial working memory and manipulation tasks. By contrast, no difference was observed between groups on the short-term memory storage task. In addition, no effects of sex were detected. Our results confirm that PA was positively to visuospatial working memory and that this positive relationship was associated with more rapid cognitive processing during the manipulation stage, with little or no relationship between PA and the memory storage stage of visuospatial working memory.

  11. Mapping Mendelian Factors Underlying Quantitative Traits Using RFLP Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, E. S.; Botstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The advent of complete genetic linkage maps consisting of codominant DNA markers [typically restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)] has stimulated interest in the systematic genetic dissection of discrete Mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits in experimental organisms. We describe here a set of analytical methods that modify and extend the classical theory for mapping such quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These include: (i) a method of identifying promising crosses for QTL mapping by exploiting a classical formula of SEWALL WRIGHT; (ii) a method (interval mapping) for exploiting the full power of RFLP linkage maps by adapting the approach of LOD score analysis used in human genetics, to obtain accurate estimates of the genetic location and phenotypic effect of QTLs; and (iii) a method (selective genotyping) that allows a substantial reduction in the number of progeny that need to be scored with the DNA markers. In addition to the exposition of the methods, explicit graphs are provided that allow experimental geneticists to estimate, in any particular case, the number of progeny required to map QTLs underlying a quantitative trait. PMID:2563713

  12. Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    This paper address factors underlying public opinion regarding offshore wind power based on a survey of residents near a proposed development off Cape Cod, MA, USA. Supporters are found to be younger, better educated, and more likely to own their own home. Opponents are more likely to earn over $200,000/year, and more likely to expect to see the project from their daily routine. The overwhelming majority of the population expects negative impacts from the project; much smaller numbers expect positive effects. When asked which factors most affected their position, the most frequently mentioned was damage to marine life/environmental impacts, followed by electricity rates, aesthetics, and impacts on fishing or boating. When the expectations expressed by our respondents are compared with the findings of the project's draft Environmental Impact Statement, many of the beliefs upon which opinion are based appear to be factually incorrect. Finally, we tested whether change in the project would affect support. The biggest change was an increase in the level of support, by 47% of the sample, if the project was the first of 300 such projects, in sum having proportionately larger impacts as well as greater benefits. Implications of this research are discussed

  13. Wrong-way driving crashes: A multiple correspondence approach to identify contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi; Zhou, Huaguo

    2018-01-02

    Wrong-way driving (WWD) crashes result in 1.34 fatalities per fatal crash, whereas for other non-WWD fatal crashes this number drops to 1.10. As such, further in-depth investigation of WWD crashes is necessary. The objective of this study is 2-fold: to identify the characteristics that best describe WWD crashes and to verify the factors associated with WWD occurrence. We collected and analyzed 15 years of crash data from the states of Illinois and Alabama. The final data set includes 398 WWD crashes. The rarity of WWD events and the consequently small sample size of the crash database significantly influence the application of conventional log-linear models in analyzing the data, because they use maximum-likelihood estimation. To overcome this issue, in this study, we employ multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to define the structure of the crash data set and identify the significant contributing factors to WWD crashes on freeways. The results of the present study specify various factors that characterize and influence the probability of WWD crashes and can thus lead to the development of several safety countermeasures and recommendations. According to the obtained results, factors such as driver age, driver condition, roadway surface conditions, and lighting conditions were among the most significant contributors to WWD crashes. Despite many other methods that identify only the contributing factors, this method can identify possible associations between various contributing factors. This is an inherent advantage of the MCA method, which can provide a major opportunity for state departments of transportation (DOTs) to select safety countermeasures that are associated with multiple safety benefits.

  14. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported.

  15. Up- and down-quark contributions to the nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qattan, I.A.; Arrington, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurements of the neutron's electric to magnetic form factors ratio, R n = μ n G E n /G M n , up to 3.4 (GeV/c) 2 combined with existing R p = μ-pG E p /G M p measurements in the same Q 2 range allowed, for the first time, a separation of the up- and down- quark contributions to the form factors at high Q 2 , as presented by Cates, et al.. Our analysis expands on the original work by including additional form factor data, applying two-photon exchange (TPE) corrections, and accounting for the uncertainties associated with all of the form factor measurements. (authors)

  16. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF LOCAL NGOs IN PESHAWAR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Shahzad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research study has been focused to study the contributing factors towards employee’s performance. Performance of employees is one of the most significant factors for the growth and success of every organization. Data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires. 120 questionnaires as the sample size were distributed among the employees of local NGOs. The returned questionnaires were 106 having a response rate of 88.33%. The findings of the study found that job security, relationship with colleagues, relationship with supervisor, working conditions and employee’s empowerment were found to have significant impact on employee’s performance.

  17. The contribution of human factors to accidents in the offshore oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Rachael P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as the Piper Alpha disaster illustrate that the performance of a highly complex socio-technical system, is dependent upon the interaction of technical, human, social, organisational, managerial and environmental factors and that these factors can be important co-contributors that could potentially lead to a catastrophic event. The purpose of this article is to give readers an overview of how human factors contribute to accidents in the offshore oil industry. An introduction to human errors and how they relate to human factors in general terms is given. From here the article discusses some of the human factors which were found to influence safety in other industries and describes the human factors codes used in accident reporting forms in the aviation, nuclear and marine industries. Analysis of 25 accident reporting forms from offshore oil companies in the UK sector of the North Sea was undertaken in relation to the human factors. Suggestions on how these accident reporting forms could be improved are given. Finally, this article describes the methods by which accidents can be reduced by focusing on the human factors, such as feedback from accident reporting in the oil industry, auditing of unsafe acts and auditing of latent failures

  18. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring factors contributing to crash injury severity on rural two-lane highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhuanglin; Zhao, Wenjing; Chien, Steven I-Jy; Dong, Chunjiao

    2015-12-01

    Crash injury results from complex interaction among factors related to at-fault driver's behavior, vehicle characteristics, and road conditions. Identifying the significance of these factors which affect crash injury severity is critical for improving traffic safety. A method was developed to explore the relationship based on crash data collected on rural two-lane highways in China. There were 673 crash records collected on rural two-lane highways in China. A partial proportional odds model was developed to examine factors influencing crash injury severity owing to its high ability to accommodate the ordered response nature of injury severity. An elasticity analysis was conducted to quantify the marginal effects of each contributing factor. The results show that nine explanatory variables, including at-fault driver's age, at-fault driver having a license or not, alcohol usage, speeding, pedestrian involved, type of area, weather condition, pavement type, and collision type, significantly affect injury severity. In addition to alcohol usage and pedestrian involved, others violate the proportional odds assumption. At-fault driver's age of 25-39years, alcohol usage, speeding, pedestrian involved, pavement type of asphalt, and collision type of angle are found to be increased crash injury severity. The developed logit model has demonstrated itself efficient in identifying the effect of contributing factors on the crash injury severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  20. Contribution of occupational factors to current smoking among active-duty U.S. Navy careerists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B; Moore, Roland S; Ames, Genevieve

    2008-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking among active-duty U.S. military personnel remain elevated, ranging from 23% among Air Force personnel to 38% among Army personnel. The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to current smoking and heavy smoking among a sample of Navy careerists (those with at least 7 years of military service), and to determine if gender moderates these associations. Participants in the study (n = 2,922) were randomly recruited within over-sampled strata of women and racial/ethnic minorities, and voluntarily completed confidential self-administered questionnaires on drinking, smoking, demographic, and occupational factors during 2001-2002. Approximately 23% of study participants reported current smoking; 9% reported heavy smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to current smoking and heavy smoking. The results indicated that careerists in the enlisted ranks were significantly more likely to be current smokers and heavy smokers compared with careerist officers. In addition, those who were deployed at sea were significantly more likely to report current smoking compared with those not currently deployed at sea. Mean daily ounces of alcohol were also significantly associated with likelihood of current and heavy smoking. Gender did not modify the association between occupational factors and smoking. Because aspects of the work environment are potentially modifiable, understanding the role of occupational factors vis-à-vis smoking can aid in smoking prevention and cessation efforts within the military.

  1. Factors contributing to registered nurse medication administration error: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Angela M; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    To explore the factors contributing to Registered Nurse medication administration error behaviour. A narrative review. Electronic databases (Cochrane, CINAHL, MEDLINE, BNI, EmBase, and PsycINFO) were searched from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2012 in the English language. 1127 papers were identified and 26 papers were included in the review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. A thematic analysis and narrative synthesis of the factors contributing to Registered Nurses' medication administration behaviour. Bandura's (1986) theory of reciprocal determinism was used as an organising framework. This theory proposes that there is a reciprocal interplay between the environment, the person and their behaviour. Medication administration error is an outcome of RN behaviour. The 26 papers reported studies conducted in 4 continents across 11 countries predominantly in North America and Europe, with one multi-national study incorporating 27 countries. Within both the environment and person domain of the reciprocal determinism framework, a number of factors emerged as influencing Registered Nurse medication administration error behaviour. Within the environment domain, two key themes of clinical workload and work setting emerged, and within the person domain the Registered Nurses' characteristics and their lived experience of work emerged as themes. Overall, greater attention has been given to the contribution of the environment domain rather than the person domain as contributing to error, with the literature viewing an error as an event rather than the outcome of behaviour. The interplay between factors that influence behaviour were poorly accounted for within the selected studies. It is proposed that a shift away from error as an event to a focus on the relationships between the person, the environment and Registered Nurse medication administration behaviour is needed to better understand medication administration error. Copyright © 2014

  2. The Frequency, Contributing and Preventive Factors of Harassment towards Health Professionals in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal

    2015-01-01

    Background There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. D...

  3. Rural Women's Perceptions About Cancer Disparities and Contributing Factors: a Call to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Zimmermann, Kristine; Carnahan, Leslie R; Paulsey, Ellen; Bigman, Cabral A; Khare, Manorama M; Zahnd, Whitney; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2017-02-27

    Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.

  4. [New technologies applied to the medication-dispensing process, error analysis and contributing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Díaz, A M; Delgado Silveira, E; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Pintor Recuenco, R; Gómez de Salazar López de Silanes, E; Serna Pérez, J; Mendoza Jiménez, T; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2010-01-01

    Calculate error prevalence occurred in different medication-dispensing systems, the stages of occurrence, and contributing factors. Prospective observational study. The staging of the dispensing process were reviewed in five dispensing systems: Stock, Unitary-Dose dispensing systems (UDDS) without Computerized Prescription Order Entry (CPOE), CPOE-UDDS, Automated Dispensing Systems (ADS) without CPOE and CPOE-ADS. Dispensing errors were identified, together with the stages of occurrence of such errors and their contributing factors. 2,181 errors were detected among 54,169 opportunities of error. Error-rate: Stock, 10.7%; no-CPOE-UDDS, 3.7%, CPOE-UDDS, 2.2%, no-CPOE-ADS, 20.7%; CPOE-ADS, 2.9%. Most frequent stage when error occurs: Stock, preparation of order; no-CPOE-UDDS and CPOE-UDDS, filling of the unit dose cart; no-CPOE-ADS and CPOE-ADS, filling of the ADS. Most frequent error: Stock, no-CPOE-ADS and CPOE-ADS, omission; CPOE-UDDS, different amount of drug and no-CPOE-UDDS, extra medication. Contributing factor: Stock, CPOE-ADS and no-CPOE-ADS, stock out/supply problems; CPOE-UDDS, inexperienced personnel and deficient communication system between professionals; no-CPOE-UDDS, deficient communication system between professionals. Applying new technologies to the dispensing process has increased its safety, particularly, implementation of CPOE has enabled to reduce dispensing errors. Copyright © 2009 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. An observational study of bullying as a contributing factor in youth suicide in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H

    2014-12-01

    Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from anyone factor, such as bullying.

  6. Relative Contributions of Different Lifestyle Factors to Health-Related Quality of Life in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the previous literature has studied the relationship between individual lifestyle factors and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL. However, only a few studies combined them to explore their relative importance to the HRQOL in the elderly. This study assesses the HRQOL of the urban, rural, and institutionalized Chinese elderly and explores the relative contributions of different lifestyle factors to their HRQOL. The SF-36v2 Health Survey, the WHOQOL-OLD module, and the socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire were utilized in this study. Hierarchical regression was performed in order to analyze the results. The physical and mental component scores of the SF-36v2 survey were 47.05 ± 9.95 and 54.92 ± 9.92, respectively. The total score for the WHOQOL-OLD module was 73.01 ± 11.99, with institutionalized persons reporting lower scores. For the physical component of the elderly participants’ HRQOL, the R2 value changed the most (0.116 when exercise-and-labor-related factors were added in. For the mental component, sleep-related (0.054, and leisure-time-activity-related factors (0.053 caused the largest change of the R2 value. For the elderly-specific HRQOL, measured by the WHOQOL-OLD module, the leisure-time-activity-related factors caused the largest change in the R2 value (0.119, followed by exercise-and-labor-related factors (0.078. Heterogeneity was present among the three subgroups. In sum, compared with their community-dwelling counterparts, the HRQOL of institutionalized older people was relatively poor and different lifestyle factors contributed to the HRQOL differently.

  7. Postmyocardial Infarct Remodeling and Heart Failure: Potential Contributions from Pro- and Antiaging Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday A. Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction and adverse postinfarct remodeling in older persons lead to poor outcome and need greater understanding of the contributions of age-related factors on abnormal cardiac function and management. In this perspective, how normal aging processes could contribute to the events of post-myocardial infarction and remodeling is reviewed. Post-myocardial infarction and remodeling involve cardiomechanical factors and neurohormonal response. Many factors prevent or accelerate aging including immunosenescence, recruitment and regeneration of stem cells, telomere shortening, oxidative damage, antiaging hormones klotho and melatonin, nutrition, and Sirtiun protein family, and these factors could affect post-MI remodeling and heart failure. Interest in stem cell repair of myocardial infarcts to mitigate post-MI remodeling needs more information on aging of stem cells, and potential effects on stem cell use in infarct repair. Integrating genomics and proteomics methods may help find clinically novel therapy in the management of post-MI remodeling and heart failure in aged individuals.

  8. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its contribution to abortion in cattle, camel, and goat kept under pastoral management in Borana, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Bekele; Biffa, Demelash; Abunna, Fufa; Regassa, Alemayehu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2011-03-01

    The involvement of Brucella infection in causing abortion was investigated in a breeding female subpopulation of 283 cattle, 756 camels, and 757 goats. Serum samples were serially tested using the Rose Bengal test and complement fixation test. The study showed that anti-Brucella antibodies were prevalent in 10.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4, 14.9), 2.2% (95%CI, 1.4, 3.7), and 1.9% (95%CI, 1.1, 3.2) of cattle, camel, and goats, respectively. Abortion was more commonly reported in camels (23.4%) than cattle (13.8%) and goats (12.4%). The results of this study suggested that Brucella infections contribute significantly to abortion in cattle (odds ratio (OR), = 4.7; 95%CI, 2.0, 10.8) and goats (OR = 6.9; 95%CI, 2.2, 21.7) but not in camels. The number of young animals produced by breeding females seems to be apparently reduced in seropositive groups. Keeping more than two animal species at household level was found to be the risk factor for cattle (OR = 3.1; 95%CI, 1.2, 7.9) and camel (OR = 5.3; 95%CI, 1.2-23.5) seropositivity to Brucella infection when compared to those animals from households that keep only two animal species. This may suggest a possibility of cross species transmission of Brucella infection under such mixed herding. Wet season (OR = 4.8; 95%CI, 1.3, 18.1) was found to be associated with seropositivity in goats, linked to a coincidence of increased deliveries in flocks with possible excretion of Brucella organisms. The study results suggest that Brucella infection is the likely cause of abortion in cattle and goats while other causes largely outweigh brucellosis as a cause of abortion in camels in Borana, hence, contributing to reproductive loss.

  9. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogger, Cyrill; Beaurain, Francois; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  10. Factors contributing to the waste generation in building projects of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, N.A.; Memon, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan. (author)

  11. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.

    2002-01-01

    Comparison of Danish and Swedish national occupational injury statistics shows that the reported LTI-rate, or number of reported lost-time injuries per million working hours, for Danish construction workers is significantly higher than the reported LTI-rate for Swedish construction workers....... In terms of injury prevention it is important to identify injury risk factors that contribute to the observed differences in LTI-rates. In the present Oresund Link case study Danish and Swedish workers worked in cross-national work gangs, carried out the same types of tasks and utilized the same reporting...... procedures for occupational injuries. Thus, factors that usually confound comparisons between countries were eliminated in this study. Furthermore, factors at company level were to a great extent excluded in the study design, which therefore provided a unique opportunity to investigate the importance...

  12. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  13. Factors contributing to medication errors made when using computerized order entry in pediatrics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, Clare L; Forde, Niamh E; Coffey, Katherine L; Sittig, Dean F; Ash, Joan S; Husband, Andrew K; Bates, David W; Slight, Sarah P

    2017-10-26

    To identify and understand the factors that contribute to medication errors associated with the use of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) in pediatrics and provide recommendations on how CPOE systems could be improved. We conducted a systematic literature review across 3 large databases: the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, and Medline. Three independent reviewers screened the titles, and 2 authors then independently reviewed all abstracts and full texts, with 1 author acting as a constant across all publications. Data were extracted onto a customized data extraction sheet, and a narrative synthesis of all eligible studies was undertaken. A total of 47 articles were included in this review. We identified 5 factors that contributed to errors with the use of a CPOE system: (1) lack of drug dosing alerts, which failed to detect calculation errors; (2) generation of inappropriate dosing alerts, such as warnings based on incorrect drug indications; (3) inappropriate drug duplication alerts, as a result of the system failing to consider factors such as the route of administration; (4) dropdown menu selection errors; and (5) system design issues, such as a lack of suitable dosing options for a particular drug. This review highlights 5 key factors that contributed to the occurrence of CPOE-related medication errors in pediatrics. Dosing support is the most important. More advanced clinical decision support that can suggest doses based on the drug indication is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

    2012-01-01

    With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented.

  15. Considering the human factors contribution to the risk in the design choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant: in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future plants to consider the minimization of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design: the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the plant are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of nuclear reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (authors)

  16. Investigation on factors that contribute to the abandonment of building in construction industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Jaafar, Mohd Faizal Md; Idris Ali, Mohamad; Irwan Ramli, Noram; Muthusamy, Khairunisa; Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, the construction sector is one of the important sectors that contribute to economic growth and employments. However, a major concern facing the construction industry is the growing rate of delays in project delivery. In the worse cases, the projects were abandoned due to some reasons when the contract period ended. Abandoned building defines as construction work that has been continuously stalled for 6 months or more, during the project completion period or beyond the scheduled date of completion. When the projects become abandoned, it gives an adverse effect on many parties such as the developer, contractor, consultant and also client. According to previous researchers, the abandonment of building causes a serious problem and need some mitigation plan to avoid this problem from occurring. This study will investigate the fundamental factors that contribute to the abandonment of building and projects in Malaysia based on the current data of the abandoned building in most states in Malaysia. The data was collected from the respondents who is in the construction industry and had experience working with abandoned housing project. Form the respondents perspective, it shows that the main factor contribute to the building abandonment is due to the financial problem facing by the developer company.

  17. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUBSTANCE (DRUG ABUSE AMONGMALE ADOLESCENTS IN SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mohasoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This small-scale study sought to determine the factors that contribute to use ofdrugs by male adolescents in South African public secondary schools. The studywas conducted in four secondary schools in Zeerust, North West, a province ofSouth Africa. Purposive sampling was employed to select from the secondaryschools 12 male adolescents who were prone to substance abuse problems. Aqualitative research approach was followed underpinned by the interpretiveresearch paradigm. More specifically, a multiple case research design was used.The study was successful in identifying the most commonly used drugs such asalcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and heroin. These drugs are readily available in thesurrounding communities and are affordable to the learners. Socialand economicfactors are the main factors contributing to the use of drugs among maleadolescents. The way in which children are brought up, who they associate withand whether they have access to money to buy the drugs largely contribute to druguse. Thisstudy concludes by proposing mitigation strategies that can be employedto deal with substance abuse scourge before it escalates further. Furthermore, thestudy identifies a need for involvement of various stakeholders to find a solutionto the substanceabuse problem.

  18. The contributions of human factors and ergonomics to a sustainable minerals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Fuller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article describes examples of the application of human factors research and development work to a sustainable minerals industry. It begins by outlining human-related aspects of the minerals industry and the key human factors work previously undertaken in this domain. The focus then switches to sustainability in the minerals industry. Sustainability principles are introduced and illustrations provided of how human factors research and development work fits within such a framework. Three case studies of human factors in the minerals industry research are presented and the sustainability implications in each case study are highlighted. Finally, future trends related to human factors work in a sustainable minerals industry are addressed, in particular the opportunities and possible adverse consequences that increasing deployment of mining automation might bring. Minerals industries are a major global activity with significant sustainability implications. Aspects of sustainability in mining are examined using three case studies. These illustrate the contribution of human factors/ergonomics in reducing risks; developing emergency response management systems; and the value of participatory ergonomics in improving the design of mining equipment.

  19. Contribution of Established Stroke Risk Factors to the Burden of Stroke in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Annette; Grittner, Ulrike; Rolfs, Arndt; Norrving, Bo; Siegerink, Bob; Busch, Markus A

    2017-07-01

    As stroke in young adults is assumed to have different etiologies and risk factors than in older populations, the aim of this study was to examine the contribution of established potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors to the burden of stroke in young adults. A German nationwide case-control study based on patients enrolled in the SIFAP1 study (Stroke In Young Fabry Patients) 2007 to 2010 and controls from the population-based GEDA study (German Health Update) 2009 to 2010 was performed. Cases were 2125 consecutive patients aged 18 to 55 years with acute first-ever stroke from 26 clinical stroke centers; controls (age- and sex-matched, n=8500, without previous stroke) were from a nationwide community sample. Adjusted population-attributable risks of 8 risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, smoking, heavy episodic alcohol consumption, low physical activity, and obesity) and their combinations for all stroke, ischemic stroke, and primary intracerebral hemorrhage were calculated. Low physical activity and hypertension were the most important risk factors, accounting for 59.7% (95% confidence interval, 56.3-63.2) and 27.1% (95% confidence interval, 23.6-30.6) of all strokes, respectively. All 8 risk factors combined explained 78.9% (95% confidence interval, 76.3-81.4) of all strokes. Population-attributable risks of all risk factors were similar for all ischemic stroke subtypes. Population-attributable risks of most risk factors were higher in older age groups and in men. Modifiable risk factors previously established in older populations also account for a large part of stroke in younger adults, with 4 risk factors explaining almost 80% of stroke risk. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  1. Factors that Contribute in the First Hookah Smoking Trial by Women: A Qualitative Study from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAHEIRAEI, Azam; SHAHBAZI SIGHALDEH, Shirin; EBADI, Abbas; KELISHADI, Roya; MAJDZADEH, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Hookah smoking is growing in popularity especially among women but little is known about the determinants influencing on hookah smoking initiation. In order to address this emerging health risk, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the factors that contribute in the first hookah smoking trial by women. Methods This qualitative study was conducted during 2012 to 2013 in Tehran, Iran. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, ethnicity, age groups and residence. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis. Results Four main themes were identified from the qualitative data including: Positive attitude toward hookah smoking; Social and family facilitators; Psychosocial needs and gaps and Sensory characteristic of hookah. Conclusion From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Since one of the major causes of increased hookah smoking may be its ordinary use, all factors causing the ordinary use should be eliminated, and efforts should be made in opposition to hookah smoking promotions. PMID:26060781

  2. Study of factors contributing to the development of osteoradionecrosis of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, E.V.; Jain, P.R.; Stuchell, R.N.; Frich, J.C. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The histories of 14 patients in whom osteoradionecrosis developed were compared with those of 28 patients who had similar tumors and/or treatment and were not afflicted with osteoradionecrosis. 1. Fourteen of 15 episodes of bone complications occurred in the mandible, and 70% occurred within 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. 2. A high dose of radiation, with conventional fractionation, did not specifically predispose patients to osteoradionecrosis. Fifty percent of the ORN patients actually received a total dose of 6000 rad or less. Combined radiation therapy and surgery did not seem to significantly increase the risk inasmuch as both groups of patients had similar combinations. In two of four patients who received methotrexate, however, osteoradionecrosis developed during the time of administration. 3. One of the most prevalent negative factors associated with the ORN patients was the continued heavy use of alcohol and tobacco by 86% of them. These strong tissue irritants could have significantly contributed to the breakdown of mucosa and exposure of bone. Alcohol and tobacco could also have potentiated the combined effects of the other negative factors, such as contributing to poor oral hygiene. 4. The ORN patients had poorer oral hygiene than the control group. Seventy-five percent of the patients with teeth who had osteoradionecrosis continued to have poor oral hygiene. In contrast, none of the control patients had poor oral hygiene. 5. A combination of factors relating to stage of tumor and treatment was found in the ORN patients

  3. The Frequency, Contributing and Preventive Factors of Harassment towards Health Professionals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal

    2015-07-01

    There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. Data were collected using the questionnaire of "workplace violence in the health sector" developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. According to the findings, the frequencies of sexual harassment and racial harassment were, respectively, 4.7% and 12% for the 12 months prior to the study (2011). Among healthcare workers, nurses reported the highest rate of violence. The most important contributing factors in sexual and racial harassment were lack of security facilities (45.8%) and people's ignorance of employees' tasks (55.7%). The presence of security force, safety measures in the wards, and guards were noted as the most important preventive factor to harassment. Based on the results, the frequency of sexual and racial harassment is low, which can be attributed to underreporting due to cultural sensitivity or fear. So, identifying the reasons for refusal to report harassment, developing a clear mechanism for reporting and providing the necessary trainings to health workers are essential in order to deal with harassment.

  4. Investigating the Underlying Factors of Corruption in the Public Construction Sector: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Le, Yun; Yiu, Kenneth T W; Chan, Albert P C; Hu, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China. Two iterations of multivariate analysis approaches, namely, stepwise multiple regression analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling were successively utilized to analyze the collected data. In addition, a case study was also conducted to triangulate the findings obtained from the statistical analysis. The results generated from these three research methods achieve the same conclusion: the most influential underlying factor leading to corruption was immorality, followed by opacity, unfairness, procedural violation, and contractual violation. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by exploring the properties of corruption in the public construction sector. The findings from this study are also valuable to the construction authorities as they can assist in developing more effective anti-corruption strategies.

  5. Factors Contributing to Educational Achievement and Success in Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaderi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: An understanding of the factors contributing to students success or causing failure help us find a solution to prevent waste of resources and contribute to develop a more effective educational system. This study is an attempt to find out the factors contributing to educational success in Birjand University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.Methods: All students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences who studied in first semester 2003-2004 participated. A self-administered questionnaire was given to students who were present at theirclasses. The questionnaire included questions on age sex grade point average, parents’ level of literary, parents’ occupation satisfaction with their field of study, satisfaction with quality of instructions and educational activities provided, occupational prospect, and the rapport establishedbetween students and instructors. The students were divided into two groups based on GPA. The data were extracted and analyzed with SPSS4 software. Chi-square test, t-test, non-parametric Man-Whitney test, Fisher exact test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient were used to find out thesignificance of the results (p<0.05.Results:Of all 390 students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences who participated, 9.2% had a GPA<14 (failed and 80.8% had a GPAe”14 (succeeded; 79.3% were single, and 78.7% were from other cities. The mean GPA was 15.8±1.6. Of all students with educational failure, 50.7% were male while 49.3% were female with no significant difference. Of all students with educational failure, 78.7% were single and 21.3% were married with no significant difference. No significant difference was observed for the fathers’ literacy on students’ educational failure while a comparison of students whose mothers were illiterate with students whose mothers had a general diploma (P=0.04 and with students whose mothers had an academic degree (P=0.003 showed a significant difference

  6. A STUDY TO ANALYZE VARIOUS FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO STRESS IN FIRST YEAR MBBS STUDENTS DURING EXAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Gajalakshmi; U, Kavitha; B, Anandarajan; M, Chandrasekar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Exam stress is a set of responses that includes excessive worry, depression, nervousness and irrelevant thinking to a class of stimuli from an individual’s experience of assessment and outcome. The rationale of this study is to assess the examination related stress among the first year MBBS students by measuring BMI (body mass index) and VAS (Visual  analogue scale) as to determine the factors contributing to exam stress among first year medical students. Methods: The study w...

