WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying detrimental human

  1. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  2. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  3. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver” and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.

  4. Choosing fitness-enhancing innovations can be detrimental under fluctuating environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Z Xue

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the consequences of one's behavior in a particular environment is a mechanism for adaptation. In the absence of any cost to this activity, we might expect agents to choose behaviors that maximize their fitness, an example of directed innovation. This is in contrast to blind mutation, where the probability of becoming a new genotype is independent of the fitness of the new genotypes. Here, we show that under environments punctuated by rapid reversals, a system with both genetic and cultural inheritance should not always maximize fitness through directed innovation. This is because populations highly accurate at selecting the fittest innovations tend to over-fit the environment during its stable phase, to the point that a rapid environmental reversal can cause extinction. A less accurate population, on the other hand, can track long term trends in environmental change, keeping closer to the time-average of the environment. We use both analytical and agent-based models to explore when this mechanism is expected to occur.

  5. Labeling with indium-111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes: concise communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, R. J.; Natarajan, A. T.; Hardeman, M. R.; van Royen, E. A.; Schellekens, P. T.

    1983-01-01

    When lymphocytes from human peripheral blood were labeled with In-111 oxinate, several of their properties appeared to be affected. The spontaneous release of the radionuclide was found to be relatively high. Labeled lymphocytes showed a decreased proliferative capacity, dependent on the dose of the

  6. Octanoate in Human Albumin Preparations Is Detrimental to Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way-Wua Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies hold great promise as the next major advance in medical treatment. To enable safe, effective ex vivo culture whilst maintaining cell phenotype, growth media constituents must be carefully controlled. We have used a chemically defined mesenchymal stromal cell culture medium to investigate the influence of different preparations of human serum albumin. We examined two aspects of cell culture, growth rate as measured by population doubling time and colony forming ability which is a representative measure of the stemness of the cell population. Albumin preparations showed comparative differences in both of these criteria. Analysis of the albumin bound fatty acids also showed differences depending on the manufacturing procedure used. We demonstrated that octanoate, an additive used to stabilize albumin during pasteurization, slows growth and lowers colony forming ability during ex vivo culture. Further to this we also found the level of Na+/K+ ATPase, a membrane bound cation pump inhibited by octanoate, is increased in cells exposed to this compound. We conclude that the inclusion of human serum albumin in ex vivo growth media requires careful consideration of not only the source of albumin, but also the associated molecular cargo, for optimal cell growth and behavior.

  7. IL-15 promotes human myogenesis and mitigates the detrimental effects of TNFα on myotube development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Mary F; Wallace, Graham R; Bennett, Andrew J; Tsintzas, Kostas; Jones, Simon W

    2017-10-11

    Studies in murine cell lines and in mouse models suggest that IL-15 promotes myogenesis and may protect against the inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy which occurs in sarcopenia and cachexia. The effects of IL-15 on human skeletal muscle growth and development remain largely uncharacterised. Myogenic cultures were isolated from the skeletal muscle of young and elderly subjects. Myoblasts were differentiated for 8 d, with or without the addition of recombinant cytokines (rIL-15, rTNFα) and an IL-15 receptor neutralising antibody. Although myotubes were 19% thinner in cultures derived from elderly subjects, rIL-15 increased the thickness of myotubes (MTT) from both age groups to a similar extent. Neutralisation of the high-affinity IL-15 receptor binding subunit, IL-15rα in elderly myotubes confirmed that autocrine concentrations of IL-15 also support myogenesis. Co-incubation of differentiating myoblasts with rIL-15 and rTNFα, limited the reduction in MTT and nuclear fusion index (NFI) associated with rTNFα stimulation alone. IL-15rα neutralisation and rTNFα decreased MTT and NFI further. This, coupled with our observation that myotubes secrete IL-15 in response to TNFα stimulation supports the notion that IL-15 serves to mitigate inflammatory skeletal muscle loss. IL-15 may be an effective therapeutic target for the attenuation of inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy.

  8. Dose. Detriment. Limit assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    2015-01-01

    One goal of radiation protection is the limitation of stochastic effects due to radiation exposure. The probability of occurrence of a radiation induced stochastic effect, however, is only one of several other parameters which determine the radiation detriment. Though the ICRP-concept of detriment is a quantitative definition, the kind of detriment weighting includes somewhat subjective elements. In this sense, the detriment-concept of ICRP represents already at the stage of effective dose a kind of assessment. Thus, by comparing radiation protection standards and concepts interconvertible or with those of environment or occupational protection one should be aware of the possibly different principles of detriment assessment.

  9. The problem with detriment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection introduced the term detriment as a quantitative expression of 'all the deleterious effects of exposure to radiation'. Detriment due only to effects on health was called 'health detriment'. It is implicit in the definition of radiation detriment, even if limited to health detriment, that it is derived from many components of different characteristics. These components include: attributable death due to cancer, illness and anxiety before that death; illness, therapy and anxiety associated with non-fatal cancer; hereditary disorders in the observable offspring and in later generations; and, at high doses, deterministic effects. The contribution that each of these components makes to the detriment is influenced by both the probability of its occurrence and its severity if it does occur. (author)

  10. Can human rights standards help protect children and youth from the detrimental impact of alcohol beverage marketing and promotional activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2017-01-01

    The alcohol industry in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region promotes demand for alcohol products actively through a number of channels, including advertising and sponsorship of sports and other events. This paper evaluates whether human rights instruments that Latin American countries have ratified can be used to limit children's exposure to alcohol advertising and promotion. A review was conducted of the text of, and interpretative documents related to, a series of international and regional human rights instruments ratified by most countries in the LAC region that enumerate the right to health. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has the most relevant provisions to protect children and youth from alcohol promotion and advertising. Related interpretive documents by the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child affirm that corporations hold duties to respect and protect children's right to health. Human rights norms and law can be used to regulate or eliminate alcohol beverage marketing and promotional activities in the Latin American region. The paper recommends developing a human rights based Framework Convention on Alcohol Control to provide guidance. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Non-human primates avoid the detrimental effects of prenatal androgen exposure in mixed-sex litters: combined demographic, behavioral, and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Snowdon, Charles T; McGrew, William C; Lawler, Richard R; Guevara, Elaine E; McIntosh, Annick; O'Connor, Timothy

    2016-12-01

    Producing single versus multiple births has important life history trade-offs, including the potential benefits and risks of sharing a common in utero environment. Sex hormones can diffuse through amniotic fluid and fetal membranes, and females with male littermates risk exposure to high levels of fetal testosterone, which are shown to have masculinizing effects and negative fitness consequences in many mammals. Whereas most primates give birth to single offspring, several New World monkey and strepsirrhine species regularly give birth to small litters. We examined whether neonatal testosterone exposure might be detrimental to females in mixed-sex litters by compiling data from long-term breeding records for seven primate species (Saguinus oedipus; Varecia variegata, Varecia rubra, Microcebus murinis, Mirza coquereli, Cheirogaleus medius, Galago moholi). Litter sex ratios did not differ from the expected 1:2:1 (MM:MF:FF for twins) and 1:2:2:1 (MMM:MMF:MFF:FFF for triplets). Measures of reproductive success, including female survivorship, offspring-survivorship, and inter-birth interval, did not differ between females born in mixed-sex versus all-female litters, indicating that litter-producing non-human primates, unlike humans and rodents, show no signs of detrimental effects from androgen exposure in mixed sex litters. Although we found no evidence for CYP19A1 gene duplications-a hypothesized mechanism for coping with androgen exposure-aromatase protein evolution shows patterns of convergence among litter-producing taxa. That some primates have effectively found a way to circumvent a major cost of multiple births has implications for understanding variation in litter size and life history strategies across mammals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses empirically with trade-related measures of corruption. It finds that in general, corruption is detrimental to international trade. However, bribe paying may be beneficial in countries with very long...

  13. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  14. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  15. Pollution and contamination of the domestic environment leading to detrimental, long run and possible irreversible effects upon human and animal health and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animal health and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.

  16. Innovative Agro-Food Technologies to Minimize Consumer Detriment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to offer a solution for accelerating the implementation of new biotechnologies designated to prevent consumer detriment. Designing an intervention mechanism along current inefficient chain of consumer feed- back information is a must. Upon different interconnected knowledge area of expertise, both on consumer detriment and biotechnologies for human food safety and security, we propose our approach relying upon relevant experiences on innovational biotechnologies as response to consumer fragilities data from recent validated agro food market research. We target the rising awareness regarding the translation from consumer preferences, to perceived detriment.

  17. Valuation of the health detriment cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    To estimate the efficiency of radiological protection systems we have to compare the cost involved in putting each system into operation (cost of protection) to the collective dose that can thus be avoided. This comparison is facilitated if a man-Sievert monetary value is available. The man-Sievert value can be estimated from various detriments that can be attributed to this unitary exposure: whether there are lethal or non-lethal somatic effects, genetic effects and psycho-social effects. ICRP recommends, in its publication 37, to break down the cost of radiological detriment Y into two parts. The first part, Y1=αS, corresponds to the somatic and genetic effects; the second part, Y2=β ΣN j f(Hj), corresponds to the relevant effects of psycho-social considerations. This breakdown leads to the definition of two man-Sievert value components: α, which reflects somatic and genetic detriments; and β, which reflects the psycho-social effects. Several different methods can be used to determine α and β. Here, we will analyse the following: the a priori evaluation based on the Value of Human Life (VHL) or the costs of repair (for non-lethal effects); the a priori evaluation based on the loss of life expectancy; the evaluation based on what an individual would agree to give up to reduce the risk associated to a man Sievert-dose; the evaluation based on the expenses effectively incurred in the past to reduce the risk associated to a man-Sievert dose

  18. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M.L.; Newman-Norlund, S.E.; Ruiter, J.P.A. de; Hagoort, P.; Levinson, S.C.; Toni, I.

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  19. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C.; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  20. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  1. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  2. Detrimental effects of species of Tenthredinidae (Insecta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detrimental effects of these species are especially constituted by larval forms. Larva damages plants by eating plant tissue, forming gal and opening galleries in leaf, stem and bud of plants. These harmful species can be controlled with biological, cultural and chemical methods. The control methods change according to ...

  3. Value orientation and payment for ecosystem services: Perceived detrimental consequences lead to willingness-to-pay for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Elizabeth Asantewaa; Aguilar, Francisco Xavier

    2018-01-15

    This research analyzed whether the three distinct value orientations posited under the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) model determine willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a payment for ecosystem services (PES) program. A survey instrument gathered U.S. residents' knowledge and attitudes toward ecosystem services and PES, and elicited WTP for the restoration of a hypothetical degraded forest watershed for improved ecosystem services. Data from over 1000 respondents nationwide were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and ordered logistic regression. Urban respondents were more familiar with the concepts of ecosystem service and PES than rural respondents but familiarity did not yield statistically different WTP estimates. Based on results from the EFA, we posit that latent value orientations might be distinguished as 'detrimental', 'biospheric' and 'beneficial (egoistic)' - as compared to 'altruistic', 'biospheric' and 'egoistic' as suggested in the VBN's general awareness of consequences scale. Awareness of biospheric and detrimental consequences along with ascriptions to personal norms had positive and significant effects on stated WTP. Beneficial (egoistic) value orientation was negatively associated with WTP and carried a negative average WTP per household per year (US$ -30.48) for the proposed PES restoration program as compared with biospheric (US$ 15.53) and detrimental (US$ 3.96) orientations. Besides personal norms, awareness of detrimental consequences to human wellbeing from environmental degradation seems the stronger driver of WTP for the restoration and protection of forest watershed ecosystem services under a PES program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The health detriment associated with low doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the problems and uncertainties in using available data to derive risk estimates are discussed in relation to low dose irradiation. Topics considered are:- dose and dose response relationships for stochastic effects following low doses of low LET radiation, estimates of probability of human radiation-induced cancer at low doses, proposed estimates of probability of fatal cancer for low dose, low dose rate, low-LET radiation, natural incidence of severe hereditary diseases, estimates of probability of radiation-induced severe hereditary diseases at low doses, deterministic effects resulting from low dose prenatal exposure, cancer induction including leukemia following human in utero irradiation, mental retardation, and total health detriment. (UK)

  5. Dissociable cognitive mechanisms underlying human path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jan M; Berthoz, Alain; Wolbers, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Path integration is a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation. In non-human species, it is assumed to be an online process in which a homing vector is updated continuously during an outward journey. In contrast, human path integration has been conceptualized as a configural process in which travelers store working memory representations of path segments, with the computation of a homing vector only occurring when required. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we tested whether humans can employ different path integration strategies in the same task. Using a triangle completion paradigm, participants were instructed either to continuously update the start position during locomotion (continuous strategy) or to remember the shape of the outbound path and to calculate home vectors on basis of this representation (configural strategy). While overall homing accuracy was superior in the configural condition, participants were quicker to respond during continuous updating, strongly suggesting that homing vectors were computed online. Corroborating these findings, we observed reliable differences in head orientation during the outbound path: when participants applied the continuous updating strategy, the head deviated significantly from straight ahead in direction of the start place, which can be interpreted as a continuous motor expression of the homing vector. Head orientation-a novel online measure for path integration-can thus inform about the underlying updating mechanism already during locomotion. In addition to demonstrating that humans can employ different cognitive strategies during path integration, our two-systems view helps to resolve recent controversies regarding the role of the medial temporal lobe in human path integration.

  6. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  7. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  8. Homo Ethicus : Understanding the Human Nature that Underlies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The themes of human rights and human rights education in South Africa's multi-cultural society are central to the work of Cornelia Roux. This article discusses the human reality and ethics underlying those themes, using an approach based on a view of human nature. It has six sections, starting with an introduction ...

  9. The Detrimental Effects of Oxytocin-Induced Conformity on Dishonesty in Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Gökhan; Jobst, Andrea; D'Ardenne, Kimberlee; Müller, Norbert; Kocher, Martin G

    2017-06-01

    Justifications may promote unethical behavior because they constitute a convenient loophole through which people can gain from immoral behavior and preserve a positive self-image at the same time. A justification that is widely used is rooted in conformity: Unethical choices become more permissible because one's peers are expected to make the same unethical choices. In the current study, we tested whether an exogenous alteration of conformity led to a lower inclination to adhere to a widely accepted norm (i.e., honesty) under the pressure of competition. We took advantage of the well-known effects of intranasally applied oxytocin on affiliation, in-group conformity, and in-group favoritism in humans. We found that conformity was enhanced by oxytocin, and this enhancement had a detrimental effect on honesty in a competitive environment but not in a noncompetitive environment. Our findings contribute to recent evidence showing that competition may lead to unethical behavior and erode moral values.

  10. The Accountability of Armed Groups under Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The starting point for this NWOI funded Ph.D. research is the observation that although UN accountability mechanisms are increasingly holding armed groups ‘accountable’ under human rights law, the legal basis for the responsibility of armed groups under human rights law remains controversial

  11. Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article summarizes human rights under the Ethiopian Constitution (mainly surrounding Chapter 3 of Constitution and related constitutional provisions on human and democratic rights), and forwards some insights. It, inter alia, covers various aspects of the application and interpretation of human rights provisions, ...

  12. Human transient response under local thermal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body can operate physiological thermoregulation system when it is exposed to cold or hot environment. Whether it can do the same work when a local part of body is stimulated by different temperatures? The objective of this paper is to prove it. Twelve subjects are recruited to participate in this experiment. After stabilizing in a comfort environment, their palms are stimulated by a pouch of 39, 36, 33, 30, and 27°C. Subject’s skin temperature, heart rate, heat flux of skin, and thermal sensation are recorded. The results indicate that when local part is suffering from harsh temperature, the whole body is doing physiological thermoregulation. Besides, when the local part is stimulated by high temperature and its thermal sensation is warm, the thermal sensation of whole body can be neutral. What is more, human body is more sensitive to cool stimulation than to warm one. The conclusions are significant to reveal and make full use of physiological thermoregulation.

  13. Was Kiobel Detrimental to Corporate Social Responsibility? Applying Lessons Learnt From American Exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent decision in the US Supreme Court Kiobel case applied the presumption against extraterritoriality towards the Alien Tort Statute, decreasing the potential scope of tort actions that can be made against corporations for severe human rights violations. In light of the growing influence of multinational corporations and the lack of any international law regime to regulate corporate wrongdoing, this decision might be seen as a blow against one of the few potential avenues for justice for those victims of corporate human rights violations. The Alien Tort Statute is not a jurisdictional statute that allows for claims under international law but is rather a uniquely American cause of action unconnected to international law. The question remains whether an extension of American law to provide remedies for severe corporate human rights abuses can be justified in the absence of any such remedies existent in international law. This article will attempt to answer this question applying criteria developed by leading scholars in response to American exceptionalism. It will argue that the Kiobel decision, rather than being detrimental to holding corporations accountable, actually addresses many of the negative aspects of extraterritorial litigation whilst preserving some possibility of remedy for victims of severe human rights violations by corporations.

  14. Blockade of the action of nitric oxide in human septic shock increases systemic vascular resistance and has detrimental effects on pulmonary function after a short infusion of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingartner R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of nitric oxide in human sepsis, ten patients with severe septic shock requiring vasoactive drug therapy and mechanical ventilation were enrolled in a prospective, open, non-randomized clinical trial to study the acute effects of methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Hemodynamic and metabolic variables were measured before and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after the start of a 1-h intravenous infusion of 4 mg/kg of methylene blue. Methylene blue administration caused a progressive increase in mean arterial pressure (60 [55-70] to 70 [65-100] mmHg, median [25-75th percentiles]; P<0.05, systemic vascular resistance index (649 [479-1084] to 1066 [585-1356] dyne s-1 cm-5 m-2; P<0.05 and the left ventricular stroke work index (35 [27-47] to 38 [32-56] g m-1 m-2; P<0.05 from baseline to 60 min. The pulmonary vascular resistance index increased from 150 [83-207] to 186 [121-367] dyne s-1 cm-5 m-2 after 20 min (P<0.05. Mixed venous saturation decreased from 65 [56-76] to 63 [55-69]% (P<0.05 after 60 min. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio decreased from 168 [131-215] to 132 [109-156] mmHg (P<0.05 after 40 min. Arterial lactate concentration decreased from 5.1 ± 2.9 to 4.5 ± 2.1 mmol/l, mean ± SD (P<0.05 after 60 min. Heart rate, cardiac filling pressures, cardiac output, oxygen delivery and consumption did not change. Methylene blue administration was safe and no adverse effect was observed. In severe human septic shock, a short infusion of methylene blue increases systemic vascular resistance and may improve myocardial function. Although there was a reduction in blood lactate concentration, this was not explained by an improvement in tissue oxygenation, since overall oxygen availability did not change. However, there was a significant increase in pulmonary vascular tone and a deterioration in gas exchange. Further studies are needed to demonstrate if nitric oxide blockade with methylene blue can be safe for patients with septic shock

  15. Fundamental Dynamical Modes Underlying Human Brain Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Alvarado-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term dynamics of widely interacting cortical and subcortical networks during the wake-sleep cycle. Using large-scale intracranial recordings of epileptic patients during seizure-free periods, we investigated local- and long-range synchronization between multiple brain regions over several days. For such high-dimensional data, summary information is required for understanding and modelling the underlying dynamics. Here, we suggest that a compact yet useful representation is given by a state space based on the first principal components. Using this representation, we report, with a remarkable similarity across the patients with different locations of electrode placement, that the seemingly complex patterns of brain synchrony during the wake-sleep cycle can be represented by a small number of characteristic dynamic modes. In this space, transitions between behavioral states occur through specific trajectories from one mode to another. These findings suggest that, at a coarse level of temporal resolution, the different brain states are correlated with several dominant synchrony patterns which are successively activated across wake-sleep states.

  16. Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temaugee, S.T.; Daniel, T.A.; Oladejo, K.O.; Daniel, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

  17. 'Progress' renders detrimental an ancient mitochondrial DNA genetic variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheu-Grau, David; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; López-Gallardo, Ester; Pinós, Tomàs; Andreu, Antoni L; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    A human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transition, m.1555A>G, in the 12S rRNA gene causes non-syndromic hearing loss. However, this pathological mutation is the wild-type allele in orangutan mtDNA. Here we rule out different genetic factors as the reason for its fixation in orangutans and show that aminoglycosides negatively affect the oxidative phosphorylation function by decreasing the synthesis of mtDNA-encoded proteins and the amount and activity of respiratory complex IV. These drugs also diminish the growth rate of orangutan cells. The m.1555G nucleotide is also the wild-type allele in other mammal species and they might be at risk of suffering a mitochondrial disorder if treated with aminoglycosides. Therefore, pharmacogenomic approaches should be used to confirm this possibility. These observations are important for human health. Due to the fact that old age and high frequency are criteria widely used in mitochondrial medicine to rule out a genetic change as being a pathological mutation, our results prevent against simplistic genetic approaches that do not consider the potential effect of environmental conditions. Hence, these results suggest that some ancient and highly frequent human population polymorphisms, such as those defining mtDNA haplogroups, in mitochondrial rRNA genes can be deleterious in association with new environmental conditions. Therefore, as the discovery of ribosomal antibiotics has allowed to fight infectious diseases and this breakthrough can be considered an important scientific advance or 'progress', our results suggest that 'progress' can also have a negative counterpart and render detrimental many of these mtDNA genotypes.

  18. Propagation of Computer Virus under Human Intervention: A Dynamical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chenquan Gan; Xiaofan Yang; Wanping Liu; Qingyi Zhu; Xulong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation behavior of computer virus under human intervention. A dynamical model describing the spread of computer virus, under which a susceptible computer can become recovered directly and an infected computer can become susceptible directly, is proposed. Through a qualitative analysis of this model, it is found that the virus-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number R0≤1, whereas the viral equilibrium is globally asympt...

  19. Projecting Drivers of Human Vulnerability under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Rohat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs are the new set of alternative futures of societal development that inform global and regional climate change research. They have the potential to foster the integration of socioeconomic scenarios within assessments of future climate-related health impacts. To date, such assessments have primarily superimposed climate scenarios on current socioeconomic conditions only. Until now, the few assessments of future health risks that employed the SSPs have focused on future human exposure—i.e., mainly future population patterns—, neglecting future human vulnerability. This paper first explores the research gaps—mainly linked to the paucity of available projections—that explain such a lack of consideration of human vulnerability under the SSPs. It then highlights the need for projections of socioeconomic variables covering the wide range of determinants of human vulnerability, available at relevant spatial and temporal scales, and accounting for local specificities through sectoral and regional extended versions of the global SSPs. Finally, this paper presents two innovative methods of obtaining and computing such socioeconomic projections under the SSPs—namely the scenario matching approach and an approach based on experts’ elicitation and correlation analyses—and applies them to the case of Europe. They offer a variety of possibilities for practical application, producing projections at sub-national level of various drivers of human vulnerability such as demographic and social characteristics, urbanization, state of the environment, infrastructure, health status, and living arrangements. Both the innovative approaches presented in this paper and existing methods—such as the spatial disaggregation of existing projections and the use of sectoral models—show great potential to enhance the availability of relevant projections of determinants of human vulnerability. Assessments of future climate

  20. Human rights protection under the FDRE and the Oromia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper makes a comparative analysis of human rights protection as provided under the 1995 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopian Constitution (FDRE Constitution) and the 2001 Oromia Regional State Revised Constitution with its amendments (OromiaConstitution). Guided by the principle of a better protection of ...

  1. Mineralization of human bone tissue under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Verentsov, Grigori E.; Abratov, Nikolai I.

    It has been suggested that physical exercise and calcium supplements may be used to prevent demineralization of bone tissue under hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine mineral content of bones of 12 physically healthy men aged 19-24 years under 90 days of hypokinesia and intensive physical exercise (PE) with calcium lactate (C) supplements. They were divided into experimental and control groups with 6 men in each. The experimental group of men were subjected to hypokinesia (HK) and intensive PE and took 650 mg C 6 times per day; the control group was placed under pure HK, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures. The mineral content of different bone tissues was measured with a densitometric X-ray method in milligrams of calcium per 1 mm 3 before and after exposure to HK. The level of bone density of the examined bone tissues decreased by 7-9% and 5-7% for the control and experimental groups of men, respectively. A statistical analysis revealed that the reduction of bone mineralization was significant with P physical exercise with calcium supplements. Experimental studies of hypokinetic physiology are generally based on the assumption that diminished muscular activity (progressive reduction of number of steps per day) is detrimental to animal and human organisms, since the entire animal kingdom had been formed in an environment of high motor activity which left its imprint on the evolution, structure, function and behaviour of animals and men. The impossibility of the body tissues to retain optimum amounts of fluid and electrolytes is the dominant hypokinetic effect.

  2. Acidosis during reoxygenation has an early detrimental effect on neuronal metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøyland, Elisabeth; Wibrand, Flemming; Almaas, Runar; Dalen, Ingvild; Lindstad, Julie K; Rootwelt, Terje

    2005-04-01

    We recently showed that acidosis is protective during hypoxia and detrimental during reoxygenation. We hypothesized that the detrimental effect of acidosis during reoxygenation was due to a negative effect on mitochondrial function. Human postmitotic NT2-N neurons were exposed to 3 h of hypoxia and glucose deprivation and then reoxygenated for 0, 1, 4, 9, or 21 h. The detrimental effect of acidotic reoxygenation on metabolic activity was evident already after 1 h of reoxygenation, when MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction (percentage of normoxic controls) was significantly higher in cells reoxygenated with neutral compared with acidotic medium both after acidotic hypoxia (83+/-26% versus 67+/-27%, p=0.006) and after neutral hypoxia (51+/-12% versus 41+/-7%, p=0.005). Hypoxanthine, a marker of cellular energy failure, increased more with acidotic compared with neutral reoxygenation both after acidotic hypoxia (after 21 h: 7.7+/-2.7 versus 3.1+/-1.9 microM, pAcidosis during reoxygenation, however, had no effect on the activity of either complex IV or complexes II+III. We conclude that acidosis during hypoxia increases neuronal survival and preserves complex IV activity. Acidosis during reoxygenation has an early detrimental effect on metabolic activity, but this is not mediated through an effect on the mitochondrial complexes IV or II+III.

  3. Host-detrimental role of Esx-1-mediated inflammasome activation in mycobacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric Carlsson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Esx-1 (type VII secretion system is a major virulence determinant of pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum. However, the molecular events and host-pathogen interactions underlying Esx-1-mediated virulence in vivo remain unclear. Here we address this problem in a non-lethal mouse model of M. marinum infection that allows detailed quantitative analysis of disease progression. M. marinum established local infection in mouse tails, with Esx-1-dependent formation of caseating granulomas similar to those formed in human tuberculosis, and bone deterioration reminiscent of skeletal tuberculosis. Analysis of tails infected with wild type or Esx-1-deficient bacteria showed that Esx-1 enhanced generation of proinflammatory cytokines, including the secreted form of IL-1beta, suggesting that Esx-1 promotes inflammasome activation in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that Esx-1-dependent inflammasome activation required the host NLRP3 and ASC proteins. Infection of wild type and ASC-deficient mice demonstrated that Esx-1-dependent inflammasome activation exacerbated disease without restricting bacterial growth, indicating a host-detrimental role of this inflammatory pathway in mycobacterial infection. These findings define an immunoregulatory role for Esx-1 in a specific host-pathogen interaction in vivo, and indicate that the Esx-1 secretion system promotes disease and inflammation through its ability to activate the inflammasome.

  4. Deformation Behavior of Human Dentin under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Zaytsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation behavior of a human dentin under compression including size and rate effects is studied. No difference between mechanical properties of crown and root dentin is found. It is mechanically isotropic high elastic and strong hard tissue, which demonstrates considerable plasticity and ability to suppress a crack growth. Mechanical properties of dentin depend on a shape of samples and a deformation rate.

  5. Human myiasis in rural South Africa is under-reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuria, Simon Kamande; Kingu, H J C; Villet, M H; Dhaffala, A

    2015-01-08

    Myiasis is the infestation of live tissue of humans and other vertebrates by larvae of flies. Worldwide, myiasis of humans is seldom reported, although the trend is gradually changing in some countries. Reports of human myiasis in Africa are few. Several cases of myiasis were recently seen at the Mthatha Hospital Complex, Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa (SA). Because of a paucity of literature on myiasis from this region, surgeons and scientists from Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, decided to document myiasis cases presenting either at Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital or Umtata General Hospital from May 2009 to April 2013. The objective was to determine the incidence, epidemiology, patient age group and gender, and fly species involved. The effect of season on incidence was also investigated. Twenty-five cases (14 men and 11 women) were recorded in the 4-year study period. The fly species involved were Lucilia sericata, L. cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. chloropyga and Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) nodosa, the latter being confirmed as an agent for human myiasis for the first time. The patients were 3 - 78 years old (median 56). Cases were most numerous during spring and summer, and were associated with underlying pathologies typical of ageing. Myiasis is a more common medical condition than expected in the Mthatha region. The study shows that human myiasis is still frequently encountered in SA, and there is a need to understand its epidemiology better.