  7. Factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment of leprosy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholls, P.G.; Chhina, N; Aaen, Karen Bro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of our research was to identify factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment in leprosy, focussing on patients' narratives of help-seeking behaviour. Our research took place in Purulia, West Bengal, India and in Nilphamari, northern Bangladesh. Between January...... and August 2000, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 104 patients that explored each individual's narrative of help-seeking behaviour and the context of beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Subsequently we surveyed 356 patients currently receiving treatment for leprosy and recorded specific...

  8. Physiological mechanisms contributing to increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under organic fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Wang, Shiwen; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of resource utilization has received increasing research attention in recent years. In this study, we explored the potential physiological mechanisms underlying improved grain yield and water-use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following organic fertilizer application. Two wheat cultivars, ChangHan58 (CH58) and XiNong9871 (XN9871), were grown under the same nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate (urea-N, CK; and manure plus urea-N, M) and under two watering regimes (WW, well-watered; and WS, water stress) imposed after anthesis. The M fertilizer treatment had a higher Pn and lower gs and Tr than CK under both water conditions, in particular, it significantly increased WRC and Ψw, and decreased EWLR and MDA under WS. Also, the M treatment increased post-anthesis N uptake by 81.4 and 16.4% under WS and WW, thus increasing post-anthesis photosynthetic capacity and delaying leaf senescence. Consequently, the M treatment increased post-anthesis DM accumulation under WS and WW by 51.5 and 29.6%, WUEB by 44.5 and 50.9%, grain number per plant by 11.5 and 12.2% and 1000-grain weight by 7.3 and 3.6%, respectively, compared with CK. The grain yield under M treatment increased by 23 and 15%, and water use efficiency (WUEg) by 25 and 23%, respectively. The increased WUE under organic fertilizer treatment was due to elevated photosynthesis and decreased Tr and gs. Our results suggest that the organic fertilizer treatment enabled plants to use water more efficiently under drought stress.

  9. Continuous-Time Public Good Contribution Under Uncertainty: A Stochastic Control Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Giorgio; Riedel, Frank; Steg, Jan-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study continuous-time stochastic control problems with both monotone and classical controls motivated by the so-called public good contribution problem. That is the problem of n economic agents aiming to maximize their expected utility allocating initial wealth over a given time period between private consumption and irreversible contributions to increase the level of some public good. We investigate the corresponding social planner problem and the case of strategic interaction between the agents, i.e. the public good contribution game. We show existence and uniqueness of the social planner’s optimal policy, we characterize it by necessary and sufficient stochastic Kuhn–Tucker conditions and we provide its expression in terms of the unique optional solution of a stochastic backward equation. Similar stochastic first order conditions prove to be very useful for studying any Nash equilibria of the public good contribution game. In the symmetric case they allow us to prove (qualitative) uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium, which we again construct as the unique optional solution of a stochastic backward equation. We finally also provide a detailed analysis of the so-called free rider effect.

  10. Continuous-Time Public Good Contribution Under Uncertainty: A Stochastic Control Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.ferrari@uni-bielefeld.de; Riedel, Frank, E-mail: frank.riedel@uni-bielefeld.de; Steg, Jan-Henrik, E-mail: jsteg@uni-bielefeld.de [Bielefeld University, Center for Mathematical Economics (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper we study continuous-time stochastic control problems with both monotone and classical controls motivated by the so-called public good contribution problem. That is the problem of n economic agents aiming to maximize their expected utility allocating initial wealth over a given time period between private consumption and irreversible contributions to increase the level of some public good. We investigate the corresponding social planner problem and the case of strategic interaction between the agents, i.e. the public good contribution game. We show existence and uniqueness of the social planner’s optimal policy, we characterize it by necessary and sufficient stochastic Kuhn–Tucker conditions and we provide its expression in terms of the unique optional solution of a stochastic backward equation. Similar stochastic first order conditions prove to be very useful for studying any Nash equilibria of the public good contribution game. In the symmetric case they allow us to prove (qualitative) uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium, which we again construct as the unique optional solution of a stochastic backward equation. We finally also provide a detailed analysis of the so-called free rider effect.

  11. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

  12. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  13. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors. PMID:25568884

  14. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-10-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors.

  15. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saridan Abu Bakar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.

  16. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to normal rats. Removal of the remnant kidney had no effect on plasma FGF23 levels. Well-known regulators of FGF23 expression in bone, such as parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and inhibition of the FGF receptor by PD173074, had no impact on kidney expression of FGF23. Thus, the only direct contribution......Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting...... of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone....

  17. Adjustment following chronic spinal cord injury: Determining factors that contribute to social participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley; Nicholson Perry, Kathryn; Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Middleton, James

    2015-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic event that may result in diminished physical, social, and mental health. The main objective of this research was to establish inpatient factors that contribute to social participation following discharge into the community. Prospective longitudinal design with measures taken three times, soon after admission to rehabilitation (N = 88), at discharge from the inpatient phase (N = 81) and 6 months following discharge (N = 71). Participants included adults with SCI admitted into three SCI units over a 33-month period. Assessment included demographic, injury, and psychosocial health measures. Adjustment was defined by the extent of social re-integration or participation post-discharge after 6 months in the community. Social participation was measured by the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPAQ). Logistic regression models were used to establish inpatient factors that significantly predicted social participation 6 months post-discharge. Six months after discharge, around 55% of the sample had difficulties with social participation. The odds against being employed for an adult with poor social participation was found to be 8.4 to 1. Factors that predicted social participation included a younger age, having less severe secondary medical complications like bladder and bowel dysfunction, having a higher cognitive capacity, perceiving one has control (self-efficacy) over one's life and environment, and having greater perceived social support. These results provide direction for enhancing existing psychosocial health strategies within SCI rehabilitation, affording an opportunity for every person who sustains a permanent SCI to have optimal capacity for social participation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with significant challenges to wellbeing, including a high risk of secondary chronic illnesses, risk of co-morbid mental health problems

  18. Factors contributing to the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Minnie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore and describe the factors that influence the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV. This was achieved through a qualitative research study that was exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. A sample of 13 pregnant women participated. Data obtained from semi-structured interviews was analysed according to a protocol based on a combination of methods of analysis. The three main themes, namely factors that contribute to the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV, factors that contribute to the decision by pregnant women not to be tested for HIV and organisational factors that influence the decision by pregnant women to be tested for HIV, were divided into nine subthemes. Conclusions and recommendations to promote counselling to pregnant women being tested for HIV are provided. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die faktore wat die besluit van swanger vroue om vir MIV getoets te word, te verken en beskryf. Dit is gedoen deur middel van verkennende, beskrywende, kontekstuele kwalitatiewe navorsing. ’n Steekproef van 13 swanger vroue het deelgeneem. Inligting is verkry deur middel van semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude. Hierdie inligting is ontleed aan die hand van ’n protokol gebaseer op ’n kombinasie van ontledingsmetodes. Die drie hooftemas, naamlik faktore wat bydra tot swanger vroue se besluit om vir MIV getoets te word, faktore wat bydra tot swanger vroue se besluit om nie vir MIV getoets te word nie en organisatoriese faktore wat swanger vroue se besluit beïnvloed om vir MIV getoets te word, is in nege subtemas onderverdeel. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings ter bevordering van berading van swanger vroue vir MIV-toetsing, word verskaf.

  19. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  20. The plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as contributing factors to the risk of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Johnathan R

    2017-05-01

    Recent research suggests the maternal environment may be especially important for the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular maternal infections, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity, and toxicant exposures are likely to interact with genetic risk factors to disrupt fetal brain development. The goal of this paper is to investigate the plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as causal factors in the development of ASD. This paper reviews current research investigating the hypothesis that maternal toxicant exposure and prenatal micronutrient intake are important modifiable risk factors for ASD. Zinc, copper, iron, and vitamin B9 are identified as specific micronutrients with relevance to the etiology of ASD. Specific toxicants induce a maternal inflammatory response leading to fetal micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt early brain development. Importantly, maternal micronutrient supplementation is associated with reduced risk of ASD. Furthermore, animal studies show that micronutrient supplementation can prevent the teratogenicity and developmental neurotoxicity of specific toxicants. These findings lead to the hypothesis that maternal infection, obesity, and toxicant exposures (e.g. valproic acid, endocrine disrupting plasticizers, ethanol, and heavy metals) are all environmental risk factors for ASD that lead to fetal micronutrient deficiencies resulting from a maternal inflammatory response. It could be possible to use markers of inflammation and micronutrient status to identify women that would benefit from micronutrient supplementation or dietary interventions to reduce the risk of ASD. However, more research is needed to demonstrate a causal role of fetal micronutrient deficiencies and clarify the underlying mechanisms that contribute to ASD.

  1. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803

  2. An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

    Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

  3. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  4. Networks of self-defining memories as a contributing factor to emotional openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Iliane; Philippe, Frederick L; Lecours, Serge; Roulez, Josiane

    2018-03-01

    Emotional openness is characterised by a capacity to tolerate threatening self-relevant material and an interest towards new emotional situations. We investigated how specific networks of memories could be an important contributing factor to emotional openness. At Phase 1, participants completed measures of personality traits and emotional intelligence, described a self-defining memory, provided other memories associated with it, and rated the valence of each of their memories. A score assessing the complexity of this memory network, comprising the number of memories reported and their valence diversity, was created. Two weeks later, in laboratory, participants watched an anxiety-inducing film and took part in an interview assessing their emotional openness to the film. They completed a cognitive task before and after the film to measure ego depletion. Controlling for traits and emotional intelligence, memory network complexity was positively associated with emotional openness and negatively with ego depletion. The mental organisation of self-defining memories thus appears to be a critical factor contributing to emotional openness.

  5. Prevalence of and contributing factors to overweight and obesity among the schoolchildren of Podgorica, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem. The national prevalence of child overweight/obesity in Montenegro has increased by one third in the last decade. As the overwhelming majority of Montenegrin population is urban, investigation of obesity and correlates among urban children is of special public health interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to obesity among schoolchildren of Podgorica. Method. The sample included 1,134 schoolchildren (49.8% boys aged 7–12 years, from 10 elementary schools in Podgorica. We measured children’s body mass, body height, and waist circumference to calculate body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The research instrument was a closed type of the original questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria recommended by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force. Results. Among the investigated children there were 21.2% and 6% overweight and obese children, respectively. Obesity was more frequent among boys (7.6% compared to girls (4.4%. In a multiple regression, childhood obesity was positively related to the following: male gender, younger age, lower number of siblings, parental obesity, and low physical activity. Conclusion. One out of five urban Montenegrin schoolchildren is overweight/obese, with obesity being twice as frequent among boys compared to girls. A program against obesity among urban Montenegrin children should focus on the revealed contributing factors.

  6. Self-Medication and Contributing Factors: A Questionnaire Survey Among Iranian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Abdarzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a serious danger in every health sector which potentially brings harmful side effects for the society. The aim of this research was to investigate self-medication and its contributing factors among residents of Yazd province in Iran in 2014. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 580 families living in Yazd in the time period of study were contributed to fill out the questions organized in two sections of demographic and self-medication factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 through appropriate descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Self-medication was reported in 53.4% of the cases. The most frequent self-prescribed medications were related to pain killer drugs (26.6%. There was a significant statistical relation between self-medication and households’ age, occupation and income, level of parents’ education, number of children and place of residence. Among different reasons for self-medication the most important one was reported to be accessibility (3.44+1.3. Conclusion: Due to the considerable prevalence of self-medication and its harmful effects on every society, such an issue should be appropriately controlled through legal regulations particularly in the area of selling dangerous drugs. Furthermore, provision of proper information and warning the population about harmful side effects can be helpful in this regard. 

  7. Contributions of radiative factors to enhanced dryland warming over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanting; Guan, Xiaodan; Yu, Haipeng; Xie, Yongkun; Jin, Hongchun

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced near-surface atmospheric warming has occurred over East Asia in recent decades, especially in drylands. Although local factors have been confirmed to provide considerable contributions to this warming, such factors have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we extracted the radiatively forced temperature (RFT) associated with the built-up greenhouse gases, aerosol emission, and various other radiative forcing over East Asia and found a close relationship between RFT and CO2. In addition, using climate model experiments, we explored the responses of temperature changes to black carbon (BC), CO2, and SO4 and found that the enhanced dryland warming induced by CO2 had the largest magnitude and was strengthened by the warming effect of BC. Moreover, the sensitivity of daily maximum and minimum temperature changes to BC, CO2, and SO4 was examined. It showed asymmetric responses of daily maximum and minimum temperature to radiative factors, which led to an obvious change of diurnal temperature range (DTR), especially in drylands. The DTR's response to CO2 is the most significant. Therefore, CO2 not only plays a dominant role in enhanced warming but also greatly affects the decrease of DTR in drylands. However, the mechanisms of these radiative factors' effects in the process of DTR change are not clear and require more investigation.

  8. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N12009 Influenza Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria

    Full Text Available While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course.

  9. Nurses'experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeify, Roghieh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-05-01

    Following professional standards is the main concern of all managers in organizations. The functions of nurses are essential for both productivity and improving health organizations. In human resources management, supporting nursing profession is of ultimate importance. However, nurses' experiences of perceived support, which are affected by various factors in workplace, have not been clearly explained yet. Thus, this study aimed to explain nurses' experiences of perceived support and their contributing factors. This study is a qualitative research in which 12 nurses were selected through purposive sampling among nurses in university hospitals affiliated to University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran, during 2011-2012. Data collection was conducted through deep interviews with semi-structural questions. All interviews were first recorded and then transcribed. Finally, data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. The four main themes indicated that nurses experienced their workplace as non-supportive. Themes such as poor organizational climate, low social dignity, poor work conditions, and managers' ignorance to individual and professional values were considered as inhibitory factors to support. Nursing managers can promote nurses' positive support perceptions through recognizing inhibitory factors and applying fair solutions and take benefits of their positive consequences including high efficacy, self-esteem, and organizational commitment to promote the quality of care.

  10. Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Shuster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.

  11. Excess LIGHT contributes to placental impairment, increased secretion of vasoactive factors, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Parchim, Nicholas F; Iriyama, Takayuki; Luo, Renna; Zhao, Cheng; Liu, Chen; Irani, Roxanna A; Zhang, Weiru; Ning, Chen; Zhang, Yujin; Blackwell, Sean C; Chen, Lieping; Tao, Lijian; Hicks, M John; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is believed to be secondary to uteroplacental ischemia. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia-independent mediators, including inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, are associated with preeclampsia, but it is unclear whether these signals directly contribute to placental damage and disease development in vivo. We report that LIGHT, a novel tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, is significantly elevated in the circulation and placentas of preeclamptic women compared with normotensive pregnant women. Injection of LIGHT into pregnant mice induced placental apoptosis, small fetuses, and key features of preeclampsia, hypertension and proteinuria. Mechanistically, using neutralizing antibodies specific for LIGHT receptors, we found that LIGHT receptors herpes virus entry mediator and lymphotoxin β receptor are required for LIGHT-induced placental impairment, small fetuses, and preeclampsia features in pregnant mice. Accordingly, we further revealed that LIGHT functions through these 2 receptors to induce secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelin-1, 2 well-accepted pathogenic factors in preeclampsia, and thereby plays an important role in hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant mice. Lastly, we extended our animal findings to human studies and demonstrated that activation of LIGHT receptors resulted in increased apoptosis and elevation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 secretion in human placental villous explants. Overall, our human and mouse studies show that LIGHT signaling is a previously unrecognized pathway responsible for placental apoptosis, elevated secretion of vasoactive factors, and subsequent maternal features of preeclampsia, and reveal new therapeutic opportunities for the management of the disease.

  12. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety.

  13. Families, nurses and organisations contributing factors to medication administration error in paediatrics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albara Alomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication error is the most common adverse event for hospitalised children and can lead to significant harm. Despite decades of research and implementation of a number of initiatives, the error rates continue to rise, particularly those associated with administration. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to explore the factors involving nurses, families and healthcare systems that impact on medication administration errors in paediatric patients. Design: A review was undertaken of studies that reported on factors that contribute to a rise or fall in medication administration errors, from family, nurse and organisational perspectives. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. The title, abstract and full article were reviewed for relevance. Articles were excluded if they were not research studies, they related to medications and not medication administration errors or they referred to medical errors rather than medication errors. Results: A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The factors contributing to medication administration errors are communication failure between the parents and healthcare professionals, nurse workload, failure to adhere to policy and guidelines, interruptions, inexperience and insufficient nurse education from organisations. Strategies that were reported to reduce errors were doublechecking by two nurses, implementing educational sessions, use of computerised prescribing and barcoding administration systems. Yet despite such interventions, errors persist. The review highlighted families that have a central role in caring for the child and therefore are key to the administration process, but have largely been ignored in research studies relating to medication administration. Conclusions: While there is a consensus about the factors that contribute to errors, sustainable and effective solutions remain elusive. To date, families have not

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Children who were not sleeping under insecticide treated nets were 15 times more likely to be infected with malaria parasites compared to those who were sleeping under nets [AOR=15.27; 95%CI=4.42-. 52.82; p<0.001]. ... environmental modification, human behaviour and insecticide resistance (MOH, 2014). Although.

  15. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa. Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%. Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  16. Factors contributing to student nurses'/midwives' perceived competency in spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda; Giske, Tove; van Leeuwen, René; Baldacchino, Donia; McSherry, Wilfred; Narayanasamy, Aru; Jarvis, Paul; Schep-Akkerman, Annemiek

    2016-01-01

    The spiritual part of life is important to health, well-being and quality of life. Spiritual care is expected of nurses/midwives, but it is not clear how students can achieve competency in spiritual care at point of registration as required by regulatory bodies. To explore factors contributing to undergraduate nurses'/midwives' perceived competency in giving spiritual care. A pilot cross-sectional, multinational, correlational survey design. Questionnaires were completed by 86% (n=531) of a convenience sample of 618 undergraduate nurses/midwives from six universities in four countries in 2010. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Differences between groups were small. Two factors were significantly related to perceived spiritual care competency: perception of spirituality/spiritual care and student's personal spirituality. Students reporting higher perceived competency viewed spirituality/spiritual care broadly, not just in religious terms. This association between perceived competency and perception of spirituality is a new finding not previously reported. Further results reinforce findings in the literature that own spirituality was a strong predictor of perceived ability to provide spiritual care, as students reporting higher perceived competency engaged in spiritual activities, were from secular universities and had previous healthcare experience. They were also religious, practised their faith/belief and scored highly on spiritual well-being and spiritual attitude/involvement. The challenge for nurse/midwifery educators is how they might enhance spiritual care competency in students who are not religious and how they might encourage students who hold a narrow view of spirituality/spiritual care to broaden their perspective to include the full range of spiritual concerns that patients/clients may encounter. Statistical models created predicted factors contributing to spiritual care competency to some extent but the picture is complex requiring

  17. Activity of recombinant factor VIIa under different conditions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark) is an effective drug for treatment of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A or B and inhibitors. Little is known about physiological conditions influencing the efficacy of recombinant activated factor VII. We...

  18. Risk factors of poor anthropometric status in children under five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data generated by questionnaire and anthropometric indices were used to construct a logistic regression model, taking into account hierarchical relationships of risk factors to determine the odds of a child being stunted, underweight or overweight. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Factors ...

  19. Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Function as a Contributing Factor to Both Neuropsychiatric and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Nichols

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are high levels of comorbidity between neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. A key molecule central to both cognitive and cardiovascular function is the molecule serotonin. In the brain, serotonin modulates neuronal activity and is actively involved in mediating many cognitive functions and behaviors. In the periphery, serotonin is involved in vasoconstriction, inflammation, and cell growth, among other processes. It is hypothesized that one component of the serotonin system, the 5-HT2A receptor, is a common and contributing factor underlying aspects of the comorbidity between neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. Within the brain this receptor participates in processes such as cognition and working memory, been implicated in effective disorders such as schizophrenia, and mediate the primary effects of hallucinogenic drugs. In the periphery, 5-HT2A receptors have been linked to vasoconstriction and hypertension, and to inflammatory processes that can lead to atherosclerosis.

  20. Evaluation of the contribution of the renal capsule and cortex to kidney autofluorescence intensity under ultraviolet excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2008-12-12

    The use of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence to gain metabolic information on kidneys in response to an alteration in oxygen availability has previously been experimentally demonstrated, but signal quantification has not to date been addressed. In this work the relative contribution to rat kidney autofluorescence of the capsule vs. cortex under ultraviolet excitation is determined from experimental results obtained using autofluorescence microscopy and a suitable mathematical model. The results allow for a quantitative assessment of the relative contribution of the signal originating in the metabolically active cortex as a function of capsule thickness for different wavelengths.

  1. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  2. Construct of Dialysis Employee Satisfaction: Acquiring Satisfaction Factors and Their Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We developed a construct of dialysis employees' satisfaction as an assessment framework and identified the crucial factors that contribute to overall job satisfaction. We also seek to capture some important characteristics of dialysis professionals' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in Japan. A questionnaire was developed, including 35 facet-specific job-related satisfaction and 10 general satisfaction items in closed-ended questions. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between August and October 2013. A total of 799 valid responses (87% of response rate) were collected from 46 physicians, 470 nurses and 251 technologists in the dialysis department of 43 facilities in Japan. Five satisfaction factors were derived by applying principal component analysis with 61% of cumulative variance accounted for. Physicians, nurses and technologists in the dialysis department shared a similar trend of job satisfaction that they were more satisfied with leadership, and communication and teamwork among the five factors, whereas their satisfaction level was relatively low with salary and welfare conditions. Physicians expressed the strongest satisfaction with any factor while nurses were the least satisfied. Nurses' and technologists' overall job satisfaction was mostly determined by satisfaction with self-actualization, and work demands and workload. A five-factor construct of dialysis employee satisfaction was identified. Overall job satisfaction of dialysis nurses and technologists were not overly high in Japan, and this seems to be caused by their relatively low satisfaction with self-actualization and with work demands and workload. Therefore, it is suggested that their work conditions and environment must be improved to support their self-actualization and to reduce their workload. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  3. Identifying temporal and causal contributions of neural processes underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Edward Forbes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is a popular behavioral measure that assesses the associative strength between outgroup members and stereotypical and counterstereotypical traits. Less is known, however, about the degree to which the IAT reflects automatic processing. Two studies examined automatic processing contributions to a gender-IAT using a data driven, social neuroscience approach. Performance on congruent (e.g., categorizing male names with synonyms of strength and incongruent (e.g., categorizing female names with synonyms of strength IAT blocks were separately analyzed using EEG (event-related potentials, or ERPs, and coherence; Study 1 and lesion (Study 2 methodologies. Compared to incongruent blocks, performance on congruent IAT blocks was associated with more positive ERPs that manifested in frontal and occipital regions at automatic processing speeds, occipital regions at more controlled processing speeds and was compromised by volume loss in the anterior temporal lobe, insula and medial PFC. Performance on incongruent blocks was associated with volume loss in supplementary motor areas, cingulate gyrus and a region in medial PFC similar to that found for congruent blocks. Greater coherence was found between frontal and occipital regions to the extent individuals exhibited more bias. This suggests there are separable neural contributions to congruent and incongruent blocks of the IAT but there is also a surprising amount of overlap. Given the temporal and regional neural distinctions, these results provide converging evidence that stereotypic associative strength assessed by the IAT indexes automatic processing to a degree.

  4. Factors contributing to lack of interest in research among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ali Sibtain Farooq; Sheikh, Saman Ali; Kaleem, Ahmad; Waqas, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Research experiences early in the medical student's education are an important factor for attracting a greater number of doctors to careers with a research component. To determine the factors contributing to a lack of enthusiasm about research activities among medical students, and to suggest ways to help students develop an interest in research. A medical institution-based, case-control study was conducted. A case was defined as any fourth year medical student who believed that undertaking research was not interesting; controls were matched for age and sex. A pretested, structured, and self-administered questionnaire was used; the data were analyzed using statistical methods. In all, 122 students (54% male, 46% female) were recruited to the study. Factors found to be significant were lack of Internet facilities (odds ratio 0.218) and considering research useless (odds ratio 4.570). Measures should be taken at undergraduate level to involve students in research activities. Ensuring easy access to Internet facilities could be one positive step. Further research should be done to explore the reasons why some medical students consider research useless.

  5. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  6. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to male alopecia: a study of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatherwright, James; Liu, Mengyuan T; Amirlak, Bardia; Gliniak, Christy; Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of environmental factors and testosterone on male alopecia. Ninety-two identical male twins were recruited from 2009 to 2011. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed followed by the acquisition of sputum samples for testosterone analysis and standardized digital photography. Frontal, temporal, and vertex hair loss was assessed from these photographs. Hair loss was then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning. Increased smoking duration (p money spent on hair loss products (p = 0.050) were all associated with increased temporal hair loss. Daily hat use (p = 0.050), higher body mass index (p = 0.012), and higher testosterone levels (p = 0.040) were associated with decreased temporal hair loss. Factors that were significantly associated with increased vertex hair loss included abstinence from alcohol consumption (p = 0.030), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.004), increased smoking duration (p = 0.047), increased exercise duration (p = 0.050), and increased stress duration (p = 0.010). Lower body mass index, more children, increased caffeine consumption, history of skin disease, and abstinence from alcohol were significantly associated with increased hair thinning scores (p exogenous factors may have a clinically significant impact on hair loss. Risk, III.

  7. Contribution to the characterization of room temperature ionic liquids under ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Rouzo, G.; Lamouroux, Ch.; Moutiers, G.

    2010-01-01

    Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids are potentially interesting for nuclear fuel treatment. Within this framework, ionic liquids stability towards ionizing radiations (α, β or γ) is determining their potential application. The aim of this work is to assess a better understanding of ionic liquids behaviour under radiolysis. Ionic liquids chosen in these studies are constituted with BuMeIm + (or Bu 3 MeN + ) cation associated with various anions: Tf 2 N - , TfO - , PF 6 - and BF 4 - . Moreover, development of suitable chemical analysis tools crucial for characterization of these compounds has been realized. Ionic liquids stability has been mainly studied under γ irradiation, but also under electron beam or heavy particles irradiations. Ionic liquids degradation under radiolysis has been determined with two complementary approaches. The first one aims at understanding radio-induced degradation mechanisms with radical species analysis by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The second one aims at characterizing stable radiolysis products formed in liquid and gaseous phases. Studies were conducted with several analytical techniques: Electro Spray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS), High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, HPLC/UV-VIS, HPLC/ESI-MS), Gas Analysis Mass Spectrometry (Gas MS) and Gas Chromatography hyphenated with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Firstly, the ionic liquid [Bu 3 MeIm][Tf 2 N] has been studied under γ irradiation. Radiolytic stability has been quantitatively assessed for high doses of radiations and a proposal of degradation scheme has been proposed on the basis of radio-induced radicals and radiolysis products analysis. Those data have been compared to those obtained for the γ radiolysis of the ionic liquid [Bu 3 MeN][Tf 2 N], enabling to assess cation influence on ionic liquids radiolysis. Secondly, degradation under γ irradiation of ionic liquids [BuMeIm][X] (X - Tf 2 N - , TfO - , PF 6 - , BF 4 - ) has been quantitatively

  8. A contribution to the question of creep and relaxation of concrete under high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.

    1979-01-01

    It was initially shown that, in dealing with the high temperature problem, it is expedient to distinguish certain material properties in terms of isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. A general equation of state could be derived to describe the key question complex relating to deformation behaviour of concrete under high temperatures. For the case of an isothermal temperature load under 100 0 C numerous measurement results are available from the literature. The creep behaviour of light and normal concrete up to 450 0 C was investigated and discussed. Pre-storage, concrete utilization, inelastic deformation and the influence of conditions of stress in the heat-up phase on high-temperature creep were treated. It could be shown on the basis of numerous evaluations and computer studies that also under high temperature conditions the creep behaviour of concrete is best described in terms of exponential functions. Preliminary experimental results on creep behaviour under transient temperature conditions have already been published within the framework of the sub-project ''fire properties of components''. These results, together with new measurement values have been subjected to theoretical analysis. The creep functions (phi-functions) for light and normal concrete developed for the transient temperature state constitute an important part of this work. Various suggestions have been made for criteria of failure for concrete at high tempratures. For the transient state a critical concrete temperature can be specified. Investigations on rates of deformation at the time of failure have shown that a so-called high level and low level is possible. The question of high temperature relaxation of conrete was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The constraining force problem was considered in detail in this research for comparison purposes since it offers a number of possibilities for new approaches and solutions particularly from a theoretical viewpoint. (orig

  9. Platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors contribute to stem cell differentiation in musculoskeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun; Han, Qixin; Chen, Wei; Song, Jialin; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2017-10-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  10. Metasynthesis of Factors Contributing to Children’s Communication Development: Influence on Reading and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber J. Godwin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine what previous studies have found to be factors that contribute to a child’s initial communication development and previously identified effects of reading mathematics storybooks to toddlers or preschoolers. Therefore, it follows that the earlier a preschooler is exposed to mathematics vocabulary, the easier mathematics vocabulary acquisition and understanding can be for that child, which can result in an increase in future academic achievement. This metasynthesis was conducted to gather information on the effects that interactive relationships with caregivers have on a child’s ability to communicate and then how symbiotic reading and mathematics interventions can affect a child’s ability to think and communicate mathematically. According to the data analyzed for this metasynthesis, caregivers’ language relationships help facilitate a child’s early communication development and reading and mathematics symbiotic instruction can lead to developing a child’s ability to think and communicate mathematically.

  11. Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brendan M; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Penny, Daniel; Fletcher, Roland; Cook, Edward R; Sano, Masaki; Nam, Le Canh; Wichienkeeo, Aroonrut; Minh, Ton That; Hong, Truong Mai

    2010-04-13

    The "hydraulic city" of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction from tropical southern Vietnamese tree rings. The Angkor droughts were of a duration and severity that would have impacted the sprawling city's water supply and agricultural productivity, while high-magnitude monsoon years damaged its water control infrastructure. Hydroclimate variability for this region is strongly and inversely correlated with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, indicating that a warm Pacific and El Niño events induce drought at interannual and interdecadal time scales, and that low-frequency variations of tropical Pacific climate can exert significant influence over Southeast Asian climate and society.

  12. Gastrointestinal factors contribute to glucometabolic disturbances in nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    using an oral glucose tolerance test and an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion on separate days. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and incretin hormones were measured repeatedly, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) based on glucose amounts utilized, and incretin effect based...... on incremental insulin responses, were calculated. The GIGD was significantly reduced in both ESRD groups compared with controls. Incretin effects were 69% (controls), 55% (ESRD with NGT), and 41% (ESRD with IGT), with a significant difference between controls and ESRDs with IGT. Fasting concentrations...... GIGD, a diminished incretin effect in those with IGT, and severe fasting hyperglucagonemia that seemed irrepressible in response to glucose stimuli. These factors may contribute to disturbed glucose metabolism in ESRD....

  13. Environmental Factors Contributing to Wrongdoing in Medicine: A Criterion-Based Review of Studies and Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M.; Carroll, Kelly; Gibb, Tyler; Kraus, Elena; Rubbelke, Timothy; Vasher, Meghan; Anderson, Emily E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe our approach to understanding wrongdoing in medical research and practice, which involves the statistical analysis of coded data from a large set of published cases. We focus on understanding the environmental factors that predict the kind and the severity of wrongdoing in medicine. Through review of empirical and theoretical literature, consultation with experts, the application of criminological theory, and ongoing analysis of our first 60 cases, we hypothesize that 10 contextual features of the medical environment (including financial rewards, oversight failures, and patients belonging to vulnerable groups) may contribute to professional wrongdoing. We define each variable, examine data supporting our hypothesis, and present a brief case synopsis from our study that illustrates the potential influence of the variable. Finally, we discuss limitations of the resulting framework and directions for future research. PMID:23226933

  14. Patient Reluctance to Discuss Pain: Understanding Stoicism, Stigma, and Other Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, John; Bunting, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Some patients are hesitant to disclose when they are experiencing pain. However, the reasons for this, such as stoicism and concern about being a bother to others, are poorly understood. If patient pain goes unrecognized during clinical encounters, patients may also be at greater risk for pain-related crises, use of hospice/palliative care on-call services, and in-patient transfers. This is an evidence-informed development of a practice-oriented conceptual model to understand and address patient reluctance to admit pain. We used a review of the available evidence to better understand the various factors that contribute to an unwillingness to disclose one's pain, create a conceptual model, and identify relevant assessment measures that may be useful to practitioners. Our review identified six primary attitudes and beliefs that contribute to patient reluctance to openly admit pain: (a) stigma; (b) stoicism; (c) cautiousness; (d) fatalism; (e) bother; and (f) denial. Four assessment measures that address elements of barriers to pain-related communication and four measures of nonverbal signs of pain were also identified and reviewed. Based on the model, social workers and other palliative care providers should consistently and vigilantly inquire about how comfortable patients are about discussing their own pain. Implications for practice and research are presented.

  15. Deconstructing contributing factors to bullying and lateral violence in nursing using a postcolonial feminist lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rhonda Kathleen; Cash, Penelope Anne

    2012-10-01

    Bullying and lateral violence is a reality in the workplace for many nurses and has been explored in nursing literature for at least three decades. Using a postcolonial feminist approach this paper examines what contributes to bullying and lateral violence in the nursing workplace by deconstructing the findings from a British Columbia Nurses Union and Union of Psychiatric Nurses study. Theories of oppression and organizational context which have appeared in the literature serve to inform the discussion. A postcolonial lens provides an opportunity to come to grips with the insidiousness of bullying and lateral violence. An adaption of Phillips, Lawrence, and Hardy's (2004) framework is used to unpack discourses, actions, texts, and organizational practices to challenge taken-for-granted hegemonies in the workplace. Taking this different view has enabled new prisms of understanding to emerge from the contributing factors identified in the study. Based on this analysis it is clear that bullying and lateral violence is deeply institutionalized. Nurses, managers, and organizations need to interrupt and interrogate the embeddedness of bullying and lateral violence in order to create a civil workplace.

  16. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  17. Frequency and contributing factors for acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M.; Zaidi, A.R.; Hyder, A.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and contributing factors for acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: A descriptive case series conducted at department of Gastroenterology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore in the period of six months. Material and Methods: Two hundred and thirty patients diagnosed as having obstructive jaundice and undergoing ERCP who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study from the outpatient and indoor department of Gastroenterology-Hepatology Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Informed consent was taken. After the selection of the cases, patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of contributing factors like age, gender, cannulation attempts, cannulation time, percutaneous papillotomy, pancreatic duct contrast injection and previous history of post ERCP pancreatitis. Data was analysed by using the statistical software for social sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: In our study, mean age was 44 +- 14.12 years. Out of 230 patients 42.17% (n=97) were male and 57.83% (n=133) were females. Frequency of acute pancreatitis after ERCP in patients with obstructive jaundice was 4.78% (n=11) while 95.22% (n=219) had no findings of acute pancreatitis after ERCP. Frequency of factors for acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice was recorded which shows that out of 11 cases, 45.45% (n=5) were females, 36.36% (n=4) had previous history of Post ERCP Pancreatitis, 27.27% (n=3) had >5 attempts of cannulation, 36.36% (n=4) had >5 minute time for cannulation, 54.55% (n=6) had pre-cut papillotomy while 63.64% (n=7) had pancreatic duct contrast injection. Conclusion: We concluded that frequency of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice was found not very high in our practice

  18. Identification of factors contributing to successful self-directed weight loss: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, N; Gill, T

    2017-11-21

    Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire and participants' weight-loss experiences were explored using semi- structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Iterative thematic method data analysis was used to generate themes describing contributing factors to the success of self-directed weight loss identified by participants. Most characteristics of those who successfully self-managed their weight loss were in line with those reported by successful weight losers participating in professional-led projects. However, strategies such as early embedding of new lifestyle behaviours into daily routine, the ability to learn from previous weight-loss experiences, and not requiring social support were identified as distinctive factors that contributed to the success of self-directed weight loss by participants of the present study. Overweight or obese individuals with strong internal motivation, problem-solving skills and self-reliance are more likely to be successful at achieving self-directed weight loss. The patients identified with these characteristics could be encouraged to self-manage their weight-loss process, leaving the places available in more resource-intensive professional-led programmes to those individuals unlikely to succeed on their own. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relative contributions of physical and microbiological factors to cohesive sediment stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundkvist, M.; Grue, M.; Friend, P. L.; Flindt, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    The stabilising effects of natural benthic diatom and bacterial assemblages on cohesive sediments were compared with those caused by physico-chemical binding alone. Cohesive sediment beds were reconstructed in 4 annular laboratory miniflumes, using sediment collected at 5-6 m water depth from a local fjord. The sediment was left to stabilise (consolidate) for 1, 2, 5 and 10 days, before being fully resuspended in a series of erosion experiments. The flumes were aerated and subjected to different light/dark conditions; antibiotics were used to isolate diatom from bacteria effects. During consolidation, a constant current velocity was maintained, at a speed well below erosion threshold. 'Natural' sediment regained 27% of its original stability after 1 day, and 85% after 5 days. Complete 'natural' sediment stability was regained within 10 days. Benthic diatoms (mainly Nitzchia sp., Gyrosigma sp. and Pennales sp.) were responsible for about 80% of the biostabilisation, whilst bacteria contributed ˜12%, indicating the importance of light as a controlling factor for surface sediment stability. Relative to physico-chemical binding, the increase in erosion threshold induced by benthic diatoms was 120%, and by bacteria 20%. Where the assemblage consisted of both diatoms and bacteria, the increase was 150%, indicating that natural bed values are not a simple summation of the two effects, i.e. diatoms plus bacteria. Using the results, a first generation empirical relationship describing the relative contributions of microbenthic and physico-chemical factors in the development of erosion threshold is presented. Empirical relationships containing biostabilisation coefficients are important for better computer model predictions of sediment transport.

  1. The contributions of risk factor trends and medical care to cardiovascular mortality trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Majid; Obermeyer, Ziad; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Mayosi, Bongani M; Elliott, Paul; Leon, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for an estimated 17.5 million annual deaths in the world. If account is taken of population aging, death rates from CVDs are estimated to be steadily decreasing in the world as a whole, and in regions with reliable trend data. The declines in high-income countries and some countries in Latin America have been ongoing for decades with no indication of slowing. In high-income countries, these positive trends have broadly coincided with, and benefited from, declines in smoking and physiological risk factors like blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Improvements in medical care, including effective primary prevention through management of physiological risk factors, better diagnosis and treatment of acute CVDs, and post-hospital care of those with prior CVDs, are also likely to have contributed to declining CVD event and death rates, especially in the past 40 years. However, the measured risk factor and treatment variables neither explain why the decline began when it did, nor much of the similarities and differences in the start time and rate of the decline across countries or between men and women. There have been sharp changes and fluctuations in CVDs in the former communist countries of Europe and the Soviet Union since the fall of communism in the early 1990s, with changes in volume and patterns of alcohol drinking, as a major cause of the rise in Russia and some other former Soviet countries. The challenge of reaching more definitive conclusions concerning the drivers of what constitutes one of the most remarkable international trends in adult mortality in the past half-century in part reflects the paucity of time trend data not only on disease incidence, risk factors, and clinical care, but also on other potential drivers, including infection and associated inflammatory processes throughout the lifecourse. PMID:26076950

  2. Risks and factors contributing towards rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of business in an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines risks and critical factors contributing to the rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of businesses. The concept of entrepreneurial orientation and various factors influencing the rural entrepreneurial orientation growth are still not well known. The study aimed to assess risks and critical factors affecting rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of businesses. Questionnaire was developed and used to collect primary data from 127 rural entrepreneurs. The sample was made with small and medium entrepreneurs operating in rural places. They were selected using quota sampling, with respondents completing a questionnaire with the assistance of an interviewer. The study used quantitative technique for data collection. SPSS (23.0 version was used for data analysis and scientific statistical significance level found to be (.000* at the Cronbach’s alpha (.791* reliability. Results of the survey reveal that majority indicates competition as a big challenge for them. Findings further indicate that competitor is due to the small market and lack of products differentiation. This study introduces an additional literature in the field of entrepreneurship with specific reference to rural entrepreneurship. The paper will benefit rural entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial marketing managers, potential young entrepreneurs, business consultants, policymakers, financial institutions, government agencies and all affiliated stakeholders by introducing a new understanding of risks and various critical factors causative into rural entrepreneurial orientation growth of business in an emerging economy. Most work on the entrepreneurship development has concentrated in the urban areas with little emphasis on the rural places. The findings of this study limited by study’s exploratory, small sample and quantitative nature. Therefore, generalisation of results should be done with care and further research is encouraged and should aim at the development of

  3. Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O. Chiringa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model.Purpose: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC.Methods: The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data.Results: Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%, shameful (30% and are tainted as promiscuous (20%, psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%, being ashamed and dehumanised (58%, stigmatised and discriminated (40.2% and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7% whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58% and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%.Conclusion: Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services.Keywords: Factors, Low uptake, Medical Male Circumcision (MMC

  4. Factors underlying residential radon concentration: Results from Galicia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros-Dios, J.M.; Ruano-Ravina, A.; Gastelu-Iturri, J.; Figueiras, A.

    2007-01-01

    Radon causes lung cancer when inhaled for prolonged periods of time. A range of factors influence residential radon concentration and this study therefore sought to ascertain which dwelling-related factors exert an influence on radon levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2001 to 2003 which analyzed 983 homes of as many subjects randomly selected from the 1991 census. Sampling was carried out by district and stratified by population density to ensure that more detectors were placed in the most heavily populated areas. Radon concentration and different dwelling characteristics were measured in each of the homes selected. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to ascertain which factors influenced radon concentration. The geometric mean of radon concentration was 69.5 Bq/m 3 , and 21.3% of homes had concentrations above 148 Bq/m 3 . Factors shown to influence radon concentration in the bivariate analysis were: age of dwelling; interior building material; exterior building material; and storey on which the detector was placed. Explanatory variables in the multivariate analysis were: age of dwelling; number of storeys; distance off floor; and interior building material. The model was significant, but the variability explained was around 10%. These results highlight the fact that the study area is an area of high radon emission and that factors other than those directly related with the characteristics of the dwelling also influence radon concentration

  5. Contribution of glutathione to the control of cellular redox homeostasis under toxic metal and metalloid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Luis E; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Montero-Palmero, M Belén; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Flores-Cáceres, M Laura; Ortega-Villasante, Cristina; Escobar, Carolina

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals and metalloids, such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or arsenic (As), as a consequence of various anthropogenic activities, poses a serious threat to the environment and human health. The ability of plants to take up mineral nutrients from the soil can be exploited to develop phytoremediation technologies able to alleviate the negative impact of toxic elements in terrestrial ecosystems. However, we must select plant species or populations capable of tolerating exposure to hazardous elements. The tolerance of plant cells to toxic elements is highly dependent on glutathione (GSH) metabolism. GSH is a biothiol tripeptide that plays a fundamental dual role: first, as an antioxidant to mitigate the redox imbalance caused by toxic metal(loid) accumulation, and second as a precursor of phytochelatins (PCs), ligand peptides that limit the free ion cellular concentration of those pollutants. The sulphur assimilation pathway, synthesis of GSH, and production of PCs are tightly regulated in order to alleviate the phytotoxicity of different hazardous elements, which might induce specific stress signatures. This review provides an update on mechanisms of tolerance that depend on biothiols in plant cells exposed to toxic elements, with a particular emphasis on the Hg-triggered responses, and considering the contribution of hormones to their regulation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    have resulted in significant decline of malaria incidence between 2006 and 2008 in Rwanda. (Bizimana et al., 2015). The mortality rate in children under-five years old also decreased by 61% between 2000 and 2010. The prevalence of malaria in this age group declined from 2.6% in 2007 to. 1.4% in 2010 (PMI, 2014) .

  7. Factors Underlying Technology Adoption in Academic Libraries in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fadhli, Meshal; Corrall, Sheila; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The study analyzed factors shaping adoption of technology in academic libraries in Kuwait. The research was based on interviews conducted with library directors, staff, and users, combined with observation and document analysis. A major aspect of the Kuwaiti context was a relative lack of financial restraints and an enthusiasm for technology…

  8. Biological effects under combined action of radiation and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper considers the manifoild factors of environmental pollution effect upon living organisms and their possible response manifested in additivity, synergism and anthogonism. Consideration is also given to the possible practical measures for improving ecological situation and decreasing the risk of anthropogenesis negative after-effects

  9. Factors underlying taking a child to HIV care: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: With the aim of reducing pediatric loss to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV clinical care programs in sub-Saharan Africa, we sought to understand the personal and socio-cultural factors associated with the behavior of caregivers taking HIV-infected and -exposed children for care in western Kenya. Methods: Between ...

  10. Factors influencing the Nigerian shipping market under a depressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian economy is currently characterized by intolerable inflation, continuous devaluation of the local currency, the Naira, capital flight, falling the standard of living of the populace, slow rate of industrial development and very poor shipping business. All these factors coupled with worldwide economic recession ...

  11. The metal-responsive transcription factor-1 contributes to HIF-1 activation during hypoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brian J.; Sato, Barbara G.; Dalton, Timothy P.; Laderoute, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the major transcriptional regulator of the mammalian cellular response to low oxygen (hypoxia), is embedded within a complex network of signaling pathways. We have been investigating the importance of another stress-responsive transcription factor, MTF-1, for the adaptation of cells to hypoxia. This article reports that MTF-1 plays a central role in hypoxic cells by contributing to HIF-1 activity. Loss of MTF-1 in transformed Mtf1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results in an attenuation of nuclear HIF-1α protein accumulation, HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and expression of an established HIF-1 target gene, glucose transporter-1 (Glut1). Mtf1 null (Mtf1 KO) MEFs also have constitutively higher levels of both glutathione (GSH) and the rate-limiting enzyme involved in GSH synthesis-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit-than wild type cells. The altered cellular redox state arising from increased GSH may perturb oxygen-sensing mechanisms in hypoxic Mtf1 KO cells and decrease the accumulation of HIF-1α protein. Together, these novel findings define a role for MTF-1 in the regulation of HIF-1 activity

  12. Understanding the human factors contribution to railway accidents and incidents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysari, Melissa T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Wilson, John R

    2008-09-01

    Forty rail safety investigation reports were reviewed and a theoretical framework (the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; HFACS) adopted as a means of identifying errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Overall, HFACS proved useful in categorising errors from existing investigation reports and in capturing the full range of relevant rail human factors data. It was revealed that nearly half the incidents resulted from an equipment failure, most of these the product of inadequate maintenance or monitoring programs. In the remaining cases, slips of attention (i.e. skilled-based errors), associated with decreased alertness and physical fatigue, were the most common unsafe acts leading to accidents and incidents. Inadequate equipment design (e.g. driver safety systems) was frequently identified as an organisational influence and possibly contributed to the relatively large number of incidents/accidents resulting from attention failures. Nearly all incidents were associated with at least one organisational influence, suggesting that improvements to resource management, organisational climate and organisational processes are critical for Australian accident and incident reduction. Future work will aim to modify HFACS to generate a rail-specific framework for future error identification, accident analysis and accident investigation.

  13. Prevalence of occupational injury and its contributing factors among rubber tappers in Galle, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Catherine; de Silva, Vijitha; Tharindra, Hemajith

    2016-01-01

    Background Rubber tapping involves carrying heavy loads, navigating rough terrain, and using sharp tools. However, little is known about occupational injury among this vulnerable working population. Objective To assesses the prevalence, severity, and contributing factors associated with occupational injury among Sri Lankan rubber tappers and to identify possible interventions to improve occupational safety. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 300 Sri Lankan rubber tappers. The associations between tapper characteristics and injury within the last year were examined using log-binomial regression models. Short response answers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 300 tappers reported 594 injuries in the previous 12 months, and missed 1,080 days of work. The prevalence of one or more injuries was 49%. Factors associated with injury were being female, working an additional job, tapping with a two-handed approach, and depressive symptomology. Qualitative findings suggest three interventions to address injuries: (1) landscaping, (2) personal protective equipment, and (3) provision of eyeglasses. Conclusions Work-related injuries are common among Sri Lankan rubber tappers. These results highlight the importance of working with and including informal workers in the creation of Sri Lankan occupational health and safety regulations. We believe that the three interventions identified by respondents could help to reduce the risk of occupational injury among rubber tappers. PMID:27784205

  14. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene W. J. Africa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM, LISTA (EBSCO, and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Factors contributing to anterior cruciate ligament injury and pattern of presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.; Riaz, M.U.; Hassan, D.; Abbas, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the factors contributing to Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and their pattern of presentation. Methodology: This descriptive study included 45 patients diagnosed with ACL injury that were selected using non probability convenience sampling technique from department of orthopaedic and physical therapy of Mayo Hospital and Gurki Trust Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The study was completed in 6 months of duration. Subjects that were diagnosed with ACL injury using MRI with positive Lachman and Anterior Drawer test. Data regarding demographics, onset of injury, mechanism, occupational, recreational, daily routines and clinical presentations were recorded. Data were analysed by SPSS. Results: Out of 45 patients, 38(84.4%) cases were male and 7(16.5%) were female. 76% belonged to 20 to 30 age range. Regarding source of injury to anterior cruciate ligament, 32% got it during cricket, 21% during mild to severe road side accident, 20% during running and other 27% during daily life activities twisting, jumping and other high impact activities. The individual involved very often in high impact activities were 8%, often 13% and less often 79%. Conclusion: Major risk factors found were engaging in high impact activities such as sports, running and jumping nature. Clinical presentations were edema, decreased mobility, mild to moderate pain and limited range of knee range of motion. (author)

  16. Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

    1996-10-01

    The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented.

  17. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  18. Contribution of host factors and workplace exposure to the outcome of occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maestrelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of occupational asthma after diagnosis is often poor. The identification of factors associated with a worse outcome may help in the management of the disease, determining its prognosis and assessing the permanent impairment attributable to occupational exposure. The aim of this systematic review was to provide the available evidence from the medical literature to answer the question: “What is the contribution of host factors and workplace exposure to the risk of a bad outcome of occupational asthma?” A systematic literature search was conducted in March 2010. We retrieved 177 abstracts. Of these, 67 were assessed as potentially relevant. After full text evaluation, 35 articles that were actually relevant for the question were included in the analysis. The information obtained was sufficient to establish that older age, high-molecular-weight agents, impaired lung function and longer duration of exposure to the offending agent at the time of diagnosis had a negative role on the outcome of occupational asthma. Atopy and smoking at diagnosis did not seem to influence the outcome of occupational asthma. A limited number of studies considered sex and the pattern of asthmatic reaction on specific inhalation challenge and their findings were contradictory.

  19. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.

  20. Contribution of lifestyle factors to educational differences in abdominal obesity among the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Luz Ma; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Regidor, Enrique; López-García, Esther; Martínez-Gómez, David; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    This is the first study to systematically examine the behavioral factors that may explain the inverse association between education and abdominal obesity in adults. Cross-sectional study conducted among 3541 men and 3564 women representative of the population aged 25-64 years in Spain. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women. Analyzes were performed with logistic regression, with progressive adjustment for obesity-related behaviors. The age-, sex- and town size-adjusted odds ratios for abdominal obesity were 1.69 in men and 1.85 in women among individuals with lowest versus highest education. After adjustment for all the studied behaviors, the odds ratio was reduced to 1.49 in men and to 1.45 in women. The factors with the largest contribution to the higher prevalence of abdominal obesity in individuals with lowest versus highest education were more time spent watching TV and less time spent in exercising, as well as a higher energy intake in women. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical activity at home, leisure walking, sedentary behaviors other than TV watching, and sleep duration did not explain the educational gradient in abdominal obesity. Watching TV, physical exercise and energy intake explain a substantial part of the inverse association between education and abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia’s Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host’s fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia’s genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia’s riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. PMID:26556278

  2. Finite element analysis of contributing factors to the horizontal splitting cracks in concrete crossties pretensioned with seven-wire strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    This paper employs the finite element (FE) modeling : method to investigate the contributing factors to the horizontal : splitting cracks observed in the upper strand plane in some : concrete crossties made with seven-wire strands. The concrete...

  3. Social contextual factors contributing to child and adolescent labor: an ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between social contextual factors and child and adolescent labor. METHODS: Population-based cohort study carried out with 2,512 families living in 23 subareas of a large urban city in Brazil from 2000 to 2002. A random one-stage cluster sampling was used to select families. Data were obtained through individual household interviews using questionnaires. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was estimated for each district. New child and adolescent labor cases were those who had their first job over the two-year follow-up. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was the response variable and predictors were contextual factors such as lack of social support, social deprivation, unstructured family, perceived violence, poor school quality, poor environment conditions, and poor public services. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: There were selected 943 families corresponding to 1,326 non-working children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years. Lack of social support, social deprivation, perceived violence were all positively and individually associated with the annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor. In the multiple linear regression model, however, only lack of social support and perceived violence in the neighborhood were positively associated to child and adolescent labor. No effect was found for poor school quality, poor environment conditions, poor public services or unstructured family. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty reduction programs can reduce the contextual factors associated with child and adolescent labor. Violence reduction programs and strengthening social support at the community level may contribute to reduce CAL.

  4. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  5. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Derose, Kathryn P.; Pay?n, Denise D.; Fulcar, Mar?a Altagracia; Terrero, Sergio; Acevedo, Ram?n; Far?as, Hugo; Palar, Kartika

    2017-01-01

    Background Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. Methods We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indi...