  6. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  7. Human STEAP3 maintains tumor growth under hypoferric condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, Taichi, E-mail: tisobe@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Eishi, E-mail: e-baba@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Arita, Shuji, E-mail: arita.s@nk-cc.go.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Komoda, Masato, E-mail: komoda@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tamura, Shingo, E-mail: tamshin@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: t-w-r@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ariyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: hariyama@kyumed.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takaishi, Shigeo, E-mail: takaishi@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kusaba, Hitoshi, E-mail: hkusaba@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); and others

    2011-11-01

    Iron is essential in cellular proliferation and survival based on its crucial roles in DNA and ATP synthesis. Tumor cells proliferate rapidly even in patients with low serum iron, although their actual mechanisms are not well known. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of efficient tumor progression under the hypoferric condition, we studied the roles of six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate family member 3 (STEAP3), which was reported to facilitate iron uptake. Using Raji cells with low STEAP3 mRNA expression, human STEAP3-overexpressing cells were established. The impact of STEAP3 expression was analyzed about the amount of iron storage, the survival under hypoferric conditions in vitro and the growth of tumor in vivo. STEAP3 overexpression increased ferritin, an indicator of iron storage, in STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells. STEAP3 gave Raji cells the resistance to iron deprivation-induced apoptosis. These STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells preserved efficient growth even in hypoferric mice, while parental Raji cells grew less rapidly. In addition, iron deficiency enhanced STEAP3 mRNA expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, human colorectal cancer tissues exhibited more STEAP3 mRNA expression and iron storage compared with normal colon mucosa. These findings indicate that STEAP3 maintains iron storage in human malignant cells and tumor proliferation under the hypoferric condition. -- Highlights: {yields} STEAP3 expression results in increment of stored intracellular iron. {yields} Iron deprivation induces expression of STEAP3. {yields} Colorectal cancer expresses STEAP3 highly and stores iron much. {yields} STEAP3 expressing tumors preserves growth even in mice being hypoferremia.

  8. Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author)

  9. Emergence of human resilience in coastal ecosystems under environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Matin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resilience has been studied in a number of disciplines, predominantly in psychosocial and ecological sciences. Although there are striking similarities in their approaches, the psychosocial tradition has centered on the family and its immediate surroundings, whereas the social-ecological approach has focused on macrosystems that stop at the family level. Recently, the need for bridging these gaps has been echoed by researchers from both these traditions, particularly for promoting resilience of individuals and their wider environment in the context of natural disasters and climate change. However, a new synthesis of social-ecological and behavioral theories integrating multiple dynamic systems that interact across levels is strikingly rare. We addressed some of these issues in the context of complex coastal ecosystems in the Sundarbans region in southwest Bangladesh soon after the Cyclone Aila, which hit the coast in May 2009. The devastation that followed tested the endurance and resilience of people and nature alike. We used an integrated method that combined Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale with narrative inquiry for assessing human resilience. The quantitative analysis was able to address gender, educational, and livelihood dimensions of individual resilience. Life history narratives were found particularly useful in bringing out the underlying contexts and processes that embody individual social-ecological interactions that influence the construct of human resilience. These exercises show that the emergence of human resilience must be understood as a holistic and dynamic process because the variables that contribute to its emergence interact in complex ways.

  10. Detriment due to radiation exposure: concept and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    1999-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has used a term risk' to denote the probability of a clinically observable deleterious effect such as fatal cancers and severe hereditary effects. In their 1990 recommendations ICRP developed a new term 'detriment' which contains a complex concept combining the probability, severity and time of expression of deleterious effects. Nominal probability coefficients for fatal cancer, one of the most important components of the detriment, are assessed to be 5% and 4% per Sv for the whole population and workers, respectively, for radiation protection. These values were derived from the data on mortality from the Life-Span Study of the atomic-bomb survivors up to 1985 assuming several components consist of dose-response relationship, life-span risk projection model, dose and dose rate effectiveness factor, national population and transfer model and so on. The risk estimates and each of these components include uncertainties which should be clarified for the better understanding and use of the risk estimates. However, it is not likely that near-future data from Life-Span Study will significantly change these uncertainties, which should in no way be interpreted as a denial of the essential importance of fundamental research into the mechanism of cancer induction. In these situation the National Institute of Radiological Sciences have performed a 5-year research project 'Experimental Studies on Detriments of Radiation Exposure'. The project consists of researches on a) Radiation carcinogenesis, b) Effects on embryo and fetus, c) Biological effect of plutonium. The project was successful to provide useful information on these subjects. (author)

  11. A comparison of the radiological and chemical detriments in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.

    1988-04-01

    Following a review of the knowledge on the assessment of chemical carcinogens, a comparison between chemical and radiological detriments is attempted from a methodological standpoint. The main problem in chemical carcinogenesis is to get proofs, the discussion bearing on the identity of the interspecific biological mechanisms on account of the nearly constant lack of epidemiological data. The quantification of the neoplastic effects of chemical agents has not been fully developed and can be considered case by case only by carrying out a critical examination of the indicators available in order to extrapolate to man or to low doses [fr

  12. Elevated increases in human-perceived temperature under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Yongqin David; Gan, Thian Yew; Lau, Ngar-Cheung

    2018-01-01

    Changes in air temperature (AT), humidity and wind speed (Wind) affect apparent temperature (AP), the human-perceived equivalent temperature1-3. Here we show that under climate warming, both reanalysis data sets and Global Climate Model simulations indicate that AP has increased faster than AT over land. The faster increase in AP has been especially significant over low latitudes and is expected to continue in the future. The global land average AP increased at 0.04 °C per decade faster than AT before 2005. This trend is projected to increase to 0.06 °C (0.03-0.09 °C; minimum and maximum of the ensemble members) per decade and 0.17 °C (0.12-0.25 °C) per decade under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario (RCP4.5) and RCP8.5, respectively, and reduce to 0.02 °C (0-0.03 °C) per decade under RCP2.6 over 2006-2100. The higher increment in AP in summer daytime is more remarkable than in winter night-time and is most prominent over low latitudes. The summertime increases in AT-based thermal discomfort are projected to balance the wintertime decreases in AT-based discomfort over low and middle latitudes, while the summertime increases in AP-based thermal discomfort are expected to outpace the wintertime decreases in AP-based thermal discomfort. Effective climate change mitigation efforts to achieve RCP2.6 can considerably alleviate the faster increase in AP.

  13. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications. PMID:23674891

  14. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  15. Sex enhances adaptation by unlinking beneficial from detrimental mutations in experimental yeast populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Jeremy C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of sexuality is a classic problem in evolutionary biology because it is a less efficient mode of reproduction compared with asexuality; however, many organisms are sexual. Theoretical work suggests sex facilitates natural selection, and experimental data support this. However, there are fewer experimental studies that have attempted to determine the mechanisms underlying the advantage of sex. Two main classes of hypotheses have been proposed to explain its advantage: detrimental mutation clearance and beneficial mutation accumulation. Here we attempt to experimentally differentiate between these two classes by evolving Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations that differ only in their ability to undergo sex, and also manipulate mutation rate. We cannot manipulate the types of mutation that occur, but instead propagate populations in both stressful and permissive environments and assume that the extent of detrimental mutation clearance and beneficial mutation incorporation differs between them. Results After 300 mitotic generations interspersed with 11 rounds of sex we found there was no change or difference in fitness between sexuals and asexuals propagated in the permissive environment, regardless of mutation rate. Sex conferred a greater extent of adaptation in the stressful environment, and wild-type and elevated mutation rate sexual populations adapted equivalently. However, the asexual populations with an elevated mutation rate appeared more retarded in their extent of adaptation compared to asexual wild-type populations. Conclusions Sex provided no advantage in the permissive environment where beneficial mutations were rare. We could not evaluate if sex functioned to clear detrimental mutations more effectively or not here as no additional fitness load was observed in the mutator populations. However, in the stressful environment, where detrimental mutations were likely of more consequence, and where

  16. Exergy performance of human body under physical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Albuquerque, Cyro; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply performance indicators for individuals under physical activity based on the concepts of exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is one of the most used tests to assess the functional capacity of individuals with varying degrees of physical training. To perform the exergy analysis during the test, it is necessary to calculate heat and mass flow rates, associated with radiation, convection, vaporization and respiration, determined from the measurements and some relations found in the literature. The energy balance allowed the determination of the internal temperature over time and the exergy variation of the body along the experiment. Eventually, it was possible to calculate the destroyed exergy and the exergy efficiency from the exergy analysis. The exergy rates and flow rates are dependent of the exercise level and the body metabolism. The results show that the relation between the destroyed exergy and the metabolism is almost constant during the test, furthermore its value has a great dependence of the subject age. From the exergy analysis it was possible to divide the subjects according to their training level, for the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis was applied to the human body under physical activities. • Concept of maximum available work from ATP hydrolysis was compared with exergy analysis results. • For the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. • Runners during physical activities tend to a state of minimum destroyed exergy and maximum exergy efficiency

  17. A model of risk perception. A model of 'subjective detriment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kiyoko; Kato, Shohei

    2000-01-01

    For the effective risk management, it is very important to analyze how people perceive risk. Many researches focused on how people form the image of risk, but only few researches focused on the process of perceiving risk. The aim of this research is analyzing how people evaluate the loss utilities of risks from objective detriment risk's data, and the process model of perceiving risk is proposed. The model is focused on how people subjectively calculate the detriment from the objective probability of stochastic effects of hereditary, fatal cancer and nonfatal cancer. In this research, the scale of risks are focused on the dose level of 1/100 mSv (1/100 level) which is insisted that it is close to the threshold of unperceivable risk for people, 1 mSv (1 level) and 20 mSv (20 level). On the questionnaire, subjects were given data of probabilities of fatal cancer, nonfatal cancer and effect of hereditary, and requested to evaluate these loss utilities. And also, subjects were requested to evaluate the degree of importance of each parameters. Finally, evaluating total loss utility of risk, which can be called 'subjective detriment' was requested to the subjects. Questionnaires were made not only about the risks of radiation but also dioxin and food additive. Same probability but different source of risk was given to the different subjects. From the results of this research, many significant trends can be shown. First, the loss utility of three parameters (prob. of fatal cancer, nonfatal cancer and effect of hereditary) and the total loss utility have no significant difference among the sources of risk (radiation, dioxin, food additive). It can be said that people can estimate loss utilities rationally and independently from the risk source image to some extent, if they can get objective risk data. Secondly, there is no significant difference between the loss utilities 1/100 level and 1 level, and also, between 1 level and 20 level. It means that people perceive the

  18. Fundamental Human Rights under the Nigerian Constitution: Right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is almost tempting to apologise for returning to the subject of human rights, but the temptation ought to be resisted. The question of the recognition and protection of Human rights, a perennial, worldwide problem since the immediate aftermath of the Second World War in particular, has played a leading role in international, ...

  19. Diabetes detrimental effects on enamel and dentine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassy, M A; Watari, I; Bakry, A S; Hamba, H; Hassan, Ali H; Tagami, J; Ono, T

    2015-05-01

    Understanding morphological changes and mineral content of tooth hard tissues may influence dental treatment. In this study, the effect of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) on tooth structure was examined. Experimental T1DM was induced in 3-week old male Wistar rats (n=10) by a single dose of 60mg/kg body weight of Streprozotocin. All rats were injected with calcein twice during the experiment and sacrificed at the age of 7 weeks old. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to determine the mineral density and thickness of enamel and dentine. Also, a histomorphometery study was conducted to detect the rates of dentine mineral apposition and formation. The examined area was in the crown analogue of the rat mandibular incisor parallel to the long axis of the mesial surface of the first molar. All results were compared using Students' t-test (penamel and dentine thickness were significantly reduced (hypoplasia) and there was a significant reduction of the rate of dentine mineral apposition and formation, while there was no significant effect of the T1DM condition on the mineral density of enamel and dentine. T1DM has a detrimental influence on the formation of enamel and dentine in the early growth stage. T1DM condition may alter treatment planning of orthodontic treatment as it is associated with decreased enamel and dentin thickness that may affect teeth size and their resistance to caries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perception of nursing workers humanization under intensive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cecilia de Azevedo Michelan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: understand the perception of nursing workers working in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU regarding humanization in the work environment. Method: we used the reference of phenomenology, structure of the phenomenon. Participated 25 nursing professionals working in an adult ICU of a university hospital, through focused interviews, answering the guiding question: What do you understand by humanization of the working conditions of the nursing team working in the ICU? Results: the analysis revealed the themes: humanization in the ICU; working condition in the ICU; management of people in the ICU and management process in the ICU. Final considerations: humanization is necessary through the change of the work environment and the managerial process, privileging the participatory management model as a way to transform theory into practice and value the worker.

  1. Pet Face: Mechanisms Underlying Human-Animal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute) faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet) animals (i.e., dogs and cats) might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e., eyes gaze) as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating the human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of the social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but, more in general, as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing.

  2. PET FACE: MECHANISMS UNDERLYING HUMAN-ANIMAL RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBorgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet animals (i.e. dogs and cats might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e. eyes gaze as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but more in general as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing.

  3. Exercise and mental health. Beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglin, J S

    1990-06-01

    Physical exercise is increasingly being advocated as a means to maintain and enhance good mental health. In general, findings from research indicate that exercise is associated with improvements in mental health including mood state and self-esteem, although a causal link has not been established. Research on acute exercise indicates that 20 to 40 minutes of aerobic activity results in improvements in state anxiety and mood that persist for several hours. These transitory changes in mood occur in both individuals with normal or elevated levels of anxiety, but appear to be limited to aerobic forms of exercise. In the case of long term exercise programmes, improvements in the mental health of 'normal' individuals are either modest in magnitude or do not occur, whereas the changes for those with elevated anxiety or depression are more pronounced. Evidence from studies involving clinical samples indicates that the psychological benefits associated with exercise are comparable to gains found with standard forms of psychotherapy. Hence, for healthy individuals the principal psychological benefit of exercise may be that of prevention, whereas in those suffering from mild to moderate emotional illness exercise may function as a means of treatment. Exercise may also result in detrimental changes in mental health. Some individuals can become overly dependent on physical activity and exercise to an excessive degree. This abuse of exercise can result in disturbances in mood and worsened physical health. In the case of athletes the intense training, or overtraining, necessary for endurance sports consistently results in increased mood disturbance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Analysis of human performance observed under simulated emergencies of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have continuously and commonly revealed that human performance is decisive factor affecting the safety of complicated process systems. Subsequently, extensive effort has been spent to suggest serviceable countermeasures for human performance related problems under emergencies. However, several obstacles including very limited number of available data have hindered researchers from elucidating effective ways to cope with human performance related problems. In this study, human performance data under simulated emergencies have been extracted using a full scope simulator located in the reference NPP. The main purpose of this study is to provide plant-specific and domain-specific human performance data that can be used to premeditate human performance related problems under emergencies. To accomplish this goal, over 100 records that were collected from retraining sessions for licensed MCR operators have been analyzed by the time-line and protocol analysis technique. As a result, many kinds of useful information that can play a remarkable role in scrutinizing human performance related problems have been secured. Although it is still careful to make some predictions about human performance under a real situation on the basis of that under a simulated situation. However, it is also true that the simulator is a basic tool in observing human behaviors under emergencies. Thus, it is strongly believed that human performance data obtained from this study will be a concrete foundation in scrutinizing the change of human performance under emergencies

  5. Alleged Detrimental Mutations in the SMPD1 Gene in Patients with Niemann-Pick Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Rhein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1 gene are associated with decreased catalytic activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM and are the cause of the autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease (NPD types A and B. Currently, >100 missense mutations in SMPD1 are listed in the Human Gene Mutation Database. However, not every sequence variation in SMPD1 is detrimental and gives rise to NPD. We have analysed several alleged SMPD1 missense mutations mentioned in a recent publication and found them to be common variants of SMPD1 that give rise to normal in vivo and in vitro ASM activity. (Comment on Manshadi et al. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 6668–6676.

  6. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, A.J.; Lohila, A.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Desai, A.R.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Schrier-Uijl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon–temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of

  7. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans.We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively.We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that this sensitivity in human risk-preference to current metabolic state has

  8. Forward dynamics simulation of human body under tilting perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, D.; Pasha Zanoosi, A. A.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.

    2012-02-01

    Human body uses different strategies to maintain its stability and these strategies vary from fixed-foot strategies to strategies which foot is moved in order to increase the support base. Tilting movement of foot is one type of the perturbations usually is exposed to human body. In the presence of such perturbations human body must employ appropriate reactions to prevent threats like falling. But it is not clear that how human body maintains its stability by central nervous system (CNS). At present study it is tried that by presenting a musculoskeletal model of human lower extremity with four links, three degrees of freedom (DOF) and eight skeletal muscles, the level of muscle activations causes the maintenance of stability, be investigated. Using forward dynamics solution, leads to a more general problem, rather than inverse dynamics. Hence, forward dynamics solution by forward optimization has been used for solving this highly nonlinear problem. To this end, first the system's equations of motion has been derived using lagrangian dynamics. Eight Hill-type muscles as actuators of the system were modeled. Because determination of muscle forces considering their number is an undetermined problem, optimization of an appropriate goal function should be practiced. For optimization problem, the characteristics of genetic algorithms as a method based on direct search, and the direct collocation method, has been profited. Also by considering requirements of problem, some constraints such as conservation of model stability are entered into optimization procedure. Finally to investigate validation of model, the results from optimization and experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained.

  9. Biodiversity assessment of high rain forest under human activities: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of these species are under protection of International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources [Vulnerable, Endangered, Threatened species]. It is however concluded that all form of developmental operation activity at the Erinle forest have affected these conservation important species, and also transformed the ...

  10. Human mesostriatal response tracks motivational tendencies under naturalistic goal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Soreq, Eyal; Eldar, Eran; Ben-Simon, Eti; Raz, Gal; Hendler, Talma

    2016-06-01

    Goal conflict situations, involving the simultaneous presence of reward and punishment, occur commonly in real life, and reflect well-known individual differences in the behavioral tendency to approach or avoid. However, despite accumulating neural depiction of motivational processing, the investigation of naturalistic approach behavior and its interplay with individual tendencies is remarkably lacking. We developed a novel ecological interactive scenario which triggers motivational behavior under high or low goal conflict conditions. Fifty-five healthy subjects played the game during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A machine-learning approach was applied to classify approach/avoidance behaviors during the game. To achieve an independent measure of individual tendencies, an integrative profile was composed from three established theoretical models. Results demonstrated that approach under high relative to low conflict involved increased activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), peri-aquaductal gray, ventral striatum (VS) and precuneus. Notably, only VS and VTA activations during high conflict discriminated between approach/avoidance personality profiles, suggesting that the relationship between individual personality and naturalistic motivational tendencies is uniquely associated with the mesostriatal pathway. VTA-VS further demonstrated stronger coupling during high vs low conflict. These findings are the first to unravel the multilevel relationship among personality profile, approach tendencies in naturalistic set-up and their underlying neural manifestation, thus enabling new avenues for investigating approach-related psychopathologies. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Factors underlying variable DNA methylation in a human community cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lucia L; Emberly, Eldon; Fraser, Hunter B; Neumann, Sarah M; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Kobor, Michael S

    2012-10-16

    Epigenetics is emerging as an attractive mechanism to explain the persistent genomic embedding of early-life experiences. Tightly linked to chromatin, which packages DNA into chromosomes, epigenetic marks primarily serve to regulate the activity of genes. DNA methylation is the most accessible and characterized component of the many chromatin marks that constitute the epigenome, making it an ideal target for epigenetic studies in human populations. Here, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a community-based cohort stratified for early-life socioeconomic status, we measured DNA methylation in the promoter regions of more than 14,000 human genes. Using this approach, we broadly assessed and characterized epigenetic variation, identified some of the factors that sculpt the epigenome, and determined its functional relation to gene expression. We found that the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood covaried with patterns of DNA methylation at many sites, as did demographic factors, such as sex, age, and ethnicity. Furthermore, psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, and cortisol output were associated with DNA methylation, as was early-life socioeconomic status. Interestingly, we determined that DNA methylation was strongly correlated to the ex vivo inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with microbial products that engage Toll-like receptors. In contrast, our work found limited effects of DNA methylation marks on the expression of associated genes across individuals, suggesting a more complex relationship than anticipated.

  12. Thalamocortical interactions underlying visual fear conditioning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithari, Chrysa; Moratti, Stephan; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    Despite a strong focus on the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, recent works point to a more distributed network supporting fear conditioning. We aimed to elucidate interactions between subcortical and cortical regions in fear conditioning in humans. To do this, we used two fearful faces as conditioned stimuli (CS) and an electrical stimulation at the left hand, paired with one of the CS, as unconditioned stimulus (US). The luminance of the CS was rhythmically modulated leading to "entrainment" of brain oscillations at a predefined modulation frequency. Steady-state responses (SSR) were recorded by MEG. In addition to occipital regions, spectral analysis of SSR revealed increased power during fear conditioning particularly for thalamus and cerebellum contralateral to the upcoming US. Using thalamus and amygdala as seed-regions, directed functional connectivity was calculated to capture the modulation of interactions that underlie fear conditioning. Importantly, this analysis showed that the thalamus drives the fusiform area during fear conditioning, while amygdala captures the more general effect of fearful faces perception. This study confirms ideas from the animal literature, and demonstrates for the first time the central role of the thalamus in fear conditioning in humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mechanical response of human female breast skin under uniaxial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, N; Khatam, Hamed; Reece, Gregory P; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K; Ravi-Chandar, Krishnaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Skin is a complex material covering the entire surface of the human body. Studying the mechanical properties of skin to calibrate a constitutive model is of great importance to many applications such as plastic or cosmetic surgery and treatment of skin-based diseases like decubitus ulcers. The main objective of the present study was to identify and calibrate an appropriate material constitutive model for skin and establish certain universal properties that are independent of patient-specific variability. We performed uniaxial tests performed on breast skin specimens freshly harvested during mastectomy. Two different constitutive models - one phenomenological and another microstructurally inspired - were used to interpret the mechanical responses observed in the experiments. Remarkably, we found that the model parameters that characterize dependence on previous maximum stretch (or preconditioning) exhibited specimen-independent universal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Private Transfer Choices under Uncertainty in Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J. Raad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model for parental behavior regarding land inheritance, accounting for consumption and savings strategies. We identify two types of modeling: one with, and another without, strategic behavior. In the first model, we assume that children do not act strategically towards their parent. We find that the child with the highest return to human capital is more likely to receive a larger share of the land if the difference in offspring’s returns is large. In the second model, we allow for each child to influence parent’s optimal choice of bequest by providing services to the latter. We illustrate that the child’s strategy for service provision is sufficient to assure that the one providing more assistance will receive a larger share of the bequest in a Nash equilibrium. We conclude by illustrating our theoretical model with some empirical analysis using longitudinal data for the rural Brazilian Amazon.

  15. [Human vulnerability under cosmetic surgery. A bioethic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Rocha de Viesca, Mariablanca

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is one of the best examples of the current health empowerment. Aesthetic surgical interventions have been criticized because they expose the healthy individual to an unnecessary risk. In modern society the body has turned into a beauty depository with a commercial value. In published bioethics papers, analyses of the cosmetic problem pointed their attention on the freedom, autonomy and distributive justice. Mexico occupies fifth place in the world of cosmetic surgeries. Vulnerability is an inherent condition of man's existence and marks the limit of human dignity. UNESCO agrees that some populations are more inclined to vulnerability. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that those who wish to make a physical change had given up to social coercion and psychological problems.

  16. Structural behavior of human lumbar intervertebral disc under direct shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Häussler, Kim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Wolfram, Uwe

    2015-03-18

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex, flexible joint between adjacent vertebral bodies that provides load transmission while permitting movements of the spinal column. Finite element models can be used to help clarify why and how IVDs fail or degenerate. To do so, it is of importance to validate those models against controllable experiments. Due to missing experimental data, shear properties are not used thus far in validating finite element models. This study aimed to investigate the structural shear properties of human lumbar IVDs in posteroanterior (PA) and laterolateral (LL) loading directions. Fourteen lumbar IVDs (median age: 49 years) underwent direct shear in PA and LL loading directions. A custom-build shear device was used in combination with a materials testing machine to load the specimens until failure. Shear stiffness, ultimate shear force and displacement, and work to failure were determined. Each specimen was tested until complete or partial disruption. Median stiffness in PA direction was 490 N/mm and in LL direction 568 N/mm. Median ultimate shear force in the PA direction was 2,877 N and in the LL direction 3,199 N. Work to failure was 12 Nm in the PA and 9 Nm in the LL direction. This study was an experiment to subject IVDs to direct shear. The results could help us to understand the structure and function of IVDs with regard to mechanical spinal stability, and they can be used to validate finite element models of the IVD.

  17. An implicit body representation underlying human position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-06-29

    Knowing the body's location in external space is a fundamental perceptual task. Perceiving the location of body parts through proprioception requires that information about the angles of each joint (i.e., body posture) be combined with information about the size and shape of the body segments between joints. Although information about body posture is specified by on-line afferent signals, no sensory signals are directly informative about body size and shape. Thus, human position sense must refer to a stored body model of the body's metric properties, such as body part size and shape. The need for such a model has long been recognized; however, the properties of this model have never been systematically investigated. We developed a technique to isolate and measure this body model. Participants judged the location in external space of 10 landmarks on the hand. By analyzing the internal configuration of the locations of these points, we produced implicit maps of the mental representation of hand size and shape. We show that this part of the body model is massively distorted, in a reliable and characteristic fashion, featuring shortened fingers and broadened hands. Intriguingly, these distortions appear to retain several characteristics of primary somatosensory representations, such as the Penfield homunculus.

  18. Adhesion Molecule Expression in Human Endothelial Cells under Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudimov, E. G.; Andreeva, E. R.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2013-02-01

    High gravisensitivity of endothelium is now well recognized. Therefore, the microgravity can be one of the main factors affecting the endothelium in space flight. In this work we studied the effects of gravity vector randomization (3D-clinorotation in RPM) on the viability of endothelial cells from human umbilical vein (HUVEC) and the expression of adhesion molecules on its surface. After RPM exposure, HUVEC conditioning medium was collected for cytokines evaluation, a part of vials was used for immunocytochemistry and other one - for cytofluorimetric analysis of ICAM-I, VCAM-I, PECAM-I, E-selectin, Endoglin, VE-cadherin expression. The viability of HUVEC and constitutive expression of EC marker molecules PECAM-I and Endoglin were similar in all experimental groups both after 6 and 24 hrs of exposure. There were no differences in ICAM-I and E-selectin expression on HUVEC in 3 groups after 6 hrs of exposure. 24 hrs incubation has provoked decrease in ICAM-I and E-selectin expression. Thus, gravity vector randomization can lead to the disruption of ECs monolayer.

  19. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  1. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Detrimental effects of microgravity on mouse preimplantation development in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Wakayama

    Full Text Available Sustaining life beyond Earth either on space stations or on other planets will require a clear understanding of how the space environment affects key phases of mammalian reproduction. However, because of the difficulty of doing such experiments in mammals, most studies of reproduction in space have been carried out with other taxa, such as sea urchins, fish, amphibians or birds. Here, we studied the possibility of mammalian fertilization and preimplantation development under microgravity (microG conditions using a three-dimensional (3D clinostat, which faithfully simulates 10(-3 G using 3D rotation. Fertilization occurred normally in vitro under microG. However, although we obtained 75 healthy offspring from microG-fertilized and -cultured embryos after transfer to recipient females, the birth rate was lower than among the 1G controls. Immunostaining demonstrated that in vitro culture under microG caused slower development and fewer trophectoderm cells than in 1G controls but did not affect polarization of the blastocyst. These results suggest for the first time that fertilization can occur normally under microG environment in a mammal, but normal preimplantation embryo development might require 1G.

  3. Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Berga, S. L.; Jarrett, D. B.; Begley, A. E.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between circadian performance rhythms and rhythms in rectal temperature, plasma cortisol, plasma melatonin, subjective alertness and well-being. Seventeen healthy young adults were studied under 36 h of 'unmasking' conditions (constant wakeful bedrest, temporal isolation, homogenized 'meals') during which rectal temperatures were measured every minute, and plasma cortisol and plasma melatonin measured every 20 min. Hourly subjective ratings of global vigour (alertness) and affect (well-being) were obtained followed by one of two performance batteries. On odd-numbered hours performance (speed and accuracy) of serial search, verbal reasoning and manual dexterity tasks was assessed. On even-numbered hours, performance (% hits, response speed) was measured at a 25-30 min visual vigilance task. Performance of all tasks (except search accuracy) showed a significant time of day variation usually with a nocturnal trough close to the trough in rectal temperature. Performance rhythms appeared not to reliably differ with working memory load. Within subjects, predominantly positive correlations emerged between good performance and higher temperatures and better subjective alertness; predominantly negative correlations between good performance and higher plasma levels of cortisol and melatonin. Temperature and cortisol rhythms correlated with slightly more performance measures (5/7) than did melatonin rhythms (4/7). Global vigour correlated about as well with performance (5/7) as did temperature, and considerably better than global affect (1/7). In conclusion: (1) between-task heterogeneity in circadian performance rhythms appeared to be absent when the sleep/wake cycle was suspended; (2) temperature (positively), cortisol and melatonin (negatively) appeared equally good as circadian correlates of performance, and (3) subjective alertness correlated with performance rhythms as well as (but not better than) body temperature, suggesting that

  4. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    of 1500 lbf. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ACES-II, Ejection, Seat, Cam, Roller, Bearing, Friction, CKU-5, Rocket, Catapult , ROCAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Booster = solid propellant grain in the catapult of a ROCAT Catapult = the telescopic tube phase that lifts the ACES-II ejection seat within the...Criteria (0-1 scaled collation of individual-axis DRI) ROCAT = Rocket Catapult ejection propulsion system SBLAZ (g) = Seat Back Linear Accelerometer

  5. Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, van S.G.; Wilms, L.C.; Gaj, S.; Briedé, J.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Kleinjans, J.C.; Kok, de T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries contain relatively large amounts of different phytochemicals which are suggested to have chemopreventive properties, but little information is available on the underlying molecular modes of action. This study investigates whole genome gene expression changes in lymphocytes of 143 humans

  6. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  7. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on neurogenesis.