  6. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors underlying variable DNA methylation in a human community cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lucia L; Emberly, Eldon; Fraser, Hunter B; Neumann, Sarah M; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Kobor, Michael S

    2012-10-16

    Epigenetics is emerging as an attractive mechanism to explain the persistent genomic embedding of early-life experiences. Tightly linked to chromatin, which packages DNA into chromosomes, epigenetic marks primarily serve to regulate the activity of genes. DNA methylation is the most accessible and characterized component of the many chromatin marks that constitute the epigenome, making it an ideal target for epigenetic studies in human populations. Here, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a community-based cohort stratified for early-life socioeconomic status, we measured DNA methylation in the promoter regions of more than 14,000 human genes. Using this approach, we broadly assessed and characterized epigenetic variation, identified some of the factors that sculpt the epigenome, and determined its functional relation to gene expression. We found that the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood covaried with patterns of DNA methylation at many sites, as did demographic factors, such as sex, age, and ethnicity. Furthermore, psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, and cortisol output were associated with DNA methylation, as was early-life socioeconomic status. Interestingly, we determined that DNA methylation was strongly correlated to the ex vivo inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with microbial products that engage Toll-like receptors. In contrast, our work found limited effects of DNA methylation marks on the expression of associated genes across individuals, suggesting a more complex relationship than anticipated.

  8. Contribution of fronto-striatal regions to emotional valence and repetition under cognitive conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ji-Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Dai Jin; Kim, Eosu; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-07-01

    Conflict processing mediated by fronto-striatal regions may be influenced by emotional properties of stimuli. This study aimed to examine the effects of emotion repetition on cognitive control in a conflict-provoking situation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a sequential cognitive conflict task composed of emotional stimuli. The regional effects were analyzed according to the repetition or non-repetition of cognitive congruency and emotional valence between the preceding and current trials. Post-incongruence interference in error rate and reaction time was significantly smaller than post-congruence interference, particularly under repeated positive and non-repeated positive, respectively, and post-incongruence interference, compared to post-congruence interference, increased activity in the ACC, DLPFC, and striatum. ACC and DLPFC activities were significantly correlated with error rate or reaction time in some conditions, and fronto-striatal connections were related to the conflict processing heightened by negative emotion. These findings suggest that the repetition of emotional stimuli adaptively regulates cognitive control and the fronto-striatal circuit may engage in the conflict adaptation process induced by emotion repetition. Both repetition enhancement and repetition suppression of prefrontal activity may underlie the relationship between emotion and conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contributing factors for drought in United States forest ecosystems under projected future climates and their uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Luce; James M. Vose; Neil Pederson; John Campbell; Connie Millar; Patrick Kormos; Ross. Woods

    2016-01-01

    Observations of increasing global forest die-off related to drought are leading to more questions about potential increases in drought occurrence, severity, and ecological consequence in the future. Dry soils and warm temperatures interact to affect trees during drought; so understanding shifting risks requires some understanding of changes in both temperature...

  10. State disparities in colorectal cancer rates: Contributions of risk factors, screening, and survival differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Goede, S Lucas; Ma, Jiemin; Xiau-Cheng, Wu; Pawlish, Karen; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-10-15

    Northeastern states of the United States have shown more progress in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates than Southern states, and this has resulted in considerable disparities. This study quantified how the disparities in CRC rates between Louisiana (a Southern state) and New Jersey (a Northeastern state) would be affected if differences in risk factors, screening, and stage-specific CRC relative survival between the states were eliminated. This study used the Microsimulation Screening Analysis Colon microsimulation model to estimate age-adjusted CRC incidence and mortality rates in Louisiana from 1995 to 2009 under the assumption that 1) Louisiana had the same smoking and obesity prevalence observed in New Jersey, 2) Louisiana had the same CRC screening uptake observed in New Jersey, 3) Louisiana had the same stage-specific CRC relative survival observed in New Jersey, or 4) all the preceding were true. In 2009, the observed CRC incidence and mortality rates in Louisiana were 141.4 cases and 61.9 deaths per 100,000 individuals, respectively. With the same risk factors and screening observed in New Jersey, the CRC incidence rate in Louisiana was reduced by 3.5% and 15.2%, respectively. New Jersey's risk factors, screening, and survival reduced the CRC mortality rate in Louisiana by 3.0%, 10.8%, and 17.4%, respectively. With all trends combined, the modeled rates per 100,000 individuals in Louisiana became lower than the observed rates in New Jersey for both incidence (116.4 vs 130.0) and mortality (44.7 vs 55.8). The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between Louisiana and New Jersey could be eliminated if Louisiana could attain New Jersey's levels of risk factors, screening, and survival. Priority should be given to enabling Southern states to improve screening and survival rates. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli

  12. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Arata

    Full Text Available Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610 from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95% extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking

  13. Global gene expression under nitrogen starvation in Xylella fastidiosa: contribution of the σ54 regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto, José F; Koide, Tie; Gomes, Suely L; Marques, Marilis V

    2010-08-28

    Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium, grows in the xylem of several plants causing diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis. As the xylem sap contains low concentrations of amino acids and other compounds, X. fastidiosa needs to cope with nitrogen limitation in its natural habitat. In this work, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of the X. fastidiosa nitrogen starvation response. A time course experiment (2, 8 and 12 hours) of cultures grown in defined medium under nitrogen starvation revealed many differentially expressed genes, such as those related to transport, nitrogen assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, and many genes encoding hypothetical proteins. In addition, a decrease in the expression levels of many genes involved in carbon metabolism and energy generation pathways was also observed. Comparison of gene expression profiles between the wild type strain and the rpoN null mutant allowed the identification of genes directly or indirectly induced by nitrogen starvation in a σ54-dependent manner. A more complete picture of the σ54 regulon was achieved by combining the transcriptome data with an in silico search for potential σ54-dependent promoters, using a position weight matrix approach. One of these σ54-predicted binding sites, located upstream of the glnA gene (encoding glutamine synthetase), was validated by primer extension assays, confirming that this gene has a σ54-dependent promoter. Together, these results show that nitrogen starvation causes intense changes in the X. fastidiosa transcriptome and some of these differentially expressed genes belong to the σ54 regulon.

  14. Global gene expression under nitrogen starvation in Xylella fastidiosa: contribution of the σ54 regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Neto José F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium, grows in the xylem of several plants causing diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis. As the xylem sap contains low concentrations of amino acids and other compounds, X. fastidiosa needs to cope with nitrogen limitation in its natural habitat. Results In this work, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of the X. fastidiosa nitrogen starvation response. A time course experiment (2, 8 and 12 hours of cultures grown in defined medium under nitrogen starvation revealed many differentially expressed genes, such as those related to transport, nitrogen assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, and many genes encoding hypothetical proteins. In addition, a decrease in the expression levels of many genes involved in carbon metabolism and energy generation pathways was also observed. Comparison of gene expression profiles between the wild type strain and the rpoN null mutant allowed the identification of genes directly or indirectly induced by nitrogen starvation in a σ54-dependent manner. A more complete picture of the σ54 regulon was achieved by combining the transcriptome data with an in silico search for potential σ54-dependent promoters, using a position weight matrix approach. One of these σ54-predicted binding sites, located upstream of the glnA gene (encoding glutamine synthetase, was validated by primer extension assays, confirming that this gene has a σ54-dependent promoter. Conclusions Together, these results show that nitrogen starvation causes intense changes in the X. fastidiosa transcriptome and some of these differentially expressed genes belong to the σ54 regulon.

  15. Prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh

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    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable and recognized causes of noncommunicable diseases globally. Tobacco use among adolescents is considered as priority health risk behaviors that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults and are often established at young age, extend into adulthood and are preventable. Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh. Settings and Design: We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey Bangladesh 2007, which were a school-based survey of 2135 students aged 13-15 years in grades 7-10. Materials and Methods: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for Bangladesh. At the first stage, schools were selected with probability proportional to enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. Statistical Analysis Used: We used SUDAAN for statistical analysis of correlated data, it computes standard errors of the estimates and produces 95% confidence intervals. We used t-tests to determine the differences between subpopulations. All analyses conducted in this study were gender stratified. Results: The overall prevalence of ever cigarette smokers in Bangladeshi students was about 9%, which was more than 3 times higher in boys compared to girls (15.8% vs. 4.8%. Almost four in ten students start smoking before the age of 10. In addition, another 6% students reported to use other tobacco products. About 70.7% students reported that they desired to stop smoking, and 85.0% tried to stop smoking during the past year but failed. About 42.2% students were exposed to smoke from other people in public places. Among current smokers, 97.8% reported that they were not refused cigarette purchase because of their age. Conclusions: Implementation and enforcement of tobacco control act are

  16. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Factors that contribute to the body image concern of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Dias, Juliana Chioda Ribeiro; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of sociodemographic and labor variables and body mass index to body image concern. In order to estimate body image concern, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) were applied. A confirmatory factor analysis of scales was carried out. The reason χ2 by degree of freedom ratio (χ2/df ), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used. Convergent validity was assessed through the average variance extracted and composed reliability and the internal consistency through standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α). A structural model was developed, and the body image concern was the second-order main construct. The model appropriation was evaluated based on the goodness-of-fit indices. The z test was used to estimate the significance of trajectories (β) using a 5% significance level. Totally, 595 female college students participated in the study, with a mean age of 20.42 ± 2.44 years. The entire model, with the inclusion of all independent variables, showed unsatisfactory adjustment and was refined. The final model presented a satisfactory adjustment (χ2/df = 5.75; CFI = 0.87; NFI = 0.85; RMSEA = 0.09) with inclusion of medication use because of studies (β = 0.08; p = 0.04), academic performance (β = 0.09; p = 0.02), economic class (β = 0.08; p = 0.03), and body mass index (β = 0.44; p < 0.001). This model explained 22% of body image concern. Medication use due to studies, academic performance, economic class and body mass index significantly contribute to body image concern.

  18. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to variation in cell wall composition in mature desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer A; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Collins, Helen M; Yap, Kuok; Khor, Shi Fang; Lim, Wai Li; Xing, Xiaohui; Bulone, Vincent; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Tucker, Matthew R

    2018-03-13

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important nutritionally rich legume crop that is consumed worldwide. Prior to cooking, desi chickpea seeds are most often dehulled and cleaved to release the split cotyledons, referred to as dhal. Compositional variation between desi genotypes has a significant impact on nutritional quality and downstream processing, and this has been investigated mainly in terms of starch and protein content. Studies in pulses such as bean and lupin have also implicated cell wall polysaccharides in cooking time variation, but the underlying relationship between desi chickpea cotyledon composition and cooking performance remains unclear. Here, we utilized a variety of chemical and immunohistological assays to examine details of polysaccharide composition, structure, abundance, and location within the desi chickpea cotyledon. Pectic polysaccharides were the most abundant cell wall components, and differences in monosaccharide and glycosidic linkage content suggest both environmental and genetic factors contribute to cotyledon composition. Genotype-specific differences were identified in arabinan structure, pectin methylesterification, and calcium-mediated pectin dimerization. These differences were replicated in distinct field sites and suggest a potentially important role for cell wall polysaccharides and their underlying regulatory machinery in the control of cooking time in chickpea. © 2018 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy throughout the seasons under different nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Migliavacca, M.; Perez-Priego, O.; Luo, Y.; Moreno, G.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Reichstein, M.

    2017-12-01

    In semi-arid savanna type ecosystems, the carbon and water cycle are closely related to each other. Water availability is the main driver for the development and phenology of the vegetation, especially for annual plants. Depending on tree density, nutrient availability and species the contribution of the tree- and the herbaceous layer to ecosystem fluxes can vary substantially. We present data from an ecosystem scale nutrient manipulation experiment within a Mediterranean savanna type ecosystem which is used for cattle. The footprint areas of two out of three ecosystem eddy co-variance (EC) towers were fertilized with nitrogen (NT) and nitrogen plus phosphorous (NPT) while the third one served as the control tower (CT). At each ecosystem EC-tower an additional herbaceous layer tower was installed that only sampled fluxes from the herbaceous layer. Under certain assumptions flux differences between the ecosystem EC and the herbaceous layer EC systems can be considered as the contribution of the trees to the ecosystem fluxes. Based on phenology of the herbaceous layer estimated through green-chromatic-coordinates from digital imagery the year was separated into spring, senescence, regreening, and winter. The focus of the analysis is (i) the evaluation of the method and how it works throughout the different seasons and (ii) the quantification of the contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy under different environmental conditions and nutrient stoichiometry. The contribution of the trees to total ecosystem fluxes is variable in time. Especially, during the beginning of the senescence period high evapotranspiration rates and largest carbon uptake are measured while the contribution to sensible heat fluxes is largest during the end of the summer. During the regreening and winter the contribution of ET is relatively constant around 0.25 mm d-1. During the peak of the greenness ET and carbon flux of the herbaceous EC tower are

  20. The contribution of high frequencies to human brain activity underlying horizontal localization of natural spatial sounds

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    Alku Paavo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of auditory neuroscience, much research has focused on the neural processes underlying human sound localization. A recent magnetoencephalography (MEG study investigated localization-related brain activity by measuring the N1m event-related response originating in the auditory cortex. It was found that the dynamic range of the right-hemispheric N1m response, defined as the mean difference in response magnitude between contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation, reflects cortical activity related to the discrimination of horizontal sound direction. Interestingly, the results also suggested that the presence of realistic spectral information within horizontally located spatial sounds resulted in a larger right-hemispheric N1m dynamic range. Spectral cues being predominant at high frequencies, the present study further investigated the issue by removing frequencies from the spatial stimuli with low-pass filtering. This resulted in a stepwise elimination of direction-specific spectral information. Interaural time and level differences were kept constant. The original, unfiltered stimuli were broadband noise signals presented from five frontal horizontal directions and binaurally recorded for eight human subjects with miniature microphones placed in each subject's ear canals. Stimuli were presented to the subjects during MEG registration and in a behavioral listening experiment. Results The dynamic range of the right-hemispheric N1m amplitude was not significantly affected even when all frequencies above 600 Hz were removed. The dynamic range of the left-hemispheric N1m response was significantly diminished by the removal of frequencies over 7.5 kHz. The subjects' behavioral sound direction discrimination was only affected by the removal of frequencies over 600 Hz. Conclusion In accord with previous psychophysical findings, the current results indicate that frontal horizontal sound localization and related right

  1. Contributing Factors and Mental Health Outcomes of First Suicide Attempt During Childhood and Adolescence: Results From a Nationally Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Hoertel, Nicolas; Stordeur, Coline; Lebeau, Gaële; Blanco, Carlos; McMahon, Kibby; Basmaci, Romain; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Delorme, Richard

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether risk factors for suicide attempts differ in children and adolescents and to categorize adulthood mental health outcomes of child and adolescent suicide attempters in the general population. Using a large (N = 34,653), nationally representative US adult sample, the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined whether individuals who first attempted suicide during childhood (under the age of 13 years) differ from those who first attempted suicide during adolescence (13 through 17 years) in (1) contributing factors for first suicide attempt, including mental disorders and traumatic experiences that occurred before the first suicide attempt, parental history of mental disorders, and family poverty and (2) adulthood mental health outcomes, including lifetime and current prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and quality of life measures. Suicide attempts during childhood (n = 104) were more strongly related to childhood maltreatment, while suicide attempts during adolescence (n = 415) were more strongly associated with major depressive episode. Compared to first suicide attempts during adolescence, first attempts during childhood were associated with increased risk for multiple suicide attempts (61.3% vs 32.6%), several psychiatric disorders (mania, hypomania, and panic disorder), and poorer social functioning during adulthood (all P values childhood maltreatment and early intervention for psychiatric disorders may have broad benefits to reduce not only the suffering of these children and adolescents, but also the burden of suicide. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

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    Yun Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of PRP derived GFs with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  3. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  4. Hedgehog signaling contributes to basic fibroblast growth factor-regulated fibroblast migration

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    Zhu, Zhong Xin [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Sun, Cong Cong [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wenzhou People' s Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Ting Zhu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Wang, Tao; Chi, Li Sha; Cai, Wan Hui [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zheng, Jia Yong [Wenzhou People' s Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhou, Xuan [Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Cong, Wei Tao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Xiao Kun, E-mail: proflxk@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Jin, Li Tai, E-mail: jin_litai@126.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-06-15

    Fibroblast migration is a central process in skin wound healing, which requires the coordination of several types of growth factors. bFGF, a well-known fibroblast growth factor (FGF), is able to accelerate fibroblast migration; however, the underlying mechanism of bFGF regulation fibroblast migration remains unclear. Through the RNA-seq analysis, we had identified that the hedgehog (Hh) canonical pathway genes including Smoothened (Smo) and Gli1, were regulated by bFGF. Further analysis revealed that activation of the Hh pathway via up-regulation of Smo promoted fibroblast migration, invasion, and skin wound healing, but which significantly reduced by GANT61, a selective antagonist of Gli1/Gli2. Western blot analyses and siRNA transfection assays demonstrated that Smo acted upstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-β-catenin to promote cell migration. Moreover, RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that Hh pathway genes including Smo and Gli1 were under control of β-catenin, suggesting that β-catenin turn feedback activates Hh signaling. Taken together, our analyses identified a new bFGF-regulating mechanism by which Hh signaling regulates human fibroblast migration, and the data presented here opens a new avenue for the wound healing therapy. - Highlights: • bFGF regulates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in fibroblasts. • The Smo and Gli two master regulators of Hh signaling positively regulate fibroblast migration. • Smo facilitates β-catenin nuclear translocation via activation PI3K/JNK/GSK3β. • β-catenin positively regulates fibroblast cell migration and the expression of Hh signaling genes including Smo and Gli.

  5. [Description of contributing factors in adverse events related to patient safety and their preventability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, María Mercedes; Campos-Rivas, Beatriz; Sanmarful-Schwarz, Alexandra; Vírseda-Sacristán, Alicia; Dorrego-López, M Aránzazu; Charle-Crespo, Ángeles

    2017-11-25

    To assess the extent of healthcare related adverse events (AEs), their effect on patients, and their seriousness. To analyse the factors leading to the development of AEs, their relationship with the damage caused, and their degree of preventability. Retrospective descriptive study. Porriño, Pontevedra, Spain, Primary Care Service, from January-2014 to April-2016. Reported AEs were entered into the Patient Safety Reporting and Learning System (SiNASP). The variables measured were: Near Incident (NI) an occurrence with no effect or harm on the patient; Adverse Event (AE) an occurrence that affects or harms a patient. The level of harm is classified as minimal, minor, moderate, critical, and catastrophic. Preventability was classified as little evidence of being preventable, 50% preventable, and sound evidence of being preventable. percentages and Chi-squared test for qualitative variables; P<.05 with SPSS.15. SiNASP. Ethical considerations: approved by the Research Ethics Committee (2016/344). There were 166 recorded AEs (50.6% in males, and 46.4% in women. The mean age was 60.80years). Almost two-thirds 62.7% of AEs affected the patient, with 45.8% causing minimal damage, while 2.4% caused critical damages. Healthcare professionals were a contributing factor in 71.7% of the AEs, with the trend showing that poor communication and lack of protocols were related to the damage caused. Degree of preventability: 96.4%. Most AEs affected the patient, and were related to medication, diagnostic tests, and laboratory errors. The level of harm was related to communication problems, lack of, or deficient, protocols and a poor safety culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of factors contributing to the low survival of cervical cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy in Kenya.

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    Innocent O Maranga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to the developed nations, invasive cervical cancer (ICC is the most common womens malignancy in Kenya and many other locations in sub-Saharan Africa. However, studies on survival from this disease in this area of the world are severely restricted by lack of patient follow-up. We now report a prospective cohort study of ICC in Kenyan women analysing factors affecting tumour response and overall survival in patients undergoing radiotherapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 2008 and 2010, 355 patients with histologically confirmed ICC were recruited at the Departments of Gynaecology and Radiotherapy at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH. Structured questionnaires were completed recording socio-demographics, tumour response and overall survival following treatment with combinations of external beam radiation (EBRT, brachytherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 355 patients, 42% (146 were lost to follow-up while 18% (64 died during the two year period. 80.5% of patients presented with advanced stage IIB disease or above, with only 6.7% of patients receiving optimal combined EBRT, brachytherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Kaplan Meier survival curves projected two year survival at <20%. CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer is preventable yet poverty, poor education, lack of cancer awareness coupled with an absence of regular screening programs, late patient presentation, sub-optimal diagnosis and treatments are major factors contributing to the alarmingly low survival rate of cervical cancer patients in Kenya. It is concluded that simple cost-effective changes in clinical practice could be introduced which would have a marked impact on patient survival in this setting.

  7. Prevalence of and contributing factors for overweight and obesity among Montenegrin schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Milica; Belojevic, Goran; Evans, Gary W; Lausevic, Dragan; Asanin, Bogdan; Samardzic, Mira; Terzic, Natasa; Pantovic, Snezana; Jaksic, Marina; Boljevic, Jelena

    2015-10-01

    Newly emerging Western style economic systems provide new opportunities to study the prevalence and predictors of childhood obesity. We also provide for the first time a national study of childhood obesity using all three international anthropometric criteria. The sample included 4097 Montenegrin children, 2076 boys (50.7%) and 2021 girls. Anthropometric measurements were performed in school. The questionnaire for parents included questions on 24 potential contributing factors for childhood obesity. Nutritional status was assessed according to World Health Organization, US Center for Disease Prevention and Control and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Overall percentage of Montenegrin children who are overweight or obese (IOTF) is 22.9% of which 5.3% are obese (7.0% boys vs. 3.5% girls). We found 10 factors to be independently associated with child obesity. Positive relations [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found with maternal obesity [2.05 (1.68-2.51)], paternal obesity [1.67 (1.32-2.10)], paternal employment [1.40 (1.12-1.74)], maternal smoking [1.32 (1.08-1.61)], obesity at birth [1.33 (1.04-1.70)] and computer game playing [per hour--1.11 (1.00-1.24)]. Negative relations were found with female gender [0.64 (0.53-0.78)], the number of siblings [0.88 (0.78-0.98)], birth order [0.73 (0.64-0.83)] and age [0.92 (0.88-0.98)]. One out of four Montenegrin children is overweight, with two times more frequent obesity among boys compared with girls. Some previously salient predictors did not appear salient in this sample. To enable worldwide comparability, we propose the use of all three childhood obesity criteria in national studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Contributing to Psycho-Social Ill-Health in Male Adolescents

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    Gurpreet Singh Chhabra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.

  9. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothiba, Tebogo M; Maputle, Maria S

    2012-07-11

    Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured. Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15-16 years and 76% were aged between 17-19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13-15 years; 48% of the teenagers' partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents' income; 20% father's income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents. Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  10. The periodontal infection may be a contributing factor to the development of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-reported tooth loss is highly prevalent in patients with gastric cancer, the second most common malignancy worldwide. Periodontal disease is characterized by loss of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and is a major cause of tooth loss. The theories have been confirmed that chronic systemic inflammation and increased exposure to carcinogenic nitrosamines can increase the risk of cancer, and periodontal pathogens could induce the chronic inflammation. Poor oral hygiene and periodontal diseases may contribute to greater nitrosamine production. The Hypothesis: We hypothesize that periodontal diseases might be an important risk factor for gastric cancer. Major pathogens of periodontal diseases may play a more direct role through local inflammatory responses and carcinogenic transformations in the development of gastric cancer. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: It is possible that periodontal disease may be a marker of a type of immune function that has implications for tumor growth and progression in stomach. If periodontal bacteria indeed play an important role in the development of gastric cancer, the patients should be treated not only focused on the stomach disease itself but also the periodontal problems.

  11. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Contributing Factors of Psychological Intimate Partner Violence in Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Ozgoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a global public health issue leading to the death of many people every year. Experience of infertility profoundly affects the personal well-being of women. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and contributing factors of psychological IPV in infertile women referring to the infertility centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 410 infertile women selected via multistage sampling. Demographic data of infertile women (33 items and their spouses (16 items were collected. In addition, researcher-made IPV questionnaire (53 items and general health questionnaire (GHQ (28 items were used. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using descriptive statistics (Chi-square, independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation-coefficient, and linear regression. Results: In total, 410 infertile women were enrolled in this study, 74.3% of whom were victims of psychological IPV. Results of linear regression analysis indicated that psychological IPV and GHQ had significant associations with the ethnicity and physical diseases of the spouses of infertile women (P

  12. Differential contribution of transcription factors to Arabidopsis thaliana defence against Spodoptera littoralis.

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    Fabian eSchweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defence genes. Although the jasmonate (JA pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defence against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defence gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. However, compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis and showed only minor gene expression changes at the whole genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defence.

  13. Differential Contribution of Transcription Factors to Arabidopsis thaliana Defense Against Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Fabian; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Lassueur, Steve; Masclaux, Frédéric G; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs) MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defense genes. Although the jasmonate (JA) pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defense against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defense gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. Compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis but, however, some displayed distinct gene expression changes at the whole-genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defense.

  14. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  15. Protein content in gallstone patients can be a contributing factor in cholelithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Memon, A.H.; Awan, A.Y.; Noorani, L.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the protein contents as contributing factor in the cholelithiasis patients. Methodology: The study was conducted during January 2016 to December 2016 at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 109 cholelithiasis patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and Memon Charitable Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan and 294 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of gallstone patients and control subjects were analyzed for the total protein contents by biuret kit method, gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the protein contents by Bradford method. Results: Cholelithiasis patients showed that gallstone protein contents increased with increasing age. We found increased amount of protein contents in mixed composition of gallstones as compared to pure cholesterol gallstones. Serum protein contents were increased in patients with age group 31-45 years, followed by age group 16-30 years. Female cholelithiasis patients were found with increased serum protein contents (but within normal limits) as compared to male cholelithiasis patients. Increased protein contents were also observed in serum as well as in gallstone samples recovered from multiparous female patients in comparison to triparous female patients. Conclusion: Protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis. (author)

  16. Clinical impact of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence in women 5 years after first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Wu, Ming-Ping; Lin, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Wang, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to urinary incontinence (UI) in women 5 years after their first birth and to evaluate the associations of UI with delivery mode and quality of life. Between 2005 July and 2006 March, primiparous women who delivered at term in a tertiary hospital were recruited into this cohort study. Immediately postpartum, the women completed a structured urogynecological questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms. Then the same urogynecological questionnaire, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were mailed to them 5 years later to follow up on UI. Three hundred and twelve women responding to the mailed questionnaires were included in the analyses. The prevalence 5 years after first delivery of stress (SUI) and urge (UUI) UI were 43.6 % and 19.2 %, respectively. Women with UI during their first pregnancy were more likely to develop UI 5 years postpartum than those without it; women who delivered their first child vaginally had a greater incidence of UI than those having cesarean birth; UUI in women following cesarean delivery more negatively impacted emotional health than it did following vaginal birth, whereas the impact of SUI did not significantly differ between delivery groups. UI during the first pregnancy and vaginal delivery in primiparous women may predict an increased risk of having UI 5 years after delivery. UUI adversely affected women's emotional health, especially in those undergoing cesarean section.

  17. Multiple factors contribute to reproductive isolation between two co-existing Habenaria species (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliu Zhang

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation is a key feature that forms barriers to gene flow between distinct plants. In orchids, prezygotic reproductive isolation has been considered to be strong, because their associations with highly specific pollinators. In this study, the reproductive ecology and reproductive isolation of two sympatric Habenaria species, H. davidii and H. fordii, was investigated by floral phenology and morphology, hand-pollination experiments and visitor observation in southwest China. The two species were dependent on insects for pollination and completely self-compatible. A number of factors have been identified to limit gene flow between the two species and achieved full reproductive isolation. Ecogeographic isolation was a weak barrier. H. fordii and H. davidii had completely overlapped flowering periods, and floral morphology plays an important role in floral isolation. The two species shared the same hawkmoth pollinator, Cechenena lineosa, but the pollinaria of the two orchids were attached on different body parts of pollinators. Prezygotic isolation was not complete, but the interspecific pollination treatments of each species resulted in no seed sets, indicating that unlike many other orchid species, in which the postzygotic reproductive isolation is very weak or complete absence, the post-zygotic isolation strongly acted in the stage of seed production between two species. The results illustrate the reproductive isolation between two species involves multiple plant life-history stages and a variety of reproductive barriers can contribute to overall isolation.