  8. Worms under stress: C. elegans stress response and its relevance to complex human disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Snoek, L.B.; Bono, de M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms have stress response pathways, components of which share homology with players in complex human disease pathways. Research on stress response in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has provided detailed insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex human

  9. Detrimental effects of geldanamycin on adults and larvae of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly the temperate regions. The treatment is a challenge for the physician, and the available therapy is far from ideal. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, on the adult worms and larvae of Trichinella spiralis. This research comprised an in vivo study in which T. spiralis-infected mice were treated by two different doses of geldanamycin, thereafter larval count and pathological changes were determined in the muscles. Meanwhile, the in vitro study investigated the effect of two different concentrations of geldanamycin on adult worms and larvae of T. spiralis via transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo study showed significant reduction of muscle larval counts under the effect of geldanamycin. Moreover, characteristic changes were noted as regards the parasite and the inflammatory response. The in vitro study revealed degenerative changes in the body wall of larvae and adults of T. spiralis under the influence of geldanamycin. In conclusion, heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, seems to have detrimental effects on the adults and larvae of T. spiralis. It, or one of its derivatives, could be an adjuvant to anthelmintic therapy of trichinellosis, but more studies are warranted to establish its usefulness.

  10. Common and divergent psychobiological mechanisms underlying maternal behaviors in non-human and human mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonstein, Joseph S.; Lévy, Frédéric; Fleming, Alison S.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal interactions with young occupy most of the reproductive period for female mammals and are absolutely essential for offspring survival and development. The hormonal, sensory, reward-related, emotional, cognitive and neurobiological regulators of maternal caregiving behaviors have been well studied in numerous subprimate mammalian species, and some of the importance of this body of work is thought to be its relevance for understanding similar controls in humans. We here review many of the important biopsychological influences on maternal behaviors in the two best studied non-human animals, laboratory rats and sheep, and directly examine how the conceptual framework established by some of the major discoveries in these animal “models” do or do not hold for our understanding of human mothering. We also explore some of the limits for extrapolating from non-human animals to humans. We conclude that there are many similarities between non-human and human mothers in the biological and psychological factors influencing their early maternal behavior and that many of the differences are due to species-characteristic features related to the role of hormones, the relative importance of each sensory system, flexibility in what behaviors are exhibited, the presence or absence of language, and the complexity of cortical function influencing the behavior. PMID:26122301

  11. Procedural justice in punishment systems: Inconsistent punishment procedures have detrimental effects on cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, J.W.; Gallucci, M.; Toeset, G.

    2008-01-01

    The current research examines a moderator who predicts in what situations punishment can have detrimental effects on cooperation. We hypothesized that when a punishment system is perceived as procedurally unfair, people's cooperation level decreases. Results of two experiments indicated that

  12. The prevention of gross human rights violations under international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Have, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades there has been a great deal of attention for concepts aiming to prevent gross human rights violations, such as conflict prevention and the responsibility to protect. Despite this shift in attention towards prevention, it has remained unclear what legal obligations states have

  13. The detrimental effect of increasing the number of cameras on self-calibration for tomographic PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that adding cameras is beneficial for the accuracy of multiple-camera systems. This tautological assertion is most certainly true for tomographic particle image velocimetry and 3D particle-tracking velocimetry systems, where the search area on each image for the particle corresponding to a 3D trial position is small (typically less than the particle image diameter). On the other hand, when it comes to larger search areas (due to, for example, calibration uncertainties), quite surprisingly, increasing the number of cameras might have a detrimental effect. Under some conditions, this is the case for the volumetric self-calibration technique (Wieneke 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 549–56), in which the residual calibration error and misalignments of the cameras are corrected by statistically searching matching particles over a search area larger than the expected maximum calibration error. In this work, the loss of signal in the self-calibration for systems with three or more cameras is discussed. Two readily implementable solutions are provided to reduce this source of error. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and real images. (paper)

  14. The detrimental effect of increasing the number of cameras on self-calibration for tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that adding cameras is beneficial for the accuracy of multiple-camera systems. This tautological assertion is most certainly true for tomographic particle image velocimetry and 3D particle-tracking velocimetry systems, where the search area on each image for the particle corresponding to a 3D trial position is small (typically less than the particle image diameter). On the other hand, when it comes to larger search areas (due to, for example, calibration uncertainties), quite surprisingly, increasing the number of cameras might have a detrimental effect. Under some conditions, this is the case for the volumetric self-calibration technique (Wieneke 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 549-56), in which the residual calibration error and misalignments of the cameras are corrected by statistically searching matching particles over a search area larger than the expected maximum calibration error. In this work, the loss of signal in the self-calibration for systems with three or more cameras is discussed. Two readily implementable solutions are provided to reduce this source of error. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and real images.

  15. The proteome of a healthy human during physical activity under extreme conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Larina, I.; Ivanisenko, V.; Nikolaev, E.; Grigorev, A.

    2014-01-01

    The review examines the new approaches in modern systems biology, in terms of their use for a deeper understanding of the physiological adaptation of a healthy human in extreme environments. Human physiology under extreme conditions of life, or environmental physiology, and systems biology are natural partners. The similarities and differences between the object and methods in systems biology, the OMICs (proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics) disciplines, and other related sciences have b...

  16. Simulation study on transient electric shock characteristics of human body under high voltage ac transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zou, Yanhui; Lv, Jianhong; Yang, Jinchun; Tao, Li; Zhou, Jianfei

    2017-09-01

    Human body under high-voltage AC transmission lines will produce a certain induced voltage due to the electrostatic induction. When the human body contacts with some grounded objects, the charges transfer from the body to the ground and produce contact current which may cause transient electric shock. Using CDEGS and ATP/EMTP, the paper proposes a method for quantitatively calculating the transient electric shock characteristics. It calculates the human body voltage, discharge current and discharge energy under certain 500kV compact-type transmission lines and predicts the corresponding human feelings. The results show that the average root value of discharge current is less than 10mA when the human body is under the 500kV compact-type transmission lines and the human body is overall safe if the transmission lines satisfy the relevant design specifications. It concludes that the electric field strength above the ground should be limited to 4kV/m through the residential area for the purpose of reducing the electromagnetic impact.

  17. Chronic lead poisoning magnifies bone detrimental effects in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching Ming; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; Bozzini, Clarisa; Piñeiro, Adriana Emilce; Conti, María Inés; Martínez, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is mainly stored in bones being an important source of endogenous lead exposure during periods of increased bone resorption as occurs in menopause. As no evidence exists of which bone biomechanical properties are impaired in those elderly women who had been exposed to Pb during their lifetime, the aim of the present study is to discern whether chronic lead poisoning magnifies the deterioration of bone biology that occurs in later stages of life. We investigated the effect of Pb in the femora of ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats who had been intoxicated with 1000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water for 8 months. Structural properties were determined using a three-point bending mechanical test, and geometrical and material properties were evaluated after obtaining the load/deformation curve. Areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated using a bone densitometer. Femoral histomorphometry was carried out on slices dyed with H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin). Pb and OVX decreased all structural properties with a higher effect when both treatments were applied together. Medullar and cortical area of femurs under OVX increased, allowing the bone to accommodate its architecture, which was not observed under Pb intoxication. Pb and OVX significantly decreased BMD, showing lead treated ovariectomized rats (PbOVX) animals the lowest BMD levels. Trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV%) was decreased in OVX and PbOVX animals in 54% compared to the control animals (p<0.001). Pb femurs also showed 28% less trabeculae than the control (p<0.05). We demonstrated that Pb intoxication magnifies the impairment in bone biomechanics of OVX rats with a consequent enhancement of the risk of fracture. These results enable the discussion of the detrimental effects of lead intoxication in bone biology in elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  19. Intranasal vaccination promotes detrimental Th17-mediated immunity against influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Maroof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza disease is a global health issue that causes significant morbidity and mortality through seasonal epidemics. Currently, inactivated influenza virus vaccines given intramuscularly or live attenuated influenza virus vaccines administered intranasally are the only approved options for vaccination against influenza virus in humans. We evaluated the efficacy of a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 agonist CRX-601 as an adjuvant for enhancing vaccine-induced protection against influenza infection. Intranasal administration of CRX-601 adjuvant combined with detergent split-influenza antigen (A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2 generated strong local and systemic immunity against co-administered influenza antigens while exhibiting high efficacy against two heterotypic influenza challenges. Intranasal vaccination with CRX-601 adjuvanted vaccines promoted antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses and the generation of polyfunctional antigen-specific Th17 cells (CD4(+IL-17A(+TNFα(+. Following challenge with influenza virus, vaccinated mice transiently exhibited increased weight loss and morbidity during early stages of disease but eventually controlled infection. This disease exacerbation following influenza infection in vaccinated mice was dependent on both the route of vaccination and the addition of the adjuvant. Neutralization of IL-17A confirmed a detrimental role for this cytokine during influenza infection. The expansion of vaccine-primed Th17 cells during influenza infection was also accompanied by an augmented lung neutrophilic response, which was partially responsible for mediating the increased morbidity. This discovery is of significance in the field of vaccinology, as it highlights the importance of both route of vaccination and adjuvant selection in vaccine development.

  20. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise. We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  1. Effects of monetary reserves and rate of gain on human risky choice under budget constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Cynthia J; Searcy, Gabriel D; Huitema, Brad E; Brandt, Andrew E

    2008-07-01

    The energy-budget rule is an optimal foraging model that predicts that choice should be risk averse when net gains plus reserves meet energy requirements (positive energy-budget conditions) and risk prone when net gains plus reserves fall below requirements (negative energy-budget conditions). Studies have shown that the energy-budget rule provides a good description of risky choice in humans when choice is studied under economic conditions (i.e., earnings budgets) that simulate positive and negative energy budgets. In previous human studies, earnings budgets were manipulated by varying earnings requirements, but in most nonhuman studies, energy budgets have been manipulated by varying reserves and/or mean rates of reinforcement. The present study therefore investigated choice in humans between certain and variable monetary outcomes when earnings budgets were manipulated by varying monetary reserves and mean rates of monetary gain. Consistent with the energy-budget rule, choice tended to be risk averse under positive-budget conditions and risk neutral or risk prone under negative-budget conditions. Sequential choices were also well described by a dynamic optimization model, especially when expected earnings for optimal choices were high. These results replicate and extend the results of prior experiments in showing that humans' choices are generally consistent with the predictions of the energy-budget rule when studied under conditions analogous to those used in nonhuman energy-budget studies, and that choice patterns tend to maximize reinforcement.

  2. Acridine orange exhibits photodamage in human bladder cancer cells under blue light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Lin, Ji-Fan; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Yang, Shan-Che; Tang, Ya-Ming; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-10-26

    Human bladder cancer (BC) cells exhibit a high basal level of autophagic activity with accumulation of acridine-orange(AO)-stained acidic vesicular organelles. The rapid AO relocalization was observed in treated BC cells under blue-light emission. To investigate the cytotoxic effects of AO on human BC cell lines under blue-light exposure, human immortalized uroepithelial (SV-Huc-1) and BC cell lines (5637 and T24) were treated with indicated concentrations of AO or blue-light exposure alone and in combination. The cell viability was then determined using WST-1, time-lapse imaging with a Cytosmart System and continuous quantification with a multi-mode image-based reader. Treatment of AO or blue-light exposure alone did not cause a significant loss of viability in BC cells. However, AO exhibited a dose-dependent increment of cytotoxicity toward BC cells under blue-light exposure. Furthermore, the tumor formation of BC cells with treatment was significantly reduced when evaluated in a mouse xenograft model. The photodamage caused by AO was nearly neglected in SV-Huc-1 cells, suggesting a differential effect of this treatment between cancer and normal cells. In summary, AO, as a photosensitizer, disrupts acidic organelles and induces cancer cell death in BC cells under blue-light irradiation. Our findings may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy against human BC.

  3. Structural Evolution of Human Recombinant alfaB-Crystallin under UV Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Fujii, Noriko; Morimoto, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    External stresses cause certain proteins to lose their regular structure and aggregate. In order to clarify this abnormal aggregation process, a structural evolution of human recombinant aB-crystallin under UV irradiation was observed with in situ small-angle neutron scattering. The abnormal...

  4. The Application of Human Rights Law to Everyday Life under Rebel Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws upon social science literature to offer a new assessment of the normative value of human rights law vis-à-vis international humanitarian law in territory under armed groups’ control. In particular, the article considers how the two bodies of law can be applied in a complementary

  5. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  6. The impact of outsourcing on investments in firm-specific human capital under varying contract regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråd Nielsen, Lars

    by creating explicit career concerns for the individual employee. Results are provided under long-term as well as short-term contracting regimes. In particular, the paper has relevance for companies operating under short-term contracting where investments in fi.rm-speci.c human capital might be profi......Investments in fi.rm-speci.c human capital have come to play a central role in the value creation for most companies and organisations as job tasks have become ever more complex and demanding to carry out. Today successful performance of essential job tasks often necessitates highly specialised...... knowledge and skills, thus requiring continuous updating of employee competences. This paper develops a two-period agency model to show how the threat of layoff (outsourcing of job tasks to a third party supplier) can help a company trigger or ease employee investments in .firm-speci.c human capital...

  7. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  8. Modal analysis of human body vibration model for Indian subjects under sitting posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ishbir; Nigam, S P; Saran, V H

    2015-01-01

    Need and importance of modelling in human body vibration research studies are well established. The study of biodynamic responses of human beings can be classified into experimental and analytical methods. In the past few decades, plenty of mathematical models have been developed based on the diverse field measurements to describe the biodynamic responses of human beings. In this paper, a complete study on lumped parameter model derived from 50th percentile anthropometric data for a seated 54- kg Indian male subject without backrest support under free un-damped conditions has been carried out considering human body segments to be of ellipsoidal shape. Conventional lumped parameter modelling considers the human body as several rigid masses interconnected by springs and dampers. In this study, concept of mass of interconnecting springs has been incorporated and eigenvalues thus obtained are found to be closer to the values reported in the literature. Results obtained clearly establish decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft oscillations. The mathematical modelling of human body vibration studies help in validating the experimental investigations for ride comfort of a sitting subject. This study clearly establishes the decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft vibrations and helps in better understanding of possible human response to single and multi-axial excitations.

  9. Performance of direct immunofluorescence assay for the detection of human metapneumovirus under clinical laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jonas Michel; Gregianini, Tatiana Schäffer; Seadi, Claudete Maria Farina; Tumioto, Gabriela Luchiari; Dambrós, Bibiana Paula; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling Moreira; Carli, Silvia De; Ikuta, Nilo; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an emergent human respiratory pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) to detect hMPV in a clinical laboratory setting. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples (448) of children and adults with respiratory illness were used to detect hMPV by using DIF and real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. In all, 36 (8%) samples were positive by DIF and 94 (21%) were positive by qRT-PCR. Direct immunofluorescence specificity was 99% and sensitivity was 38%. DIF is not very sensitive under clinical laboratory settings.

  10. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High amounts of sedentary behaviour have been associated with increased risks of several chronic conditions and mortality. However, it is unclear whether physical activity attenuates or even eliminates the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting. We examined the associations of seden...

  11. Detrimental role of hydrogen on the corrosion rate of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blat, M.; Noel, D.

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hydride precipitation at the metal/oxide interface could play a detrimental role on the waterside corrosion rate. Nevertheless, the mechanism of that detrimental role is not completely understood, and two hypotheses were investigated to understand the mechanism that controls the role of the hydrides. The first hypothesis is based on a mechanical effect: the hydrides precipitate at the metal/oxide interface and destroy the physical integrity of the barrier oxide layer. The second hypothesis is a modification of the transport properties of the oxide grown on the hydrided metal. The detrimental role of hydrides on the corrosion rate was studied by charging unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding material with hydrogen to a level higher than the limit of solubility at 400 C. Both gaseous and cathodic charging techniques were used. Static corrosion tests were carried out in autoclave with steam at 400 C on an as-received and hydrided sample. The detrimental role of hydrides is confirmed from the post-transition corrosion rate, and that effect is more significant for high cathodic charging. The results of the metallurgical examinations are discussed to provide an understanding of the mechanism. No relationship between hydrides, physical defects in the oxide, and local corrosion rate enhancement was found. Therefore, the results do not support the hypothesis of a mechanical effect at the scale of the performed examinations, but more detailed work is required to confirm this

  12. Detrimental Effects of Mango Stem Bark on the Histology of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exposed to the extract during the 2nd trimester. The use of concoction of Mango stem bark should be discouraged, and more importantly during pregnancy, in view of its toxic effects on the developing brain, and as a potential predisposing factor to neurological dysfunctions. Keywords: mango stem bark, detrimental effect, ...

  13. The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the ''effective dose equivalent (EDE),'' which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a ''total risk'' or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker

  14. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  15. Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of UV on Aquatic Organisms: Implications of Spectral Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, C.E.; Neale, P.J.; Grad, G.; Lange, de H.J.; Hargreaves, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may have beneficial as well as detrimental effects on living systems. For example, UV-B radiation (280¿320 nm) is generally damaging, while UV-A radiation (320¿400 nm) may cause damage or stimulate beneficial photorepair of UV-B damage. The nature of both direct and

  16. The Trends in International Migration of Human Resources under Conditions of Geo-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska Kateryna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of geo-economic transformations on the trends in international migration of human resources as an element of the resource potential of countries and regions. The current state of geo-economic transformations is analyzed, and their influence on the processes of international migration of human resources is revealed. The relevance of analyzing international movement of human resources, not labor ones, in building the geo-economic strategy of a country or a regional grouping is justified. The connection between the international migration of human resources and the trends in development of individual countries and regions (oil exporting countries, newly industrialized countries and least developed agrarian countries is determined, the general patterns of migration flows in these countries are described. Furthermore, the topical issues in studying international migration of human resources in the context of the directions of geo-economics identified by scientists are formulated. It is determined that the regional migration policy should contribute to maximizing the benefits of migration of human resources for the development of the region and the use of immigrants in the countries of the region as an economic resource that becomes strategically important under conditions of geo-economic transformations.

  17. Evaluation of a Sensor System for Detecting Humans Trapped under Rubble: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid localization of injured survivors by rescue teams to prevent death is a major issue. In this paper, a sensor system for human rescue including three different types of sensors, a CO2 sensor, a thermal camera, and a microphone, is proposed. The performance of this system in detecting living victims under the rubble has been tested in a high-fidelity simulated disaster area. Results show that the CO2 sensor is useful to effectively reduce the possible concerned area, while the thermal camera can confirm the correct position of the victim. Moreover, it is believed that the use of microphones in connection with other sensors would be of great benefit for the detection of casualties. In this work, an algorithm to recognize voices or suspected human noise under rubble has also been developed and tested.

  18. Experimental evaluation of a system for human life detection under debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joju, Reshma; Konica, Pimplapure Ramya T.; Alex, Zachariah C.

    2017-11-01

    It is difficult to for the human beings to be found under debris or behind the walls in case of military applications. Due to which several rescue techniques such as robotic systems, optical devices, and acoustic devices were used. But if victim was unconscious then these rescue system failed. We conducted an experimental analysis on whether the microwaves could detect heart beat and breathing signals of human beings trapped under collapsed debris. For our analysis we used RADAR based on by Doppler shift effect. We calculated the minimum speed that the RADAR could detect. We checked the frequency variation by placing the RADAR at a fixed position and placing the object in motion at different distances. We checked the frequency variation by using objects of different materials as debris behind which the motion was made. The graphs of different analysis were plotted.

  19. Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Hieab HH; Hibar, Derrek P; Chouraki, Vincent; Stein, Jason L; Nyquist, Paul A; Renter��a, Miguel E; Trompet, Stella; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Seshadri, Sudha; Desrivi��res, Sylvane; Beecham, Ashley H; Jahanshad, Neda; Wittfeld, Katharina; Van der Lee, Sven J; Abramovic, Lucija

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjus...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF TROPHIC STATE OF RESERVOIRS IN SOUTHERN POLAND UNDER DIVERSIFIED HUMAN IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Kasza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a trophic state of reservoirs in southern Poland under diversified human impact with different morphological, hydrological and river basin features. Three reservoirs were studied: Wapienica, Goczałkowice and Łąka. To estimate a trophic state of reservoir waters criteria based on measured total nitrogen, total phosphorous and chlorophyll a concentrations and limiting values of trophies differentiation as well as the Carlson trophic index (TSI) were used. Rel...

  1. Early humans' egalitarian politics: runaway synergistic competition under an adapted veil of ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Marc

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a model of human uniqueness based on an unusual distinction between two contrasted kinds of political competition and political status: (1) antagonistic competition, in quest of dominance (antagonistic status), a zero-sum, self-limiting game whose stake--who takes what, when, how--summarizes a classical definition of politics (Lasswell 1936), and (2) synergistic competition, in quest of merit (synergistic status), a positive-sum, self-reinforcing game whose stake becomes "who brings what to a team's common good." In this view, Rawls's (1971) famous virtual "veil of ignorance" mainly conceals politics' antagonistic stakes so as to devise the principles of a just, egalitarian society, yet without providing any means to enforce these ideals (Sen 2009). Instead, this paper proposes that human uniqueness flourished under a real "adapted veil of ignorance" concealing the steady inflation of synergistic politics which resulted from early humans' sturdy egalitarianism. This proposition divides into four parts: (1) early humans first stumbled on a purely cultural means to enforce a unique kind of within-team antagonistic equality--dyadic balanced deterrence thanks to handheld weapons (Chapais 2008); (2) this cultural innovation is thus closely tied to humans' darkest side, but it also launched the cumulative evolution of humans' brightest qualities--egalitarian team synergy and solidarity, together with the associated synergistic intelligence, culture, and communications; (3) runaway synergistic competition for differential merit among antagonistically equal obligate teammates is the single politically selective mechanism behind the cumulative evolution of all these brighter qualities, but numerous factors to be clarified here conceal this mighty evolutionary driver; (4) this veil of ignorance persists today, which explains why humans' unique prosocial capacities are still not clearly understood by science. The purpose of this paper is to start lifting

  2. Generation of electrical power under human skin by subdermal solar cell arrays for implantable bioelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwangsun; Han, Jung Hyun; Yang, Hyung Chae; Nam, Kwang Il; Lee, Jongho

    2017-06-15

    Medical electronic implants can significantly improve people's health and quality of life. These implants are typically powered by batteries, which usually have a finite lifetime and therefore must be replaced periodically using surgical procedures. Recently, subdermal solar cells that can generate electricity by absorbing light transmitted through skin have been proposed as a sustainable electricity source to power medical electronic implants in bodies. However, the results to date have been obtained with animal models. To apply the technology to human beings, electrical performance should be characterized using human skin covering the subdermal solar cells. In this paper, we present electrical performance results (up to 9.05mW/cm 2 ) of the implantable solar cell array under 59 human skin samples isolated from 10 cadavers. The results indicate that the power densities depend on the thickness and tone of the human skin, e.g., higher power was generated under thinner and brighter skin. The generated power density is high enough to operate currently available medical electronic implants such as pacemakers that require tens of microwatt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel approach to mechanical foot stimulation during human locomotion under body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, S; Ivanenko, Y P; Maccioni, G; Macellari, V; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-04-01

    Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under body weight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the heel and metatarsus). To test the system, we asked healthy participants to walk on a treadmill with different levels of BWS. The pressure under the stimulated areas of the feet and subjective sensations were higher at high levels of BWS and when applied to the ball and toes rather than heels. Foot stimulation did not disturb significantly the normal motor pattern, and in all participants we evoked a reliable step-synchronized triggering of stimuli for each leg separately. This approach has been performed in a general framework looking for "afferent templates" of human locomotion that could be used for functional sensory stimulation. The proposed technique can be used to imitate or partially restore surrogate contact forces under body weight support conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The stress caused by nitrite with titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UVA irradiation in human keratinocyte cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Min; Huang, Yi; Li, Hai-Ling; Gao, Zhong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nitrite increased photo-toxicity of nano-TiO 2 on human keratinocyte cells in a dose-dependant manner. ► Morphological study suggested the cell death may be mediated by apoptosis inducing factor. ► Protein nitration was generated in the cells, and the most abundant nitrated protein was identified as cystatin-A. ► Tyr35 was the most likely site to be nitrated in cystatin-A. -- Abstract: Our previous work found that in the presence of nitrite, titanium dioxide nanoparticles can cause protein tyrosine nitration under UVA irradiation in vivo. In this paper, the human keratinocyte cells was used as a skin cell model to further study the photo-toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles when nitrite was present. The results showed that nitrite increased the photo-toxicity of titanium dioxide in a dose-dependant manner, and generated protein tyrosine nitration in keratinocyte cells. Morphological study of keratinocyte cells suggested a specific apoptosis mediated by apoptosis inducing factor. It was also found the main target nitrated in cells was cystatin-A, which expressed abundantly in cytoplasm and functioned as a cysteine protease inhibitor. The stress induced by titanium dioxide with nitrite under UVA irradiation in human keratinocyte cells appeared to trigger the apoptosis inducing factor mediated cell death and lose the inhibition of active caspase by cystatin-A. We conclude that nitrite can bring new damage and stress to human keratinocyte cells with titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UVA irradiation.

  5. Inference of Human Affective States from Psychophysiological Measurements Extracted under Ecologically Valid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eBetella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM, that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions.

  6. CpG islands undermethylation in human genomic regions under selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cocozza

    Full Text Available DNA methylation at CpG islands (CGIs is one of the most intensively studied epigenetic mechanisms. It is fundamental for cellular differentiation and control of transcriptional potential. DNA methylation is involved also in several processes that are central to evolutionary biology, including phenotypic plasticity and evolvability. In this study, we explored the relationship between CpG islands methylation and signatures of selective pressure in Homo Sapiens, using a computational biology approach. By analyzing methylation data of 25 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium, we compared the DNA methylation of CpG islands in genomic regions under selective pressure with the methylation of CpG islands in the remaining part of the genome. To define genomic regions under selective pressure, we used three different methods, each oriented to provide distinct information about selective events. Independently of the method and of the cell type used, we found evidences of undermethylation of CGIs in human genomic regions under selective pressure. Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. Our findings suggest that the CpG islands in regions under selective pressure seem to be somehow more "protected" from methylation when compared with other regions of the genome.

  7. Exogenous wild type p53 gene affects radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line under hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Wang Feng; Liu Yongping; Zhang Yaping; Ni Yan; Li Shirong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of exogenous wild type p53 (wtp53) gene on radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line under hypoxia. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was transfected with adenovirus carrying recombinant exogenous wtp53. Four irradiation groups were studied: normal cell (Group A), wtp53 transfected cell (Group B), normal cell under hypoxia (Group C) and wtp53 transfected cell under hypoxia(Group D). Cells were irradiated with 9 MeV electron beams. Cellular survival fraction was analyzed. Multi-target single-hit model was used to plot the survival curve. D 0 , D q , oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), sensitizing enhancement ratio (SER) and other parameters were used to evaluate the effects of wtp53 gene on radiosensitivity of A549. The cell apoptotic rate of each group was examined by flow cytometry. Results: OER was 1.75 and 0.81 before and after wtp53 transfection. SER was 1.77 in oxic circumstance and 3.84 under hypoxia. The cell apoptotic rate of Group A and B was lower than Group C and D (F=7.92, P=0.048), with Group A lower than B and Group C lower than D (F=82.50, P=0.001). But Group B and D were similar(t=2.04, P=0.111). Conclusions: Hypoxia can increase the radiation resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. The wtp53 can promote apoptosis and improve tumor radiosensitivity, especially under hypoxia. (authors)

  8. Neuronal mechanisms underlying differences in spatial resolution between darks and lights in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Carmen; Mazade, Reece; Jin, Jianzhong; Dul, Mitchell W; Zaidi, Qasim; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Artists and astronomers noticed centuries ago that humans perceive dark features in an image differently from light ones; however, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these dark/light asymmetries remained unknown. Based on computational modeling of neuronal responses, we have previously proposed that such perceptual dark/light asymmetries originate from a luminance/response saturation within the ON retinal pathway. Consistent with this prediction, here we show that stimulus conditions that increase ON luminance/response saturation (e.g., dark backgrounds) or its effect on light stimuli (e.g., optical blur) impair the perceptual discrimination and salience of light targets more than dark targets in human vision. We also show that, in cat visual cortex, the magnitude of the ON luminance/response saturation remains relatively constant under a wide range of luminance conditions that are common indoors, and only shifts away from the lowest luminance contrasts under low mesopic light. Finally, we show that the ON luminance/response saturation affects visual salience mostly when the high spatial frequencies of the image are reduced by poor illumination or optical blur. Because both low luminance and optical blur are risk factors in myopia, our results suggest a possible neuronal mechanism linking myopia progression with the function of the ON visual pathway.

  9. A cell kinetic model of granulopoiesis under radiation exposure: Extension from rodents to canines and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    As significant ionising radiation exposure will occur during prolonged space travel in future, it is essential to understand their adverse effects on the radiosensitive organ systems that are important for immediate survival of humans, e.g. the haematopoietic system. In this paper, a bio-mathematical model of granulopoiesis is used to analyse the granulocyte changes seen in the blood of mammalians under acute and continuous radiation exposure. This is one of a set of haematopoietic models that have been successfully utilised to simulate and interpret the experimental data of acute and chronic radiation on rodents. Extension to canine and human systems indicates that the results of the model are consistent with the cumulative experimental and empirical data from various sources, implying the potential to integrate them into one united model system to monitor the haematopoietic response of various species under irradiation. The suppression of granulocytes' level of a space traveller under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation as well as the granulopoietic response when encountering a historically large solar particle event is also discussed. (authors)

  10. The Influence of Discrimination on Inmigrant Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: What Buffers its Detrimental Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cristini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the link between perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, cultural identity and social support at school reported by immigrant adolescents. Participants were 214 mostly male, immigrant adolescents in grades 9 through 13 of high schools in two small cities in northern Italy. Results showed that discrimination has a significant detrimental effect on psychological well-being of foreign-born adolescents. Additionally, the current study outlined that the only protective factor for depressive symptoms, among the analyzed variables concerning cultural identity and school social support, was social support from teachers. None of the analyzed moderators buffered the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms reported by immigrant adolescents. These results have implications for preventive interventions for immigrant adolescents and suggest a protective role for teachers. Future research should detect strategies to reduce discrimination and prejudice toward immigrant adolescents and detect factors that may buffer detrimental effects of discrimination on psychological well-being.