  18. New perspectives on contributing factors to the monthly behavior of the aa geomagnetic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Pazos, Marni; González, Luis Xavier

    2016-12-01

    We studied the Aa geomagnetic index ( aa index daily average) behavior on a monthly timescale using data from 1868 to 2015 for cycles 11-24. We identified solar- and lunar-associated periodicities in the Aa time series and found statistically significant Aa minima values a few days before the full Moon and high Aa values during the new Moon. When considering all the cycles, it was clear that the deepest Aa minima occurred during the Aa descending activity phase. However, when the cycles were separated according to the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the Aa minima came from the contribution of cycles with the IMF pointing toward the Sun (Type 1). Furthermore, during the descending phase of cycles with the IMF pointing away from the Sun (Type 2), the smallest Aa index values were found along with smaller changes compared to Type 1 cases. This behavior implies that during Type 1 cycles there are larger Aa perturbations than during Type 2 cycles. It is very likely that the mechanisms responsible for the Aa monthly behavior are a combination of solar and lunar effects that depend on several factors: (a) the Moon phases (new and full Moon), (b) the phase of the solar cycle (ascending or descending), and (c) the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (away or toward the Sun).

  19. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  20. Overexpression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) contributes to the malignant progression in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaohu; Chen, Dandan; Chen, Xiaojie; Yang, Huikuan; Wei, Yaming

    2017-01-01

    There remains a great need for effective therapies for cervical cancers, the majority of which are aggressive leaving patients with poor prognosis. Here, we identify a novel candidate therapeutic target, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) which overexpressed in cervical cancer cells and was associated with reduced postoperative survival. Functional studies demonstrated that TFF3 overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells, and inhibited the apoptosis by inducing the mRNA changes in SiHa and Hela cell lines. Conversely, TFF3 silencing disrupted the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells, and induced the apoptosis via Click-iT EdU test, flow cytometry analysis and two-dimensional Matrigel Transwell analysis. Western blot analysis showed that overexpression of TFF3 repressed E-cadherin (CDH1) expression to promote the invasion of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulated CDH1 via overexpression of TFF3 was significantly up-regulated by virtue of inhibitor of p-STAT3. These results suggested that TFF3 stimulated the invasion of cervical cancer cells probably by activating the STAT3/CDH1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of TFF3 decreased the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to etoposide by increasing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) functional activity. Overall, our work provides a preclinical proof that TFF3 not only contributes to the malignant progression of cervical cancers and but also is a potential therapeutic target.

  1. The Contribution of Auditory and Cognitive Factors to Intelligibility of Words and Sentences in Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Knight, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causes for speech-in-noise (SiN) perception difficulties is complex, and is made even more difficult by the fact that listening situations can vary widely in target and background sounds. While there is general agreement that both auditory and cognitive factors are important, their exact relationship to SiN perception across various listening situations remains unclear. This study manipulated the characteristics of the listening situation in two ways: first, target stimuli were either isolated words, or words heard in the context of low- (LP) and high-predictability (HP) sentences; second, the background sound, speech-modulated noise, was presented at two signal-to-noise ratios. Speech intelligibility was measured for 30 older listeners (aged 62-84) with age-normal hearing and related to individual differences in cognition (working memory, inhibition and linguistic skills) and hearing (PTA(0.25-8 kHz) and temporal processing). The results showed that while the effect of hearing thresholds on intelligibility was rather uniform, the influence of cognitive abilities was more specific to a certain listening situation. By revealing a complex picture of relationships between intelligibility and cognition, these results may help us understand some of the inconsistencies in the literature as regards cognitive contributions to speech perception.

  2. Factors contributing to fear of childbirth among pregnant women in Hamadan (Iran) in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Farzaneh; Eskandari, Zahra; Khodakarami, Batoul; Parsa, Parisa; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2017-07-01

    Fear of childbirth is a considerable mental, social, and physiological phenomenon among women as well as their families, which can be effective in choosing cesarean section for delivery. To determine some factors contributing to the fear of childbirth among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 335 pregnant women referred to health centers in Toyserkan in 2016. Pregnant women with the gestational age of 16-40 weeks filled out Harman's Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire (CAQ) as well as stating demographic and obstetrics characteristics. Data were analyzed by Software SPSS/19 through chi-square, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation tests. The mean age and mean gestational age of the pregnant women were 26.5±4.9 years old and 26.52 weeks, respectively; 89.3% of the women reported fear of childbirth. There was a significant difference among the mean scores of the women's fear of childbirth and education level, household income adequacy, gravidity, being familiar with the delivery process, and pre-pregnancy cares (pwomen's fear of childbirth and their education level, household income, gravidity, familiarity with delivery process, and pre-pregnancy cares. It is necessary for health caregivers to take into consideration the vulnerable groups, especially nulliparous women during pre-pregnancy care as well as the social, and cultural status of women in order to identify the pregnant women exposed to fear of childbirth and reduce the chance of choosing cesarean section by providing appropriate services.

  3. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in determining...

  4. Re-thinking the contributions of Dean Maccannell. A new theory of leisure class placed under debate

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2009-01-01

    Today, Dean Maccannell has become in one of most important scholars in tourism fields. Not only his contributions have been quoted in whole literature and tourism-related journals, but also had taken as an obligated referenced for all who makes tourism their object of study. Under such a context, Maccannell have constructed his state-of-the-art from an axis linked to Marx-Goffman-Durkheim- Levi-Strauss’s concerns. In consequence, he had not taken into account the different criticism and limit...

  5. Factors Underlying Farmers’ Decisions to Participate in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Kühne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The objective of this elicitation study is to provide insights into farmers’ beliefs which influence their participation in knowledge exchange and innovation networks to enable the enhancement of network participation. A set of facilitating and impeding factors was obtained. Participants identified (a 13 categories of behavioural beliefs (e.g. ‘You learn something’ and ‘Low perceived return on investment’, (b 4 groups of normative beliefs (influence of colleagues, spouses, network coordinators and chain partners and (c 11 control beliefs (facilitators or barriers related to, for example, ‘Network skills’, ‘No time’ and ‘Perceived restraint by farmers in communicating openly and honestly’. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  6. Cognitive and Ocular Factors Jointly Determine Pupil Responses under Equiluminance.

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    Tomas Knapen

    Full Text Available Changes in pupil diameter can reflect high-level cognitive signals that depend on central neuromodulatory mechanisms. However, brain mechanisms that adjust pupil size are also exquisitely sensitive to changes in luminance and other events that would be considered a nuisance in cognitive experiments recording pupil size. We implemented a simple auditory experiment involving no changes in visual stimulation. Using finite impulse-response fitting we found pupil responses triggered by different types of events. Among these are pupil responses to auditory events and associated surprise: cognitive effects. However, these cognitive responses were overshadowed by pupil responses associated with blinks and eye movements, both inevitable nuisance factors that lead to changes in effective luminance. Of note, these latter pupil responses were not recording artifacts caused by blinks and eye movements, but endogenous pupil responses that occurred in the wake of these events. Furthermore, we identified slow (tonic changes in pupil size that differentially influenced faster (phasic pupil responses. Fitting all pupil responses using gamma functions, we provide accurate characterisations of cognitive and non-cognitive response shapes, and quantify each response's dependence on tonic pupil size. These results allow us to create a set of recommendations for pupil size analysis in cognitive neuroscience, which we have implemented in freely available software.

  7. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the

  8. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; de Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; de Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.; Gras, A. Luuk; van Wout, Angelique B.; Arnedo-Valero, Mireia; Sierra, Mariana de Paz; Rodriguez, Ana Torrecilla; Garcia, Juan Gonzalez; Arribas, Jose R.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C. A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Prins, Yerly S. J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Boer, K.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Bravenboer, B.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de Ven-de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Haag, Den; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; de Boer, M. J. G.; Jolink, H.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Plankey, Michael; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Phair, John P.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Badri, Sheila; Conover, Craig; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Fahey, John; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Visscher, Barbara R.; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Gange, Stephen J.; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Carosi, G.; Cauda, R.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Sagnelli, E.; Viale, P. L.; Von Schlosser, F.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; de Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, Laura; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Montroni, M.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Riva, A.; Tirelli, U.; Martellotta, F.; Ladisa, N.; Lazzari, G.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Scalzini, A.; Minardi, C.; Bertelli, D.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Carnevale, G.; Lorenzotti, S.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Leoncini, F.; Mazzotta, F.; Pozzi, M.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Viscoli, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Foschi, A.; Salpietro, S.; Galli, A.; Bigoloni, A.; Spagnuolo, V.; Merli, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Cicconi, P.; Bisio, L.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; de Marco, M.; Ferrari, C.; Borghi, R.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Narciso, P.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; d'Avino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Gallo, L.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Trotta, M. P.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A. M.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Raise, N. N.; Ebo, F.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Law, M.; Petoumenos, K.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV

  9. "Reactivity to Stimuli” Is a Temperamental Factor Contributing to Canine Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that “reactivity to stimuli” was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: “sociability with humans,” “fear of sounds,” “chase proneness,” “reactivity to stimuli,” and “avoidance of aversive events.” By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, “reactivity to stimuli,” i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that “reactivity to stimuli” is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth

  10. Defining the factors that contribute to on-target specificity of antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt F Lima

    Full Text Available To better understand the factors that influence the activity and specificity of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs, we designed a minigene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1 and cloned the minigene into vectors for T7 transcription of pre-mRNA and splicing in a nuclear extract or for stable integration in cells. We designed a series of ASOs that covered the entire mRNA and determined the binding affinities and activities of the ASOs in a cell-free system and in cells. The mRNA bound known RNA-binding proteins on predicted binding sites in the mRNA. The higher order structure of the mRNA had a significantly greater effect than the RNA-binding proteins on ASO binding affinities as the ASO activities in cells and in the cell-free systems were consistent. We identified several ASOs that exhibited off-target hybridization to the SOD-1 minigene mRNA in the cell-free system. Off-target hybridization occurred only at highly accessible unstructured sites in the mRNA and these interactions were inhibited by both the higher order structure of the mRNA and by RNA-binding proteins. The same off-target hybridization interactions were identified in cells that overexpress E. coli RNase H1. No off-target activity was observed for cells expressing only endogenous human RNase H1. Neither were these off-target heteroduplexes substrates for recombinant human RNase H1 under multiple-turnover kinetics suggesting that the endogenous enzyme functions under similar kinetic parameters in cells and in the cell-free system. These results provide a blueprint for design of more potent and more specific ASOs.

  11. Contributing Factors of Acceptance and Rejection to Interprofessional Education: Undergraduate Students’ Perception

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    Endang Lestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE is considered to be a way to introduce health profession students on the importance of teamwork in providing excellent healthcare services. There has been no report that explores students’ perception toward IPE before implementation of the program. This study aimed to examine the factors that might affect students’ attitude towards IPE and explore the underlying reasons of their attitude. The population of this study was students of final year of preclinical program of Medicine, nursing, dentistry and midwifery of Sultan Agung Islamic University (Unissula Indonesia. Attitudes towards IPE were collected by questionnaire adapted from RIPL which has been validated with alpha Cronbach 0.885. The quantitative data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Uni-profession FGs were conducted to explore the underlying reason of students’ attitude toward IPE. Qualitative data were evaluated by two experts in medical education with the help of ATLAS Ti software. The data were evaluated from 389 students. Of this total, 210 (52.8 % of them had RIPL score low–moderate. Students’ health professional program (RR=15.99 CI95%=6.18-41.43,p= 0.000 and GPA (RR=2.76 CI95%= 1.54-4.92 p=0.001 were the most dominant variable of the readiness to IPE. Qualitative data revealed that motivation to enhance knowledge and clinical skills and desire to discuss the roles and responsibilities of each profession were the main reasons for students’ approval to IPE. Conversely a lack of confidence and role blurring were the reasons for rejecting IPE program.

  12. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  13. Energy Metabolism Disorder as a Contributing Factor of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Proteomic and Metabolomic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu Yang

    increased in FLS cells after HIF-1α knockdown.It was found that enhanced anaerobic catabolism and reduced aerobic oxidation regulated by HIF pathway are newly recognized factors contributing to the progression of RA, and low glucose and high lactic acid concentration in synovial fluid may be the potential biomarker of RA.

  14. Analysis of Migration Patterns of Disk Fragments and Contributing Factors in Extruded Lumbar Disk Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun-Seok; Kim, Du Hwan; Jung, Jae Won; Lee, Donggyu

    2017-01-01

    The exact location of migrated extruded lumbar disk fragments is an important consideration in selecting a treatment plan. However, few descriptive reports of the migration pattern of extruded lumbar disk fragments are available. To examine the distribution of disk fragments and possible contributing factors that affect their migration. Retrospective descriptive study. Tertiary university outpatient and inpatient clinic. A total of 164 patients diagnosed with a symptomatic extruded lumbar disk from January 2011 to December 2012. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging scans of patients were retrospectively reviewed. The term "migration" was defined as the horizontal and vertical displacement of extruded material away from the opening in the annulus through which the material has extruded. Migration of the disk material was recorded in both the horizontal and vertical plane. In the horizontal plane, migration was recorded as central, paracentral, subarticular, or foraminal. In the vertical plane, migration was recorded as rostral or caudal. The pattern of migration and the associated factors (age and the level of herniation) were analyzed. Rostral and caudal migration was observed in 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21%-35%) and 73% (95% CI, 66%-79%) of the patients. Central, paracentral, subarticular, and foraminal migration was observed in 6% (95% CI, 3%-11%), 67% (95% CI, 60%-74%), 18% (95% CI, 13%-25%), and 9% (95% CI, 5%-14%) of the patients, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the incidence of rostral migration with increasing age (P = .048). A significant association was also noted between migration in the horizontal plane and increasing age (P = .01). A significant increase occurred in the incidence of foraminal extrusion with increasing age (P = .01). A significant association was found between migration in the vertical plane and horizontal plane; in patients with foraminal herniations, migration was always rostral (P extruded lumbar

  15. Factors contributing to the decision to perform a cesarean section in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolf, Gaudenz; Gaillard, Claude; Russenberger, Jane; Moseley, Lou; Schelling, Claude

    2018-02-27

    In the past 10 years, the frequency of unplanned cesarean sections in the Labrador Retriever breeding colony at Guiding Eyes for the Blind stayed around 10% (range 5% to 28%). To reduce the number of cesarean sections, factors influencing the occurrence of a cesarean section need to be known. The goal of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the decision to perform a cesarean section. Of the 688 Labrador Retriever litters whelped between 2003 and 2016, 667 litters had sufficient data and remained in the analysis. The target trait was ordinal with the three levels "normal whelping", "assisted whelping" and "cesarean section". A general ordinal logistic regression approach was used to analyze the data. Model selection with possible predictors resulted in a final model including weight of the dam, the weight of the heaviest puppy of a litter, the number of fetuses malpositioned and the quality of uterine contractions. Weight and size of a litter, parity, maternal inbreeding coefficient, whelping season, dam and sire were dropped from the model because they were not significant. The risk of a cesarean section was influenced by the combination of the weight of the dam and the weight of the heaviest puppy in the litter, as well as by the number of malpositioned fetuses and the quality of the contractions. Larger puppies increased the risk of cesarean section especially when the dam had a lighter weight. For dams weighing 23.6 kg and 32.8 kg the predicted probability of a cesarean section was low, with 0.06 and 0.02, respectively, when the heaviest puppy in a litter was light (0.42 kg), contractions were normal and no fetus was malpositioned. However, the probability of a cesarean section was much higher, ranging from 0.24 to 0.08, when the heaviest puppy in a litter was heavy (0.66 kg). Means to reduce the cesarean section frequency in this Labrador Retriever breeding colony should include genetic selection for ideal puppy weight. In addition, dams

  16. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors and SAT Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results…

  17. Contribution of immunological and virological factors to extremely severe primary HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Judith; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Azuara, Marta; Mariño, Ana; Frahm, Nicole; Mothe, Beatriz; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Buzón, Maria José; Paredes, Roger; Matas, Lourdes; Allen, Todd M.; Brander, Christian; Rodrigo, Carlos; Clotet, Bonaventura; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute HIV infection, high viral loads and the induction of host immune responses typically coincide with the onset of clinical symptoms. However, clinically severe presentations during acute HIV-1 infection, including AIDS-defining symptoms, are unusual. Methods Virus isolates were tested for clade, drug susceptibility, coreceptor usage, and growth rate for two cases of clinically severe sexual transmission. HLA genotype was determined, and HIV-1-specific CTL responses to an overlapping peptide set spanning the entire HIV clade A and clade B proteome were assayed. Results The virus isolated from the two unrelated cases of severe primary HIV-1 infection showed R5/X4 dual/mixed tropism, belonged to clade B and CRF02-AG, and were highly replicative in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture. Impaired humoral responses were paralleled by a profound absence of HIV-1-specific CTL responses to the entire viral proteome in the two study cases. One case for which the virus source was available, showed a remarkable HLA similarity between the transmission pair as all 4 HLA-A and -B alleles were HLA supertype-matched between the subjects involved in the transmission case. Conclusions The data suggest that concurrence of viral and host factors contribute to the clinical severity of primary HIV-1 infection and that subjects infected with highly replicative dual tropic viruses are more prone to develop AIDS-defining symptoms during acute infection if they are unable to mount humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses. Concordant HLA supertypes might facilitate the preferential transmission of HLA-adapted viral variants, further accelerating disease progression. PMID:19093810

  18. Algorithm for predicting CHD death risk in Turkish adults: conventional factors contribute only moderately in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Kaya, Ayşem; Keskin, Muhammed; Hayıroğlu, Mert I; Yüksel, Hüsniye

    2017-06-01

    To assist the management strategy of individuals, we determined an algorithm for predicting the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) death in Turkish adults with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The risk of CHD death was estimated in 3054 middle-aged adults, followed over 9.08±4.2 years. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to predict risk. Discrimination was assessed using C-statistics. CHD death was identified in 233 subjects. In multivariable analysis, the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level was not predictive in men and the non-HDL-C level was not predictive in women. Age, presence of diabetes, systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg, smoking habit, and low physical activity were predictors in both sexes. The exclusion of coronary disease at baseline did not change the risk estimates materially. Using an algorithm of the 7 stated variables, individuals in the highest category of risk score showed a 19- to 50-fold higher spread in the absolute risk of death from CHD than those in the second lowest category. C-index of the model using age alone was as high as 0.774 in men and 0.836 in women (pindex of 0.058 in males and 0.042 in females. In a middle-aged population with prevalent MetS, men disclosed anticipated risk parameters (except for high HDL-C levels) as determinants of the risk of CHD death. On the other hand, serum non-HDL-C levels and moderate systolic hypertension were not relevant in women. The moderate contribution of conventional risk factors (beyond age) to the estimation of the risk of CHD death in women is consistent with the operation of autoimmune activation.

  19. Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Tajudeen O. Oyewale

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: An understanding of the predictive effect of socioeconomic characteristics (SECs of women on maternal healthcare service utilisation is essential in order to maximise maternal health benefits and outcomes for the newborn. Objectives: To describe how SECs of women contribute to their exclusion from maternal health benefits in Abuja Municipal Areas Council (AMAC in Abuja, Nigeria. Method: A non-experimental, facility-based cross-sectional survey was done. Data were collected from 384 respondents using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The participants were sampled randomly at antenatal care (ANC clinics in the five district hospitals in AMAC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and measures of inequality. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between SECs (predictors and maternal healthcare service utilisation. Results: There were differentials in the utilisation of maternal healthcare services (ANC, delivery care, post natal care [PNC] and contraceptive services amongst women withdifferent SECs; and the payment system for maternal healthcare services was regressive. There were inconsistencies in the predictive effect of the SECs of women included in this study (age,education, birth order, location of residence, income group and coverage by health insurance on maternal healthcare service utilisation when considered independently (bivariate analysis as opposed to when considered together (logistic regression, with the exception of birth order, which showed consistent effect. Conclusion: SECs of women were predictive factors of utilisation of maternal healthcare services. There is a need for targeted policy measures and programme actions toward multiple SECs of women in their natural co-existing state in order to optimise maternal health benefits.

  20. Environmental Factors and Internal Processes Contributing to Interrupted Rapid Decay of Hurricane Joaquin (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, E. A.; Elsberry, R. L.; Velden, C.; Creasey, R.; Jorgensen, A.; Jordan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Joaquin (2015) was the most intense Atlantic hurricane with a non-tropical origin during the satellite era. In addition to its rapid intensification, Joaquin was noteworthy for the difficulty in forecasting its post-recurvature track to the northeast after having struck the Bahama Islands. Such a track typically leads to a decay as the hurricane moves poleward over colder water, and Joaquin had an extreme decay rate from 135 kt to 65 kt in only 30 h. The focus of this study is on the environmental and internal factors that interrupted this extreme decay at 1800 UTC 4 October, and then how Joaquin re-intensified to 75 kt and maintained that intensity for 30 hours. The real-time Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction System (SHIPS) database is used to calculate each six hours six environmental variables that Hendricks et al. (2010) had found contributed to intensity change. Only the deep-layer vertical wind shear (VWS) from SHIPS, and also from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), had a well-defined relationship with both the interrupted rapid decay and the subsequent constant intensity period. A special dataset of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) at 15-minute intervals prepared by CIMSS is then utilized to create a continuous VWS record that documents the large ( 15 m s-1) VWS throughout most of the rapid decay period, and then a rapid decrease in VWS to moderate ( 8 m s-1) values at and following the rapid decay period. Horizontal distributions of these CIMSS VWSs demonstrate that during this period Joaquin was located in a large gradient region between large VWSs to the north and near-zero VWSs to the south, which was favorable for sustaining Joaquin at hurricane intensity.

  1. Personal, professional and workplace factors that contribute to burnout in Australian midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Jennifer; Lubomski, Anna; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify personal, professional and workplace factors that contribute to burnout in midwives. Burnout is prevalent in the midwifery workforce. Burnout adversely affects the well-being of midwives, diminishes the quality of care they provide and can shorten career duration. Self-administered online survey. The survey included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and personal and professional variables related to age, children, years of experience, role, model of care and satisfaction with work life. Midwives were invited to participate via an email sent from the Australian College of Midwives and through professional networks between June and July 2014. Variables associated with burnout were entered in a multinomial logistic regression. A total of 1,037 responses were received and 990 analysed. The prevalence of moderate to severe personal (N = 643; 64.9%) and work-related burnout (N = 428; 43.8%) were high. Having children, providing caseload midwifery care and working in a regional area were associated with low burnout. However, midwives registered for 5-10 years were more likely to report work and client-related burnout. Similarly, midwives reporting a lack of satisfaction with work-life balance were also more likely to report personal and work-related burnout. Family-friendly work environments that facilitate work-life balance can help to reduce the personal and organizational costs of burnout. Similarly, providing continuity of midwifery care in a caseload model can facilitate work-life balance and provide significant mental health benefits to participating midwives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province.A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured.Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents.Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  3. Factors contributing to nursing task incompletion as perceived by nurses working in Kuwait general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Fatimah; Thomas, Deepa

    2009-12-01

    Unfinished care has a strong relationship with quality of nursing care. Most issues related to tasks incompletion arise from staffing and workload. This study was conducted to assess the workload of nurses, the nursing activities (tasks) nurses commonly performed on medical and surgical wards, elements of nursing care activities left incomplete by nurses during a shift, factors contributing to task incompletion and the relationship between staffing, demographic variables and task incompletion. Exploratory survey using a self-administered questionnaire developed from IHOC survey, USA. All full time registered nurses working on the general medical and surgical wards of five government general hospitals in Kuwait. Research assistants distributed and collected back the questionnaires. Four working days were given to participants to complete and return the questionnaires. A total of 820 questionnaires were distributed and 95% were returned. Descriptive and inferential analysis using SPSS-11. The five most frequently performed nursing activities were: administration of medications, assessing patient condition, preparing/updating nursing care plans, close patient monitoring and client health teaching. The most common nursing activities nurses were unable to complete were: comfort talk with patient and family, adequate documentation of nursing care, oral hygiene, routine catheter care and starting or changing IV fluid on time. Tasks were more complete when the nurse-patient load was less than 5. Nurses' age and educational background influenced task completion while nurses' gender had no influence on it. Increased patient loads, resulting in increased frequency of nursing tasks and non-nursing tasks, were positively correlated to incompletion of nursing activities during the shift. Emphasis should be given to maintaining the optimum nurse-patient load and decreasing the non-nursing workload of nurses to enhance the quality of nursing care.

  4. Patient-perceived factors contributing to low tuberculosis cure rate at Greater Giyani healthcare facilities

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    Nandzumuni V. Maswanganyi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Compliance with tuberculosis (TB treatment is unpredictable. Most patients do not comply because they do not see the importance of doing so, which is usually influenced by lack of knowledge. Objectives:The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the factors contributing to low TB cure rates in Greater Giyani Municipality, as viewed by patients. Method:The study was conducted in the Greater Giyani Municipality in Limpopo Province which had a TB cure rate ranging from 14%to 94%. The research design in this study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of all TB patients diagnosed and referred for treatment and care in Primary Health Care (PHC facilities. Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select TB patients and health facilities which had a cure rate lower than the national target of 85%. One patient was sampled from each PHC facility. An in-depth face-to-face interview was used to collect data using an interview guide. Results:The findings showed that most of the TB patients come from poor families, which makes it difficult for them to obtain financial and food security. The health facilities often run out of food supplements and TB medicine. Cultural beliefs about TB also lead to TB patients seeking assistance from traditional health practitioners and faith-based healers. Conclusion:There is a need to have a policy regarding how discharged tuberculosis patients on treatment are supervised when at home. Healthcare facilities should also ensure that there is enough medication for these patients as lack of medication can lead them to default.

  5. Factors influencing the recycling rate under the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen

    2018-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has maintained its top-rank status for its municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate among OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member countries. The volume-based waste fee system (VWF) has been considered to be the major factor contributing to the high recycling performance, and extant research has verified the positive relationship between VWF adoption and the MSW recycling rate. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the literature, as past research has focused more on testing the positive effects of VWF rather than on investigating the determinants of recycling rates after the adoption of VWF. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the various factors that affect recycling rates under the VWF system. More specifically, using data from 16 regions in South Korea over a period of 11 years, this study empirically tests the effects of VWF pricing, the citizen cost burden ratio for the VWF system, and pro-environmental behavior related to VWF on the recycling rate. The findings indicate that economic incentives such as cost savings on VWF plastic bag purchases and reduced burden from paying VWF expenses result in higher recycling rates. The findings also demonstrate that pro-environmental behavior in the VWF context positively affects the recycling rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associated factors of malnutrition among African children under five years old, Bom Jesus, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Cândida Branco FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the determinants of wasting and stunting in children under five years old in the commune of Bom Jesus, Angola Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 742 children in 2010, and nutritional deficits were defined by World Health Organization criteria. Prevalence ratios and associated factors of wasting and stunting were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance, using a conceptual hierarchical model Results: For both deficits, there were significant differences in the prevalence ratios according to the children's neighborhood and age. Boys and those children living in households whose water supply came from the river or lake, as well those with recent expulsion of parasites and infections were more likely to present stunting. Children of fathers with higher number of children or that which the fathers were not living at home and whose mothers were 25-34 years old were less likely to have wasting Conclusion: It was identified independent variables from different levels of determination of malnutrition, standing out the basic sanitation conditions and family structure as important predictors of the nutritional deficits. The knowledge of the associated factors of malnutrition may contribute for subside public policies in planning interventions to improve the childhood nutrition status in Bom Jesus and communes with similar characteristics in Angola.

  7. Factors Contributing to Residential Vacancy and Some Approaches to Management in Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Nam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the decrease in the demand for large-scale apartments as a result of an aging society and a decrease in population, there has been an increase in vacant houses due to a supply that exceeds the projected demands. As a method of urban regeneration in rural areas and activation of citizen communities, the utilization of vacant houses has become one of the ways to promote a new lifestyle, active movement for citizen participation, and business model for long-term revitalization. This study aims to uncover and examine the major causes and factors behind the upswing in vacant houses. We investigated the current state of vacant houses, the recent policies concerning them, and the types of vacant houses in Korea’s Gyeonggi province. We then categorized and analyzed the causes of houses being vacant, their types, and the methods of utilizing them under different local conditions in order to understand the efficient processes and strategies for their utilization. The results showed that an excess of building construction (especially recent construction permits, the number of recipients of the national basic livelihood scheme, and the number of elderly people showed the strongest correlation with vacant houses.

  8. Mortality of centrarchid fishes in the Potomac drainage: Survey results and overview of potential contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Barbash, P.; Hedrick, J.D.; Reeser, S.J.; Mullican, J.E.; Kelble, J.

    2010-01-01

    Skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the South Branch of the Potomac River in 2002. Since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the Shenandoah and Monocacy rivers. Despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. Numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Flavobacterium columnare; and largemouth bass virus have all been observed. None have been consistently isolated or observed at all sites, however, nor has any consistent microscopic pathology of the lesions been observed. A variety of histological changes associated with exposure to environmental contaminants or stressors, including intersex (testicular oocytes), high numbers of macrophage aggregates, oxidative damage, gill lesions, and epidermal papillomas, were observed. The findings indicate that selected sensitive species may be stressed by multiple factors and constantly close to the threshold between a sustainable (healthy) and nonsustainable (unhealthy) condition. Fish health is often used as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and these findings raise concerns about environmental degradation within the Potomac River drainage. Unfortunately, while much information has been gained from the studies conducted to date, due to the multiple state jurisdictions involved, competing interests, and other issues, there has been no coordinated approach to identifying and mitigating the stressors. This synthesis emphasizes the need for multiyear, interdisciplinary, integrative research to identify the underlying stressors and possible management actions to enhance ecosystem health.

  9. The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin; Pietsch, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor...... (VEGF) on cardiac fibroblasts (CF) grown under altered gravity conditions....

  10. Factors Contributing to the Interrupted Decay of Hurricane Joaquin (2015) in a Moderate Vertical Wind Shear Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    CONTRIBUTING TO THE INTERRUPTED DECAY OF HURRICANE JOAQUIN (2015) IN A MODERATE VERTICAL WIND SHEAR ENVIRONMENT by Adam C. Jorgensen June 2017...OF HURRICANE JOAQUIN (2015) IN A MODERATE VERTICAL WIND SHEAR ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam C. Jorgensen 7. PERFORMING...maximum 200 words) This study investigates the environmental factors and the internal processes that contributed to the interrupted rapid decay of

  11. Factors Influencing the Contribution of Staff to Health Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Didier; McNamara, Patricia Mannix; Simar, Carine; Geary, Tom; Pommier, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of the whole-school staff to health education (HE) is an important goal in HE research. This study aimed to identify the views of staff (principals; teachers; school nurses and doctors; counsellors and administrative, maintenance, canteen and cleaning staff) regarding the nature of their contribution to HE. The…

  12. Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens. PMID:24215683

  13. Interface traps contribution on transport mechanisms under illumination in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures based on silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatbouri, S.; Troudi, M.; Kalboussi, A.; Souifi, A.

    2018-02-01

    The transport phenomena in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures having silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) inside the dielectric layer have been investigated, in dark condition and under visible illumination. At first, using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), we find the presence of series electron traps having very close energy levels (comprised between 0.28 and 0.45 eV) for ours devices (with/without Si-NCs). And a single peak appears at low temperature only for MOS with Si-NCs related to Si-NCs DLTS response. In dark condition, the conduction mechanism is dominated by the thermionic fast emission/capture of charge carriers from the highly doped polysilicon layer to Si-substrate through interface trap states for MOS without Si-NCs. The tunneling of charge carriers from highly poly-Si to Si substrate trough the trapping/detrapping mechanism in the Si-NCs, at low temperature, contributed to the conduction mechanism for MOS with Si-NCs. The light effect on transport mechanisms has been investigated using current-voltage ( I- V), and high frequency capacitance-voltage ( C- V) methods. We have been marked the photoactive trap effect in inversion zone at room temperature in I- V characteristics, which confirm the contribution of photo-generated charge on the transport mechanisms from highly poly-Si to Si substrate trough the photo-trapping/detrapping mechanism in the Si-NCs and interfaces traps levels. These results have been confirmed by an increasing about 10 pF in capacity's values for the C- V characteristics of MOS with Si-NCs, in the inversion region for inverse high voltage applied under photoexcitation at low temperature. These results are helpful to understand the principle of charge transport in dark condition and under illumination, of MOS structures having Si-NCs in the SiO x = 1.5 oxide matrix.

  14. Climatic fluctuations as a significant contributing factor for volcanic collapses. Evidence from Mexico during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Bernal-Uruchurtu, J. P.; Carrasco, G.

    2013-05-01

    Climate oscillations have significantly contributed to the planet's evolution, including volcanic activity. Major glaciations have been considered not only as a triggering mechanism for large magmatic eruptions but also inducing volcano instability. Generally, volcano instability can be inferred from detailed volcanological and structural studies of a volcano and its associated depositional sequence, but the triggering mechanism has been always difficult to infer. In this paper, we present evidence of how climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene could have forced sector collapses of the main Mexican stratovolcanoes and enhanced the mobility of associated massive flows inducing the transformation of debris avalanche into debris flows. In particular, the climatic record based on atmospheric moisture content from robustly dated lake record from Guatemala and a U/Th dated speleothem from New Mexico are used here as indicators of summer and winter precipitation. Depositional sequences associated with Late Pleistocene sector collapses of Volcan de Colima, Nevado de Toluca, Citlaltepetl (Pico de Orizaba) and Cofre de Perote volcanoes are here analyzed. Comparing the timing of the event with the climatic record, a combination of summer and/or winter pluvial conditions could have forced and triggered the failure of already unstable volcanoes, even during glacier advances (as for the Citlaltepetl event). Independently of the main cause of the volcano instability (magmatic or tectonic) it is important to highlight that the climatic factor played an important role in enhancing the volcano instability and promoted the lateral transformation of debris avalanches, which under dry conditions would have affected more limited areas.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 contributes to resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberto; Rosa, Roberta; Damiano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Gennaro; Gelardi, Teresa; Garofalo, Sonia; Tarallo, Valeria; De Falco, Sandro; Melisi, Davide; Benelli, Roberto; Albini, Adriana; Ryan, Anderson; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2008-08-15

    The resistance to selective EGFR inhibitors involves the activation of alternative signaling pathways, and Akt activation and VEGF induction have been described in EGFR inhibitor-resistant tumors. Combined inhibition of EGFR and other signaling proteins has become a successful therapeutic approach, stimulating the search for further determinants of resistance as basis for novel therapeutic strategies. We established human cancer cell lines with various degrees of EGFR expression and sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors and analyzed signal transducers under the control of EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent pathways. Multitargeted inhibitor vandetanib (ZD6474) inhibited the growth and the phosphorylation of Akt and its effector p70S6 kinase in both wild-type and EGFR inhibitor-resistant human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. We found that the resistant cell lines exhibit, as common feature, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 overexpression, increased secretion of VEGF and placental growth factor, and augmented migration capabilities and that vandetanib is able to antagonize them. Accordingly, a new kinase assay revealed that in addition to VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, RET, and EGFR, vandetanib efficiently inhibits also VEGFR-1. The contribution of VEGFR-1 to the resistant phenotype was further supported by the demonstration that VEGFR-1 silencing in resistant cells restored sensitivity to anti-EGFR drugs and impaired migration capabilities, whereas exogenous VEGFR-1 overexpression in wild-type cells conferred resistance to these agents. This study shows that VEGFR-1 contributes to anti-EGFR drug resistance in different human cancer cells. Moreover, vandetanib inhibits VEGFR-1 activation, cell proliferation, and migration, suggesting its potential utility in patients resistant to EGFR inhibitors.

  16. Factors contributing to high levothyroxine doses in primary hypothyroidism: an interventional audit of a large community database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hannah M A; Narayanaswamy, Anil K P; Pereira, Olivia; Copland, Shirley A; Herriot, Richard; McKinlay, Alistair W; Bevan, John S; Abraham, Prakash

    2014-12-01

    While few hypothyroid patients require more than the expected weight-related dose of levothyroxine, the underlying causes of larger-than-expected dosing requirements have not been studied in a single cohort. Our aim was to determine and quantify the multiple factors contributing to high-dose levothyroxine requirements in a cohort of patients with hypothyroidism. The Grampian Automated Follow-Up Register (GAFUR) monitors around 17,500 hypothyroid patients. In 2008, 190 (1%) patients took >225 μg of levothyroxine daily. A questionnaire was sent to 174 patients (16 were untraceable) to assess causes and to offer blood tests for endomysial, parietal cell (PCA), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. Primary care practices were contacted for medication details. All patients with positive endomysial autoantibodies were referred to a gastroenterologist. Thyroid function tests and levothyroxine doses were re-evaluated in 2011. A total of 125 questionnaires (72%) were returned. Mean levothyroxine dose was 248 μg daily. Twenty-six patients (20.8%) took medication known to interfere with levothyroxine absorption, and 21 patients (16.8%) admitted to compliance issues. Seven patients had positive anti-endomysial antibodies on initial screening, with four being new diagnoses of celiac disease, and PCA were positive in 27 (21.6%) patients. At follow-up in 2011, the mean levothyroxine dose had decreased in patients on interfering medications and in the four new cases of celiac disease. Causes of patients needing high-dose levothyroxine replacement include poor compliance, medication interference, PCA (as a marker of atrophic/autoimmune gastritis), and celiac disease. Doses can be decreased following advice regarding medication or after management of underlying conditions.

  17. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C J; Lopez, A D

    1997-05-17

    and injuries are under-recognised. The epidemiological transition in terms of DALYs has progressed substantially in China, Latin America and the Caribbean, other Asia and islands, and the middle eastern crescent. If the burdens of disability and death are taken into account, our list differs substantially from other lists of the leading causes of death. DALYs provide a common metric to aid meaningful comparison of the burden of risk factors, diseases, and injuries.

  18. Transcription factor scleraxis vitally contributes to progenitor lineage direction in wound healing of adult tendon in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, Tomoya; Sakai, Keiko; Maeda, Toru; Sunaga, Ataru; Furuta, Nao; Schweitzer, Ronen; Sasaki, Takako; Sakai, Takao

    2018-03-05

    Tendon is a dense connective tissue that transmits high mechanical forces from skeletal muscle to bone. The transcription factor scleraxis (Scx) is a highly specific marker of both precursor and mature tendon cells (tenocytes). Mice lacking scx exhibit a specific and virtually complete loss of tendons during development. However, the functional contribution of Scx to wound healing in adult tendon has not yet been fully characterized. Here, using ScxGFP-tracking and loss-of-function systems, we show in an adult mouse model of Achilles tendon injury that paratenon cells, representing a stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1)-positive and Scx-negative progenitor subpopulation, display Scx induction, migrate to the wound site, and produce extracellular matrix (ECM) to bridge the defect, whereas resident tenocytes exhibit a delayed response. Scx induction in the progenitors is initiated by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-signaling. Scx-deficient mice had migration of Sca-1-positive progenitor cell to the lesion site, but impaired ECM assembly to bridge the defect. Mechanistically, scx-null progenitors displayed higher chondrogenic potential with up-regulation of SRY-box 9 (Sox9) coactivator PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in vitro, and knock-in analysis revealed that forced-expression of full-length scx significantly inhibited sox9 expression. Accordingly, scx-null wounds formed cartilage-like tissues that developed ectopic ossification. Our findings indicate a critical role of Scx in a progenitor-cell-lineage in wound healing of adult mouse tendon. These progenitor cells could represent targets in strategies to facilitate tendon repair. We propose that this lineage-regulatory mechanism in tissue progenitors could apply to a broader set of tissues or biological systems in the body. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Influenza-Associated Pneumonia of Adults: Clinical Features and Factors Contributing to Severity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Kagiyama, Naho; Uozumi, Ryuji; Odashima, Kyuto; Takaku, Yotaro; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Satoshi; Takayanagi, Noboru

    2017-06-01

    Background : Pneumonia is a major complication of influenza that contributes to mortality. Clinical characteristics and factors of influenza virus contributing to the severity and mortality of pneumonia have not been fully elucidated. Objective : The objective was to clarify clinical characteristics and factors contributing to the severity and mortality of influenza-associated pneumonia ( flu-p ). Methods : We retrospectively analyzed patients with flu-p . Results : From December 1999 to March 2016, 210 patients with a median age of 69 (range, 17 to 92) years with flu-p based on positive rapid antigen tests, increased antibody titers of paired sera, or positive results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were admitted to our institution. A multivariate analysis found that advanced age (≥ 65 years), pneumonia subtypes (unclassified), diabetes mellitus, and acute kidney injury complicated with flu-p were independent factors associated with disease severity, whereas pneumonia subtypes (mixed viral and bacterial pneumonia and unclassified), healthcare-associated pneumonia, acute kidney injury complicated with flu-p , and severity on admission (severe) were independent factors associated with non-survival. Conclusion : The clinical characteristics of flu-p are varied, and the contribution of several factors to the severity and mortality of flu-p suggest their importance in either preventing flu-p or managing flu-p after it develops.

  20. Individual and community factors contributing to anemia among women in rural Baja California, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A Moor

    Full Text Available Anemia is a public health concern among women in rural Baja California, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to identify the individual and community factors contributing to the disproportionately high prevalence of anemia among women in this region.A cross-sectional study of 118 women (15-49 years was performed in a rural colonia (small settlement in Baja California, Mexico in 2012. Participants completed a survey comprised of demographic, socioeconomic, health, and dietary questions and provided a capillary blood sample. A portable HemoCue was used to measure hemoglobin and diagnose anemia. Anemic participants provided a venous blood sample for laboratory testing to elucidate the etiology of anemia. Anemic participants received vitamin supplements and nutritional counseling. Assessments of six local tiendas (community grocery stores were performed to ascertain the types of food available for purchase within the community.Prevalence of anemia was 22% among women; laboratory tests revealed iron deficiency was the primary etiology in 80.8% of anemia cases. Other causes of anemia in women included vitamin B-12 deficiency (11.5% and combined iron and vitamin B-12 deficiency (7.7%. Women from low SES households and women enrolled in the government assistance program Prospera were significantly more likely to be anemic (OR = 3.48, 95% CI 1.35-8.98 and OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.02-6.09, respectively. Vitamin supplementation was significantly more common among non-anemic women (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.94. Dietary assessments showed limited consumption of iron absorption enhancing foods such as fruits and vegetables. Assessments of local tiendas revealed at least one type of meat and citrus fruit available for purchase at each store; however, leafy green vegetables were only available for purchase at one store.All cases of anemia were due to nutritional deficiencies. While vitamin supplementation is a temporary solution, improved individual nutrition

  1. Individual and community factors contributing to anemia among women in rural Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Anemia is a public health concern among women in rural Baja California, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to identify the individual and community factors contributing to the disproportionately high prevalence of anemia among women in this region. Methods A cross-sectional study of 118 women (15–49 years) was performed in a rural colonia (small settlement) in Baja California, Mexico in 2012. Participants completed a survey comprised of demographic, socioeconomic, health, and dietary questions and provided a capillary blood sample. A portable HemoCue was used to measure hemoglobin and diagnose anemia. Anemic participants provided a venous blood sample for laboratory testing to elucidate the etiology of anemia. Anemic participants received vitamin supplements and nutritional counseling. Assessments of six local tiendas (community grocery stores) were performed to ascertain the types of food available for purchase within the community. Results Prevalence of anemia was 22% among women; laboratory tests revealed iron deficiency was the primary etiology in 80.8% of anemia cases. Other causes of anemia in women included vitamin B-12 deficiency (11.5%) and combined iron and vitamin B-12 deficiency (7.7%). Women from low SES households and women enrolled in the government assistance program Prospera were significantly more likely to be anemic (OR = 3.48, 95% CI 1.35–8.98 and OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.02–6.09, respectively). Vitamin supplementation was significantly more common among non-anemic women (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.02–0.94). Dietary assessments showed limited consumption of iron absorption enhancing foods such as fruits and vegetables. Assessments of local tiendas revealed at least one type of meat and citrus fruit available for purchase at each store; however, leafy green vegetables were only available for purchase at one store. Conclusion All cases of anemia were due to nutritional deficiencies. While vitamin supplementation is a temporary solution

  2. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  3. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E.; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:28121926

  4. Heterogeneous Contributing Factors in MPM Disease Development and Progression: Biological Advances and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolani, Bhairavi; Acevedo, Luis A.; Hoang, Ngoc T.; He, Biao

    2018-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tumors are remarkably aggressive and most patients only survive for 5–12 months; irrespective of stage; after primary symptoms appear. Compounding matters is that MPM remains unresponsive to conventional standards of care; including radiation and chemotherapy. Currently; instead of relying on molecular signatures and histological typing; MPM treatment options are guided by clinical stage and patient characteristics because the mechanism of carcinogenesis has not been fully elucidated; although about 80% of cases can be linked to asbestos exposure. Several molecular pathways have been implicated in the MPM tumor microenvironment; such as angiogenesis; apoptosis; cell-cycle regulation and several growth factor-related pathways predicted to be amenable to therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, the availability of genomic data has improved our understanding of the pathobiology of MPM. The MPM genomic landscape is dominated by inactivating mutations in several tumor suppressor genes; such as CDKN2A; BAP1 and NF2. Given the complex heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment in MPM; a better understanding of the interplay between stromal; endothelial and immune cells at the molecular level is required; to chaperone the development of improved personalized therapeutics. Many recent advances at the molecular level have been reported and several exciting new treatment options are under investigation. Here; we review the challenges and the most up-to-date biological advances in MPM pertaining to the molecular pathways implicated; progress at the genomic level; immunological progression of this fatal disease; and its link with developmental cell pathways; with an emphasis on prognostic and therapeutic treatment strategies. PMID:29342862

  5. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M

    2017-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis.

  6. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Liebherr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.

  7. Labile and Non-labile Soil Carbon Fractions Equally Contributed to Carbon Changes under Long-term Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, F.; Li, J.; Xu, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storages are altered under long-term fertilization in croplands, it however remains unclear how fast- to slow-cycling SOC fractions each respond to fertilization practices. Based on five two-decade Chinese long-term fertilization experiments (GZL: Gongzhuling; ZZ: Zhengzhou; CQ: Chongqing; JX: Jinxian; QY: Qiyang) under three fertilization treatments (CK: cropping with no fertilizer input; NPK: chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers; and NPKM: NPK with manure input), we quantified very labile, labile, non-labile and total SOC stocks at 0-20cm soil depth. Results showed that SOC stocks varied among sites (GZL, JX, CQ > ZZ, QY) and generally increased with fertilizations (CK-1 at ZZ, GZL, QY, CQ and JX, respectively. The corresponding changes of the sum of very labile and labile SOC fractions were 2.6, 2.0, 1.8, 0.8 and -0.5 Mg ha-1 at ZZ, QY, GZL, CQ and JX, respectively. Also, NPKM increased total SOC stock by 18.3, 16.2, 14.4, 10.5, and 6.5 Mg ha-1 at QY, GZL, ZZ, CQ and JX, respectively. The corresponding changes of the sum of very labile and labile SOC fractions were 8.6, 6.8, 6.6, 3.2 and -1.6 Mg ha-1 at QY, GZL, ZZ, CQ and JX, respectively. These results suggested that about half or more than half SOC stock accretions under fertilization were induced by increase in non-labile SOC fractions. It thus informs the importance of non-labile SOC fractions in contributing to soil C sequestration under long-term fertilizations in Chinese croplands. Future research should improve our mechanistic understanding of biogeochemical transformation of non-labile organic C in soils.

  8. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism...

  9. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Methods: Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild…

  10. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  11. Contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness, relative to traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, to common carotid intima-media thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, J.; Bots, M. L.; Peters, S. A E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have suggested that being slightly overweight but fit is better for cardiovascular health than being somewhat leaner but unfit. Here, we sought to determine the contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), relative to the presence of risk factors, to common carotid

  12. Protective Factors and Processes Contributing to the Academic Success of Students Living in Poverty: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph M.; Bryan, Julia; Morrison, Stephaney; Scott, Tracey R.

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study examined a national sample of high-achieving, low-income middle school students' (N = 24) perspectives of protective factors and processes that contribute to their academic success in school. Four main themes and 12 subthemes were identified. The main themes are peer social capital, teachers who care, family…

  13. Quantifying abortion rates of reproductive organs and effects of contributing factors using time-to-event analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2011-01-01

    Time-to-event analysis, or survival analysis, is a method to analyse the timing of events and to quantify the effects of contributing factors. We apply this method to data on the timing of abortion of reproductive organs. This abortion often depends on source and sink strength. We hypothesise that

  14. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    OpenAIRE

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. METHODS: In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the ...

  15. Water use by a warm-temperate deciduous forest under the influence of the Asian monsoon: contributions of the overstory and understory to forest water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun-Young; Otieno, Dennis; Kwon, Hyojung; Lee, Bora; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Joon; Tenhunen, John

    2013-09-01

    The warm temperate deciduous forests in Asia have a relatively dense understory, hence, it is imperative that we understand the dynamics of transpiration in both the overstory (E O) and understory (E U) of forest stands under the influence of the Asian monsoon in order to improve the accuracy of forest water use budgeting and to identify key factors controlling forest water use under climate change. In this study, E O and E U of a temperate deciduous forest stand located in South Korea were measured during the growing season of 2008 using sap flow methods. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the total transpiration of the forest stand, i.e., overstory and understory, (2) to determine their relative contribution to ecosystem evapotranspiration (E eco), and (3) to identify factors controlling the transpiration of each layer. E O and E U were 174 and 22 mm, respectively. Total transpiration accounted for 55 % of the total E eco, revealing the importance of unaccounted contributions to E eco (i.e., soil evaporation and wet canopy evaporation). During the monsoon period, there was a strong reduction in the total transpiration, likely because of reductions in photosynthetic active radiation, vapor pressure deficit and plant area index. The ratio of E U to E O declined during the same period, indicating an effect of monsoon on the partitioning of E eco in its two components. The seasonal pattern of E O was synchronized with the overstory canopy development, which equally had a strong regulatory influence on E U.

  16. An inquiry into socio-historical factors contributing to poverty within the Early Church in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Kakwata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate the root causes of poverty in the early Christian community.The view that is put forward and argued in this article is that poverty was widespread in early Christianity with particular reference to the converted Jews in Palestine. This was the result of socio-historical factors, namely the Israelites’ contact with Canaanites during the conquest,and the implementation of the secular leadership paradigm derived from those paga n nations around Israel, which led to their subjugation under the oppressive and exploitative and economic structures of the Roman Empire. For that reason many believers, newly converted Jews, at that time were destitute and impoverished as they belonged to the lower classes in society. In spite of this state of affairs, the early Christians in Jerusalem seemed to have faced the challenges of poverty with a measure of success as can be attested by the statement ‘for there was no needy person amongst them …’ (Ac 4:34. ’n Ondersoek na sosio-historiese faktore wat tot armoede binne die vroeë Christelikekerk in Palestina bygedra het. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die grondoorsake van armoede in die vroeë Christelike gemeenskap te ondersoek met spesifieke verwysing na die bekeerde Jode in Palestina. Die standpunt wat in hierdie artikel gestel en beredeneer word, is dat armoede algemeen in die vroeë Christendom voorgekom het. Dit was as gevolg van verskeie sosio-historiese faktore, waaronder die Israeliete se kontak met die Kanaäniete ná die inname, asook die instelling van die sekulêre paradigma oor leierskap wat Israel aan die naburige heidennasies ontleen het en wat op hulle verknegting onder die Romeinse Ryk se onderdrukkende en uitbuitende strukture uitgeloop het. ’n Groot aantal gelowiges, bekeerde Jode, was in daardie tyd behoeftig en armoedig omdat hulle deel van die laer klasse in die samelewing was. Tog, ten spyte van hierdie omstandighede, het die vroeë Christene

  17. A literature review of organisational, individual and teamwork factors contributing to the ICU discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-02-01

    It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.

  18. Soil Biological Activity Contributing to Phosphorus Availability in Vertisols under Long-Term Organic and Conventional Agricultural Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar A. Bhat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of unavailable phosphorus (P to plant available P is a prerequisite to sustain crop productivity. Although most of the agricultural soils have sufficient amounts of phosphorus, low availability of native soil P remains a key limiting factor to increasing crop productivity. Solubilization and mineralization of applied and native P to plant available form is mediated through a number of biological and biochemical processes that are strongly influenced by soil carbon/organic matter, besides other biotic and abiotic factors. Soils rich in organic matter are expected to have higher P availability potentially due to higher biological activity. In conventional agricultural systems mineral fertilizers are used to supply P for plant growth, whereas organic systems largely rely on inputs of organic origin. The soils under organic management are supposed to be biologically more active and thus possess a higher capability to mobilize native or applied P. In this study we compared biological activity in soil of a long-term farming systems comparison field trial in vertisols under a subtropical (semi-arid environment. Soil samples were collected from plots under 7 years of organic and conventional management at five different time points in soybean (Glycine max -wheat (Triticum aestivum crop sequence including the crop growth stages of reproductive significance. Upon analysis of various soil biological properties such as dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, microbial respiration, substrate induced respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon, organically managed soils were found to be biologically more active particularly at R2 stage in soybean and panicle initiation stage in wheat. We also determined the synergies between these biological parameters by using the methodology of principle component analysis. At all sampling points, P availability in organic and conventional systems was comparable. Our findings

  19. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  20. Study of capillary experiments and hydrologic factors under subsurface drip irrigation with fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Cao, L

    2012-01-01

    Soil spatial variability is one of the primary environmental factors that influences the hydraulic factors and technical indicators of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), whose emitters are buried in the soil. This paper aimed at evaluating these effects of soil spatial variability on hydrologic factors under SDI. And some SDI emitter and capillary experiments were designed to obtain test data and distribution of pressure and emitter discharge. First, The results of labyrinth non-turbulent mosaic drip emitter test and fractal theory were used to research the fractal and quantitative relationship between single emitter hydrologic factors and soil physical parameters; and then, the capillary experiments and the relationship among hydrologic factors of capillary were used to analyze the fractal and quantitative relationship between hydrologic factors of capillary and soil physical parameters, which explained the inner relationship between spatial variability of soil and hydrologic factors of filed pipeline network under SDI, and provide theory support for the plan, design, management and production of SDI.