  11. Studies on culture and osteogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells under CO2-independent conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Cui; Feng, Yiding; Zong, Chen; Chen, Jiarong; Tang, Zihua; Jia, Bingbing; Tong, Xiangming; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Jinfu

    2013-04-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the important factors that regulate bone anabolism. Osteoporosis resulting from microgravity during spaceflight may possibly be due to a decrease in osteogenesis mediated by hMSCs. This speculation should be verified through culture and osteogenic induction of hMSCs in a microgravity environment during spaceflight. Control of CO2 is a key component in current experimental protocols for growth, survival, and proliferation of in vitro cultured cells. However, carrying CO2 tanks on a spaceflight and devoting space/mass allowances for classical CO2 control protocols make experimentation on culture and osteogenesis difficult during most missions. Therefore, an experimental culture and osteogenic medium was developed through modifying the components of buffer salts in conventional culture medium. This experimental medium was used to culture and induce hMSCs under CO2-independent conditions. The results showed that culture and induction of hMSCs with conventional culture medium and conventional osteogenic medium under CO2-independent conditions resulted in an increase of pH in medium. The proliferation of hMSCs was also inhibited. hMSCs cultured with experimental culture medium under CO2-independent conditions showed a proliferation potential that was the same as those cultured with conventional culture medium under CO2-dependent conditions. The experimental osteogenic medium could promote hMSCs to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells under CO2-independent conditions. Cells induced by this induction system showed high alkaline phosphatase activity. The expression levels of osteogenic genes in cells induced with experimental osteogenic medium under CO2-independent conditions were not significantly different from those cells induced with conventional osteogenic medium under CO2-dependent conditions. These results suggest that the experimental culture and induction system could be used to culture hMSCs and induce the

  12. Detrimental social interactions predict loss of dignity among patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, R; Mehnert, A; Lehmann, C; Oechsle, K; Bokemeyer, C; Krüll, A; Vehling, S

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study aimed to determine the extent to which cancer patients experience loss of dignity during primary cancer care (baseline) and at 3-month follow-up and the contribution of positive social support and detrimental social interactions on loss of dignity at follow-up. At baseline, we enrolled N = 270 cancer patients (advanced cancer 57 %) undergoing oncological treatment. At follow-up, n = 178 patients (72 %) participated. Patients completed the following questionnaires: sense of dignity item (SDI), physical problem list of the NCCN Distress Thermometer, Illness-Specific Social Support Scale (SSUK), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7). We conducted ordinal regression analyses controlling for age, gender, tumor stage, number of physical symptoms, depression, and anxiety. At baseline, 18 % of the patients experienced moderate to extreme loss of dignity (follow-up 23 %, p = 0.27). Detrimental interactions significantly predicted loss of dignity (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.06-1.90) in a model including positive support (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI 0.82-1.49), depression (OR = 1.55, 95 % CI 0.96-2.51), and anxiety (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 0.83-1.74). Items in relation to detrimental interactions with significant others such as "made you feel like you couldn't take care of yourself" (r = 0.29, p dignity. Loss of dignity was a frequent problem in our mixed cancer patient sample. Detrimental interactions that weaken the sense of dignity may result from discrepancies with patients' needs for autonomy and security. Tailoring social support to attachment-related patient needs may help to conserve patients' sense of dignity.

  13. The Detrimental Impact of Maladaptive Personality on Public Mental Health: A Challenge for Psychiatric Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challen...

  14. Protection from psychosocial risks at work under the European Convention on Human Rights: is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychenko, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper argues the possibility of establishing common principles of protection from psychosocial risks (PSR) on the basis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) expressed in recent cases on degrading treatment and occupational health. The author focuses on the positive obligations of the States to ensure the protection of the right for life and of the right to respect for private life. The prohibition of degrading treatment in relations between private persons is also considered as relevant to the issue of the protection from PSR. Analyzing the Court's case law (judgments of the Court) we substantiate the possibility of claiming protection from PSR under the European Convention on Human Rights, namely, articles 2, 3 and 6, 8.

  15. Detrimental therapist-client relationships--beyond thinking of "dual" or "multiple" roles: reflections on the 2001 AAMFT Code of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, R Rocco

    2005-01-01

    This article presents reflections on and a critique of the recent revision of the AAMFT Code of Ethics on the multiple relationship ethical standard. A brief historical overview of terminology and the debate surrounding "dual" and "multiple" relationship ethical rules in marriage and family therapy is provided. The term "exploitation" is also delimited. Ethical principles and a set of standards addressing "detrimental" versus "potentially beneficial" interactions are introduced, deriving from works in other mental health professions. The article recommends: (a) the terms "dual" and "multiple" relationships should be abandoned; (b) the ethical principles underlying the AAMFT Code of Ethics need to be examined; and (c) the debate on the topic of detrimental therapist-client interactions in marriage and family therapy needs to be revisited, especially in light of a "positive ethics."

  16. Mechanical properties of the human spinal cord under the compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Shojaei, Ahmad; Tehrani, Pedram

    2017-12-01

    The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required. Nonetheless, it has not been fulfilled since there is a paucity of knowledge about the mechanical properties of the spinal cord, especially the cervical one, under the compressive loading on the grounds of the difficulty in obtaining this tissue from the human body. This study was aimed at experimentally measuring the mechanical properties of the human cervical spinal cord of 24 isolated fresh samples under the unconfined compressive loading at a relatively low strain rate. The stress-strain data revealed the elastic modulus and maximum/failure stress of 40.12±6.90 and 62.26±5.02kPa, respectively. Owing to the nonlinear response of the spinal cord, the Yeoh, Ogden, and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material models have also been employed. The results may have implications not only for understanding the linear elastic and nonlinear hyperelastic mechanical properties of the cervical spinal cord under the compressive loading, but also for providing a raw data for investigating the injury as a result of the trauma thru the numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A coupled human-natural systems analysis of irrigated agriculture under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2016-09-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes due to changes in climate and land use are challenging the sustainability of agricultural water systems. Farmers must adapt their management strategies in order to secure food production and avoid crop failures. Investigating the potential for adaptation policies in agricultural systems requires accounting for their natural and human components, along with their reciprocal interactions. Yet this feedback is generally overlooked in the water resources systems literature. In this work, we contribute a novel modeling approach to study the coevolution of irrigated agriculture under changing climate, advancing the representation of the human component within agricultural systems by using normative meta-models to describe the behaviors of groups of farmers or institutional decisions. These behavioral models, validated against observational data, are then integrated into a coupled human-natural system simulation model to better represent both systems and their coevolution under future changing climate conditions, assuming the adoption of different policy adaptation options, such as cultivating less water demanding crops. The application to the pilot study of the Adda River basin in northern Italy shows that the dynamic coadaptation of water supply and demand allows farmers to avoid estimated potential losses of more than 10 M€/yr under projected climate changes, while unilateral adaptation of either the water supply or the demand are both demonstrated to be less effective. Results also show that the impact of the different policy options varies as function of drought intensity, with water demand adaptation outperforming water supply adaptation when drought conditions become more severe.

  18. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-12-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their temperature high for a substantial amount of time, even under the most extreme environmental conditions. We also considered two disease states that highlight the spectrum of possible pathologies implicated in thermal regulation of the human body. These states are (i) cardiomyopathy, which affects the operating capacity of the heart, and (ii) malnutrition, which directly impairs the body's ability to regulate heat exchange with the environment. We have found that cardiomyopathy has little influence on the thermal balance of the human body, whereas malnutrition has a profound negative effect on the thermal balance and leads to dramatic reduction in core temperature.

  20. Alteration of a human intestinal microbiota under extreme life environment in the Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Yamada, Shin; Yamazaki, Takashi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota (HIM) settles from birth and continues to change phenotype by some factors (e.g. host's diet) throughout life. However, the effect of extreme life environment on human HIM composition is not well known. To understand HIM fluctuation under extreme life environment in humans, fecal samples were collected from six Japanese men on a long Antarctic expedition. They explored Antarctica for 3 months and collected their fecal samples at once-monthly intervals. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the composition of HIM in six subjects was investigated. Three subjects presented restoration of HIM after the expedition compared versus before and during the expedition. Two thirds samples collected during the expedition belonged to the same cluster in dendrogram. However, all through the expedition, T-RFLP patterns showed interindividual variability. Especially, Bifidobacterium spp. showed a tendency to decrease during and restore after the expedition. A reduction of Bifidobacterium spp. was observed in five subjects the first 1 month of the expedition. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which is thought to proliferate during emotional stress, significantly decreased in one subject, indicating that other factors in addition to emotional stress may affect the composition of HIM in this study. These findings could be helpful to understand the effect of extreme life environment on HIM.

  1. OPERA-a human performance database under simulated emergencies of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2007-01-01

    In complex systems such as the nuclear and chemical industry, the importance of human performance related problems is well recognized. Thus a lot of effort has been spent on this area, and one of the main streams for unraveling human performance related problems is the execution of HRA. Unfortunately a lack of prerequisite information has been pointed out as the most critical problem in conducting HRA. From this necessity, OPERA database that can provide operators' performance data obtained under simulated emergencies has been developed. In this study, typical operators' performance data that are available from OPERA database are briefly explained. After that, in order to ensure the appropriateness of OPERA database, operators' performance data from OPERA database are compared with those of other studies and real events. As a result, it is believed that operators' performance data of OPERA database are fairly comparable to those of other studies and real events. Therefore it is meaningful to expect that OPERA database can be used as a serviceable data source for scrutinizing human performance related problems including HRA

  2. Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, Pablo Nicolás Fernández; Ojea, Alejandro; Ojea, Ignacio; Molina, Victor Alejandro; Zorrilla-Zubilete, María Aurelia; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase. However, previous studies show that the expression of memories during reminder sessions is not a condition to trigger the reconsolidation process since unexpressed memories can be reactivated and labilized. Here we evaluate whether it is possible to reactivate-labilize a memory under the impairing-effects of a mild stressor. We used a paradigm of human declarative memory whose reminder structure allows us to differentiate between a reactivated-labile memory state and a reactivated but non-labile state. Subjects memorized a list of five cue-syllables associated with their respective response-syllables. Seventy-two hours later, results showed that the retrieval of the paired-associate memory was impaired when tested 20min after a mild stressor (cold pressor stress (CPS)) administration, coincident with cortisol levels increase. Then, we investigated the long-term effects of CPS administration prior to the reminder session. Under conditions where the reminder initiates the reconsolidation process, CPS impaired the long-term memory expression tested 24h later. In contrast, CPS did not show effects when administered before a reminder session that does not trigger reconsolidation. Results showed that memory reactivation-labilization occurs even when retrieval was impaired. Memory reactivation under stress could hinder

  3. Does Activin Receptor Blockade by Bimagrumab (BYM338) Pose Detrimental Effects on Bone Healing in a Rat Fibula Osteotomy Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankó, László B; Goldhahn, Jörg; Varela, Aurore; Lesage, Elisabeth; Smith, Susan Y; Pilling, Andrew; Chivers, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Bimagrumab (BYM338) is a novel fully human monoclonal antibody that exerts strong promyogenic effects on skeletal muscle by blocking activin type II receptors (ActRII). We investigated whether such blockade of ActRII by bimagrumab manifests any detrimental effect on outcomes of bone healing in a rat fibula osteotomy model. Animals (n = 150) were divided into 11 groups and received weekly treatment with either bimagrumab (10 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle. Progression and outcomes of bone healing were assessed by lateral radiographs in vivo as well as by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), 4-point bending test, and microscopic examination of the excised fibula at Day 29 or later. The radiographic progression of bone healing showed no significant differences between treatment groups in any comparative setting. In 3-month-old animals, pQCT revealed slightly reduced immature callus size and bone mineral content in bimagrumab-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals at Day 29 (p fracture healing, and delayed treatment initiation can bypass the small and transient effect of the therapy on immature callus formation observed in younger animals. Verification of these findings in humans is the subject of an ongoing clinical trial on elderly hip fracture patients.

  4. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human ( R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  5. A database for human performance under simulated emergencies of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2005-01-01

    Reliable human performance is a prerequisite in securing the safety of complicated process systems such as nuclear power plants. However, the amount of available knowledge that can explain why operators deviate from an expected performance level is so small because of the infrequency of real accidents. Therefore, in this study, a database that contains a set of useful information extracted from simulated emergencies was developed in order to provide important clues for understanding the change of operators' performance under stressful conditions (i.e., real accidents). The database was developed under Microsoft Windows TM environment using Microsoft Access 97 TM and Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 TM . In the database, operators' performance data obtained from the analysis of over 100 audio-visual records for simulated emergencies were stored using twenty kinds of distinctive data fields. A total of ten kinds of operators' performance data are available from the developed database. Although it is still difficult to predict operators' performance under stressful conditions based on the results of simulated emergencies, simulation studies remain the most feasible way to scrutinize performance. Accordingly, it is expected that the performance data of this study will provide a concrete foundation for understanding the change of operators' performance in emergency situations

  6. Experimental study of the behavioural mechanisms underlying self-organization in human crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Helbing, Dirk; Garnier, Simon; Johansson, Anders; Combe, Maud; Theraulaz, Guy

    2009-08-07

    In animal societies as well as in human crowds, many observed collective behaviours result from self-organized processes based on local interactions among individuals. However, models of crowd dynamics are still lacking a systematic individual-level experimental verification, and the local mechanisms underlying the formation of collective patterns are not yet known in detail. We have conducted a set of well-controlled experiments with pedestrians performing simple avoidance tasks in order to determine the laws ruling their behaviour during interactions. The analysis of the large trajectory dataset was used to compute a behavioural map that describes the average change of the direction and speed of a pedestrian for various interaction distances and angles. The experimental results reveal features of the decision process when pedestrians choose the side on which they evade, and show a side preference that is amplified by mutual interactions. The predictions of a binary interaction model based on the above findings were then compared with bidirectional flows of people recorded in a crowded street. Simulations generate two asymmetric lanes with opposite directions of motion, in quantitative agreement with our empirical observations. The knowledge of pedestrian behavioural laws is an important step ahead in the understanding of the underlying dynamics of crowd behaviour and allows for reliable predictions of collective pedestrian movements under natural conditions.

  7. Real cause of detrimental carbonation in chemically stabilized layers and possible solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, PB

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Raubenheimer Raubex, Republic of South Africa raubex@roadworks.co.za ABSTRACT Up till very recently detrimental “carbonation” of cement and lime stabilized layers in Southern Africa, which normally manifests itself in the form of a thin loose powdery... for at least 7 days. Furthermore, this water driven reaction may in some cases continue long past the original construction period (up 60 days), showing that the Initial Consumption of Lime (ICL) as measured in the laboratory, is often not enough...

  8. In vivo measurement of uranium in the human chest under high background conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, P.J.; Feather, J.I.

    1981-08-01

    The use of a low-background counting room was considered essential for in vivo gamma counting of uranium in the human chest. When such measurements were, however, carried out under relatively high background conditions, this necessitated a new method of analysis. It was found that a linear relationship between LnN and E exists for each individual where N is the count rate per keV and E the energy in keV, for gamma energies between 90 keV and 300 keV. The displacements from this straight line at the energy values of 90 and 186 keV then represent the contribution of the uranium present. These displacements were calibrated for natural uranium. It was possible to detect contamination levels of lower than half MPLB [af

  9. 42 CFR 121.13 - Definition of Human Organ Under section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... National Organ Transplant Act, as amended. 121.13 Section 121.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... NETWORK § 121.13 Definition of Human Organ Under section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended. “Human organ,” as covered by section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended, means...

  10. Human-robot collision detection under modeling uncertainty using frequency boundary of manipulator dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Byung Jin; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Moon, Hyung Pil [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    This paper presents the development and experimental evaluation of a collision detection method for robotic manipulators sharing a workspace with humans. Fast and robust collision detection is important for guaranteeing safety and preventing false alarms. The main cause of a false alarm is modeling error. We use the characteristic of the maximum frequency boundary of the manipulator's dynamic model. The tendency of the frequency boundary's location in the frequency domain is applied to the collision detection algorithm using a band pass filter (band designed disturbance observer, BdDOB) with changing frequency windows. Thanks to the band pass filter, which considers the frequency boundary of the dynamic model, our collision detection algorithm can extract the collision caused by the disturbance from the mixed estimation signal. As a result, the collision was successfully detected under the usage conditions of faulty sensors and uncertain model data. The experimental result of a collision between a 7-DOF serial manipulator and a human body is reported.

  11. Effects of curcumin on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixue LIU

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the effects of curcumin (Cur on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism. The nude mice modeled with human cervical cancer HeLa cell xenograft were treated with normal saline (control, 3 mg/kg Cisplatin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur, respectively. The animal body weight and growth of tumor were measured. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, p21, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue were determined. Results showed that, after treatment for 20 days, the tumor mass and tumor volume in 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. The expressions of Bax, p53 and p21 protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05, and the expressions of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. Cur can inhibit the growth of HeLa cell xenograft in nude mice. The possible mechanism may be related to its up-regulation of Bax, p53 and p21 protein expression in tumor tissue, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein expression.

  12. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David; Kuster, Niels; Schaer, Primo

    2010-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  13. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Kuster, Niels [IT' IS Foundation, Zeughausstrasse 43, CH-8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Schaer, Primo, E-mail: primo.schaer@unibas.ch [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-05

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  14. Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Tissue Under Oscillatory Shear and Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Burak; Bayrak, Ece; Erisken, Cevat

    2016-06-01

    Availability of material as well as biological properties of native tissues is critical for biomaterial design and synthesis for regenerative engineering. Until recently, selection of biomaterials and biomolecule carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been done randomly or based on experience mainly due to the absence of benchmark data for dental pulp tissue. This study, for the first time, characterizes the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of human dental pulp tissue harvested from wisdom teeth, under oscillatory shear and compression. The results revealed a gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps. Uniaxial compression tests generated peak normal stress and compressive modulus values of 39.1 ± 20.4 kPa and 5.5 ± 2.8 kPa, respectively. Taken collectively, the linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the human dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the better tailoring of biomaterials or biomolecule carriers to be employed in dental pulp regeneration.

  15. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  16. Integrated genome-scale prediction of detrimental mutations in transcription networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Francesconi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A central challenge in genetics is to understand when and why mutations alter the phenotype of an organism. The consequences of gene inhibition have been systematically studied and can be predicted reasonably well across a genome. However, many sequence variants important for disease and evolution may alter gene regulation rather than gene function. The consequences of altering a regulatory interaction (or "edge" rather than a gene (or "node" in a network have not been as extensively studied. Here we use an integrative analysis and evolutionary conservation to identify features that predict when the loss of a regulatory interaction is detrimental in the extensively mapped transcription network of budding yeast. Properties such as the strength of an interaction, location and context in a promoter, regulator and target gene importance, and the potential for compensation (redundancy associate to some extent with interaction importance. Combined, however, these features predict quite well whether the loss of a regulatory interaction is detrimental across many promoters and for many different transcription factors. Thus, despite the potential for regulatory diversity, common principles can be used to understand and predict when changes in regulation are most harmful to an organism.

  17. Quantifying the Detrimental Impacts of Land-Use and Management Change on European Forest Bird Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Amy S. I.; Barov, Boris; Burfield, Ian J.; Gregory, Richard D.; Norris, Ken; Butler, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    The ecological impacts of changing forest management practices in Europe are poorly understood despite European forests being highly managed. Furthermore, the effects of potential drivers of forest biodiversity decline are rarely considered in concert, thus limiting effective conservation or sustainable forest management. We present a trait-based framework that we use to assess the detrimental impact of multiple land-use and management changes in forests on bird populations across Europe. Major changes to forest habitats occurring in recent decades, and their impact on resource availability for birds were identified. Risk associated with these changes for 52 species of forest birds, defined as the proportion of each species' key resources detrimentally affected through changes in abundance and/or availability, was quantified and compared to their pan-European population growth rates between 1980 and 2009. Relationships between risk and population growth were found to be significantly negative, indicating that resource loss in European forests is an important driver of decline for both resident and migrant birds. Our results demonstrate that coarse quantification of resource use and ecological change can be valuable in understanding causes of biodiversity decline, and thus in informing conservation strategy and policy. Such an approach has good potential to be extended for predictive use in assessing the impact of possible future changes to forest management and to develop more precise indicators of forest health. PMID:23704997

  18. Quantifying the detrimental impacts of land-use and management change on European forest bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S I Wade

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of changing forest management practices in Europe are poorly understood despite European forests being highly managed. Furthermore, the effects of potential drivers of forest biodiversity decline are rarely considered in concert, thus limiting effective conservation or sustainable forest management. We present a trait-based framework that we use to assess the detrimental impact of multiple land-use and management changes in forests on bird populations across Europe. Major changes to forest habitats occurring in recent decades, and their impact on resource availability for birds were identified. Risk associated with these changes for 52 species of forest birds, defined as the proportion of each species' key resources detrimentally affected through changes in abundance and/or availability, was quantified and compared to their pan-European population growth rates between 1980 and 2009. Relationships between risk and population growth were found to be significantly negative, indicating that resource loss in European forests is an important driver of decline for both resident and migrant birds. Our results demonstrate that coarse quantification of resource use and ecological change can be valuable in understanding causes of biodiversity decline, and thus in informing conservation strategy and policy. Such an approach has good potential to be extended for predictive use in assessing the impact of possible future changes to forest management and to develop more precise indicators of forest health.

  19. How Food as a Reward Is Detrimental to Children's Health, Learning, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Davis, Matthew Cody

    2015-09-01

    Despite small- and wide-scale prevention efforts to curb obesity, the percentage of children classified as overweight and obese has remained relatively consistent in the last decade. As school personnel are increasingly pressured to enhance student performance, many educators use food as a reward to motivate and reinforce positive behavior and high achievement. Yet, many educators have missed the link between student health and academic achievement. Based on a review of the literature, this article explores the link between childhood obesity and adverse mental and physical health, learning, and behavior outcomes. The role in providing children with food as a reward in the relationship between obesity and detrimental health and performance outcomes are examined. The use of food as a reward is pervasive in school classrooms. Although there is a paucity of research in this area, the few studies published in this area show detrimental outcomes for children in the areas of physical health, learning, and behavior. It is imperative that educators understand the adverse outcomes associated with using food as a reward for good behavior and achievement. This study provides alternatives to using food as a reward and outlines future directions for research. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  20. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Barquinero, J.F.; Rodriguez, P.; Barrios, L.; Verdu, G.; Ramos, M.

    2006-01-01

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  1. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.I. [Hospital Univ. la Fe de Valen cian, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F.; Rodriguez, P. [Universitat Autonom a de Barcelona, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia., Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular, Barcelona (Spain); Verdu, G.; Ramos, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Valencia, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  2. Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side of bright coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Kristal A.; Navara, Kristen J.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2010-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments produce yellow, orange, and red integumentary color displays that can serve as reliable signals of health and condition. In many birds and fish, individuals gain competitive or mating advantages by ingesting and utilizing large quantities of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoid pigments serve as antioxidants, performing important functions as free-radical scavengers. The beneficial effects of carotenoid pigments are well documented, but rarely have researchers considered potential detrimental effects of high-level accumulation of carotenoids. We maintained American goldfinches ( Carduelis tristis) on high- or low-carotenoid diets through molt and tested for damage to the liver and skeletal muscle. High intake of carotenoids had no measurable effect on liver enzymes but caused an increase in creatine kinase, an indicator of skeletal muscle breakdown, and a reduction in vertical flight performance, a measure of skeletal muscle integrity. The detrimental effects of high-level carotenoid accumulation were approximately equivalent to the negative effects of removing carotenoids from the diet. The adverse effects observed in this study have important implications for theories of the function and evolution of colorful plumage.

  3. Exploring the cause of drug resistance by the detrimental missense mutations in KIT receptor: computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, R; Sethumadhavan, Rao

    2010-08-01

    In this work, we computationally identified the most detrimental missense mutations of KIT receptor causing gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed the drug resistance of these missense mutations. Out of 31 missense mutations, 19 variants were commonly found less stable, deleterious and damaging by I-Mutant 2.0, SIFT and PolyPhen programs, respectively. Subsequently, we performed modeling of these 19 variants to understand their change in conformations with respect to native KIT receptor by computing their RMSD. Further, the native and 19 mutants were docked with the drug 'Imatinib' to explain the drug resistance of these detrimental missense mutations. Among the 19 mutants, we found by docking studies that 12 mutants, namely, F584C, F584L, V654A, L656P, T670I, R804W, D816F, D816V, D816Y, N822K, Y823D and E839K had less binding affinity with Imatinib than the native type. Finally, we analyzed that the loss of binding affinity of these 12 mutants, was due to altered flexibility in their binding amino acids with Imatinib as compared with native type by normal mode analysis. In our work, we found the novel data that the majority of the drug-binding amino acids in those 12 mutants had encountered loss of flexibility, which could be the theoretical basis for the cause of drug insensitivity.

  4. Cellular deformation characterization of human breast cancer cells under hydrodynamic forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sohrabi Kashani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how cells sense mechanical forces, and how respond biologically to themis an interesting and quickly-progressing area. Cells within their microenvironment are subjected tovarious physical forces such as mechanical loads and shear stress. Cells respond and adjust to theseforces by mechanotransduction mechanism in which deformation and mechanical forces are convertedinto biomechanical signals. To quantify mechanotransduction responses and to correctly interpretthe behavior of cell under in vitro stimulation, magnitude and distribution of the stresses on the cellmembrane should be characterized. In this study, a 2D Finite Element Model is introduced to simulatethe deformation of individual benign (MCF10A and malignant (MCF7 human breast cancer cellsunder hydrodynamic forces. A fluid-structure interaction method is implemented to model fluid flowand the adherent single cells inside a microchannel to study the nature of mechanical forces (viscousand pressure and to determine their contribution to the deformation of cells. Due to the differentmechanical properties, cells respond differently to the forces exerted by the fluid flow. It was foundthat the maximum stress and strain take place at the interface of the adherent cell and channel wall. Also, under the same boundary conditions, nucleolus and cytoplasm of an individual malignant cellundergo more deformation comparing a single benign cell. Furthermore, it was observed that both two cell lines experience much more stress when their attached area to the substrate is reduced.

  5. Derivation of iPSCs after culture of human dental pulp cells under defined conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Takeda-Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs are a promising resource for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and can be used for derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. However, current protocols use reagents of animal origin (mainly fetal bovine serum, FBS that carry the potential risk of infectious diseases and unwanted immunogenicity. Here, we report a chemically defined protocol to isolate and maintain the growth and differentiation potential of hDPCs. hDPCs cultured under these conditions showed significantly less primary colony formation than those with FBS. Cell culture under stringently defined conditions revealed a donor-dependent growth capacity; however, once established, the differentiation capabilities of the hDPCs were comparable to those observed with FBS. DNA array analyses indicated that the culture conditions robustly altered hDPC gene expression patterns but, more importantly, had little effect on neither pluripotent gene expression nor the efficiency of iPSC induction. The chemically defined culture conditions described herein are not perfect serum replacements, but can be used for the safe establishment of iPSCs and will find utility in applications for cell-based regenerative medicine.

  6. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Caldwell, Jamie M; Fisher, Micah R; Genco, Brandon M; Running, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people.

  7. Computational modeling and validation of human nasal airflow under various breathing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyu; Jiang, Jianbo; Dong, Haibo; Zhao, Kai

    2017-11-07

    The human nose serves vital physiological functions, including warming, filtration, humidification, and olfaction. These functions are based on transport phenomena that depend on nasal airflow patterns and turbulence. Accurate prediction of these airflow properties requires careful selection of computational fluid dynamics models and rigorous validation. The validation studies in the past have been limited by poor representations of the complex nasal geometry, lack of detailed airflow comparisons, and restricted ranges of flow rate. The objective of this study is to validate various numerical methods based on an anatomically accurate nasal model against published experimentally measured data under breathing flow rates from 180 to 1100ml/s. The numerical results of velocity profiles and turbulence intensities were obtained using the laminar model, four widely used Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models (i.e., k-ε, standard k-ω, Shear Stress Transport k-ω, and Reynolds Stress Model), large eddy simulation (LES) model, and direct numerical simulation (DNS). It was found that, despite certain irregularity in the flow field, the laminar model achieved good agreement with experimental results under restful breathing condition (180ml/s) and performed better than the RANS models. As the breathing flow rate increased, the RANS models achieved more accurate predictions but still performed worse than LES and DNS. As expected, LES and DNS can provide accurate predictions of the nasal airflow under all flow conditions but have an approximately 100-fold higher computational cost. Among all the RANS models tested, the standard k-ω model agrees most closely with the experimental values in terms of velocity profile and turbulence intensity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen Tension in the Aqueous Humor of Human Eyes under Different Oxygenation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sharifipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure oxygen tension in the aqueous humor of human eyes under different oxygenation conditions. Methods: This prospective comparative interventional case series consisted of two parts. In the first part, 120 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomized into group I (control group in which surgery was performed under local anesthesia inhaling 21% oxygen; group II in whom general anesthesia using 50% oxygen was employed; and group III receiving general anesthesia with 100% oxygen. After aspirating 0.2 ml aqueous humor under sterile conditions, the aqueous sample and a simultaneously drawn arterial blood sample were immediately analyzed using a blood gas analyzer. In part II the same procedures were performed in 10 patients after fitting a contact lens and patching the eye for 20 minutes (group IV and in 10 patients after transcorneal delivery of oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min (group V. Results: Mean aqueous PO2 in groups I, II and III was 112.3±6.2, 141.1±20.4, and 170.1±27 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001 and mean arterial PO2 was 85.7±7.9, 184.6±46, and 379.1±75.9 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001. Aqueous PO2 was 77.2±9.2 mmHg in group IV and 152.3±10.9 mmHg in group V (P values <0.001. There was a significant correlation between aqueous and blood PO2 (r=0.537, P<0.001. The contribution of atmospheric oxygen to aqueous PO2 was 23.7%. Conclusion: Aqueous oxygen tension is mostly dependent on the systemic circulation and in part on the atmosphere. Increasing inspiratory oxygen and transcorneal oxygen delivery both increase aqueous PO2 levels.