  1. Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Adolescents: Different Factors Contribute to Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    2005-01-01

    Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's…

  2. Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for thromboembolic disorders. It was reported that the FVII R353Q polymorphism is associated with variation in plasma FVII levels, where Q allele carriers were more associated with lower levels of FVII than R allele carriers. However, the association between ...

  3. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  4. An Examination of Factors Contributing to Student Satisfaction in Armenian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that affect student satisfaction in college environment in Armenian Higher Educational Institutions (AHEIs). Design/methodology/approach: This study used an "ex-post facto," non-experimental approach to investigate factors that affected student satisfaction in college…

  5. Personal, Familial, and Social Factors Contributing to Addiction Relapse, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.

  6. Contribution of Arg288 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu to translational functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Thomas; Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1997-01-01

    The recently solved structure of the ternary complex formed between GTP-bound elongation factor Tu and aminoacylated tRNA reveals that the elements of aminoacyl-tRNA that interact with elongation factor Tu can be divided into three groups: the T stem; the 3'-end CCA-Phe; and the 5' end. The conse...

  7. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization.

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzheng; Zhang, Fen; Li, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Liang, Junhui; Mei, Yuting; Cheng, Wenwen; Qian, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities) contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization. PMID:28264451

  9. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Gicquel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1 factors specific to the traffic environment and (2 “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking” are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  10. Contributing factors to VEP grating acuity deficit and inter-ocular acuity difference in children with cerebral visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavascan, Nívea Nunes; Salomão, Solange Rios; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Pereira, Josenilson Martins; Rocha, Daniel Martins; Berezovsky, Adriana

    2014-04-01

    To investigate contributing factors to visual evoked potential (VEP) grating acuity deficit (GAD) and inter-ocular acuity difference (IAD) measured by sweep-VEPs in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). VEP GAD was calculated for the better acuity eye by subtracting acuity thresholds from mean normal VEP grating acuity according to norms from our own laboratory. Deficits were categorized as mild (0.17 ≤ deficit children (66 males-57 %) with ages ranging from 1.2 to 166.5 months (median = 17.7) was examined. VEP GAD ranged from 0.17 to 1.28 log units (mean = 0.68 ± 0.27; median = 0.71), and it was mild in 23 (20 %) children, moderate in 32 (28 %) and severe in 60 (52 %). Severe deficit was significantly associated with older age and anti-seizure drug therapy. IAD ranged from 0 to 0.49 log units (mean = 0.06 ± 0.08; median = 0.04) and was acceptable in 96 (83 %) children. Children with strabismus and nystagmus had IAD significantly larger compared to children with orthoposition. In a large cohort of children with CVI, variable severity of VEP GAD was found, with more than half of the children with severe deficits. Older children and those under anti-seizure therapy were at higher risk for larger deficits. Strabismus and nystagmus provided larger IADs. These results should be taken into account on the clinical management of children with this leading cause of bilateral visual impairment.

  11. Nursing Staff Factors Contributing to Seclusion in Acute Mental Health Care : An Explorative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; Paul Doedens

    2017-01-01

    been demonstrated, and seclusion is only justified for preventing safety hazards. Previous studies indicate that nursing staff factors may be predictors for seclusion, although methodological issues may have led to equivocal results. Objective: To perform a prospective cohort study to

  12. Nursing Staff Factors Contributing to Seclusion in Acute Mental Health Care - An Explorative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doedens, Paul; Maaskant, Jolanda M.; Latour, Corine H. M.; van Meijel, Berno K. G.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Barkhof, Emile; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Seclusion is a controversial intervention. Efficacy with regard to aggressive behaviour has not been demonstrated, and seclusion is only justified for preventing safety hazards. Previous studies indicate that nursing staff factors may be predictors for seclusion, although methodological

  13. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerens, L.; Deforche, B.; Cardon, G.; Bourdeaudhuij, I.D.; Craeynest, M.; Maes, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  14. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Haerens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  15. Factors Contributing To The Sustainability Of 5S Programmes In Government Hospitals In Regional Director Of Health Services Area Kurunegala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.W.C.U.K Kendangamuwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction 5S is the stepping stone for many quality improvement concepts and its roots date back to 16th century. When successfully implemented 5S gives many benefits to the organization as well as its stakeholders. Though 5S itself has a tool to sustain most of the organizations find it difficult to sustain the 5S practice over the time. Therefore the objective of this study was to find out the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in Government Hospitals in RDHS area Kurunegala. Methodology This study was a descriptive cross sectional study with two components. First component was to identify the 5S sustaining hospitals from not sustaining hospitals by validated evaluation sheet. Second component was to determine the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in selected study setting. Self-administrated questionnaire was used for this purpose. Total study population was 543 employees of all the categories of hospital staff. Calculated sample size was 422 and 375 were responded to the questionnaire giving response rate of 88.9. Results The study revealed that the implemented 5S programmes were sustaining in eight hospitals out of ten i.e. sustaining rate was 80. When it considered the degree of sustainability 50 of the selected hospitals reported more than 70 sustainability. This was considered as favourable trend in government health sector in healthcare quality point of view. Ten factors were studied as contributing factors for the 5S sustainability. Socio- demographic factors were also considered. Those ten factors were top management commitment leadership of the organization commitment of middle amp frontline managers commitment amp satisfaction of employees training amp changing attitude of employees motivation of employees organizational culture group cohesiveness community participation and customer satisfaction. Study revealed that organizational leadership customer satisfaction community

  16. Identification of factors contributing to variability in a blood-based gene expression test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Elashoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corus CAD is a clinically validated test based on age, sex, and expression levels of 23 genes in whole blood that provides a score (1-40 points proportional to the likelihood of obstructive coronary disease. Clinical laboratory process variability was examined using whole blood controls across a 24 month period: Intra-batch variability was assessed using sample replicates; inter-batch variability examined as a function of laboratory personnel, equipment, and reagent lots. METHODS/RESULTS: To assess intra-batch variability, five batches of 132 whole blood controls were processed; inter-batch variability was estimated using 895 whole blood control samples. ANOVA was used to examine inter-batch variability at 4 process steps: RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, cDNA addition to assay plates, and qRT-PCR. Operator, machine, and reagent lots were assessed as variables for all stages if possible, for a total of 11 variables. Intra- and inter-batch variations were estimated to be 0.092 and 0.059 Cp units respectively (SD; total laboratory variation was estimated to be 0.11 Cp units (SD. In a regression model including all 11 laboratory variables, assay plate lot and cDNA kit lot contributed the most to variability (p = 0.045; 0.009 respectively. Overall, reagent lots for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and qRT-PCR contributed the most to inter-batch variance (52.3%, followed by operators and machines (18.9% and 9.2% respectively, leaving 19.6% of the variance unexplained. CONCLUSION: Intra-batch variability inherent to the PCR process contributed the most to the overall variability in the study while reagent lot showed the largest contribution to inter-batch variability.

  17. Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, M; Han, M; Kim, D; Chung, K

    2006-11-01

    Many endogenous and exogenous factors are known to cause enlarged pilosebaceous pores. Such factors include sex, genetic predisposition, ageing, chronic ultraviolet light exposure, comedogenic xenobiotics, acne and seborrhoea. This study was an attempt to determine the factors related to enlarged pores. To assess the relationship of sebum output, age, sex, hormonal factors and severity of acne with pore size. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. A total of 60 volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, were recruited for this study. Magnified images of pores were taken using a dermoscopic video camera and measured using an image analysis program. The sebum output level was measured with a Sebumeter. Using multiple linear regression analysis, increased pore size was significantly associated with increased sebum output level, sex and age. Among the variables, sebum output level correlated most with the pore size followed by male sex. In comparing male and female participants, males had higher correlation between the sebum output level and the pore size (male: r = 0.47, female: r = 0.38). Thus, additional factors seem to influence pore size in females. Pore size was significantly increased during the ovulation phase (P = 0.008), but severity of acne was not significantly associated with the pore size. Enlarged pore sizes are associated with increased sebum output level, age and male sex. In female patients, additional hormonal factors, such as those of the menstrual cycle, affect the pore size.

  18. The contribution of human factors to risks from radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkin, J.J.; Ridsdale, E.; Wilkinson, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The use of probabilistic risk assessment to assess the safety of radioactive material transport operations is well accepted. However, quantitative risk assessment of radioactive material transport operations have generally not explicitly considered human factors in estimating risks. Given the high profile of human factors as the root cause of many serious transport incidents omission of an explicit consideration of human factors in a risk assessment could lead to assessments losing credibility. In addition, scrutiny of radioactive material transport incident databases reveals a large number of operational incidents and minor accidents that would have been avoided if more attention had been paid to human factors aspects, and provides examples of instances where improvements have been achieved. This paper examines the areas of radioactive material transport risk assessments (both qualitative and quantitative) which could be strengthened by further examination of the impact of human errors. It is concluded that a more complete and detailed understanding of the effects of human factors on the risks from radioactive material transport operations has been obtained. Quality assurance has a key part to play in ensuring that packages are correctly manufactured and prepared for transport. Risk assessments of radioactive material transport operations can be strengthened by concentrating on the key human factors effects. (authors)

  19. 26 CFR 1.402(g)(3)-1 - Employer contributions to purchase a section 403(b) contract under a salary reduction agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(b) contract under a salary reduction agreement. 1.402(g)(3)-1 Section 1.402(g)(3)-1 Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.402(g)(3)-1 Employer contributions to purchase a... purposes of section 402(g)(3)(C), an elective deferral does not include a contribution that is made...

  20. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-7 - Pension and annuity plans; contributions in excess of limitations under section 404(a)(1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pension and annuity plans; contributions in... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(a)-7 Pension and annuity...)(D). When contributions paid by an employer in a taxable year to or under a pension or annuity plan...

  1. Dietary fat, body weight, and cancer: contributions of studies in rodents to understanding these cancer risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A E; Sullivan, L M; Hafer, L J

    1999-12-01

    Understanding diet and energy balance as risk factors for breast, colon, and other cancers requires information on the contribution of each factor and of interactions among factors to cancer risk. Rodent models for breast cancer provide extensive data on effects of dietary fat and calories, energy balance, body weight gain, and physical activity on tumor development. Analyses of the combined data from many studies have shown clearly that quality and quantity of dietary fat and energy balance contribute independently to increased mammary gland tumorigenesis. These findings were seen in female rats fed diets high in fat (35-40% of calories) compared to rats fed control diets, with approximately 10% of calories as fat (Fay and Freedman, 1997, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 46, 215-223). The methods used permit comparison of experimental and epidemiological data, and they may be useful in extrapolating between species and developing public health recommendations. In addition to the contributions of lifetime-diet composition, intake, energy balance, and physical activity to cancer risk, there are questions about the timing and duration of alterations in these factors and about the "dose-response" characteristics of cancer risk to the factors. Endocrine mechanisms may be significant in mammary gland tumor risk, but experimental and epidemiological data indicate that cancers at other sites, such as colon and liver, also are influenced by the factors listed. Other diet and lifestyle factors that influence energy, or specifically fat, metabolism may also affect risk for cancers that are promoted by increased intake of fat and calories. Studies of separate and interactive effects of dietary fat, black tea, weight gain, and mammary gland tumorigenesis (Rogers, et al, 1998, Carcinogenesis 19, 1269-1273) have been analyzed. Using adjustment of carcinogenesis endpoints for body weight, tumor burden, and latency, they were found to be related to weight gain within treatment groups in

  2. Factors associated with asthma among under-fives in Mulago hospital, Kampala Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Ostergaard, Marianne S; Ndeezi, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness, with rapidly increasing prevalence in low-income countries. Among young children, asthma is often under-diagnosed.We investigated the factors associated with asthma among under-fives presenting with acute respiratory symptoms at Mulago hospital...

  3. Adaptive under relaxation factor of MATRA code for the efficient whole core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Kim, S. J.; Seo, K. W.; Hwang, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    Such nonlinearities are handled in MATRA code using outer iteration with Picard scheme. The Picard scheme involves successive updating of the coefficient matrix based on the previously calculated values. The scheme is a simple and effective method for the nonlinear problem but the effectiveness greatly depends on the under-relaxing capability. Accuracy and speed of calculation are very sensitively dependent on the under-relaxation factor in outer-iteration updating the axial mass flow using the continuity equation. The under-relaxation factor in MATRA is generally utilized with a fixed value that is empirically determined. Adapting the under-relaxation factor to the outer iteration is expected to improve the calculation effectiveness of MATRA code rather than calculation with the fixed under-relaxation factor. The present study describes the implementation of adaptive under-relaxation within the subchannel code MATRA. Picard iterations with adaptive under-relaxation can accelerate the convergence for mass conservation in subchannel code MATRA. The most efficient approach for adaptive under relaxation appears to be very problem dependent

  4. Solar energy contribution to the energy demand for air conditioning system in an office building under Tripoli climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah Mohamed H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of solar assisted air conditioning in an office building under Tripoli weather conditions is investigated in this paper. A single-effect lithium bromide absorption cycle powered by means of flat-plate solar collectors was modeled in order to predict the potential of the solar energy share. The cooling load profile was generated by using an detailed hourly based program and Typical meteorological year for Tripoli. System performance and solar energy fraction were calculated by varying two major parameters (collector’s slope angle and collector area. The maximum solar fraction of 48% was obtained by means of 1400 m2 of collector surface area. Analysis of results showed that, besides the collector surface area, the main factors affecting the solar fraction were the local weather conditions (intensity of incident solar radiation and the time of day when the plant was operated.

  5. Are familial factors underlying the association between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying the association....... The objective was to compare prescription fillings within twin pairs who are partly or fully genetically identical and share childhood exposures....

  6. Contributing Factors to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese People: A Review of Quantitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Y. P. Leung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the Chinese are sub-optimal. We conducted a review to identify the factors associated with CRC screening participation among Chinese people. Twenty-two studies that examined the factors related to CRC screening behaviors among the Chinese were identified through five databases. Seven factors were consistently reported to influence CRC screening behaviors in at least one of the studies: socio-demographic characteristics (educational level, health insurance, and knowledge about CRC and its screening; psychological factors (perceived severity of CRC, susceptibility of having CRC, and barriers to screening; and contact with medical provider (physician recommendation. The evidence base for many of these relationships is quite limited. Furthermore, the associations of many factors, including age, gender, income, cancer worry/fear, and self-efficacy with CRC screening behaviors, were mixed or inconsistent across these studies, thereby indicating that more studies are needed in this area.

  7. What Factors Contribute to Headache-Related Disability in Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Heyer, Geoffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Binkley, Philip F

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to describe the relationship between risk factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety, and potentially protective factors against pediatric headache-related disability, such as mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion, and to determine teens' interest in mind-body skills training to help reduce headache-related disability. This was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents seen in an academic neurology clinic reporting four or more headaches monthly using standardized instruments to determine the relationship between putative risk and protective factors as well as physiologic markers of inflammation and vagal tone and headache-related disability. Among the 29 participants, 31% were male, the average age was 14.8 years, average headache frequency was 11.6 per month, and the most commonly reported trigger was stress (86%). The only risk or protective factor significantly associated with headache-related disability was depression (r = 0.52, P = 0.004). Depression was negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion (P anxiety (P teens with frequent migraine headaches, depression is the strongest risk factor for headache-related disability. Stress is viewed as a headache trigger, and teens reported wanting to learn simple stress management strategies supported by a smart phone application to help reduce headache-related disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Career Success and Its Contributing Factors for Clinical and Translational Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Schwartz, Lisa S; DiMeglio, Linda A; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Gabrilove, Janice L

    2016-04-01

    To understand the factors that facilitate career success for career development awardees in clinical and translational science and reconceptualize understand ing of career success for this population. In 2013-2014, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with former NIH KL2 or K12 scholars from nine Clinical and Translational Science Award-funded institutions. Participants either had or had not secured independent funding at least two years after the end of their last K award. Questions covered the factors that facilitate or hinder junior investigators' transition to independent funding. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the transcripts were analyzed thematically. Forty individuals participated, with equal representation by men and women and by independently and not independently funded investigators. Personal factors that facilitated success included networks, persistence and resilience, initiative, autonomy, and personal and professional balance. Organizational factors included appropriate mentorship, protected research time, and institutional resources and support.Even independently funded participants described challenges regarding career direction. Five participants without independent funding modeled a broad spectrum of successful career paths, having assumed leadership positions not reliant on grant funding. Alternative definitions of career success included improving public health, enjoying work, seeing mentees succeed, and receiving external acknowledgment of successes. Awareness of the factors that facilitate or hinder career success can help junior faculty, mentors, and institutional leaders support career development in clinical and translational science. New definitions of career success are needed, as are career paths for faculty who want to engage in research in roles other than principal investigator.

  9. Impairments in Motor Neurons, Interneurons and Astrocytes Contribute to Hyperexcitability in ALS: Underlying Mechanisms and Paths to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Ha, Dzung; Buskila, Yossi; Ooi, Lezanne

    2018-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the loss of motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis and death. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and nerve excitability tests, several clinical studies have identified that cortical and peripheral hyperexcitability are among the earliest pathologies observed in ALS patients. The changes in the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons have been identified in both sporadic and familial ALS patients, despite the diverse etiology of the disease. The mechanisms behind the change in neuronal signalling are not well understood, though current findings implicate intrinsic changes in motor neurons and dysfunction of cells critical in regulating motor neuronal excitability, such as astrocytes and interneurons. Alterations in ion channel expression and/or function in motor neurons has been associated with changes in cortical and peripheral nerve excitability. In addition to these intrinsic changes in motor neurons, inhibitory signalling through GABAergic interneurons is also impaired in ALS, likely contributing to increased neuronal excitability. Astrocytes have also recently been implicated in increasing neuronal excitability in ALS by failing to adequately regulate glutamate levels and extracellular K + concentration at the synaptic cleft. As hyperexcitability is a common and early feature of ALS, it offers a therapeutic and diagnostic target. Thus, understanding the underlying pathways and mechanisms leading to hyperexcitability in ALS offers crucial insight for future development of ALS treatments.

  10. Acoustic cue selection and discrimination under degradation: differential contributions of the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill for perceiving the acoustic environment. Categorization depends on the discriminability of the sensory input as well as on the ability of the listener to adaptively make use of the relevant features of the sound. Previous studies on categorization have focused either on speech sounds when studying discriminability or on visual stimuli when assessing optimal cue utilization. Here, by contrast, we examined neural sensitivity to stimulus discriminability and optimal cue utilization when categorizing novel, non-speech auditory stimuli not affected by long-term familiarity. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, listeners categorized sounds from two category distributions, differing along two acoustic dimensions: spectral shape and duration. By introducing spectral degradation after the first half of the experiment, we manipulated both stimulus discriminability and the relative informativeness of acoustic cues. Degradation caused an overall decrease in discriminability based on spectral shape, and therefore enhanced the informativeness of duration. A relative increase in duration-cue utilization was accompanied by increased activity in left parietal cortex. Further, discriminability modulated right planum temporale activity to a higher degree when stimuli were spectrally degraded than when they were not. These findings provide support for separable contributions of parietal and posterior temporal areas to perceptual categorization. The parietal cortex seems to support the selective utilization of informative stimulus cues, while the posterior superior temporal cortex as a primarily auditory brain area supports discriminability particularly under acoustic degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Observational Insights into N2O5 Heterogeneous Chemistry: Influencing Factors and Contribution to Wintertime Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, E. E.; Fibiger, D. L.; Womack, C.; Dube, W. P.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Goldberger, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Shah, V.; Jaegle, L.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Baasandorj, M.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical mechanisms that underlie wintertime air pollution, including tropospheric ozone and aerosol nitrate, are poorly characterized. Due to colder temperatures and fewer hours of solar radiation, nocturnal heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 plays a relatively larger role during wintertime in controlling the oxidation of NOx (=NO+NO2) and its influence on ozone and soluble nitrate. After uptake to aerosol, N2O5 can act as both a nocturnal NOx reservoir and sink depending on the partitioning between its nitric acid and photo labile, ClNO2 reaction products. In addition, N2O5 itself can act as a NOx reservoir if the aerosol uptake coefficient is small. As a result, the nocturnal fate of N2O5 dictates the amount of NOx in an air parcel and the subsequent formation of aerosol nitrate and following-day ozone. Models of winter air pollution therefore require accurate parameterization of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, as well as factors that control its magnitude and N2O5 product partitioning. There are currently only a small number of ambient N2O5 and ClNO2 observations during the winter season concurrent with measurements of relevant variables such as aerosol size distributions and composition. The Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign conducted 10 nighttime research flights with the NCAR C-130 over the eastern U.S. during February and March, 2015. The more recent Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) conducted over 20 research flights with the NOAA twin otter aircraft during January-February 2017 in three mountain basins near and including Salt Lake City, Utah. The two campaigns were similarly instrumented and have provided the first aircraft observations of N2O5, ClNO2, and aerosol composition in the wintertime boundary layer in these urban-influenced regions. Analysis of heterogeneous chemistry under a wide range of real environmental conditions provides insight into the factors controlling the N2O5 uptake coefficient

  12. Factors contributing to nursing team work in an acute care tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Suzanne; Higgs, Megan; Manning, Vicki; Netto, Gayle; Fernandez, Ritin

    Effective nursing teamwork is an essential component of quality health care and patient safety. Understanding which factors foster team work ensures teamwork qualities are cultivated and sustained. This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with team work in an Australian acute care tertiary hospital across all inpatient and outpatient settings. All nurses and midwives rostered to inpatient and outpatient wards in an acute care 600 bed hospital in Sydney Australia were invited to participate in a cross sectional survey between September to October 2013. Data were collected, collated, checked and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. Factors reporting a significant correlation with where p team leadership were 3.6 (S.D. 0.57) and 3.8 (SD 0.6) respectively. Leadership and communication between nurses were significant predictors of team work p team work.

  13. What makes health impact assessments successful? Factors contributing to effectiveness in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Fiona; Harris, Elizabeth; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Baum, Fran; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Harris, Mark F; Keleher, Helen; Kemp, Lynn; Morgan, Richard; Ng Chok, Harrison; Spickett, Jeff

    2015-10-03

    While many guidelines explain how to conduct Health Impact Assessments (HIAs), less is known about the factors that determine the extent to which HIAs affect health considerations in the decision making process. We investigated which factors are associated with increased or reduced effectiveness of HIAs in changing decisions and in the implementation of policies, programs or projects. This study builds on and tests the Harris and Harris-Roxas' conceptual framework for evaluating HIA effectiveness, which emphasises context, process and output as key domains. We reviewed 55 HIA reports in Australia and New Zealand from 2005 to 2009 and conducted surveys and interviews for 48 of these HIAs. Eleven detailed case studies were undertaken using document review and stakeholder interviews. Case study participants were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were analysed by thematic content analysis. Findings were synthesised and mapped against the conceptual framework. A stakeholder forum was utilised to test face validity and practical adequacy of the findings. We found that some features of HIA are essential, such as the stepwise but flexible process, and evidence based approach. Non-essential features that can enhance the impact of HIAs include capacity and experience; 'right person right level'; involvement of decision-makers and communities; and relationships and partnerships. There are contextual factors outside of HIA such as fit with planning and decision making context, broader global context and unanticipated events, and shared values and goals that may influence a HIA. Crosscutting factors include proactive positioning, and time and timeliness. These all operate within complex open systems, involving multiple decision-makers, levels of decision-making, and points of influence. The Harris and Harris-Roxas framework was generally supported. We have confirmed previously identified factors influencing effectiveness of HIA and identified new

  14. Determinants of vegetation distribution at continental scale. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Svenning, J.-C.; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated what determines distribution of vegetation types, though this has rarely been tested at continental scale. We thus aimed to determine which vegetation types are most accurately predicted by natural environmental factors, and which of these factors best predict current...... vegetation distribution across Africa. Vegetation types were extracted from the Global Land Cover Map for the year 2000, and the distribution of vegetation types modelled in terms of climate, soil and topography. Annual precipitation was the best predictor of the distribution of all vegetation types...

  15. Medication administration errors and contributing factors: A cross sectional study in two public hospitals in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudma Alemu

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medication administration errors (MAEs are among the top common causes of injuries to the hospitalized patients. Nurses play a pivotal role in the prevention as well as occurrence of MAEs. Aims: This study aims to quantify the prevalence of MAEs, to assess the degree of reporting MAEs, and to identify the contributory factors to MAEs. Methods: This study used an institution-based, cross-sectional study design. A pretested, structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 130 nurses. The nurses were also observed while administering medications continuously for 48 h by using a semi-structured, pretested checklist. The data were processed descriptively and analytically; bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were computed to identify the factors contributing to MAEs. Results: Just over 71% of the respondents admitted to have made MAEs in the previous 12 months. Only one (0.7% of the 139 observed doses was properly administered. Factors like looking-like drugs (AOR = 10.661, 95% CI: 1.808, 62.869, and distraction (AOR = 5.615, 95% CI: 1.713, 18.403 were significantly associated with the MAEs. Three-fourths of those nurses who perpetrated MAEs also admitted to have not reported the MAEs. The unavailability of a system (AOR = 5.083, 95% CI: 1.842, 14.027, and fear (AOR = 4.422, 95% CI: 1.584, 12.349 were the factors that contributed significantly to the underreporting of the MAEs. Conclusion: MAEs were common in the hospitals. Factors like looking-like drugs and distraction contributed significantly to the MAEs. Majority of the MAEs were not reported. Keywords: Errors, Cross-sectional, Factors, Nurses, Reporting

  16. Inverse relationship between Alzheimer's disease and cancer, and other factors contributing to Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Ovais

    2016-11-22

    The AD etiology is yet not properly known. Interactions among environmental factors, multiple susceptibility genes and aging, contribute to AD. This study investigates the factors that play role in causing AD and how changes in cellular pathways contribute to AD. PUBMED database, MEDLINE database and Google Scholar were searched with no date restrictions for published articles involving cellular pathways with roles in cancers, cell survival, growth, proliferation, development, aging, and also contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This research explores inverse relationship between AD and cancer, also investigates other factors behind AD using several already published research literature to find the etiology of AD. Cancer and Alzheimer's disease have inverse relationship in many aspects such as P53, estrogen, neurotrophins and growth factors, growth and proliferation, cAMP, EGFR, Bcl-2, apoptosis pathways, IGF-1, HSV, TDP-43, APOE variants, notch signals and presenilins, NCAM, TNF alpha, PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway, telomerase, ROS, ACE levels. AD occurs when brain neurons have weakened growth, cell survival responses, maintenance mechanisms, weakened anti-stress responses such as Vimentin, Carbonic anhydrases, HSPs, SAPK. In cancer, these responses are upregulated and maintained. Evolutionarily conserved responses and maintenance mechanisms such as FOXO are impaired in AD. Countermeasures or compensatory mechanisms by AD affected neurons such as Tau, Beta Amyloid, S100, are last attempts for survival which may be protective for certain time, or can speed up AD in Alzheimer's microenvironment via C-ABL activation, GSK3, neuro-inflammation. Alzheimer's disease and Cancer have inverse relationship; many factors that are upregulated in any cancer to sustain growth and survival are downregulated in Alzheimer's disease contributing to neuro-degeneration. When aged neurons or genetically susceptible neurons have weakened growth, cell survival and anti-stress responses, age

  17. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild intellectual disability at two special schools in South Africa. This was followed by individual interviews with the school nurse and social worker, and an analysis of schools' books of incidents. Factors contributing to sexual violence at schools for learners with mild intellectual disability included: (i) peer pressure, (ii) concealment of reported incidents of sexual violence, (iii) unsupervised areas linked to schools and (iv) arranged relationships. The following suggestions are put forth: (i) awareness programmes, (ii) sensitization of teachers about the consequences and prevention of sexual violence, (iii) boundaries within which the arranged relationship occurs, (iv) intensification of sexuality education and (v) supervision around the school premises. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  19. Factors contributing to frequent attendance to the emergency department of a remote Northern Territory hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Simon; Shannon, Geordan; Yao, Anthony; Sargent, William; McVeigh, Michael F

    2016-02-15

    To determine the clinical and environmental variables associated with frequent presentations by adult patients to a remote Australian hospital emergency department (ED) for reasons other than chronic health conditions. Unmatched case-control study of all adult patients attending Katherine Hospital ED between 1 January and 31 December 2012. Cases were defined as frequent attenders (FAs) without a chronic health condition who presented to the ED six or more times during the 12-month period. A single presentation was randomly selected for data collection. Controls were patients who presented on only one occasion. Basic demographic data were collected, including clinical outcomes, Indigenous status, living arrangements, and whether alcohol and violence contributed to the presentation. Environmental variables were extracted from the Bureau of Meteorology database and mapped to each presentation. FAs were much more likely to be homeless (odds ratio [OR], 16.4; P homelessness and the involvement of alcohol, but alcohol was more likely to contribute to presentation by non-Aboriginal FAs who had stable living conditions. FAs and non-FAs had similar needs for emergency medical care, with strikingly higher death rates than the national average in both groups. As a result of this study, Katherine Hospital has initiated a Frequent Attender Pathway that automatically triggers a dedicated ED service for those at greatest clinical risk. Homelessness is a serious problem in the Northern Territory, and is associated with poor health outcomes.

  20. Understanding Sociocultural Factors Contributing to HIV Risk Among Ayoreo Bolivian Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Granero-Molina, José; Hernández-Padilla, Jose; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    2015-01-01

    The Bolivian indigenous Ayoreo ethnic people are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Ayoreo women who also work in sex trades belong to an extremely high-risk group, and prevention programs are not delivering effective outcomes for them. The aim of our study was to explore, describe, and understand behavioral and cultural patterns related to sexual and reproductive health in Ayoreo sex workers. A qualitative-ethnographic study was designed; data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with sex workers and key informants. Two fundamental themes contributing to HIV risk for female Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia emerged: reproductive/sexual freedom and sociocultural risk determinants. We concluded that the in-depth examination of the sexual-reproductive culture amongst the Ayoreo has provided useful information, which might contribute to the cultural adaptation and design of future policies and prevention programs for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in this group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Yc

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children's caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children's communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children's communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers' level of education and the male caregivers' use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families ( n = 106) indicated that female caregivers' use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss.

  2. Ethnic Variations in Factors Contributing to the Life Satisfaction of Migrant Wives in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Miai; Chin, Meejung; Lee, Jaerim; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 National Survey on Multicultural Families, we examined the factors associated with the level of life satisfaction among migrant wives in South Korea. Separate analyses were conducted for the four major ethnic and national groups of migrant wives in Korea: Chosun-jok (Korean Chinese), Han Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinas.…

  3. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  4. Factors Contributing to Amateur Astronomers' Involvement in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocco, Victor; Jones, Eric C.; Storksdieck, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Amateur astronomers play a critical role engaging the general public in astronomy. The role of individual and club-related factors is explored using data from two surveys (Survey 1 N = 1142; Survey 2 N = 1242) of amateur astronomers. Analysis suggests that formal or informal training in astronomy, age, club membership, length of club membership,…

  5. OSD’s Obligation & Expenditure Rate Goals: An Examination of the Factors Contributing to the Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    deQys from addiiJonal dewlopmenl tesmg or Olher _ptt"ecpsite ~ 44, 4 09 235 I-- F22 OCAA~ .ctoons .. , 3~ 261_ I-- F23 ~ COnoressoonll addS CO P8 r...Administration Actions (F36) and DCAA Administration Actions ( F22 ). Three contract-related factors (F4, F8, and F9) showed weaker correlations than

  6. Exploring the contribution of psychosocial factors to fatigue in patients with advanced incurable cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Marlies E. W. J.; Goedendorp, Martine M.; Verhagen, Stans A. H. H. V. M.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    Objective: Fatigue is the most frequently occurring and distressing symptom in patients with advanced cancer, caused by multiple factors. Neither a specific histological diagnosis of malignancy nor the type of anticancer treatment seem to be strongly related to fatigue, which support the idea that

  7. Exploring the contribution of psychosocial factors to fatigue in patients with advanced incurable cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.E.; Goedendorp, M.M.; Verhagen, C.A.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Bleijenberg, G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is the most frequently occurring and distressing symptom in patients with advanced cancer, caused by multiple factors. Neither a specific histological diagnosis of malignancy nor the type of anticancer treatment seem to be strongly related to fatigue, which support the idea that

  8. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  9. Investigating Factors That Contribute to Effective Teaching-Learning Practices: EFL/ESL Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rukaia

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to address some key issues, which can influence as well as determine the nature of teaching and learning practices in an ELT classroom directly or indirectly. This paper views an EFL or ESL classroom as a dynamic and multi-dimensional platform open to different interpretations of teaching and learning. Factors like teachers'…

  10. Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified three major themes related to suicide attempt among adolescents in the context. As a result, suicide prevention and care provision should formulate a comprehensive method, considering the interaction of medical besides individual, familiar, and social factors in their assessment and care provision.

  11. Aluminum resistance transcription factor 1 (ART1) contributes to natural variation in rice aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors (TFs) mediate stress resistance indirectly via physiological mechanisms driven by the array of genes they regulate. Therefore, when studying TF-mediated stress resistance, it is important to understand how TFs interact with different genetic backgrounds. Here, we fine-mapped th...

  12. Factors contributing to the health-related quality of life of people ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified factors that influence the health-related quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH). A qualitative research approach was used for this study and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used for data collection, while grounded theory informed the data analysis. The key finding of this study is that ...

  13. Secondary Traumatic Stress in Public School Teachers: Contributing and Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringi, James C.; Stanick, Cameo; Trautman, Ashley; Crosby, Lindsay; Devlin, Mary; Adams, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Although research has examined secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health workers, child welfare workers, and other human service professionals, such examination among public school teachers has only recently begun. This study represents the first investigation to examine the factors that influence STS levels in public School teachers.…

  14. Factors contributing to the longitudinal development of social participation in individuals with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Siok Swan; van der Slot, Wilma M A; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We aimed to determine factors associated with the longitudinal development of social participation in a Dutch population of individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP) aged 1–24 years. Methods and procedures For this multicentre prospective longitudinal study, 424 individuals with CP aged 1–24 years

  15. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  16. An explorative study of factors contributing to the job satisfaction of primary care midwives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J.C.; Hoijtink, K.; Noppers, M.; Wiegers, T.A.; de Cock, T.P.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the main objectives of our study was to gain an understanding of how primary care midwives in the Netherlands feel about their work and to identify factors associated with primary care midwives' job satisfaction and areas for improvement. Design: a qualitative analysis was used, based on

  17. An explorative study of factors contributing to the job satisfaction of primary care midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J.C.; Hoijtink, K.; Noppers, M.; Wiegers, T.A.; Cock, T.P. de; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the main objectives of our study was to gain an understanding of how primary care midwives in the Netherlands feel about their work and to identify factors associated with primary care midwives׳ job satisfaction and areas for improvement. Design: a qualitative analysis was used, based on

  18. Tourist activity of young people as a factor contributing to their health and proper development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta; Tomaszewski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the level of tourist activity of pupils and students from schools in Warsaw, as well as factors influencing this level of activity. A two-part questionnaire was used that included questions related to participation in tourist trips (day, long, short, and trips abroad) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Among the analyzed factors (gender, level of school, level of physical activity), only the level of school turned out to be the factor which significantly (p=0.000) influenced the physical activity of the respondents. It was observed that tourist activity among pupils and students decreased with age. There is an urgent need for a systematic approach towards promoting and supporting the participation of children and young people in tourism. as well as setting examples of how to travel and rest. Carrying out intervention programmes demands the further identification of factors determining them (e.g. influence of parents' leisure time behaviour), as well as the application of standardized research tools.

  19. Poor School Performance: Contributing Factors and Consequences, with Emphasis on the Nonwhite Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Diane G.

    Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…

  20. Factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in institutions – Results from a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a survey investigating the role that differences in expectations and perceptions of mobile learning and mobile devices play in establishing mobile learning at an educational institution, Responses from institutions with no institutional plans for mobile learning and others that do plan or currently have developed mobile learning programmes were compared. Various factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in educational institutions were therefore also investigated. These factors include, amongst other, expectations concerning the impact of mobile technologies on teaching and learning, and perceptions concerning mobile learning applications and mobile learning activities.

  1. Determinants of health care expenditures and the contribution of associated factors: 16 cities and provinces in Korea, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kimyoung; Cho, Minho; Chun, Kihong

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to classify determinants of cost increases into two categories, negotiable factors and non-negotiable factors, in order to identify the determinants of health care expenditure increases and to clarify the contribution of associated factors selected based on a literature review. The data in this analysis was from the statistical yearbooks of National Health Insurance Service, the Economic Index from Statistics Korea and regional statistical yearbooks. The unit of analysis was the annual growth rate of variables of 16 cities and provinces from 2003 to 2010. First, multiple regression was used to identify the determinants of health care expenditures. We then used hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the contribution of associated factors. The changes of coefficients (R(2)) of predictors, which were entered into this analysis step by step based on the empirical evidence of the investigator could explain the contribution of predictors to increased medical cost. Health spending was mainly associated with the proportion of the elderly population, but the Medicare Economic Index (MEI) showed an inverse association. The contribution of predictors was as follows: the proportion of elderly in the population (22.4%), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (4.5%), MEI (-12%), and other predictors (less than 1%). As Baby Boomers enter retirement, an increasing proportion of the population aged 65 and over and the GDP will continue to increase, thus accelerating the inflation of health care expenditures and precipitating a crisis in the health insurance system. Policy makers should consider providing comprehensive health services by an accountable care organization to achieve cost savings while ensuring high-quality care.

  2. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn eVera-Estay; Evelyn eVera-Estay; Anne G Seni; Caroline eChampagne; Miriam H Beauchamp; Miriam H Beauchamp

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative ...

  3. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of ...

  4. Connected and disconnected contributions to nucleon axial form factors using Nf = 2 twisted mass fermions at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis; Vaquero Avilés-Casco, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    We present results on the isovector and isoscalar nucleon axial form factors including disconnected contributions, using an ensemble of Nf = 2 twisted mass cloverimproved Wilson fermions simulated with approximately the physical value of the pion mass. The light disconnected quark loops are computed using exact deflation, while the strange and the charm quark loops are evaluated using the truncated solver method. Techniques such as the summation and the two-state fits have been employed to access ground-state dominance.

  5. Factors Contributing to the Decline of Traditional Practices in Communities from the Gwallek-Kedar area, Kailash Sacred Landscape, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Kishor; Pyakurel, Dipesh; Thagunna, Krishna Singh; Bhatta, Laxmi Dutt; Uprety, Yadav; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Oli, Bishwa Nath; Rimal, Sagar Kumar

    2018-02-27

    Traditional knowledge and practices are increasingly recognized in the resource conservation and management practices, however are declining in many parts of the world including Nepal. Studies on the inventory of traditional knowledge are available, albeit limited, and empirical analysis of factors contributing to the decline of traditional knowledge are negligible in Nepal. We thus initiated this study in the Nepal part of the Kailash Sacred Landscape to (i) document traditional knowledge and practices on agriculture, forest-based herbal remedy, and genetic resource conservation; and (ii) identify factors contributing to the decline of traditional practices in the communities. Data was collected during September-December 2015 through key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and households survey. The household survey data was used in binary logistic regression analysis to identify factors contributing to the decline of six key traditional practices. The study documented 56 types of traditional practices. The regressions showed that the age of the respondent, distance to the nearest forest, distance to the nearest motorable road, family members' ill health, and seasonal migration of the household members for jobs significantly influencing to the decline of the particular traditional practices, however, their effects vary within a practice and among the practices. The use of modern medicine, increasing road linkages, decreasing trend of plant resource availability, and agriculture intensification are responsible for the decline of the particular traditional practices. We recommend to recognize their significance in the governing socio-ecological systems and to link the traditional and scientific knowledge systems through policy formulations.

  6. Fatores que contribuem para o desmame precoce Factores que contribuyen para el destete precoz Factors that contribute to early weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Teixeira Joca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A interrupção prematura da amamentação pode acarretar perigos, pois os alimentos a serem utilizados são inadequados do ponto de vista nutricional, além de expor a criança a organismos infecciosos. Torna-se relevante investigar os fatores relacionados ao desmame precoce. Pesquisa exploratória e quantitativa, realizada no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Família (CEDEFAM, no período de maio a junho/2003, com 20 nutrizes, no qual foi aplicado um questionário contendo 12 questões sobre os motivos que as levaram a desmamarem precocemente. Os resultados foram agrupados em três segmentos: fatores de desmame relacionados com o perfil; a assistência pré-natal e o parto; e prática do aleitamento materno, e apresentados em forma de tabelas. Concluímos que os profissionais e a sociedade podem não estar preparados para favorecer a mulher no exercício da amamentação. Enquanto isso, a política de saúde não cria condições para que todos tenham acesso à educação, melhoria de renda e conscientização do planejamento familiar.La interrupción precoz del destete puede resultar en peligros, pues los alimentos utilizados son considerados por los nuticionistas como inadecuados, además de exponer al niño a organismos infecciosos. Es muy importante investigar los factores relacionados al desmame. Investigación exploratoria y cuantitativa, realizada en una Unidad de Desarrollo de la Família (CEDEFAM, en el período de mayo hasta junio/2003, con 20 nutrices, cuando fue aplicado un cuestionardo com 12 cuestiones sobre los motivos que que las llevaron al destete precoz. Los resultados fueron agrupados en tres segmentos: factores de destete relacionados con el perfil; la asistencia prenatal y el parto; y práctica de la amamantación materna, y presentados en forma de tabelas. Concluimos que los profesionales y la sociedad pueden no estar preparados para faborecer la mujer en amamantación. Mientras eso ocurre, la política de salud no crea

  7. Road dust contribution to PM levels - Evaluation of the effectiveness of street washing activities by means of Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Moreno, Teresa; Amato, Fulvio; Lumbreras, Julio; Narros, Adolfo; Borge, Rafael; Tobías, Aurelio; Boldo, Elena; Linares, Cristina; Pey, Jorge; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2011-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of road dust to airborne particulate matter (PM 10) and evaluate the effects of street washing on the mitigation of resuspension. With this purpose an intensive campaign was carried out in a heavily trafficked central road of Madrid (Spain) including PM 10 sampling and chemical analysis. PM 10 daily levels during dry, unwashed conditions were 2-15% higher than those present during the day after nightly street washing. However, this reduction is lower than the standard deviation of the PM 10 measurements. The diurnal variation of PM 10 revealed that a reduction in PM 10 was noticeable only during the morning hours. The emission sources for the urban area of Madrid were resolved by means of a receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization, PMF. The results showed that the main sources were vehicle emissions, road dust, secondary aerosol including sulphate and nitrate, and soil. Vehicle emissions and road dust were the major contributor to PM 10 particle mass with similar average contributions of 31% and 29% respectively. The effect of street washing was also evaluated by examining the daily variation of the road dust source contribution between days with and without street washing. The mass contribution from the road dust source was ˜2 μg m -3 lower during the days that street washing was implemented with this corresponding to a reduction of 15% of its mass contribution during the days that the road surface was left untreated.

  8. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated......, including 571 participants with a first CAD event during the 9-year study period and 1304 controls matched on sex and cohort. RESULTS: A genetic risk score built from 23 CAD-associated SNPs contributed significantly to CAD (P = 2.9 × 10(-4)). In the final multivariable model, participants...... with an unfavorable genetic background (top genetic score quartile) had a CAD odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.04). This effect was similar to hypertension (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.73), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.96), diabetes (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.49), ≥ 1...

  9. Positive Affectivity and Fear Trajectories in Infancy: Contributions of Mother-Child Interaction Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A; Hancock, Gregory R; Iverson, Sydney L

    2017-05-24

    Fear and positive emotionality were considered in a growth modeling context. Mothers, primarily Caucasian (91.9%) and of middle socioeconomic status, participated in play interactions with infants at 4 months (N = 148). Infant fear and positive affectivity were evaluated at 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age. A linear trajectory was superior in explaining growth for parent report and observation-based indicators of positive affectivity and parent report of fearfulness; a piecewise model explained the nonlinear growth of observation-based fear. Responsiveness in mother-infant interactions emerged as a significant predictor of the fear trajectory, with higher sensitivity predicting lower levels of observed fear. Reciprocity, tempo, emotional tone, and intensity of mother-infant interactions also made significant contributions to temperament development; however, analyses addressing these were exploratory. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (p<0.05). These findings can be applied in the design and implementation of a comprehensive safety and health risk management system to reduce ASR.

  11. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of four school-based sexual violence interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Gibbs, Deborah; Hawkins, Stephanie R; Hart, Laurie; Ball, Barbara; Irvin, Neil; Littler, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining factors associated with changes in attitudes, knowledge, and intended behaviors related to sexual assault. This study included 1,182 participants from four unique multiple-session school-based sexual violence interventions. Implementation and participant factors examined include single- versus mixed-gender groups, group setting versus classroom lecture setting, and participant gender. Participants completed self-administered, paper-and-pencil pre- and postsurveys. A significant desired overall effect was found on participants' reports of positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sexual harassment and personal boundaries and positive dating relationship norms (from pretest to posttest). There were steeper increases over time in both measures, with larger mixed-gender/single-gender differences among boys than among girls. Differences in the impact of participating in mixed- versus single-gender groups depended on classroom versus small group settings. The implications of these findings are discussed for sexual assault prevention programs.

  12. Factors contributing to academic achievement: a Bayesian structure equation modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir T.; Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Farid-Rohani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-01

    In Iran, high school graduates enter university after taking a very difficult entrance exam called the Konkoor. Therefore, only the top-performing students are admitted by universities to continue their bachelor's education in statistics. Surprisingly, statistically, most of such students fall into the following categories: (1) do not succeed in their education despite their excellent performance on the Konkoor and in high school; (2) graduate with a grade point average (GPA) that is considerably lower than their high school GPA; (3) continue their master's education in majors other than statistics and (4) try to find jobs unrelated to statistics. This article employs the well-known and powerful statistical technique, the Bayesian structural equation modelling (SEM), to study the academic success of recent graduates who have studied statistics at Shahid Beheshti University in Iran. This research: (i) considered academic success as a latent variable, which was measured by GPA and other academic success (see below) of students in the target population; (ii) employed the Bayesian SEM, which works properly for small sample sizes and ordinal variables; (iii), which is taken from the literature, developed five main factors that affected academic success and (iv) considered several standard psychological tests and measured characteristics such as 'self-esteem' and 'anxiety'. We then study the impact of such factors on the academic success of the target population. Six factors that positively impact student academic success were identified in the following order of relative impact (from greatest to least): 'Teaching-Evaluation', 'Learner', 'Environment', 'Family', 'Curriculum' and 'Teaching Knowledge'. Particularly, influential variables within each factor have also been noted.

  13. Differences in Breast Cancer Survival between Public and Private Care in New Zealand: Which Factors Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Elwood, J. Mark; Lawrenson, Ross; Campbell, Ian; Harvey, Vernon; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients who received private health care appear to have better survival from breast cancer compared to those who received public care. This study investigated if this applied to New Zealand women and identified factors that could explain such disparities. Methods This study involved all women who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer in two health regions in New Zealand, covering about 40% of the national population, between June 2000 and May 2013. Patients who received public care for primary treatment, mostly surgical treatment, were compared with those who received private care in terms of demographics, mode of presentation, disease factors, comorbidity index and treatment factors. Cox regression modelling was performed with stepwise adjustments, and hazards of breast cancer specific mortality associated with the type of health care received was assessed. Results Of the 14,468 patients, 8,916 (61.6%) received public care. Compared to patients treated in private care facilities, they were older, more likely to be Māori, Pacifika or Asian and to reside in deprived neighbourhoods and rural areas, and less likely to be diagnosed with early staged cancer and to receive timely cancer treatments. They had a higher risk of mortality from breast cancer (hazard ratio: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.75, 2.17), of which 80% (95% CI: 63%, 100%) was explained by baseline differences, particularly related to ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy. After controlling for these demographic, disease and treatment factors, the risk of mortality was still 14% higher in the public sector patients. Conclusions Ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy were the three key contributors to survival disparities between patients treated in public and private health care facilities in New Zealand. The findings underscore the need for more efforts to improve the quality, timeliness and equitability of public cancer care services. PMID:27054698

  14. Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa YC

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children’s cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children’s caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children’s communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children’s communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers’ level of education and the male caregivers’ use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families (n = 106) indicated that female caregivers’ use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss. PMID:23519446

  15. Etiologies and contributing factors of perinatal mortality: A report from southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hadavi

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Prematurity, cardiac arrest, and septicemia were the most important causes of neonatal mortality. It is concluded that attention to the following points is very important: adopting program for pregnancy care improvement, finding and removing risk factors of premature birth, control of infection in mother’s and newborn’s wards, examining of personnel skill about correct newborn resuscitation methods, and arrangement of training courses.

  16. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Suicidal Ideation in Hospitalized Schizophrenia Patients in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Su-Jung; Mun, Ji-Woong; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Seon-Young; Yang, Su-Jin; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate psychosocial risk factors associated with suicidality in patients with schizophrenia in Korea. Methods The study sample consisted of 84 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Suicidal thoughts and a clear desire to be dead within 2 weeks were defined as a current suicidal ideation. Socio-demographic and clinical variables, including family history of completed suicides and psychiatric illnesses, were collected, and the Positive and Neg...

  17. Understanding Factors Contributing to Inappropriate Critical Care: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Medical Record Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Thanh H; Tarn, Derjung M; Yamamoto, Myrtle; Garber, Bryan J; Wenger, Neil S

    2017-11-01

    Factors leading to inappropriate critical care, that is treatment that should not be provided because it does not offer the patient meaningful benefit, have not been rigorously characterized. We explored medical record documentation about patients who received inappropriate critical care and those who received appropriate critical care to examine factors associated with the provision of inappropriate treatment. Medical records were abstracted from 123 patients who were assessed as receiving inappropriate treatment and 66 patients who were assessed as receiving appropriate treatment but died within six months of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We used mixed methods combining qualitative analysis of medical record documentation with multivariable analysis to examine the relationship between patient and communication factors and the receipt of inappropriate treatment, and present these within a conceptual model. One academic health system. Medical records revealed 21 themes pertaining to prognosis and factors influencing treatment aggressiveness. Four themes were independently associated with patients receiving inappropriate treatment according to physicians. When decision making was not guided by physicians (odds ratio [OR] 3.76, confidence interval [95% CI] 1.21-11.70) or was delayed by patient/family (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.69-12.04), patients were more likely to receive inappropriate treatment. Documented communication about goals of care (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.84) and patient's preferences driving decision making (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.27) were associated with lower odds of receiving inappropriate treatment. Medical record documentation suggests that inappropriate treatment occurs in the setting of communication and decision-making patterns that may be amenable to intervention.

  18. Niger's Child Survival Success, Contributing Factors and Challenges to Sustainability: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donela Besada

    Full Text Available Household surveys undertaken in Niger since 1998 have revealed steady declines in under-5 mortality which have placed the country 'on track' to reach the fourth Millennium Development goal (MDG. This paper explores Niger's mortality and health coverage data for children under-5 years of age up to 2012 to describe trends in high impact interventions and the resulting impact on childhood deaths averted. The sustainability of these trends are also considered.Estimates of child mortality using the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey were developed and maternal and child health coverage indicators were calculated over four time periods. Child survival policies and programmes were documented through a review of documents and key informant interviews. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST was used to estimate the number of child lives saved and identify which interventions had the largest impact on deaths averted. The national mortality rate in children under-5 decreased from 286 child deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval 177 to 394 in the period 1989-1990 to 128 child deaths per 1000 live births in the period 2011-2012 (101 to 155, corresponding to an annual rate of decline of 3.6%, with significant declines taking place after 1998. Improvements in the coverage of maternal and child health interventions between 2006 and 2012 include one and four or more antenatal visits, maternal Fansidar and tetanus toxoid vaccination, measles and DPT3 vaccinations, early and exclusive breastfeeding, oral rehydration salts (ORS and proportion of children sleeping under an insecticide-treated bed net (ITN. Approximately 26,000 deaths of children under-5 were averted in 2012 due to decreases in stunting rates (27%, increases in ORS (14%, the Hib vaccine (14%, and breastfeeding (11%. Increases in wasting and decreases in vitamin A supplementation negated some of those gains. Care seeking at the community level was responsible for an estimated 7,800 additional deaths

  19. Factors that contribute to the stigmatization of victims in emergency situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurin I.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The technique of studying of processes of stigmatization of victims in emergency is insufficiently developed now and is based on results of practical observations of certain experts and methodical adaptations. Surveying features of internal and external stigmatization which is traumatic for victims and leads to weighting of experiences, negative development of the cognitive scheme "I-in-the-event", its dynamics, the authors define them as the adverse prognostic moments in a psychotherapy of the studied category of persons. In the article there is made an attempt of survey systematization of a series of social and demographic and environmental factors which have to be known to the expert working with the victim in emergency that in due time and precisely to diagnose character of consequences of a psychological trauma, to prognosticate the course of post-stressful disorders and to plan psychocorrectional influence. There are selected the characteristics of victims in emergency (an invalidism and traumatization, age, gender factors, education level having significant effect on stigmatization development. The author analyses some of the problems arising during a psychotherapy of patients with stigma, defines the factors increasing probability of a delay with the request for the specialized help or refusal of therapy.

  20. Teacher factors contributing to dosage of the KiVa anti-bullying program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Lauren E; Hubbard, Julie A; Bookhout, Megan K; Grassetti, Stevie N; Smith, Marissa A; Morrow, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    The KiVa Anti-Bullying Program (KiVa) seeks to meet the growing need for anti-bullying programming through a school-based, teacher-led intervention for elementary school children. The goals of this study were to examine how intervention dosage impacts outcomes of KiVa and how teacher factors influence dosage. Participants included 74 teachers and 1409 4th- and 5th-grade students in nine elementary schools. Teachers and students completed data collection at the beginning and end of the school year, including measures of bullying and victimization, correlates of victimization (depression, anxiety, peer rejection, withdrawal, and school avoidance), intervention cognitions/emotions (anti-bullying attitudes, and empathy toward victims), bystander behaviors, and teacher factors thought to relate to dosage (self-efficacy for teaching, professional burnout, perceived principal support, expected effectiveness of KiVa, perceived feasibility of KiVa). The dosage of KiVa delivered to classrooms was measured throughout the school year. Results highlight dosage as an important predictor of change in bullying, victimization, correlates of victimization, bystander behavior, and intervention cognitions/emotions. Of the teacher factors, professional burnout uniquely predicted intervention dosage. A comprehensive structural equation model linking professional burnout to dosage and then to child-level outcomes demonstrated good fit. Implications for intervention design and implementation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.