  9. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5, suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation. Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5, underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people.

  10. Detrimental effects of hypoxia-specific expression of uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthkoti, Krishna; Varshney, Umesh

    2010-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to reside latently in a significant fraction of the human population. Although the bacterium possesses an aerobic mode of metabolism, it adapts to persistence under hypoxic conditions such as those encountered in granulomas. While in mammalian systems hypoxia is a recognized DNA-damaging stress, aspects of DNA repair in mycobacteria under such conditions have not been studied. We subjected Mycobacterium smegmatis, a model organism, to the Wayne's protocol of hypoxia. Analysis of the mRNA of a key DNA repair enzyme, uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung), by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) revealed its downregulation during hypoxia. However, within an hour of recovery of the culture under normal oxygen levels, the Ung mRNA was restored. Analysis of Ung by immunoblotting and enzyme assays supported the RNA analysis results. To understand its physiological significance, we misexpressed Ung in M. smegmatis by using a hypoxia-responsive promoter of narK2 from M. tuberculosis. Although the misexpression of Ung during hypoxia decreased C-to-T mutations, it compromised bacterial survival upon recovery at normal oxygen levels. RT-PCR analysis of other base excision repair gene transcripts (UdgB and Fpg) suggested that these DNA repair functions also share with Ung the phenomenon of downregulation during hypoxia and recovery with return to normal oxygen conditions. We discuss the potential utility of this phenomenon in developing attenuated strains of mycobacteria.

  11. Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, the author concluded that living cells use a molecular language (cellese that is isomorphic with the human language (humanese based on his finding that the former shared 10 out of the 13 design features of the latter. In 2012, the author postulated that cellese and humanese derived from a third language called the cosmic language (or cosmese and that what was common among these three kinds of languages was waves—i.e., sound waves for humanese, concentration waves for cellese, and quantum waves for cosmese. These waves were suggested to be the symmetry principle underlying cosmese, cellese, and humanese. We can recognize at least five varieties of waves—(i electromagnetic; (ii mechanical; (iii chemical concentration; (iv gravitational; and (v probability waves, the last being non-material, in contrast to the first four, which are all material. The study of waves is called “cymatics” and the invention of CymaScope by J. S. Reid of the United Kingdom in 2002 is expected to accelerate the study of waves in general. CymaScope has been used to visualize not only human sounds (i.e., humanese but also sounds made by individual cells (cellese in conjunction with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM (unpublished observations of J. Gimzewski of UCLA and J. Reid. It can be predicted that the gravitational waves recently detected by the Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO will be visualized with CymaScope one day, thereby transforming gravitational waves into CymaGlyphs. Since cellese in part depends on RNA concentration waves (or RNA glyphs and humanese includes hieroglyphs that were decoded by Champollion in 1822, it seems reasonable to use cymaglyphs, RNA glyphs, and hieroglyphs as symbols of cosmese, cellese, and humanese, respectively, all based on the principle of waves as the medium of communication.

  12. A molecular systems approach to modelling human skin pigmentation: identifying underlying pathways and critical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Arathi; Sambarey, Awanti; Sharma, Neha; Mahadevan, Usha; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2015-04-29

    Ultraviolet radiations (UV) serve as an environmental stress for human skin, and result in melanogenesis, with the pigment melanin having protective effects against UV induced damage. This involves a dynamic and complex regulation of various biological processes that results in the expression of melanin in the outer most layers of the epidermis, where it can exert its protective effect. A comprehensive understanding of the underlying cross talk among different signalling molecules and cell types is only possible through a systems perspective. Increasing incidences of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers necessitate the need to better comprehend UV mediated effects on skin pigmentation at a systems level, so as to ultimately evolve knowledge-based strategies for efficient protection and prevention of skin diseases. A network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis was constructed and subjected to shortest path analysis. Virtual knock-outs were carried out to identify essential signalling components. We describe a network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis. The model consists of 265 components (nodes) and 429 directed interactions among them, capturing the manner in which one component influences the other and channels information. Through shortest path analysis, we identify novel signalling pathways relevant to pigmentation. Virtual knock-outs or perturbations of specific nodes in the network have led to the identification of alternate modes of signalling as well as enabled determining essential nodes in the process. The model presented provides a comprehensive picture of UV mediated signalling manifesting in human skin pigmentation. A systems perspective helps provide a holistic purview of interconnections and complexity in the processes leading to pigmentation. The model described here is extensive yet amenable to expansion as new data is gathered. Through this study, we provide a list of important proteins essential

  13. Neural and psychophysiological correlates of human performance under stress and high mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrick, Kevin; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Rémy, Florence; Lepron, Evelyne; Causse, Mickaël

    2016-12-01

    In our anxiogenic and stressful world, the maintenance of an optimal cognitive performance is a constant challenge. It is particularly true in complex working environments (e.g. flight deck, air traffic control tower), where individuals have sometimes to cope with a high mental workload and stressful situations. Several models (i.e. processing efficiency theory, cognitive-energetical framework) have attempted to provide a conceptual basis on how human performance is modulated by high workload and stress/anxiety. These models predict that stress can reduce human cognitive efficiency, even in the absence of a visible impact on the task performance. Performance may be protected under stress thanks to compensatory effort, but only at the expense of a cognitive cost. Yet, the psychophysiological cost of this regulation remains unclear. We designed two experiments involving pupil diameter, cardiovascular and prefrontal oxygenation measurements. Participants performed the Toulouse N-back Task that intensively engaged both working memory and mental calculation processes under the threat (or not) of unpredictable aversive sounds. The results revealed that higher task difficulty (higher n level) degraded the performance and induced an increased tonic pupil diameter, heart rate and activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, and a decreased phasic pupil response and heart rate variability. Importantly, the condition of stress did not impact the performance, but at the expense of a psychophysiological cost as demonstrated by lower phasic pupil response, and greater heart rate and prefrontal activity. Prefrontal cortex seems to be a central region for mitigating the influence of stress because it subserves crucial functions (e.g. inhibition, working memory) that can promote the engagement of coping strategies. Overall, findings confirmed the psychophysiological cost of both mental effort and stress. Stress likely triggered increased motivation and the recruitment of additional

  14. Evaluating future detriment from radioactive discharges Judgements and implications for optimisation of protection

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, A B

    1982-01-01

    For long-lived nuclides released into the environment, it is possible to calculate dose commitments extending over thousands or millions of years. The inclusion of this detriment to future populations in present day decision-making is not a technical matter, but represents an area where judgement must be applied. This report shows how different judgements on the relative valuation of future doses can have significant implications for the management of radioactive effluents. A quantitative framework for the expression of such judgements is proposed for optimisation studies, to clarify for decision-makers these implications in the assessment of alternative management options. This is based on the economic principles of discounting, but is related to the use of incomplete collective dose commitments (truncated in time), and includes a zero discount rate which assigns the same weight to doses whenever received. The framework is applied to a series of potential management options for the control of carbon-14, kryp...

  15. Short Term Administration of L-Carnitine Can Be Detrimental to the Ischemic Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Najafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that L-carnitine (LC supplementation may exert a cardioprotective effect in cardiomyopathy, prevent arrhythmias in myocardial infarction and increase exercise tolerance in angina. Interestingly, we demonstrated that short term preischemic administration of LC can be detrimental to ischemic heart. In isolated rat hearts treated with LC for 10 min before ischemia, a marked and concentration dependent arrhythmogenic activity were produced during both ischemia and reperfusion as increases in the number of ventricular ectopic beats, ventricular tachycardia and incidence of ventricular fibrillation. We hypothesized that preischemic using of LC for an inadequate time may pose arrhythmogenic activity, due to incomplete metabolism of fatty acids which in turn lead to production of toxic long chain fatty acid metabolites and also because of interruption in glucose oxidation.

  16. Calculation of the average radiological detriment of two samples from a breast screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.; Sanchez, A.M.; Verdu, G.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Salas, M.D.; Cuevas, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1992 started in the Comunidad Valenciana the Breast Cancer Screening Programme. The programme is oriented to asymptomatic women between 45 and 65 years old, with two mammograms in each breast for the first time that participate and a simple one in later interventions. Between November of 2000 and March of 2001 was extracted a first sample of 100 woman records for all units of the programme. The data extracted in each sample were the kV-voltage, the X-ray tube load and the breast thickness and age of the woman exposed, used directly in dose and detriment calculation. By means of MCNP-4B code and according to the European Protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening, the average total and glandular doses were calculated, and later compared

  17. The detrimental effect of spontaneous emission in quantum free electron lasers: A discrete Wigner model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, H.; Piovella, N.; Robb, G. R. M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the spontaneous emission in high-gain free-electron lasers operating in the quantum regime and its detrimental effect on coherent emission. A quantum model describing the coherent and spontaneous emission in free electron lasers has been recently proposed and investigated [G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio, Phys. Plasmas 19, 073101 (2012)]. The model is based on a Wigner distribution describing the electron beam dynamics, coupled to Maxwell equations for the emitted radiation field. Here, we rephrase the model in a more rigorous way, considering a discrete Wigner distribution defined for a periodic space coordinate for which the electron momentum is discrete. From its numerical solution, we find good agreement with the approximate continuous model. In the quantum regime of the free-electron laser, we obtain a simple density matrix equation for two momentum states, where the role of the spontaneous emission has a clear interpretation in terms of coherence decay and population transfer.

  18. Finite element investigation of human maxillary incisor under traumatic loading: Static vs dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskui, Iman Z; Hashemi, Ata; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Kato, Akiko

    2018-03-01

    Traumatic loading is the main form of injury sustained in dental injuries. In spite of the prevalence of dental trauma, little information is available on traumatic dental damage and the evaluation of tooth behavior under traumatic loading. Due to the short period of traumatic loading, at first sight, a dynamic analysis needs to be performed to investigate the dental trauma. However, it was hypothesized that dental traumatic loading could be regarded as quasi-static loading. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine this hypothesis. Static and dynamic analyses of the human maxillary incisor were carried out under traumatic loading using a 3D finite element method. Also, modal analysis of the tooth model was performed in order to evaluate the assumption of the dental traumatic loading as a quasi-static one. It was revealed that the static analysis of dental trauma is preferred to the dynamic analysis when investigating dental trauma, mainly due to its lower computational cost. In fact, it was shown that including the inertia of the tooth structure does not influence the results of the dental trauma simulation. Furthermore, according to the modal analysis of the tooth structure, it was found that the mechanical properties and geometry of the periodontal ligament play significant roles in the classification of dental traumatic loading as a quasi-static one, in addition to the time duration of the applied load. This paper provides important biomechanical insights into the classification of dental loading as quasi-static, transient or impact loading in future dental studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detrimental Effects of “Stretch” Goals in Specialty Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, G. James; Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background “Stretch” goals, a rarely examined concept that represents seemingly impossible, highly ambitious organizational goals ostensibly established to fill performance gaps and motivate employees, are examined within a sample of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers in the United States in terms of their prevalence and effects on organizational behavior. Stretch goals are defined as “seemingly impossible” goals intended to motivate employees to achieve high performance. In light of the high level of environmental change and unpredictability faced by SUD treatment centers in recent decades, we theorize that stretch goals would be both common and often detrimental (in terms of capacity utilization rate and efficiency) in these settings. Methods In a longitudinal analysis of data from leaders of a representative U. S. national sample of 219 SUD treatment centers characterized by entrepreneurial management structures, we examined the prevalence of stretch goals and their impact on key outcome variables of capacity utilization rate and efficiency. Results Widespread adoption of stretch goals was found, with 43% of our sample falling within the stretch category. Stretch goals had a negative main effect on capacity utilization rate as compared to less ambitious challenging goals. Stretch and prior performance interacted to further predict capacity utilization rate, whereas stretch and slack resource availability interacted to predict center efficiency. Discussion Although stretch goals are frequently used in the SUD treatment industry, we find them mostly detrimental to performance. Stretch goals may enhance the efficiency of treatment centers with prior limited resource availability, but they are negatively associated with capacity utilization, especially in centers with a record of already strong performance. Despite the high prevalence of such goals and positive values centered on aspirational behavior, these results strongly suggest caution in

  20. Perforin is detrimental to controlling [corrected] C. muridarum replication in vitro, but not in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond M Johnson

    Full Text Available CD4 T cells are critical for clearing experimental Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections. Two independent in vitro CD4 T cell mechanisms have been identified for terminating Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. One mechanism, requiring IFN-γ and T cell-epithelial cell contact, terminates infection by triggering epithelial production of nitric oxide to chlamydiacidal levels; the second is dependent on T cell degranulation. We recently demonstrated that there are two independent in vivo clearance mechanisms singly sufficient for clearing genital tract infections within six weeks; one dependent on iNOS, the other on Plac8. Redundant genital tract clearance mechanisms bring into question negative results in single-gene knockout mice. Two groups have shown that perforin-knockout mice were not compromised in their ability to clear C. muridarum genital tract infections. Because cell lysis would be detrimental to epithelial nitric oxide production we hypothesized that perforin was not critical for iNOS-dependent clearance, but posited that perforin could play a role in Plac8-dependent clearance. We tested whether the Plac8-dependent clearance was perforin-dependent by pharmacologically inhibiting iNOS in perforin-knockout mice. In vitro we found that perforin was detrimental to iNOS-dependent CD4 T cell termination of Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. In vivo, unexpectedly, clearance in perforin knockout mice was delayed to the end of week 7 regardless of iNOS status. The discordant in vitro/in vivo results suggest that the perforin's contribution to bacterial clearance in vivo is not though enhancing CD4 T cell termination of Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells, but likely via a mechanism independent of T cell-epithelial cell interactions.

  1. Influence of work rate on dynamics of O2 uptake under hypoxic conditions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, N; Abe, D; Yoshida, T; Aoki, T; Fukuoka, Y

    2008-06-01

    It was the purpose of the investigation to determine whether an altered work rate could influence the oxygen uptake (V.O(2)) and heart rate (HR) dynamics at hypoxia and normoxia. Ten males performed a cycle exercise with 2 repetitions of 6 min each at a constant work load while breathing one of two inspiratory O(2) fractions (FIO(2)): 0.12 (moderate hypoxia) and 0.21 (normoxia). Each test began with unloaded pedaling. This was followed by three constant loads, which were 40%, 60%, and 80% of the subject's gas exchange threshold (GET) in hypoxia (F(I)O(2) = 0.12), with the 80% GET load repeated under normoxia (room air). V.O(2) was measured on a breath-by-breath basis and beat-by-beat HR via ECG, and the half time (t1/2) of each parameter was established, following interpolation data. There were no remarkable differences in t1/2 V.O(2) dynamics among the 40%, 60% and 80% GET; however, the differences became significant at hypoxia compared with normoxia. The HR dynamics were significantly faster in normoxia compared with hypoxia, independent of work rates. During steady-state exercise, the alterations in HR and cardiac output (Q) using the acetylene rebreathing method depended on increases in the work rate, and a significantly increase in at 80% GET was observed when compared with normoxia. Increases of stroke volume (SV) were unaffected by altered work rates and inspired O(2) concentrations. The arteriovenous oxygen difference (Ca-vO(2)) at a steady-state of exercise increased proportionally with the work rate under hypoxia, and a much greater Ca-vO(2) was observed during normoxic exercise than under hypoxia. These results seem to suggest that in humans, O(2) uptake dynamics are affected by lower O(2), not by changing work rates at hypoxia, to which the interaction between lower O(2) utilization in exercising muscles and hypoxic-induced greater blood flow can be attributed.

  2. Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hieab H H; Hibar, Derrek P; Chouraki, Vincent; Stein, Jason L; Nyquist, Paul A; Rentería, Miguel E; Trompet, Stella; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Seshadri, Sudha; Desrivières, Sylvane; Beecham, Ashley H; Jahanshad, Neda; Wittfeld, Katharina; Van der Lee, Sven J; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Bis, Joshua C; Blanken, Laura M E; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chauhan, Ganesh; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Braber, Anouk Den; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Filippi, Irina; Ge, Tian; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Greven, Corina U; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hilal, Saima; Hofer, Edith; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liao, Jiemin; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mazoyer, Bernard; McKay, David R; McWhirter, Rebekah; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin; Muetzel, Ryan L; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pappa, Irene; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pudas, Sara; Pütz, Benno; Rajan, Kumar B; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Thomson, Russell; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Xu, Bing; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Chen, Christopher; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita L; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Evans, Denis A; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Grabe, Hans J; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Ikram, M Kamran; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Longstreth, W T; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Katie L; McMahon, Francis J; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schofield, Peter R; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Srikanth, Velandai; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Tiemeier, Henning; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; Van der Lugt, Aad; Van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Van T Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Veltman, Dick J; Vernooij, Meike W; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, H Ronald; Zonderman, Alan B; Deary, Ian J; DeCarli, Charles; Schmidt, Helena; Martin, Nicholas G; De Craen, Anton J M; Wright, Margaret J; Launer, Lenore J; Schumann, Gunter; Fornage, Myriam; Franke, Barbara; Debette, Stéphanie; Medland, Sarah E; Ikram, M Arfan; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (ρ genetic = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.

  3. Human synthetic sebum formulation and stability under conditions of use and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, P W

    2009-02-01

    The human skin surface and hair are generally coated with a thin film of liquid phase sebaceous lipids. This surface lipid film contributes to the cosmetic properties of the skin. Synthetic sebum has been used for studies on properties of skin and hair. However, there has been no standardized formulation of synthetic sebum and many of the synthetic sebum formulations that have been used do not closely resemble actual sebum. In this study, a formulation for a standardized and inexpensive synthetic sebum is proposed, and the chemical stability of this lipid mixture is demonstrated under conditions of use and storage. The proposed synthetic sebum consists of 17% fatty acid, 44.7% triglyceride, 25% wax monoester (jojoba oil) and 12.4% squalene. This lipid mixture takes up approximately 6% of its weight in water when equilibrated in an atmosphere saturated with water vapour. It is stable on exposure to the atmosphere at 32 degrees C for at least 48 h, and it is also stable on storage at 4 or -20 degrees C, either dry or in chloroform : methanol solution for at least 6 months. This synthetic sebum could be useful in studies on cosmetic properties of the skin surface or hair, on penetration of chemicals into the skin or in development of standardized tests of laundry detergent performance.

  4. Neuronal Substrates Underlying Performance Variability in Well-Trained Skillful Motor Task in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Mizuguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance.

  5. Rapid release of active tissue factor from human arterial smooth muscle cells under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfuss, Jan-Julius; Censarek, Petra; Fischer, Jens W; Schrör, Karsten; Weber, Artur-Aron

    2006-05-01

    Circulating tissue factor (TF) is an important determinant of coronary thrombosis. Among other cell types, such as monocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are capable of releasing TF. When studied under static conditions, SMCs do release TF, but this process is slow and, thus, cannot explain the elevated levels of circulating TF, as observed in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The present study demonstrates that cultured human mammary artery SMCs very rapidly (minutes) release active, microparticle-bound TF when exposed to flow conditions. There was a clear log-linear correlation between the shear rate (range 10 s(-1) to 1500 s(-1)) and the procoagulant activity of SMC perfusates. Flow-dependent release of TF was transient (10 minutes) and did not measurably reduce cell surface TF content. Interestingly, a time-dependent (t(1/2) 30 minutes) re-exposure of releasable TF was detected after a no-flow period. These data demonstrate that SMCs may become a pathophysiologically relevant source of TF that can be rapidly released into the circulation in situations in which endothelial damage occurs and SMCs come into a close contact with the flowing blood.

  6. Hypothesis: Human papillomavirus vaccination syndrome--small fiber neuropathy and dysautonomia could be its underlying pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most effective public health measures in the history of medicine. However, seemingly inexplicit adverse reactions have been described after the injection of the newer vaccines vs. human papillomavirus (HPV). The symptoms more often reported are chronic pain with paresthesias, headaches, fatigue, and orthostatic intolerance. Adverse reactions appear to be more frequent after HPV vaccination when compared to other type of immunizations. Different isolated cases and small series have described the development of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), and fibromyalgia after HPV vaccination. These are illnesses often difficult to diagnose that have overlapping clinical features. Sympathetic nervous system dysfunction seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of these syndromes. Also, small fiber neuropathy has been recently recognized in CRPS, POTS, and fibromyalgia. This article forwards the hypothesis that small fiber neuropathy and dysautonomia could be the common underlying pathogenesis to the group of rare, but severe reactions that follow HPV vaccination. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between HPV vaccination and the development of these difficult to diagnose painful dysautonomic syndromes.

  7. Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hieab HH; Hibar, Derrek P; Chouraki, Vincent; Stein, Jason L; Nyquist, Paul A; Rentería, Miguel E; Trompet, Stella; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Seshadri, Sudha; Desrivières, Sylvane; Beecham, Ashley H; Jahanshad, Neda; Wittfeld, Katharina; Van der Lee, Sven J; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Bis, Joshua C; Blanken, Laura ME; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chauhan, Ganesh; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher RK; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Filippi, Irina; Ge, Tian; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Greven, Corina U; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hilal, Saima; Hofer, Edith; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liao, Jiemin; Liewald, David CM; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mazoyer, Bernard; McKay, David R; McWhirter, Rebekah; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin; Muetzel, Ryan L; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pappa, Irene; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pudas, Sara; Pütz, Benno; Rajan, Kumar B; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Thomson, Russell; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein MJ; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo GM; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Xu, Bing; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Chen, Christopher; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Geus, Eco JC; De Jager, Philip L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita L; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Evans, Denis A; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald HH; Grabe, Hans J; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Ikram, M Kamran; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Longstreth, WT; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Katie L; McMahon, Francis J; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five novel loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci are also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (ρgenetic=0.748), which indicated a similar genetic background and allowed for the identification of four additional loci through meta-analysis (Ncombined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, and enriched near genes involved in growth pathways including PI3K–AKT signaling. These findings identify biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and provide genetic support for theories on brain reserve and brain overgrowth. PMID:27694991

  8. Recent Selection Changes in Human Genes under Long-Term Balancing Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippo, Cesare; Key, Felix M; Ghirotto, Silvia; Benazzo, Andrea; Meneu, Juan R; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genís; Green, Eric D; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-06-01

    Balancing selection is an important evolutionary force that maintains genetic and phenotypic diversity in populations. Most studies in humans have focused on long-standing balancing selection, which persists over long periods of time and is generally shared across populations. But balanced polymorphisms can also promote fast adaptation, especially when the environment changes. To better understand the role of previously balanced alleles in novel adaptations, we analyzed in detail four loci as case examples of this mechanism. These loci show hallmark signatures of long-term balancing selection in African populations, but not in Eurasian populations. The disparity between populations is due to changes in allele frequencies, with intermediate frequency alleles in Africans (likely due to balancing selection) segregating instead at low- or high-derived allele frequency in Eurasia. We explicitly tested the support for different evolutionary models with an approximate Bayesian computation approach and show that the patterns in PKDREJ, SDR39U1, and ZNF473 are best explained by recent changes in selective pressure in certain populations. Specifically, we infer that alleles previously under long-term balancing selection, or alleles linked to them, were recently targeted by positive selection in Eurasian populations. Balancing selection thus likely served as a source of functional alleles that mediated subsequent adaptations to novel environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The chaos and order in human ECG under the influence of the external perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Maria; Valeriy, Pipin

    model reconstruction of the individual cardiac beat. It is found that the positions of the stationary points of the typical ECG attractor are in vicinities of Q and T waves. Additionally, we find that the stiffness of the beat is important for the general stability of ECG. The given results agues for the increase the relative disorder of the human cardiac system under external perturbations due to changes in the space weather and climatic factors. Also, the results of monitoring show that cardiac system can be stabilized by "internal" (physical) stress. The given difference in the cardiac sys-tem behavior under the different types of stress is obtained in the earth labaratory conditions. However, it should be considered as important factors influencing on the health of cosmonauts during the space missions, as well.

  10. Mainstreaming Human Rights Under National and International Law: Legal and Epistemic Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola S. Olawuyi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the concept of human rights mainstreaming is not new to public international law, it has recently gained increased recognition as a practical approach for recognizing the linkages between human rights and other social justice issues such as environmental protection. A plenitude of literature have been generated on the need to recognize and enforce human rights standards and norms in a wide range of issues including environment, health, gender, poverty, food, water and refugee protection to mention but a few. Despite the rapid ascendancy of the human rights mainstreaming concept, much attention have not been given to the scope of human rights mainstreaming and the practical aspects of human rights mainstreaming, particularly whether institutions consisting of ‘outsiders’ to the human rights epistemic community can interpret and enforce human rights obligation. Put simply, do environmentalists, scientists and outsiders to human rights have the capacity to mainstream human rights? This paper examines the scope and tenets of human rights mainstreaming, it then discusses the practical aspects of mainstreaming human rights into policy making, particularly how epistemic concerns on human rights mainstreaming can be addressed in national and international policy design and implementation.

  11. Human activity under high pressure: A case study on fluctuation scaling of air traffic controller's communication behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.

  12. External dose estimation of the human associated with companion animals under veterinary nuclear medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Hanawa, Asumi; Suzuki, Kanan

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Well often used radionuclides ( 18 F and 99 mTc) were employed for evaluating the external radiation exposures of veterinarians, animal owners, and the public. The human external radiation exposure from radiation sources in phantom likened to animal was considered by comparing the results of computer simulation and the actually measured exposure. The computer simulation was performed by using macro program of Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). In this simulation calculation process, radiation absorption and buildup were taken into consideration with the gamma ray emitted from radioactive materials in the body of the animal. Both corresponded well though the simulation result tended to be overvalued from the actual measurement value. Therefore, it is thought that this system can be applied to the estimation of human's external exposure. When the calculation was done on the condition that the radioactive substance exists only in internal organs (heart, liver, kidneys, and bladder), the unequal distribution of the dose rate was found near the animal body. External radiation exposure estimation to the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public was performed under consideration of the actual working condition, the distance from the source, and the time of exposure. In the calculation, the radiation dose of the animal owner and the public did not exceed the dose limit (5 mSv/yr for the animal owner, and 1 mSv/yr for the general public: International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990) in the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. The calculation condition used in this study was actually more excessive. So the authors consider these exposures would cause no significant issue by starting the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Moreover, since injected radiopharmaceutical is excreted out of the body actually, the

  13. Valence, Not Utility, Underlies Reward-Driven Prioritization in Human Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Ludwig; Peelen, Marius V; Hickey, Clayton

    2017-10-25

    Objects associated with reward draw attention and evoke enhanced activity in visual cortex. What is the underlying mechanism? One possibility is that reward's impact on vision is mediated by unique circuitry that modulates sensory processing, selectively increasing the salience of reward-associated stimuli. Alternatively, effects of reward may be part of a more general mechanism that prioritizes the processing of any beneficial object, importantly including stimuli that are associated with the evasion of loss. Here, we test these competing hypotheses by having male and female humans detect naturalistic objects associated with monetary reward, the evasion of equivalent loss, or neither of these. If vision is economically normative, processing of objects associated with reward and evasion of loss should be prioritized relative to neutral stimuli. Results from fMRI and behavioral experiments show that this is not the case: whereas objects associated with reward were better detected and represented in ventral visual cortex, detection and representation of stimuli associated with the evasion of loss were degraded. Representations in parietal cortex reveal a notable exception to this pattern, showing enhanced encoding of both reward- and loss-associated stimuli. Experience-driven visual prioritization can thus be economically irrational, driven by valence rather than objective utility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Normative economic models propose that gain should have the same value as evasion of equivalent loss. Is human vision rational in this way? Objects associated with reward draw attention and are well represented in visual cortex. This is thought to have evolutionary origins, highlighting objects likely to provide benefit in the future. But benefit can be conferred not only through gain, but also through evasion of loss. Here we demonstrate that the visual system prioritizes real-world objects presented in images of natural scenes only when these objects have been

  14. The contribution of high frequencies to human brain activity underlying horizontal localization of natural spatial sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alku Paavo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of auditory neuroscience, much research has focused on the neural processes underlying human sound localization. A recent magnetoencephalography (MEG study investigated localization-related brain activity by measuring the N1m event-related response originating in the auditory cortex. It was found that the dynamic range of the right-hemispheric N1m response, defined as the mean difference in response magnitude between contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation, reflects cortical activity related to the discrimination of horizontal sound direction. Interestingly, the results also suggested that the presence of realistic spectral information within horizontally located spatial sounds resulted in a larger right-hemispheric N1m dynamic range. Spectral cues being predominant at high frequencies, the present study further investigated the issue by removing frequencies from the spatial stimuli with low-pass filtering. This resulted in a stepwise elimination of direction-specific spectral information. Interaural time and level differences were kept constant. The original, unfiltered stimuli were broadband noise signals presented from five frontal horizontal directions and binaurally recorded for eight human subjects with miniature microphones placed in each subject's ear canals. Stimuli were presented to the subjects during MEG registration and in a behavioral listening experiment. Results The dynamic range of the right-hemispheric N1m amplitude was not significantly affected even when all frequencies above 600 Hz were removed. The dynamic range of the left-hemispheric N1m response was significantly diminished by the removal of frequencies over 7.5 kHz. The subjects' behavioral sound direction discrimination was only affected by the removal of frequencies over 600 Hz. Conclusion In accord with previous psychophysical findings, the current results indicate that frontal horizontal sound localization and related right

  15. Nicotine promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions and improves the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Wu, Lanxiang; Wang, Yahui; Zhou, Jiayi; Li, Ruixia; Zhou, Jiabing; Wang, Zehua; Xu, Congjian

    2017-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, characterized as defective uteroplacental vascularization, remains the major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that cigarette smoking reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, it is demonstrated that a low dose of nicotine decreased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions. Nicotine was then observed to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by reducing sFlt1 secretion and increasing VEGF mRNA transcription. Further data showed that nicotine enhanced hypoxia-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and HIF-1α small interfering RNA abrogated nicotine-induced VEGF secretion, indicating that HIF-1α may be responsible for nicotine-mediated VEGF transcription under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, conditioned medium from human trophoblast cells treated with nicotine under hypoxic conditions promoted the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) by promoting VEGF secretion. These findings indicate that nicotine may promote VEGF secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions by reducing sFlt1 secretion and up-regulating VEGF transcription and improve the proliferation and tube formation of HUVEC cells, which may contribute to elucidate the protective effect of cigarette smoking against pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Data Mining Techniques to Predict the Detriment Level of Car Insurance Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mahmood Izadparast

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays customers’ role is changed from just accepting the producers, to leading investors, producers, and even researchers and inventors. Therefore, it is necessary for organizations to identify their customers well and to make plans for them. Some statistical and machine-based learning methods are used so far. However these methods alone are not without limitations. Using various methods of data mining, this research was to eliminate those restrictions as far as possible, so that a framework for identification of car insurance customers could be provided. In fact, the purpose was to categorize the most similar customers and to estimate the amount of risk in each category, according to their characteristics. Now, using this scale (i.e. amount of risk in each category and considering the type of customer’s policy, the level of recompense could be estimated. This criterion can be helpful to identify customers and for making insurance tariff policies. For this purpose, in insurance industry the two data mining methods were been used to estimate customers’ detriment: the decision tree and clustering. Nevertheless, the decision tree method appears to give better results, although at the same, the clustering method generates a good categorization.

  17. Evidence for a Detrimental Effect of Bicarbonate Therapy in Hypoxic Lactic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Helmut; Leach, William; Arieff, Allen I.

    1985-02-01

    Lactic acidosis, a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of lactic acid, is characterized by lactate concentration in blood greater than 5 mM. Therapy usually consists of intravenous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but resultant mortality is greater than 60 percent. The metabolic and systemic effects of NaHCO3 therapy of hypoxic lactic acidosis in dogs were studied and compared to the effects of sodium chloride or no therapy. Sodium bicarbonate elevated blood lactate concentrations to a greater extent than did either sodium chloride or no treatment. Despite the infusion of NaHCO3, both arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration decreased by a similar amount in all three groups of dogs. Additional detrimental effects of NaHCO3 were observed on the cardiovascular system, including decreases in cardiac output and blood pressure that were not observed with either sodium chloride or no treatment. Thus there is evidence for a harmful effect of NaHCO3 in the treatment of hypoxic lactic acidosis.

  18. Thrombophilia and assisted reproduction technology-any detrimental impact or unnecessary overuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Urman, Bulent

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the studies investigating a possible association between thrombophilia and assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome. This is a literature review. Congenital thrombophilias (CoT) are reported to be associated with pregnancy loss. However, the association between CoT and early pregnancy loss is weak and does not necessarily support causation. CoT are more likely to be associated with late fetal loss. Even though data pooled from case-control and cohort studies suggest an increased risk of ART failure in women with CoTs, there seems no association when the analysis is confined to better quality cohort studies. The evidence supporting anticoagulation to improve ART outcome in CoT carriers is weak. Likewise, studies on antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and ART outcome suffer from multiple methodological limitations and a detrimental impact of APA positivity is controversial. Empirical administration of heparin or low molecular weight heparin to women with recurrent ART failures is supported by weak evidence. Importantly, thrombophilias are likely to increase thrombotic complications after ovarian stimulation for ART. Current evidence does not support routinely testing for or treatment of thrombophilia in the setting of ART nor in couples with implantation failure. A careful personal and family history should be obtained and a risk assessment for thrombotic complications should be made in every woman undergoing ovarian stimulation. If positive, testing for thrombophilia is warranted.

  19. Comprehensive study on the detrimental effects of fossil fuel exploration and pipe laying in deltaic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep Khanna, L.; Ramnath, K.; Monica, J.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.

    2017-07-01

    Thanjavur is the “Granary of South India”. As the prosperous capital of Chola kingdom it was praised as “Chola Naadu Sorudaithu” (the land that had abundant food). Now, due to Cauvery water shortage issues, the farmers had to be content with single crop a year. Adding to the woes are urbanization and development programs which lack foresight or long term plans that exploit natural resources without a well-articulated thought process. Presently the net sown area in the deltaic region is about 11.87 lac hectares. In the guise of national interests, there is a pursuit of these regions by agencies- public sector undertakings with vested interests. The oil exploration in Cauvery basin (Narimanam block) by Public Sector Undertakings, estimated lignite reserves of 36000 million tonnes and gas reserves and 104.7 billion cubic metres (CBM Coal Gas Methane), which has placed the deltaic region in the corporate radar. Environmentalists and legislators have also turned a blind eye towards the detrimental aftermaths upon the execution of crude product explorations on our cultivable lands.

  20. Type I interferon induction is detrimental during infection with the Whipple's disease bacterium, Tropheryma whipplei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatoun Al Moussawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the first line of defense against pathogens. Upon infection macrophages usually produce high levels of proinflammatory mediators. However, macrophages can undergo an alternate polarization leading to a permissive state. In assessing global macrophage responses to the bacterial agent of Whipple's disease, Tropheryma whipplei, we found that T. whipplei induced M2 macrophage polarization which was compatible with bacterial replication. Surprisingly, this M2 polarization of infected macrophages was associated with apoptosis induction and a functional type I interferon (IFN response, through IRF3 activation and STAT1 phosphorylation. Using macrophages from mice deficient for the type I IFN receptor, we found that this type I IFN response was required for T. whipplei-induced macrophage apoptosis in a JNK-dependent manner and was associated with the intracellular replication of T. whipplei independently of JNK. This study underscores the role of macrophage polarization in host responses and highlights the detrimental role of type I IFN during T. whipplei infection.

  1. Detrimental effects of workplace bullying: impediment of self-management competence via psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eGiorgi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001 in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.

  2. Detrimental Effects of Workplace Bullying: Impediment of Self-Management Competence via Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual's physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study's findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.

  3. The detrimental impact of maladaptive personality on public mental health: a challenge for psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasised the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders, but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.

  4. Whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases: detrimental or beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemici, Cengiz; Yaprak, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is frequently used, either alone or together with whole-brain radiation therapy to treat brain metastases from solid tumors. Certain experts and radiation oncology groups have proposed replacing whole-brain radiation therapy with stereotactic radiosurgery alone for the management of brain metastases. Although randomized trials have favored adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery for most end points, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated a survival disadvantage for patients treated with whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery compared with patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery alone. However the apparent detrimental effect of adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery reported in this meta-analysis may be the result of inhomogeneous distribution of the patients with respect to tumor histologies, molecular histologic subtypes, and extracranial tumor stages between the groups rather than a real effect. Unfortunately, soon after this meta-analysis was published, even as an abstract, use of whole-brain radiation therapy in managing brain metastases has become controversial among radiation oncologists. The American Society of Radiation Oncology recently recommended, in their “Choose Wisely” campaign, against routinely adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery to treat brain metastases. However, this situation creates conflict for radiation oncologists who believe that there are enough high level of evidence for the effectiveness of whole-brain radiation therapy in the treatment of brain metastases

  5. Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human-Induced Pluripotent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    stem cell center reprograms blood cells at expert facility... reprogramming of stem cells occurs at BU. ▪ Personnel exchanges - subject recruitment is done at BUSPH site with BUSPH research assistant. ▪ Other – none...Aim 1. Develop human neurons or glial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), originating from

  6. Behaviour of Human Hemodynamics under Microcavity –a Proposal for the 7th German Parabolic Flight Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Blazek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All astronauts often feel uncomfortable during first encounter microgravity because of fluid shifts from the lower extremities to the head caused by weightlessness. Parabolic flights offer a great possibility for research of this phenomenon under “zero gravity”. With a combination of the optoelectronic sensor concepts PPG and PPGI and an ultrasound device it should be possible to measure all relevant parameters for description and further explanation of rapid fluid shifts along the body axis in humans during parabolic flights. A research team of the RWTH Aachen University and the Charité University Berlin will participate in the 7th German Parabolic Flight Campaign in September 2005 and perform the experiments under micro gravitation. A combination of used non-invasive strategies will reveal new insights into the human hemodynamics under microgravity conditions. The optoelectronic part of this interdisciplinary research experiment, details from the measuring setup, data collecting and post processing will be discussed.

  7. The purinergic component of human bladder smooth muscle cells’ proliferation and contraction under physiological stretch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Tian, Ye; Yue, Xuan; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-Jie, E-mail: kunjiewangatscu@163.com

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation and contraction. •Optimum applied stretch in vitro is 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively. •Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 is upregulated after application of stretch. •P2X2 is possibly more susceptible to stretch related changes. •Purinoceptors functioning may explain conditions with atropine resistance. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether cyclic stretch induces proliferation and contraction of human smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs), mediated by P2X purinoceptor 1 and 2 and the signal transduction mechanisms of this process. Methods: HBSMCs were seeded on silicone membrane and stretched under varying parameters; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (Frequency: 0.05 Hz, 0.1 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz). 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine assay was employed for proliferative studies. Contractility of the cells was determined using collagen gel contraction assay. After optimal physiological stretch was established; P2X1 and P2X2 were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot. Specificity of purinoceptors was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (NF023 for P2X1, and A317491for P2X2), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation and contractility were observed at 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively, applied at a frequency of 0.1 Hz; At 5% stretch, proliferation increased from 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023%, p < 0.05. Mean contraction at 10% stretching increased from 31.7 ± 2.3%, (control) to 78.28 ±1.45%, p < 0.05. Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 was upregulated after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.232 ± 0.051, p < 0.05 NF023) and (1.302 ± 0.021, p < 0.05 A314791) while contractility was markedly reduced (68.24 ± 2.31, p < 0.05 NF023) and (73.2 ± 2.87, p < 0.05 A314791). These findings shows that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative and contractile modulation of HBSMCs in

  8. Connecting Corporate Human Rights Responsibilities and State Obligations under the UN Guiding Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and communication such as non-financial reporting. HRDD and reporting are discussed as modalities for promoting businesses’ self-regulation. They therefore offer a way for States to push businesses towards greater respect for human rights. States may induce learning and self-regulation on human rights among...... businesses through ‘smart mix’ hard, soft and incentives measures related to HRDD and reporting. The paper argues that that clever deployment of these measures may bring forth normative guidance and directives for business action respectful of human rights, strengthening Pillar Two through Pillar One...

  9. Brief Communication: Quantitative- and molecular-genetic differentiation in humans and chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Estimates of the amount of genetic differentiation in humans among major geographic regions (e.g., Eastern Asia vs. Europe) from quantitative-genetic analyses of cranial measurements closely match those from classical- and molecular-genetic markers. Typically, among-region differences account for ∼10% of the total variation. This correspondence is generally interpreted as evidence for the importance of neutral evolutionary processes (e.g., genetic drift) in generating among-region differences in human cranial form, but it was initially surprising because human cranial diversity was frequently assumed to show a strong signature of natural selection. Is the human degree of similarity of cranial and DNA-sequence estimates of among-region genetic differentiation unusual? How do comparisons with other taxa illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? Chimpanzees provide a useful starting point for placing the human results in a broader comparative context, because common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the extant species most closely related to humans. To address these questions, I used 27 cranial measurements collected on a sample of 861 humans and 263 chimpanzees to estimate the amount of genetic differentiation between pairs of groups (between regions for humans and between species or subspecies for chimpanzees). Consistent with previous results, the human cranial estimates are quite similar to published DNA-sequence estimates. In contrast, the chimpanzee cranial estimates are much smaller than published DNA-sequence estimates. It appears that cranial differentiation has been limited in chimpanzees relative to humans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Adding sodium information to casual dining restaurant menus: Beneficial or detrimental for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Karen; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard F; Behnke, Carl; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2018-06-01

    High sodium levels in restaurant food have prompted Philadelphia and New York City to require inclusion of sodium content in addition to calories on menus to "nudge" consumers toward lower sodium foods. However, taste perceptions may impact the effectiveness of this intervention. An online survey tested whether sodium and calorie menu nutrition information (MNI) influenced consumer choices from a casual dining restaurant menu, accounting for consumers' intuition about taste of food relative to sodium, calories, and healthiness. Consumer choices were assessed based on calorie and sodium content of the menu items they selected. Participants were randomized to a menu with (1) calorie MNI only, (2) calorie plus numeric sodium MNI, (3) calorie MNI plus a sodium warning symbol for foods with 2300 mg of sodium or more, or (4) no MNI. Calorie plus numeric sodium MNI was associated with selection of meals lower in sodium compared to meals from the calorie MNI only menu or no MNI menu, but only for consumers with a taste intuition that (relatively) lower sodium, lower calorie, healthy foods were tasty. Consumers with the opposite taste intuition *(foods with these characteristics are not tasty) ordered meals higher in sodium. Inclusion of the sodium warning symbol did not result in a significantly different meal sodium content compared to the other menu conditions, regardless of taste intuition. However, differing levels of taste intuition alone, without consideration of MNI, was associated with ordering meals of significantly different calorie content. Overall, findings suggest adding calorie plus numeric sodium MNI may lead to beneficial outcomes (i.e., selecting meals lower in sodium) for some consumers and detrimental outcomes (i.e., selecting meals higher in sodium) for others, depending on their taste intuition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High adsorption rate is detrimental to bacteriophage fitness in a biofilm-like environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yongping

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial biofilm is ubiquitous in nature. However, it is not clear how this crowded habitat would impact the evolution of bacteriophage (phage life history traits. In this study, we constructed isogenic λ phage strains that only differed in their adsorption rates, because of the presence/absence of extra side tail fibers or improved tail fiber J, and maker states. The high cell density and viscosity of the biofilm environment was approximated by the standard double-layer agar plate. The phage infection cycle in the biofilm environment was decomposed into three stages: settlement on to the biofilm surface, production of phage progeny inside the biofilm, and emigration of phage progeny out of the current focus of infection. Results We found that in all cases high adsorption rate is beneficial for phage settlement, but detrimental to phage production (in terms of plaque size and productivity and emigration out of the current plaque. Overall, the advantage of high adsorption accrued during settlement is more than offset by the disadvantages experienced during the production and emigration stages. The advantage of low adsorption rate was further demonstrated by the rapid emergence of low-adsorption mutant from a high-adsorption phage strain with the side tail fibers. DNA sequencing showed that 19 out of the 21 independent mutant clones have mutations in the stf gene, with the majority of them being single-nucleotide insertion/deletion mutations occurring in regions with homonucleotide runs. Conclusion We conclude that high mutation rate of the stf gene would ensure the existence of side tail fiber polymorphism, thus contributing to rapid adaptation of the phage population between diametrically different habitats of benthic biofilm and planktonic liquid culture. Such adaptability would also help to explain the maintenance of the stf gene in phage λ's genome.

  12. Mitigating the Detrimental Impacts of Solar PV Penetration on Electric Power Transmission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Nitin

    At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO 2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.

  13. Decompose the association between heatwave and mortality: Which type of heatwave is more detrimental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Tong, Shilu

    2017-07-01

    Heatwaves is the most hazardous natural disaster in Australia and its health impacts need to be well unveiled, but how to properly define a heatwave is still debatable. This study aimed to identify which type of heatwave is more detrimental to health and to elucidate which temperature indicator is more suitable for heatwave definition and early warning. We categorized temperature into extremely-hot and not-extremely-hot, and extremely-hot temperature refers to temperature at least ≥96th percentile of the monthly temperature distribution, and accordingly, heatwaves were categorized into four types: 1) Type I: extremely-hot days followed by extremely-hot nights (HW both ); 2) Type II: extremely-hot days followed by not-extremely-hot nights (HW day ); 3) Type III: not-extremely-hot days followed by extremely-hot nights (HW night ); and 4) Type IV: not-extremely-hot days followed by not-extremely-hot nights (HW warm ). A Poisson regression allowing for over-dispersion was used to examine the relationship between different types of heatwaves and mortality in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane using the data from 1988 to 2011. Mortality in Brisbane increased significantly during HW both and HW warm , and mortality in Melbourne increased significantly during HW both and HW day . For Sydney, HW both , HW warm , and HW day were all associated with mortality increase, although no appreciable difference in the magnitudes of mortality increase among these three heatwave types was observed. HW night was not associated with any significant mortality increase in these cities. Mean temperature is the best temperature indicator for heatwaves in Brisbane and maximum temperature is the best temperature indicator for heatwaves in Melbourne. Extremely-hot days rather than extremely-hot nights played a critical role in heatwave-related mortality. City-specific heatwave early warning may be optimal for Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endocannabinoid system and psychiatry: in search of a neurobiological basis for detrimental and potential therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Marco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e. anxiety disorders, depression and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD, the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation.

  15. Relationship between human respiratory reactivity and neutrophil metabolism under intermittent hypoxic influences in humans exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrovskaya, T.V.; Oberenko, O.A.; Guseva, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The group of 18 men exposed to radiation during amelioration work in the Chernobyl NPP was examined in the course of adaptation to intermittent hypoxia (rebreathing technique during 10 days of three dayly 5-7 min sessions with 15 min break). The starting level of ventilatory response to hypoxic stimulus (HVR) did not differ from the one in persons living in non-contaminated areas. This hypoxic training (HT) caused the increase of HVR, activity of NADPH-oxidase and cationic protein content in neutrophyls as well as various changes in mieloperoxidase activity. The correlation between respiration reactivity and deviations in neutrophil metabolism under HT was found. 14 refs., 2 figs

  16. A landslide on a mudslide? Natural hazards and the right to life under the European Convention of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Rytter, Jens Elo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the protection of individuals’ lives against natural hazards under the European Convention on Human Rights. In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights decided to include natural hazards in a well-established doctrine developed to protect individuals from life......-threatening industrial hazards, while allowing States an especially broad margin of appreciation with regard to natural hazards. Drawing on contemporary disaster theory, the article examines whether and to what extent the Court's distinction between natural and industrial hazards can be maintained. The article proposes...

  17. Climate change impact assessments on the water resources of India under extensive human interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusoodhanan, C G; Sreeja, K G; Eldho, T I

    2016-10-01

    Climate change is a major concern in the twenty-first century and its assessments are associated with multiple uncertainties, exacerbated and confounded in the regions where human interventions are prevalent. The present study explores the challenges for climate change impact assessment on the water resources of India, one of the world's largest human-modified systems. The extensive human interventions in the Energy-Land-Water-Climate (ELWC) nexus significantly impact the water resources of the country. The direct human interventions in the landscape may surpass/amplify/mask the impacts of climate change and in the process also affect climate change itself. Uncertainties in climate and resource assessments add to the challenge. Formulating coherent resource and climate change policies in India would therefore require an integrated approach that would assess the multiple interlinkages in the ELWC nexus and distinguish the impacts of global climate change from that of regional human interventions. Concerted research efforts are also needed to incorporate the prominent linkages in the ELWC nexus in climate/earth system modelling.

  18. Security under Uncertainty: Adaptive Attackers Are More Challenging to Human Defenders than Random Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Moisan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Game Theory is a common approach used to understand attacker and defender motives, strategies, and allocation of limited security resources. For example, many defense algorithms are based on game-theoretic solutions that conclude that randomization of defense actions assures unpredictability, creating difficulties for a human attacker. However, many game-theoretic solutions often rely on idealized assumptions of decision making that underplay the role of human cognition and information uncertainty. The consequence is that we know little about how effective these algorithms are against human players. Using a simplified security game, we study the type of attack strategy and the uncertainty about an attacker's strategy in a laboratory experiment where participants play the role of defenders against a simulated attacker. Our goal is to compare a human defender's behavior in three levels of uncertainty (Information Level: Certain, Risky, Uncertain and three types of attacker's strategy (Attacker's strategy: Minimax, Random, Adaptive in a between-subjects experimental design. Best defense performance is achieved when defenders play against a minimax and a random attack strategy compared to an adaptive strategy. Furthermore, when payoffs are certain, defenders are as efficient against random attack strategy as they are against an adaptive strategy, but when payoffs are uncertain, defenders have most difficulties defending against an adaptive attacker compared to a random attacker. We conclude that given conditions of uncertainty in many security problems, defense algorithms would be more efficient if they are adaptive to the attacker actions, taking advantage of the attacker's human inefficiencies.

  19. Effect of sound stimulion reciprocal interaction of antagonist muscles of lowe extremities in humans under vestibular loadе

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dregval

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research are evidence of changing muscles reflex activity of human lower extremity under the influence of sound stimulus of various frequency range together with the vestibular burden. The most change of the H-reflex was observed under the sound stimulus of 800 hertz. Not only the proprioceptive but auditory sensory system takes part in the regulation of the brain reflex activity. Existence of different labyrinths actions, according to the situation, on the interneuronic inhibitory ways of the postsynaptic inhibition of the salens muscle’s motoneurons is supposed.

  20. Commercialization of human organs for transplantation intervivos under the perspective of the social bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Buying and selling human organs for transplants from living donors has been discussed worldwide in the bioethical debate and it is becoming a public health problem. This essay discusses, in light of the Social Bioethics, arguments used to justify such practices, which are related to the common good, moral plurality, autonomy and individual freedom. Such justificatory aspects assume liberal and utilitarian characteristics. They present the possibility of double standard, do not consider social vulnerability, and harm dignity and human rights by evidencing an apology to the market laws. Thus, the justifications for buying and selling human organs for transplantations intervivos eventually turn the body, or part of it, into a commodity.

  1. 76 FR 27164 - Extension of Accreditation Agreement With Colorado Department of Human Services Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Colorado's fault or negligence in connection with performing duties under this Agreement. Any negligence or alleged negligence by the Department or persons acting on its behalf shall not preclude a claim for...

  2. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Very rapid generation of human iPS cells under optimized conditions. ► Five chemical inhibitors under hypoxia boosted reprogramming. ► We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. -- Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1 month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly generating bona fide human iPS cells and facilitates the application of i

  3. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hidenori [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshiya [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Hanazonocho, Kuzuha, Hirakatashi, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Tatsuo, E-mail: nakamura@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very rapid generation of human iPS cells under optimized conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five chemical inhibitors under hypoxia boosted reprogramming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. -- Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1 month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly

  4. Coupling habitat suitability and ecosystem health with AEHRA to estimate E-flows under intensive human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Yang, S. T.; Zhang, H. T.; Liu, C. M.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Dong, B. E.; Lim, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Sustaining adequate environmental flows (e-flows) is a key principle for maintaining river biodiversity and ecosystem health, and for supporting sustainable water resource management in basins under intensive human activities. But few methods could correctly relate river health to e-flows assessment at the catchment scale when they are applied to rivers highly impacted by human activities. An effective method is presented in this study to closely link river health to e-flows assessment for rivers at the catchment scale. Key fish species, as indicators of ecosystem health, were selected by using the foodweb model. A multi-species-based habitat suitability model (MHSI) was improved, and coupled with dominance of the key fish species as well as the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) to enhance its accuracy in determining the fish-preferred key hydrologic habitat variables related to ecosystem health. Taking 5964 fish samples and concurrent hydrological habitat variables as the basis, the combination of key variables of flow-velocity and water-depth were determined and used to drive the Adapted Ecological Hydraulic Radius Approach (AEHRA) to study e-flows in a Chinese urban river impacted by intensive human activities. Results showed that upstream urbanization resulted in abnormal river-course geomorphology and consequently abnormal e-flows under intensive human activities. Selection of key species based on the foodweb and trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems can reflect a comprehensive requirement on e-flows of the whole aquatic ecosystem, which greatly increases its potential to be used as a guidance tool for rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems at large spatial scales. These findings have significant ramifications for catchment e-flows assessment under intensive human activities and for river ecohealth restoration in such rivers globally.

  5. Impacts of exhalation flow on the microenvironment around the human body under different room temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Gharari, Noradin; Azari, Mansour Rezazade; Ashrafi, Khosro

    2018-04-01

    Exhalation flow and room temperature can have a considerable effect on the microenvironment in the vicinity of human body. In this study, impacts of exhalation flow and room temperature on the microenvironment around a human body were investigated using a numerical simulation. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamic program was applied to study thermal plume around a sitting human body at different room temperatures of a calm indoor room by considering the exhalation flow. The simulation was supported by some experimental measurements. Six different room temperatures (18 to 28 °C) with two nose exhalation modes (exhalation and non-exhalation) were investigated. Overhead and breathing zone velocities and temperatures were simulated in different scenarios. This study finds out that the exhalation through the nose has a significant impact on both quantitative and qualitative features of the human microenvironment in different room temperatures. At a given temperature, the exhalation through the nose can change the location and size of maximum velocity at the top of the head. In the breathing zone, the effect of exhalation through the nose on velocity and temperature distribution was pronounced for the point close to mouth. Also, the exhalation through the nose strongly influences the thermal boundary layer on the breathing zone while it only minimally influences the convective boundary layer on the breathing zone. Overall results demonstrate that it is important to take the exhalation flow into consideration in all areas, especially at a quiescent flow condition with low temperature.

  6. 77 FR 59992 - Announcement of Humanities Medal Design Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... obtain liability insurance or demonstrate financial responsibility in order to participate in this... will, in consideration of the prize to be awarded, grant to NEH an irrevocable, royalty-free, exclusive... .) The design should reflect the importance of the award and of the humanities in a graceful, insightful...

  7. Integration of motion responses underlying directional motion anisotropy in human early visual cortical areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Petridou, N.; Ramsey, N.F.; Raemaekers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have reported directional motion biases in human visual cortex when perceiving moving random dot patterns. It has been hypothesized that these biases occur as a result of the integration of motion detector activation along the path of motion in visual cortex. In this study we

  8. Human perception of the conservation and biodiversity state of forest remnants under different levels of urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thallita Oliveira de Grande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human perception of local environmental biodiversity and conservation may provide another dimension to understanding the ecology of urban ecosystems. This perception can vary according to the environmental urbanization level and may contribute towards its conservation. We investigated the relationship between the human perception of the conservation and state of animal richness in urban remnants and level of landscape urbanization, and between the human perception of animal richness and the remnants’ area. In addition, we tested the effectiveness of interviews as the means for evaluating animal richness. The subjects' perception of the conservation of remnants did not correlate with the level of urbanization. Richness was reported as high and varied with the remnant’s area - indicating maintenance of a possible species-area relationship in the studied landscape - but did not correlate with the level of urbanization. Urbanization can standardize the popular knowledge about conservation. Interviews with local residents proved to bring efficient insights into urban animal richness, especially for primates, and can be supplemented by camera-trapping. Human perception, obtained through interviews, is relevant and useful for the description of ecological aspects of urban regions and supports environmental awareness, actions, research projects, and management for conservation purposes.

  9. Functional Connectivity under Optogenetic Control Allows Modeling of Human Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Julius A; Jaiswal, Manoj K; Calder, Elizabeth L; Kishinevsky, Sarah; Weishaupt, Andreas; Toyka, Klaus V; Goldstein, Peter A; Studer, Lorenz

    2016-01-07

    Capturing the full potential of human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neurons in disease modeling and regenerative medicine requires analysis in complex functional systems. Here we establish optogenetic control in human PSC-derived spinal motorneurons and show that co-culture of these cells with human myoblast-derived skeletal muscle builds a functional all-human neuromuscular junction that can be triggered to twitch upon light stimulation. To model neuromuscular disease we incubated these co-cultures with IgG from myasthenia gravis patients and active complement. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that selectively targets neuromuscular junctions. We saw a reversible reduction in the amplitude of muscle contractions, representing a surrogate marker for the characteristic loss of muscle strength seen in this disease. The ability to recapitulate key aspects of disease pathology and its symptomatic treatment suggests that this neuromuscular junction assay has significant potential for modeling of neuromuscular disease and regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical Role of Peripheral Vasoconstriction in Fatal Brain Hyperthermia Induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under Conditions That Mimic Human Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert H.; Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Baumann, Michael H.; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (Ecstasy) is an illicit drug used by young adults at hot, crowed “rave” parties, yet the data on potential health hazards of its abuse remain controversial. Here, we examined the effect of MDMA on temperature homeostasis in male rats under standard laboratory conditions and under conditions that simulate drug use in humans. We chronically implanted thermocouple microsensors in the nucleus accumbens (a brain reward area), temporal muscle, and facial skin to measure temperature continuously from freely moving rats. While focusing on brain hyperthermia, temperature monitoring from the two peripheral locations allowed us to evaluate the physiological mechanisms (i.e., intracerebral heat production and heat loss via skin surfaces) that underlie MDMA-induced brain temperature responses. Our data confirm previous reports on high individual variability and relatively weak brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA under standard control conditions (quiet rest, 22−23°C), but demonstrate dramatic enhancements of drug-induced brain hyperthermia during social interaction (exposure to male conspecific) and in warm environments (29°C). Importantly, we identified peripheral vasoconstriction as a critical mechanism underlying the activity- and state-dependent potentiation of MDMA-induced brain hyperthermia. Through this mechanism, which prevents proper heat dissipation to the external environment, MDMA at a moderate nontoxic dose (9 mg/kg or ∼1/5 of LD50 in rats) can cause fatal hyperthermia under environmental conditions commonly encountered by humans. Our results demonstrate that doses of MDMA that are nontoxic under cool, quiet conditions can become highly dangerous under conditions that mimic recreational use of MDMA at rave parties or other hot, crowded venues. PMID:24899699

  11. The interface between bioethics and cultural diversity under the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2008-06-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights has made clear its aims to provide a universal framework of principles and procedures to guide States in the formulation of their legislation, policies or other instruments in the field ofbioethics and also to guide the actions of individuals, groups, communities, institutions and corporations so as to promote appreciation for human dignity and to protect human rights. It also sets up 15 principles to be applied. One of the principles in the Declaration is about the recognition of cultural diversity as an important element of bioethics. Thus it is clear that bioethics has its relativeness and is susceptible to different cultures. However, in order not to have the bioethics principles being defeated because of the cultural factor, the Declaration set forth conditions to limit the application of the cultural diversity element. This approach is called "qualified absoluteness" by the author. The paper discusses these conditions and the problems arising from their applications. Basically, there is a clear line drawn to limit the application of cultural diversity in setting up and in applying bioethical rules. The line drawn is based on the concept of human rights, the principles and concepts of which have not only been set forth in the Human Rights Convention, but have also been prescribed in other provisions in the Declaration. From conceptual viewpoint, the Declaration has listed a number of soft-law rules, which in turn also provide authorization for the government or private or public groups to take cultural diversity into account. Although the rules set forth in most of the parts in the Declaration are of soft but absolute mandates in nature, the requirement of paying due regard to cultural diversity is in fact providing governments as well as groups a possibility to enact or apply their bioethical rules to reflect their cultural uniqueness. The term "qualified absoluteness" is used in this paper to reflect

  12. Impact wear behavior of human tooth enamel under simulated chewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Zeng, Yangyang; Wen, Jian; Zheng, Liang; Zhou, Zhongrong

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies mostly focused on the sliding wear behavior of human teeth, and little effort has been made so far to study the impact wear of human teeth. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact wear process and mechanism of human tooth enamel and the influence of water content within enamel. In this paper, the impact wear behaviors of fresh and dried human tooth enamel against SiC ceramic have been investigated using a specially designed impact test machine. Tests lasting up to 5×10(3), 5×10(4), 2.5×10(5), 5.5×10(5), 8×10(5) and 1×10(6) cycles were conducted, respectively. Results showed that for the fresh enamel, the surface damage was dominated by plastic deformation at the early stage of impact wear. Iridescent rings appeared around the impact mark as a result of the accumulation and spread of plastic deformation. As the impact wear progressed, delamination occurred on the surface of enamel, and thus the iridescent rings gradually disappeared. Wear loss increased rapidly with the increase of impact cycles. When a wear particle layer was formed on the enamel surface, the wear rate decreased. It was found that the surface hardness of enamel increased with the impact cycles, and no cracks appeared on the cross section of wear scar. Compared with the fresh enamel, the fracture toughness of dried enamel decreased, and thus there were microcracks appearing on the cross section of wear scar. More obvious delamination occurred on the worn surface of dried enamel, and no iridescent rings were observed. The wear loss of dried enamel was higher than that of fresh enamel. In summary, the impact wear behavior of sound human tooth enamel was metal-like to some degree, and no subsurface cracking occurred. The water content within enamel could increase its fracture toughness and protect the surface from impact wear. The wear mechanism of human tooth enamel is determined by its microstructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Humans can adopt optimal discounting strategy under real-time constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Schweighofer

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical to our many daily choices between larger delayed rewards, and smaller more immediate rewards, are the shape and the steepness of the function that discounts rewards with time. Although research in artificial intelligence favors exponential discounting in uncertain environments, studies with humans and animals have consistently shown hyperbolic discounting. We investigated how humans perform in a reward decision task with temporal constraints, in which each choice affects the time remaining for later trials, and in which the delays vary at each trial. We demonstrated that most of our subjects adopted exponential discounting in this experiment. Further, we confirmed analytically that exponential discounting, with a decay rate comparable to that used by our subjects, maximized the total reward gain in our task. Our results suggest that the particular shape and steepness of temporal discounting is determined by the task that the subject is facing, and question the notion of hyperbolic reward discounting as a universal principle.

  14. How social is error observation? The neural mechanisms underlying the observation of human and machine errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; Deschrijver, Eliane; Brass, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is involved in error execution as well as error observation. Based on this finding, it has been argued that recognizing each other's mistakes might rely on motor simulation. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we directly tested this hypothesis by investigating whether medial prefrontal activity in error observation is restricted to situations that enable simulation. To this aim, we compared brain activity related to the observation of errors that can be simulated (human errors) with brain activity related to errors that cannot be simulated (machine errors). We show that medial prefrontal activity is not only restricted to the observation of human errors but also occurs when observing errors of a machine. In addition, our data indicate that the MPFC reflects a domain general mechanism of monitoring violations of expectancies.

  15. Detention and treatment down under: human rights and mental health laws in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Bernadette; Wilson, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Mental health law reform in recent decades has drawn on the international human rights movement. The entering into force of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on May 3 2008 has been hailed by some as signalling a new era in relation to how domestic mental health laws should be reformed. Both Australia and New Zealand have ratified the CRPD and Australia has acceded to its Optional Protocol. New Zealand and the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria have statutory bills of rights which have an interpretive effect, but are unable to render other statutes invalid. Drawing on the results of interviews conducted with fifty-two representatives of consumer and carer organisations, lawyers, and mental health professionals across Australia and New Zealand, this paper examines the current thinking on human rights and mental health laws in these countries and outlines what changes, if any, may be brought to domestic legislation in light of the Convention.

  16. Admittance Control for Robot Assisted Retinal Vein Micro-Cannulation under Human-Robot Collaborative Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonenc, Berk; Iordachita, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is one of the most common retinovascular diseases. Retinal vein cannulation is a potentially effective treatment method for this condition that currently lies, however, at the limits of human capabilities. In this work, the aim is to use robotic systems and advanced instrumentation to alleviate these challenges, and assist the procedure via a human-robot collaborative mode based on our earlier work on the Steady-Hand Eye Robot and force-sensing instruments. An admittance control method is employed to stabilize the cannula relative to the vein and maintain it inside the lumen during the injection process. A pre-stress strategy is used to prevent the tip of microneedle from getting out of vein in in prolonged infusions, and the performance is verified through simulations. PMID:29607442

  17. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecl, Gretta T; Araújo, Miguel B; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia; Bonebrake, Timothy C; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Evengård, Birgitta; Falconi, Lorena; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Jarzyna, Marta A; Jennings, Sarah; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif I; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; Mitchell, Nicola J; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Popova, Ekaterina; Robinson, Sharon A; Scheffers, Brett R; Shaw, Justine D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Sunday, Jennifer M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wernberg, Thomas; Wapstra, Erik; Williams, Stephen E

    2017-03-31

    Distributions of Earth's species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by human-mediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence that climate-driven species redistribution at regional to global scales affects ecosystem functioning, human well-being, and the dynamics of climate change itself. Production of natural resources required for food security, patterns of disease transmission, and processes of carbon sequestration are all altered by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Prolactinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms underlying sexual arousal and orgasm in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Tillmann H C; Hartmann, Uwe; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2005-06-01

    Dopaminergic mechanisms play a major role in modulating sexual behavior in humans and animals. Animal data demonstrate important interactions between the dopaminergic and prolactinergic system. As recently demonstrated, dopamine agonists have facilitatory properties for penile erection but may also enhance sexual drive and orgasmic quality. In contrast, chronic elevations of prolactin inhibit appetitive as well as consummatory parameters of sexual behavior. Recent human studies show a marked increase in prolactin after orgasm in males and females. Concerning the biological relevance of acute prolactin alterations after orgasm, prolactin might serve as a neuroendocrine reproductive reflex for peripheral reproductive organs. Alternatively, prolactin may feedback to dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system and thereby modulate sexual drive and satiation. Here, we provide a brief overview of the physiology of dopamine and prolactin in regulating sexual behavior. In addition, recent experimental and clinical evidence for a postulated feedback mechanism for prolactin and its implications for orgasmic disorders are discussed.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  20. The location- and depth-dependent mechanical response of the human cornea under shear loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Stephen R; Khalifa, Yousuf M; Buckley, Mark R

    2014-10-30

    To characterize the depth-dependent shear modulus of the central and peripheral human cornea along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions with a high spatial resolution. Cylindrical explants from the central and peripheral corneas of 10 human donors were subjected to a 5% shear strain along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions using a microscope-mounted mechanical testing device. Depth-dependent shear strain and shear modulus were computed through force measurements and displacement tracking. The shear modulus G of the human cornea varied continuously with depth, with a maximum occurring roughly 25% of the way from the anterior surface to the posterior surface. G also varied with direction in the superior region and (at some depths) was significantly higher for superior-inferior shear loading. In the anterior half of the cornea, the shear modulus along the nasal-temporal direction (GNT) did not vary with location; however, the superior region had significantly higher GNT in posterior cornea. In contrast, the shear modulus along the superior-inferior direction (GSI) was independent of location at all depths. This study demonstrates that the peak shear modulus of the human cornea occurs at a substantial distance within the corneal stroma. Depth-dependent differences between central and peripheral cornea possibly reflect the location-dependent mechanical environment of the cornea. Moreover, the cornea is not a transverse isotropic material, and must be characterized by more than a single shear modulus due to its dependence on loading direction. The material properties measured in this study are critical for developing accurate mechanical models to predict the vision-threatening morphological changes that can occur in the cornea. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their tem...

  2. Studies on Culture and Osteogenic Induction of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells under CO2-Independent Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Cui; Feng, Yiding; Zong, Chen; Chen, Jiarong; Tang, Zihua; Jia, Bingbing; Tong, Xiangming; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Jinfu

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the important factors that regulate bone anabolism. Osteoporosis resulting from microgravity during spaceflight may possibly be due to a decrease in osteogenesis mediated by hMSCs. This speculation should be verified through culture and osteogenic induction of hMSCs in a microgravity environment during spaceflight. Control of CO2 is a key component in current experimental protocols for growth, survival, and proliferation of in vitro cultured cel...

  3. Gene expression of indoor fungal communities under damp building conditions: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Bridget; Dannemiller, Karen; Peccia, Jordan

    2018-03-03

    Dampness and visible mold growth in homes is associated with negative human health outcomes but causal relationships between fungal exposure and health are not well established. The purpose of this study was to determine if dampness in buildings impacts fungal community gene expression and how, in turn, gene expression may modulate human health impacts. A metatranscriptomic study was performed on house dust fungal communities to investigate the expression of genes and metabolic processes in chamber experiments at water activity levels of 0.5, 0.85 and 1.0. Fungi at water activities as low as 0.5 were metabolically active, focusing their transcriptional resources on primary processes essential for cell maintenance. Metabolic complexity increased with water activity where communities at 1.0 displayed more diverse secondary metabolic processes. Greater gene expression at increasing water activity has important implications for human health: fungal communities at 1.0 a w up-regulated a greater number of allergen, mycotoxin, and pathogenicity encoding genes versus communities at 0.85 and 0.5 a w . In damp buildings, fungi may display increases in secondary metabolic processes with the potential for greater per cell production of allergens, toxins, and pathogenicity. Assessments in wet versus dry buildings that do not account for this elevated health impact may not accurately reflect exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-02-04

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352308-13$15.00/0.

  5. Electrophysiological properties of computational human ventricular cell action potential models under acute ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sara; Mincholé, Ana; Quinn, T Alexander; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the main causes of sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms have been investigated primarily in experimental and computational studies using different animal species, but human studies remain scarce. In this study, we assess the ability of four human ventricular action potential models (ten Tusscher and Panfilov, 2006; Grandi et al., 2010; Carro et al., 2011; O'Hara et al., 2011) to simulate key electrophysiological consequences of acute myocardial ischemia in single cell and tissue simulations. We specifically focus on evaluating the effect of extracellular potassium concentration and activation of the ATP-sensitive inward-rectifying potassium current on action potential duration, post-repolarization refractoriness, and conduction velocity, as the most critical factors in determining reentry vulnerability during ischemia. Our results show that the Grandi and O'Hara models required modifications to reproduce expected ischemic changes, specifically modifying the intracellular potassium concentration in the Grandi model and the sodium current in the O'Hara model. With these modifications, the four human ventricular cell AP models analyzed in this study reproduce the electrophysiological alterations in repolarization, refractoriness, and conduction velocity caused by acute myocardial ischemia. However, quantitative differences are observed between the models and overall, the ten Tusscher and modified O'Hara models show closest agreement to experimental data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals.

  7. Inclusive education: A transformation and human rights agenda under spotlight in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulaheni Maguvhe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the progress made in the implementation of inclusive education as a transformation and human rights tool since its inception in 2001. The study was conducted upon realising that most people underestimate the transformation and human rights value that inclusive education strives to maintain. The total number of participants interviewed was 84. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedules for the teachers and community members, whereafter it was presented in thematic sections and qualitatively examined for meaning. The results showed that participants comprising teachers and community members do not know or understand the transformational and human rights value of inclusive education. The participants seemed to be equally aware of inclusive education, but they rated its success and value differently. The participants concurred that the philosophy of inclusive education was noble, but they differed regarding the extent to which it had transformed, added value or played an advocacy role in the lives of learners and the community at large over the years.

  8. Inclusive education: A transformation and human rights agenda under spotlight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguvhe, Mbulaheni

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the progress made in the implementation of inclusive education as a transformation and human rights tool since its inception in 2001. The study was conducted upon realising that most people underestimate the transformation and human rights value that inclusive education strives to maintain. The total number of participants interviewed was 84. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedules for the teachers and community members, whereafter it was presented in thematic sections and qualitatively examined for meaning. The results showed that participants comprising teachers and community members do not know or understand the transformational and human rights value of inclusive education. The participants seemed to be equally aware of inclusive education, but they rated its success and value differently. The participants concurred that the philosophy of inclusive education was noble, but they differed regarding the extent to which it had transformed, added value or played an advocacy role in the lives of learners and the community at large over the years.

  9. Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Hieab H H; Hibar, Derrek P; Chouraki, Vincent; Stein, Jason L; Nyquist, Paul A; Rentería, Miguel E; Trompet, Stella; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Seshadri, Sudha; Desrivières, Sylvane; Beecham, Ashley H; Jahanshad, Neda; Wittfeld, Katharina; Van der Lee, Sven J; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Bis, Joshua C; Blanken, Laura M E; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chauhan, Ganesh; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Braber, Anouk Den; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Filippi, Irina; Ge, Tian; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Greven, Corina U; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hilal, Saima; Hofer, Edith; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liao, Jiemin; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mazoyer, Bernard; McKay, David R; McWhirter, Rebekah; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin; Muetzel, Ryan L; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pappa, Irene; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pudas, Sara; Pütz, Benno; Rajan, Kumar B; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Thomson, Russell; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Xu, Bing; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Chen, Christopher; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita L; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Evans, Denis A; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Grabe, Hans J; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Ikram, M Kamran; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Longstreth, W T; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Katie L; McMahon, Francis J; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schofield, Peter R; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Srikanth, Velandai; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Tiemeier, Henning; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; Van der Lugt, Aad; Van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Van T Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Veltman, Dick J; Vernooij, Meike W; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, H Ronald; Zonderman, Alan B; Deary, Ian J; DeCarli, Charles; Schmidt, Helena; Martin, Nicholas G; De Craen, Anton J M; Wright, Margaret J; Launer, Lenore J; Schumann, Gunter; Fornage, Myriam; Franke, Barbara; Debette, Stéphanie; Medland, Sarah E; Ikram, M Arfan; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously

  10. Stability and compatibility of recombinant adeno-associated virus under conditions commonly encountered in human gene therapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, Alisha M; Su, Lin; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Mueller, Christian; Flotte, Terence R

    2015-04-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are rapidly becoming the first choice for human gene therapy studies, as clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in several human trials and proof-of-concept data have been demonstrated for correction of many others. When moving into human use under the auspices of an FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) application, it is necessary to demonstrate the stability of vector material under various conditions of storage, dilution, and administration when used in humans. Limited data are currently available in the literature regarding vector compatibility and stability, leading most IND sponsors to repeat all necessary studies. The current study addresses this issue with an rAAV vector (rAAV1-CB-chAATmyc) containing AAV2-inverted terminal repeat sequences packaged into an AAV1 capsid. Aliquots of vector were exposed to a variety of temperatures, diluents, container constituents, and other environmental conditions, and its functional biological activity (after these various treatments) was assessed by measuring transgene expression after intramuscular injection in mice. rAAV was found to be remarkably stable at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 55°C (with only partial loss of potency after 20 min at 70°C), at pH ranging from 5.5 to 8.5, after contact with mouse or human serum (with or without complement depletion) or with gadolinium and after contact with glass, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, and stainless steel. The only exposure resulting in near-total loss of vector activity (10,000-fold loss) was UV exposure for 10 min. The stability of rAAV1 preparations bodes well for future dissemination of this therapeutic modality.

  11. Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding human-water interactions is particularly essential in countries where the economy and the people's well-being and income strongly depend on the availability and quality of sufficient water resources. Such a strong dependency on water is existent in Myanmar's Dry Zone located in the central Ayeyarwady River basin. In this area, rainfall is associated with high heterogeneity across space and time. Precipitation amounts in the Dry Zone (500-1000 mm annually) are generally less compared to other regions in Myanmar (up to 4000-6000 mm). Following the Global Climate Risk Index, Myanmar is one of the countries which were most affected by extreme weather events between 1994 and 2013. Severe drought periods e.g in the years 1997-1998, 2010 and 2014 led to crop failures and water shortage in the Dry Zone, where more than 14 mio people predominantly practice agriculture. Due to the high variability of rainfalls, farming is only possible with irrigation, mainly conducted by canal systems from the rivers and groundwater withdrawal. Myanmar is recently facing big challenges which result from comprehensive political and economic reforms since 2011. These may also include increasing water use by new industrial zones and urbanization. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Variability of river runoff and changes in seasonality are expected as a result of climate change. The overarching goal of the study is to understand and increase the knowledge on human-water-climate interactions and to elaborate possible future scenarios for Myanmar's Dry Zone. It is not well studied yet how current and future climate change and increasing human impact will influence the country's abundant water resources including groundwater. Therefore, the first step of this study is to identify the major drivers within the central Ayeyarwady River basin. We are in the process of collecting and analyzing data sets and information including hydrologic and eco

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying catastrophic failure in human-machine interaction during aerial navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saproo, Sameer; Shih, Victor; Jangraw, David C.; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash—these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). Approach. We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment. Main results. We find that workload buildup in a BAT can be successfully decoded from oscillatory features in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Information in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma spectral bands of the EEG all contribute to successful decoding, however gamma band activity with a lateralized somatosensory topography has the highest contribution, while theta band activity with a fronto-central topography has the most robust contribution in terms of real-world usability. We show that the output of the spectral decoder can be used to predict PIO susceptibility. We also find that workload buildup in the task induces pupil dilation, the magnitude of which is significantly correlated with the magnitude of the decoded EEG signals. These results suggest that PIOs may result from the dysregulation of cortical networks such as the locus coeruleus (LC)—anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) circuit. Significance. Our findings may generalize to similar control failures in other cases of tight man-machine coupling where gains and latencies in the control system must be inferred and compensated for by the human operators. A closed-loop intervention using neurophysiological decoding of workload buildup that targets the LC-ACC circuit may positively impact operator performance in such situations.

  13. Autophagy as a Molecular Target of Flavonoids Underlying their Protective Effects in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Domínguez, Nestor; Garcia-Mediavilla, Maria V; Sanchez-Campos, Sonia; Mauriz, Jose L; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular pathway with the ability to maintain cell homeostasis through the elimination of damaged or useless cellular components, and its deregulation may initiate or aggravate different human diseases. Flavonoids, a group of plant metabolites, are able to modulate different molecular and cellular processes including autophagy. To review the effects of flavonoids on autophagy pathway in both invasive and noninvasive human diseases, focusing on the global outcomes in their progression. Moreover, the efficacy of the combination of flavonoids with drugs or other natural nontoxic compounds was also reviewed. A literature search was performed to identify and analyze peer-reviewed publications containing in vitro and in vivo studies focused on autophagy deregulation in different proliferative and non-proliferative pathologies and the potential protective effects of flavonoids. Analyzed publications indicated that imbalance between cell death and survival induced by changes in autophagy play an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of human diseases. The use of different flavonoids as autophagy modulators, alone or in combination with other molecules, might be a worthy strategy in the treatment of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic diseases, leishmaniasis, influenza, gastric ulcers produced by Helicobacter pylori infection, diabetes, asthma, age-related macular degeneration or osteoporosis. Flavonoids could potentially constitute important adjuvant agents of conventional therapies in the treatment of autophagy deregulation-related diseases. Moreover, combined therapy may help to diminish the doses of those conventional treatments, leading to reduced drug-derivative side effects and to improved patients' survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Modelling the Impact of Human Actors on Groundwater Resources under Conditions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.; Reichenau, T. G.; Krimly, T.; Dabbert, S.; Schneider, K.; Mauser, W.; Hennicker, R.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources, activities of human actors and climate change are related in many different and complex ways because of the existence of and strong interactions between various influencing factors, including those that are natural-environmental and socio-economic. The GLOWA-Danube research cooperation has developed the integrated simulation system DANUBIA to simulate water-related influences of global change in different spatial and temporal contexts. DANUBIA is a modular system comprised of 17 dynamically-coupled, process-based model components and a framework which controls the interaction of these components with respect to space and time. This contribution describes approaches and capabilities of DANUBIA with regard to the simulation of global change effects on human decisions in water related fields with a focus on agriculture and groundwater. In agriculture, market prices and legislation can be equally or even more important than water availability in determining farmers' behavior and thus in determining the agricultural impact on water resources quantity and quality. The DANUBIA simulation framework and the associated DeepActor-framework for simulation of decision-making by human actors are presented together with the model components which are most relevant to the interactions between agriculture and groundwater. The approach for developing combination climate and socio-economic scenarios is explained. Exemplary scenario results are shown for the Upper Danube Catchment in Southern Germany. References Barthel, R., Janisch, S., N. Schwarz, A. Trifkovic, D. Nickel, C. Schulz, W. Mauser (2008): An integrated modelling framework for simulating regional-scale actor responses to global change in the water domain. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 1095-1121 (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.004) Barthel, R., Reichenau T., Krimly, T., Dabbert, S., Schneider, K., Mauser, W. (2012) Integrated modeling of climate change impacts on agriculture and groundwater

  15. Morphology of fluvial levee series along a river under human influence, Maros River, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tímea; Balogh, Márton; Fiala, Károly; Sipos, György

    2018-02-01

    The development and morphometry of fluvial levees reflect the connection between channel and overbank processes, which can be altered by various human activities. The aims of this study are to investigate the morphology and spatial characteristics of fluvial levees and evaluate the role of some local- and catchment-scale human activities on their medium-term (150 years) development. This study applies LiDAR data along a 53-km-long reach of the Maros River in Hungary. Six fluvial levee types are identified based on the beginning and end of their evolution. These levee types were generated by local nineteenth century channel regulation works (cutoffs) and mid-twentieth century channel narrowing, which was caused by gravel mining and water impoundment in the upstream sections. However, other human activities also influenced the development of active fluvial levees because their horizontal evolution could have been limited by embanked flood-protection levees or the widening of low-lying floodplain benches that were generated by channel narrowing. Additionally, revetment constructions influenced their vertical parameters as higher fluvial levees developed along the fixed banks. Generally, the older active fluvial levees are wider, while the younger active levees are narrower with steeper slopes but not always lower. On the low-lying floodplain levels (benches), the youngest fluvial levees evolved quite rapidly and consist of coarser material. Currently, only 9.8- to 38-year return-period floods could cover the fluvial levees, contributing to their evolution. This fact and the development of fluvial levee series with two-three members reflect a gradual decoupling of the channel from the floodplain.

  16. Positive selection underlies the species-specific binding of Plasmodium falciparum RH5 to human basigin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Diego; Pontremoli, Chiara; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, is a member of the Laverania subgenus, which includes ape-infecting parasites. P. falciparum is thought to have originated in gorillas, although infection is now restricted to humans. Laverania parasites display remarkable host-specificity, which is partially mediated by the interaction between parasite ligands and host receptors. We analyse the evolution of BSG (basigin) and GYPA (glycophorin A) in primates/hominins, as well as of their Plasmodium-encoded ligands, PfRH5 and PfEBA175. We show that, in primates, positive selection targeted two sites in BSG (F27 and H102), both involved in PfRH5 binding. A population genetics-phylogenetics approach detected the strongest selection for the gorilla lineage: one of the positively selected sites (K191) is a major determinant of PfRH5 binding affinity. Analysis of RH5 genes indicated episodic selection on the P. falciparum branch; the positively selected W447 site is known to stabilize the interaction with human basigin. Conversely, we detect no selection in the receptor-binding region of EBA175 in the P. falciparum lineage. Its host receptor, GYPA, shows evidence of positive selection in all hominid lineages; selected codons include glycosylation sites that modulate PfEBA175 binding affinity. Data herein provide an evolutionary explanation for species-specific binding of the PfRH5-BSG ligand-receptor pair and support the hypothesis that positive selection at these genes drove the host shift leading to the emergence of P. falciparum as a human pathogen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Less than human: Dehumanization underlies prejudice toward people with developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Laura Ruth Murry

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the nature of prejudice toward people with developmental disabilities, its underlying root in dehumanization and implication for opposition to social policies, and the efficacy of two strategies for reducing this bias. In Study 1 and Study 2, dehumanization significantly predicted both greater prejudice and greater opposition to social policies benefiting people with Autism and Down Syndrome. Furthermore, prejudice significantly mediated the effect of dehumanizat...

  18. Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Sungchul Ji

    2017-01-01

    In 1997, the author concluded that living cells use a molecular language (cellese) that is isomorphic with the human language (humanese) based on his finding that the former shared 10 out of the 13 design features of the latter. In 2012, the author postulated that cellese and humanese derived from a third language called the cosmic language (or cosmese) and that what was common among these three kinds of languages was waves—i.e., sound waves for humanese, concentration waves for cellese, and ...

  19. Management of risk to human health posed by dioxins under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The Canadian federal Toxic Substances Management Policy requires that for substances which: - are toxic - persist in the environment - bioaccumulate - result predominantly from human activity the ultimate goal is virtual elimination. Because dioxins and furans satisfy these criteria, the management objective is virtual elimination of measurable releases of these substances into the environment. Measurable releases are defined as releases above the Level of Quantification (LoQ), which is the lowest concentration that can be accurately measured using sensitive but routine sampling and analytical methods. For dioxins and furans released to air, that level is 32 picograms of toxic equivalents (TEQ) per cubic metre.

  20. Elbow Matching Accuracy in Young and Elderly Humans under Unusual Mechanical Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talis, Vera L; Levik, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    Experiment was carried out to study the proprioception accuracy of elderly (61-83 years old) and young (22-36 years old) subjects during contralateral elbow matching in sagittal plane. The subjects performed the task under ordinary condition and under experimental condition (matching forearm attached to the rocking cylindrical platform of low (LS), or high (HS) height, so that the elbow flexion was associated with tilting movement of the support and with backward movement of the upper arm). Control matching of young and elderly subjects does not differ significantly in terms of constant and absolute error. First block of LS and HS induced absolute error increase and matching arm velocity decrease in both groups, but in the second block of matching on rocking supports both arms velocity of elderly subject decreased and absolute error of elderly subjects toward the second block of rocking condition appeared lower than those of young subjects. Aftereffect of the restricted matching could be observed in elderly as a significant increase of matching arm velocity and corresponding constant error increase. It could be concluded that under unusual mechanical constraints elderly subjects tended to use "conservative" strategy followed by significant aftereffect toward the final ordinary support condition.

  1. Elbow matching accuracy in young and elderly humans under unusual mechanical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Talis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was carried out to study the proprioception accuracy of elderly (61-83 years old and young (22-36 years old subjects during contralateral elbow matching in sagittal plane. The subjects performed the task under ordinary condition and under experimental condition (matching forearm attached to the rocking cylindrical platform of low (LS, or high (HS height, so that the elbow flexion was associated with tilting movement of the support and with backward movement of the upper arm. Control matching of young and elderly subjects does not differ significantly in terms of constant and absolute error. First block of LS and HS induced absolute error increase and matching arm velocity decrease in both groups, but in the second block of matching on rocking supports both arms velocity of elderly subject decreased and absolute error of elderly subjects towards the second block of rocking condition appeared lower than those of young subjects. Aftereffect of the restricted matching could be observed in elderly as a significant increase of matching arm velocity and corresponding constant error increase. It could be concluded that under unusual mechanical constraints elderly subjects tended to use conservative strategy followed by significant aftereffect towards the final ordinary support condition.

  2. Photosensitized methyl paraben induces apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway under ambient UVB exposure in human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Divya; Chopra, Deepti; Singh, Jyoti; Srivastav, Ajeet K; Kumari, Smita; Verma, Ankit; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2017-10-01

    Methyl paraben (MP), is a widely used preservative in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic products. Its molecular mechanism under ambient ultraviolet radiation is not well understood. We investigated photosensitizing mechanism of MP under ambient UVB (0.6 mW/cm 2 ) intensity. MP showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability of human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) by MTT and NRU assays. Study showed 40% reduction in antimicrobial activity of UVB irradiated MP through E. coli culture. Photosensitized MP (25 μg/ml) significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS generation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane integrity. MP induced loss of lysosomal membrane integrity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediated stress evident from Ca +2 release. Phototoxicity of MP showed nuclear fragmentation, phosphatidylserine translocation, 30% tail DNA and micronuclei formation. Study showed mitochondria mediated apoptosis via upregulation of Bax, Apaf-1, Cytochrome C and Caspase-3. Upregulation of Caspase-12 (2 folds) specifically showed role of ER in apoptosis. Specific caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK showed involvement of caspase cascade pathway in apoptosis. Results indicate that photosensitive MP leads to oxidative stress mediated DNA damage and apoptosis through mitochondria and ER. MP causes deleterious effects and its long term exposure to human skin may promote skin diseases. Therefore, MP should be replaced by other photosafe preservatives for humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vector movement underlies avian malaria at upper elevation in Hawaii: implications for transmission of human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2013-11-01

    With climate warming, malaria in humans and birds at upper elevations is an emerging infectious disease because development of the parasite in the mosquito vector and vector life history are both temperature dependent. An enhanced-mosquito-movement model from climate warming predicts increased transmission of malaria at upper elevation sites that are too cool for parasite development in the mosquito vector. We evaluate this model with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) at 1,900-m elevation on the Island of Hawaii, with air temperatures too low for sporogony in the vector (Culex quinquefasciatus). On a well-defined site over a 14-year period, 10 of 14 species of native and introduced birds became infected, several epizootics occurred, and the increase in prevalence was driven more by resident species than by mobile species that could have acquired their infections at lower elevations. Greater movement of infectious mosquitoes from lower elevations now permits avian malaria to spread at 1,900 m in Hawaii, in advance of climate warming at that elevation. The increase in malaria at upper elevations due to dispersal of infectious mosquitoes is a real alternative to temperature for the increased incidence of human malaria in tropical highlands.

  4. Surface-engineered substrates for improved human pluripotent stem cell culture under fully defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Krishanu; Mei, Ying; Reisterer, Colin M; Pyzocha, Neena Kenton; Yang, Jing; Muffat, Julien; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-11-15

    The current gold standard for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells requires the use of a feeder layer of cells. Here, we develop a spatially defined culture system based on UV/ozone radiation modification of typical cell culture plastics to define a favorable surface environment for human pluripotent stem cell culture. Chemical and geometrical optimization of the surfaces enables control of early cell aggregation from fully dissociated cells, as predicted from a numerical model of cell migration, and results in significant increases in cell growth of undifferentiated cells. These chemically defined xeno-free substrates generate more than three times the number of cells than feeder-containing substrates per surface area. Further, reprogramming and typical gene-targeting protocols can be readily performed on these engineered surfaces. These substrates provide an attractive cell culture platform for the production of clinically relevant factor-free reprogrammed cells from patient tissue samples and facilitate the definition of standardized scale-up friendly methods for disease modeling and cell therapeutic applications.

  5. Degradation mechanism of magnesium alloy stent under simulated human micro-stress environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dexue; Hu, Shiwen; Yin, Xunyan; Liu, Jianjun; Jia, Zhi; Li, Qinglin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a vascular stent made of WE43 magnesium alloy was used as a research object and placed in a special physical simulation device constructed independently. This device provided a platform for the study of the degradation of the stent in a dynamic environment. The simulated body fluid of Hank's buffered salt solution flowing inside it would not only make the stent corroded but also apply cyclic shear stress to it, which get closer to the micro-stress environment in human blood vessels. In addition, by means of computer numerical simulation software, ANSYS Fluent 15.0, the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model was established to simulate the wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by the flowing blood on stent in the blood vessel. Combined with the results of numerical simulation and physical simulation experiments, the degradation mechanism of magnesium alloy sent in an environment similar to the human blood vessels was studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Task-related changes in functional properties of the human brain network underlying attentional control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kida

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated task-related changes in brain activation and inter-regional connectivity but the temporal dynamics of functional properties of the brain during task execution is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated task-related changes in functional properties of the human brain network by applying graph-theoretical analysis to magnetoencephalography (MEG. Subjects performed a cue-target attention task in which a visual cue informed them of the direction of focus for incoming auditory or tactile target stimuli, but not the sensory modality. We analyzed the MEG signal in the cue-target interval to examine network properties during attentional control. Cluster-based non-parametric permutation tests with the Monte-Carlo method showed that in the cue-target interval, beta activity was desynchronized in the sensori-motor region including premotor and posterior parietal regions in the hemisphere contralateral to the attended side. Graph-theoretical analysis revealed that, in beta frequency, global hubs were found around the sensori-motor and prefrontal regions, and functional segregation over the entire network was decreased during attentional control compared to the baseline. Thus, network measures revealed task-related temporal changes in functional properties of the human brain network, leading to the understanding of how the brain dynamically responds to task execution as a network.

  7. PX-18 Protects Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cells under Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupreishvili, Koba; Stooker, Wim; Emmens, Reindert W; Vonk, Alexander B A; Sipkens, Jessica A; van Dijk, Annemieke; Eijsman, Leon; Quax, Paul H; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Krijnen, Paul A J; Niessen, Hans W M

    2017-07-01

    Arterial blood pressure-induced shear stress causes endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammation in vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting. As the inflammatory protein type IIA secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 -IIA) has been shown to progress atherosclerosis, we hypothesized a role for sPLA 2 -IIA herein. The effects of PX-18, an inhibitor of both sPLA 2 -IIA and apoptosis, on residual endothelium and the presence of sPLA 2 -IIA were studied in human saphenous vein segments (n = 6) perfused at arterial blood pressure with autologous blood for 6 hrs. The presence of PX-18 in the perfusion blood induced a significant 20% reduction in endothelial cell loss compared to veins perfused without PX18, coinciding with significantly reduced sPLA 2 -IIA levels in the media of the vein graft wall. In addition, PX-18 significantly attenuated caspase-3 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to shear stress via mechanical stretch independent of sPLA 2 -IIA. In conclusion, PX-18 protects saphenous vein endothelial cells from arterial blood pressure-induced death, possibly also independent of sPLA 2 -IIA inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherst, R W

    2001-07-01

    The term 'global change' is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A subset of land use issues relates to the management of protective technologies in relation to residues in food and the environment and the emergence of resistance. Another is the question of changing biodiversity of both parasites and their associated natural enemies, and the effects on the host--parasite relationship and on parasite management. A framework for studying impacts of global change is proposed and illustrated with field data, and CLIMEX and simulation modelling of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Parasitology suffers from the perception that the key impacts of global change will be driven by changes at lower trophic levels, with parasitic interactions being treated as secondary effects. This is incorrect because the environment mediates host-parasite interactions as much as it affects parasites directly. Parasitologists need to strive for holistic solutions to the management of animal and human health, within a wider context of overall management of those systems, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to global efforts aimed at coping with global change.

  9. Benefits and detriments of unilateral cochlear implant use on bilateral auditory development in children who are deaf

    OpenAIRE

    Karen A. Gordon; Karen A. Gordon; Karen A. Gordon; Salima eJiwani; Salima eJiwani; Blake ePapsin; Blake ePapsin

    2013-01-01

    We have explored both the benefits and detriments of providing electrical input through a cochlear implant in one ear to the auditory system of young children. A cochlear implant delivers electrical pulses to stimulate the auditory nerve, providing children who are deaf with access to sound. The goals of implantation are to restrict reorganization of the deprived immature auditory brain and promote development of hearing and spoken language. It is clear that limiting the duration of deprivati...

  10. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-mediated human GATA1 induction promotes erythroid differentiation under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Lin; Shen, Guo-Min; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2012-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor promotes erythropoiesis through coordinated cell type-specific hypoxia responses. GATA1 is essential to normal erythropoiesis and plays a crucial role in erythroid differentiation. In this study, we show that hypoxia-induced GATA1 expression is mediated by HIF1 in erythroid cells. Under hypoxic conditions, significantly increased GATA1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in K562 cells and erythroid induction cultures of CD34(+) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Enforced HIF1α expression increased GATA1 expression, while HIF1α knockdown by RNA interference decreased GATA1 expression. In silico analysis revealed one potential hypoxia response element (HRE). The results from reporter gene and mutation analysis suggested that this element is necessary for hypoxic response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR showed that the putative HRE was recognized and bound by HIF1 in vivo. These results demonstrate that the up-regulation of GATA1 during hypoxia is directly mediated by HIF1.The mRNA expression of some erythroid differentiation markers was increased under hypoxic conditions, but decreased with RNA interference of HIF1α or GATA1. Flow cytometry analysis also indicated that hypoxia, desferrioxamine or CoCl(2) induced expression of erythroid surface markers CD71 and CD235a, while expression repression of HIF1α or GATA1 by RNA interference led to a decreased expression of CD235a. These results suggested that HIF1-mediated GATA1 up-regulation promotes erythropoiesis in order to satisfy the needs of an organism under hypoxic conditions. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from postmortem human subject tests under axial impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Szabo, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. The study reexamined lower leg postmortem human subjects (PMHS) data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and noninjury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the covariable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal, and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike information criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. The mean age, stature, and weight were 58.2±15.1 years, 1.74±0.08 m, and 74.9±13.8 kg, respectively. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other 2 distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-olds at 5, 25, and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45, and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 k

  12. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Activation as the Main Mechanisms Underlying Graphene Toxicity against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarosz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of nanotechnology graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted the most attention owing to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Graphene can be applied in many fields among which biomedical applications especially diagnostics, cancer therapy, and drug delivery have been arousing a lot of interest. Therefore it is essential to understand better the graphene-cell interactions, especially toxicity and underlying mechanisms for proper use and development. This review presents the recent knowledge concerning graphene cytotoxicity and influence on different cancer cell lines.

  13. Analisys of a literacy experiment under the perspective of human rights education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fontes Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to promote a reflection about the necessity of a practical implementation of the Intercultural Education and Human Rights in school environment with focus on the genre thematic. In this way, we present a set of pedagogical teaching procedures, applied in the context of Portuguese language classes, which had as a goal to problematize with the students, through literacy practices, by the women situation in the modern days. In this context, the methodology proposed by Paulo Freire was presented as a special tool to bridge from the theory to the practice in this referred Education. Therefore, by the analysis of students life experiences (subjects of this research in the Culture Circles, and having sexism as a generating theme, we found that school education may lead the student from an alienated conscience to a critical conscience.

  14. Elucidating the underlying components of food valuation in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Cross, Logan; O'Doherty, John P

    2017-12-01

    The valuation of food is a fundamental component of our decision-making. Yet little is known about how value signals for food and other rewards are constructed by the brain. Using a food-based decision task in human participants, we found that subjective values can be predicted from beliefs about constituent nutritive attributes of food: protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamin content. Multivariate analyses of functional MRI data demonstrated that, while food value is represented in patterns of neural activity in both medial and lateral parts of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), only the lateral OFC represents the elemental nutritive attributes. Effective connectivity analyses further indicate that information about the nutritive attributes represented in the lateral OFC is integrated within the medial OFC to compute an overall value. These findings provide a mechanistic account for the construction of food value from its constituent nutrients.

  15. The victims of unethical human experiments and coerced research under National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Paul; von Villiez, Anna; Loewenau, Aleksandra; Farron, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    There has been no full evaluation of the numbers of victims of Nazi research, who the victims were, and of the frequency and types of experiments and research. This paper gives the first results of a comprehensive evidence-based evaluation of the different categories of victims. Human experiments were more extensive than often assumed with a minimum of 15,754 documented victims. Experiments rapidly increased from 1942, reaching a high point in 1943. The experiments remained at a high level of intensity despite imminent German defeat in 1945. There were more victims who survived than were killed as part of or as a result of the experiments, and the survivors often had severe injuries. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L G; Kendal, R L; Schapiro, S J; Thierry, B; Laland, K N

    2012-03-02

    The remarkable ecological and demographic success of humanity is largely attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture, with knowledge and technology accumulating over time, yet the social and cognitive capabilities that have enabled cumulative culture remain unclear. In a comparative study of sequential problem solving, we provided groups of capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and children with an experimental puzzlebox that could be solved in three stages to retrieve rewards of increasing desirability. The success of the children, but not of the chimpanzees or capuchins, in reaching higher-level solutions was strongly associated with a package of sociocognitive processes-including teaching through verbal instruction, imitation, and prosociality-that were observed only in the children and covaried with performance.

  17. Human dignity and professional reputation under threat: Iranian Nurses' experiences of workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Fereshteh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rahgozar, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Workplace violence against nurses is a challenging problem in both developed and developing countries. Because the concept of violence bears some cultural load, nurses' understanding is region-specific. This study explores Iranian nurses' perceptions of workplace violence. Using qualitative content analysis, 22 registered nurses underwent unstructured, in-depth interviews. The main themes of threats to human dignity and professional reputation emerged, plus four categories: physical violence, psychological violence, honor insults, and ethnic-religious insults. The term "honor insults," as a unique finding, was used instead of "sexual harassment." These findings may help to redefine workplace violence based on cultural background, design strategies for supporting nurses, and prevent and manage such violence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... temperature distribution of an average person. The measurements were performed in a room with controlled thermal environment. Air temperature was set at 26ºC for cooling and at 20ºC for heating. The radiant temperature asymmetry in horizontal and vertical direction was close to zero, i.e. mean radiant...... temperature was equal to the air temperature. The air velocity of the isothermal downward flow from the ceiling at height of 1.5 m above the floor (above the top of the head) was set in a range between still air and 0.73 m/s. Based on the analyses of the results relationships for determination...

  19. Modulation of whistle production related to training sessions in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Marulanda, Juliana; Adam, Olivier; Delfour, Fabienne

    2016-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary. To investigate this, we recorded 10 bottlenose dolphins of Parc Asterix dolphinarium (France) before, during and after 10 training sessions for a total duration of 7 hr and 32 min. We detected 3,272 whistles with 2,884 presenting a quality good enough to be categorized. We created a catalog of whistle types by visual categorization verified by five naive judges (Fleiss' Kappa Test). We then applied the SIGID method to identify the signatures whistles present in our recordings. We found 279 whistles belonging to one of the four identified signature whistle types. The remaining 2,605 were classified as non-signature whistles. The non-signature whistles emission rate was higher during and after the training sessions than before. Emission rate of three signature whistles types significantly increased afterwards as compared to before the training sessions. We suggest that dolphins use their signature whistles when they return to their intraspecific social interactions succeeding scheduled and human-organized training sessions. More observations are needed to make conclusions about the function of signature whistles in relation to training sessions. Zoo Biol. 35:495-504, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Under the (legal radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammonds Rachel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers

  1. Vegetation Fires in the Coupled Human-Earth System Under Future Environmental and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    le page, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Fires play a major role in terrestrial ecosystems dynamics and the carbon cycle. Potential changes in fire regimes due to climate change, land use change, or human management could have substantial ecological, climatic and socio-economic impacts, and have recently been emphasized as a source of uncertainty for policy-makers and climate mitigation cost estimates. Anticipating these interactions thus entails interdisciplinary models. Here we describe the development of a new fire modeling framework, which features the essential integration of climatic, vegetation and anthropogenic drivers. The model is an attempt to realistically account for ignition, spread and termination processes, on a 12-hour time step and at 1 degree spatial resolution globally. Because the quantitative influence of fire drivers on these processes are often poorly constrained, the framework includes an optimization procedure whereby key parameters (e.g. influence of moisture on fire spread, probability of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes to actually ignite a fire, human ignition frequency as a function of land use density) are determined to maximize the agreement between modeled and observed burned area over the past decade. The model performs surprisingly well across all biomes, and shows good agreement on non-optimized features, such as seasonality and fire size, which suggests some potential for robust projections. We couple the model to an integrated assessment model and explore the consequences of mitigation policies, land use decisions and climate change on future fire regimes with a focus on the Amazon basin. The coupled model future projections show that business-as-usual land use expansion would increase the frequency of escaped fires in the remaining forest, especially when combined with models projecting a drier climate. Inversely, climate mitigation policies as projected in the IPCC RCP4.5 scenario achieve synergistic benefits, with increased forest extent, less fire ignitions, and

  2. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on. PMID

  3. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik; Vandenhole, Wouter

    2012-11-15

    Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on.

  4. Hormonal and genetic influences underlying arousal as it drives sex and aggression in animal and human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Jessica A; Pfaff, Donald W

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen treatment induces transcription and increases excitability and reproductive behavior. Estrogens provide the structural basis for increased synaptic activity and greater behavior-facilitating output. Administration of progesterone amplifies the effect of estrogens on mating behavior. The role of GnRH is to synchronize reproductive behavior with the ovulatory surge of LH. A causal connection can be charted from one individual gene to human social behavior, but only via six causal links. Glia, meninges and neurons may participate, under the influence of sex hormones, in the direction of sex behavior. Neural and genetic mechanisms for motivation may lead to biological understanding of functions that apply to the most primitive aspects of human mental functioning. With respect to aggression, besides testosterone and its metabolites, serotonergic projections to the forebrain play an important role.

  5. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Soumya C, E-mail: chidambaram.soumya@gmail.com [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Kannan, Anbarasu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Gopal, Ashidha [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Devaraj, Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Halagowder, Devaraj [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy.

  6. Tissue healing under provisional restorations with ovate pontics: a pilot human histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Giovanna; Murmura, Giovanna; Artese, Luciano; Piattelli, Adriano; Piccirilli, Marcello; Caputi, Sergio

    2006-10-01

    Ovate pontics mimic the natural tooth contour and provide an esthetic result however, few studies have evaluated the histological changes in underlying tissues. The purpose of this pilot study was to histologically evaluate the healing of gingival tissues in contact with provisional ovate pontics after 2 weeks. Three patients requiring fixed partial dentures participated in this study. The provisional restorations consisted of a fixed partial denture having 2 ovate pontics: one in acrylic resin (Jet), with an ovate shell made of low-fusing ceramic (Duceram LFC); the other made completely of the same acrylic resin (control). After 2 weeks, biopsies of the gingival tissues beneath the pontics were retrieved for histological examination, and immunohistochemistry for evaluation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was performed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Clinically, all of the ovate pontic-prepared sites showed partial healing. Histologically, the thickness of the entire mucosa was similar in both specimens; however, in some regions, the epithelium presented ulcerations that were generally deeper and more frequent in control sites than in test sites. Immunohistochemical results showed that tissues beneath LFC pontics seemed to be less inflamed since they demonstrated a lower expression of VEGF (10.7 +/- .8) compared to those beneath acrylic resin ovate pontics (33.9 +/- 2.5). This pilot study demonstrated that the placement of provisional LFC ovate pontics may be advantageous for the reparative processes of the underlying tissues.

  7. Proteomic-Biostatistic Integrated Approach for Finding the Underlying Molecular Determinants of Hypertension in Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjala, Prathibha R; Jankowski, Vera; Heinze, Georg; Bilo, Grzegorz; Zanchetti, Alberto; Noels, Heidi; Liehn, Elisa; Perco, Paul; Schulz, Anna; Delles, Christian; Kork, Felix; Biessen, Erik; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Floege, Juergen; Soranna, Davide; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

    2017-08-01

    Despite advancements in lowering blood pressure, the best approach to lower it remains controversial because of the lack of information on the molecular basis of hypertension. We, therefore, performed plasma proteomics of plasma from patients with hypertension to identify molecular determinants detectable in these subjects but not in controls and vice versa. Plasma samples from hypertensive subjects (cases; n=118) and controls (n=85) from the InGenious HyperCare cohort were used for this study and performed mass spectrometric analysis. Using biostatistical methods, plasma peptides specific for hypertension were identified, and a model was developed using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression. The underlying peptides were identified and sequenced off-line using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry. By comparison of the molecular composition of the plasma samples, 27 molecular determinants were identified differently expressed in cases from controls. Seventy percent of the molecular determinants selected were found to occur less likely in hypertensive patients. In cross-validation, the overall R 2 was 0.434, and the area under the curve was 0.891 with 95% confidence interval 0.8482 to 0.9349, P hypertensive patients were found to be -2.007±0.3568 and 3.383±0.2643, respectively, P hypertensives and normotensives. The identified molecular determinants may be the starting point for further studies to clarify the molecular causes of hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Study II: mechanoreceptive sensation is of increased importance for human postural control under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, F; Patel, M; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2012-03-01

    Standing postural stability relies on input from visual, vestibular, proprioceptive and mechanoreceptive sensors. When the information from any of these sensors is unavailable or disrupted, the central nervous system maintains postural stability by relying more on the contribution from the reliable sensors, termed sensory re-weighting. Alcohol intoxication is known to affect the integrity of the vestibular and visual systems. The aim was to assess how mechanoreceptive sensory information contributed to postural stability at 0.00% (i.e. sober), 0.06% and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in 25 healthy subjects (mean age 25.1 years). The subjects were assessed with eyes closed and eyes open under quiet standing and while standing was perturbed by repeated, random-length, vibratory stimulation of the calf muscles. Plantar cutaneous mechanoreceptive sensation was assessed for both receptor types: slowly adapting (tactile sensitivity) and rapidly adapting (vibration perception). The correlation between recorded torque variance and the sensation from both mechanoreceptor types was calculated. The recorded stability during alcohol intoxication was significantly influenced by both the tactile sensation and vibration perception of the subjects. Moreover, the study revealed a fluctuating association between the subjects' vibration perception and torque variance during balance perturbations, which was significantly influenced by the level of alcohol intoxication, vision and adaptation. Hence, one's ability to handle balance perturbations under the influence of alcohol is strongly dependent on accurate mechanoreceptive sensation and efficient sensory re-weighting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  10. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; He, Li, E-mail: li.he@ncepu.edu.cn; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design.

  11. Effect of noise on human performance under variable load in a die casting industry--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, M; Khan, Abid A; Hasan, F; Hasan, S N

    2004-01-01

    The manual mode of working in industries is very common in the developing and under developed countries. Many industrial processes have generated high levels of noise and causing physiological effects on operators and thus leading to reduced performance. A survey was carried in various die casting industries to determine the levels of noise. It was found that the levels were in the range of 80-100dB(A). The survey also showed that the effects were more pronounced when the task was conducted under varying load conditions. Keeping this in view the problem was formulated to study whether the level of noise and amount of load has a bearing on human performance. For this purpose, experimental investigations in a simulated environment were carried out. Five subjects, all males and having no experience in the trade were selected for the task. The levels of noise under taken were 80, 90 and 100 dB(A) while the levels of load were 150, 200 and 250 N. A pulse oximeter was used to measure the human performance in terms of heart rate. The data was collected and analyzed on the basis of two factor repeated measure type of experimental design. Results of the study indicated that the level of noise and load both were having statistically significant effect on human performance. However, the interaction of level of noise and load was found to be statistically non-significant. The findings of the present work have been discussed in the light of the previous researches carried out on the topic. Suggestions have been made to reduce the levels of noise as per the recommendations of Occupational Safety and Health Association (1990). It is also suggested that instead of hand operated machines, foot operated versions should be used to reduce fatigue.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTERIOR SEGMENT OPHTHALMOLOGIC LESIONS IDENTIFIED IN FREE-RANGING DOLPHINS AND THOSE UNDER HUMAN CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Walsh, Michael T; McCulloch, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Cetaceans in the wild and under human care develop a variety of ocular lesions. Although they have echolocation, cetacean species have good sight, making ocular health an important part of overall health care. The cornea is the primary site of abnormalities in both populations. Typical lesions of cetaceans under human care are characterized in this retrospective review of cases. One hundred eighty animals (n = 360 eyes) were chosen from the author's ophthalmologic examination reports from different geographic areas; they included Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Pacific bottle nose dolphins (Tursiopstruncatus gilli), Indopacific bottlenose dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Indopacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), and roughtooth dolphins (Steno bredanensis). These animals were examined at least once, although most were examined numerous times over many years; lesions were categorized and are described. Seventy-seven eyes from 47 animals were normal. Medial keratopathy was the most common lesion and identified in 180 eyes from 97 animals, with 83 affected bilaterally. Horizontal keratopathy was identified in 69 eyes from 41 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally. Axial keratopathy and nonspecific axial opacities were identified in 67 eyes from 44 animals, with 21 affected bilaterally. Seventy-eight eyes from 50 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally, had more than one type of corneal lesion. Cataracts were identified in 32 eyes from 19 animals, with 13 affected bilaterally. Traumatic injuries were also common and involved eyelids and cornea. Sixteen eyes from 11 animals were blind; five dolphins were blind bilaterally due to phthisis bulbi secondary to corneal perforation or severe trauma. None of the diseases had a sex predisposition; however, medial keratopathy was significantly more common as a bilateral presentation than as a unilateral presentation. Cetaceans under human care with impaired sight can use echolocation; however, ocular health

  13. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4....../s during the 20 min period of physical activity, when the occupant was not at the desk with the localised chilled beam, resulting in increase of the air temperature in the room. Subjects used questionnaires to answer on thermal sensation and acceptability, perceived air quality, air movement and SBS...

  14. Metals in Feathers of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus): Considerations for the Welfare and Management of Seabirds Under Human Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Abete, M C; Brizio, P; Pessani, D; Favaro, L

    2018-02-15

    Bird feathers have been proven to be reliable indicators of metal exposure originating from contaminated food and polluted environments. The concentrations of 15 essential and non-essential metals were investigated in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) feathers from a Northwestern Italian zoological facility. These birds are exclusively fed with herring from the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Certain elements, such as Hg and Cd, reflected the bioaccumulation phenomena that occur through the marine food chain. The levels of Cr, Mn, and Ni were comparable to those registered in feathers of birds living in polluted areas. These results are important for comparative studies regarding the health, nutrition and welfare of endangered seabirds kept under human care.

  15. Blueberry proanthocyanidins against human norovirus surrogates in model foods and under simulated gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2017-05-01

    Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C. Equal amounts of each virus (5 log PFU/ml) was mixed with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) prepared either in AJ, or 2% milk, or simulated gastric fluids and incubated over 24 h at 37 °C. Controls included phosphate buffered saline, malic acid (pH 7.2), AJ, 2% milk or simulated gastric and intestinal fluids incubated with virus over 24 h at 37 °C. The tested viruses were reduced to undetectable levels within 15 min with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) in AJ (pH 3.6). However, antiviral activity of B-PAC was reduced in milk. FCV-F9 was reduced by 0.4 and 1.09 log PFU/ml with 2 and 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk, respectively and MNV-1 titers were reduced by 0.81 log PFU/ml with 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk after 24 h. B-PAC at 5 mg/ml in simulated intestinal fluid reduced titers of the tested viruses to undetectable levels within 30 min. Overall, these results show the potential of B-PAC as preventive and therapeutic options for foodborne viral illnesses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Tracking Human Adenovirus Inactivation by Gamma Radiation under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Andreia I.; Guerreiro, Duarte; Madureira, Joana; Margaça, Fernanda M. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus is the most prevalent enteric virus in waters worldwide due to its environmental stability, which leads to public health concerns. Mitigation strategies are therefore required. The aim of this study was to assess the inactivation of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) by gamma radiation in aqueous environments. Various substrates with different organic loads, including domestic wastewater, were inoculated with HAdV-5 either individually or in a viral pool (with murine norovirus type 1 [MNV-1]) and were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 irradiator at several gamma radiation doses (0.9 to 10.8 kGy). The infectivity of viral particles, before and after irradiation, was tested by plaque assay using A549 cells. D10 values (dose required to inactivate 90% of a population or the dose of irradiation needed to produce a 1 log10 reduction in the population) were estimated for each substrate based on virus infectivity inactivation exponential kinetics. The capability of two detection methods, nested PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to track inactivated viral particles was also assessed. After irradiation at 3.5 kGy, a reduction of the HAdV-5 titer of 4 log PFU/ml on substrates with lower organic loads was obtained, but in highly organic matrixes, the virus titer reduction was only 1 log PFU/ml. The D10 values of HAdV-5 in high organic substrates were significantly higher than in water suspensions. The obtained results point out some discrepancies between nested PCR, ELISA, and plaque assay on the assessments of HAdV-5 inactivation. These results suggest that the inactivation of HAdV-5 by gamma radiation, in aqueous environments, is significantly affected by substrate composition. This study highlights the virucidal potential of gamma radiation that may be used as a disinfection treatment for sustainable water supplies. IMPORTANCE Human adenovirus (HAdV) is the most prevalent of the enteric viruses in environmental waters worldwide. The purposes of

  17. Stimulation of growth of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori by atmospheric level of oxygen under high carbon dioxide tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Na

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a human pathogen that is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, has been considered a microaerophile, but there is no general consensus about its specific O2 requirements. A clear understanding of Hp physiology is needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism(s of Hp infection. Results We cultured Hp under a range of O2 levels with or without 10% CO2 and evaluated growth profiles, morphology, intracellular pH, and energy metabolism. We found that, in the presence of 10% CO2, the normal atmospheric level of O2 inhibited Hp growth at low density but stimulated growth at a higher density. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of Hp cells cultured under 20% O2 tension revealed live spiral-shaped bacteria with outer membrane vesicles on a rugged cell surface, which became smooth during the stationary phase. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, and succinate were detected in cell culture media grown under microaerobic conditions, but not under the aerobic condition. CO2 deprivation for less than 24 h did not markedly change cytoplasmic or periplasmic pH, suggesting that cellular pH homeostasis alone cannot account for the capnophilic nature of Hp. Further, CO2 deprivation significantly increased intracellular levels of ppGpp and ATP but significantly decreased cellular mRNA levels, suggesting induction of the stringent response. Conclusions We conclude, unlike previous reports, that H. pylori may be a capnophilic aerobe whose growth is promoted by atmospheric oxygen levels in the presence of 10% CO2. Our data also suggest that buffering of intracellular pH alone cannot account for the CO2 requirement of H. pylori and that CO2 deprivation initiates the stringent response in H. pylori. Our findings may provide new insight into the physiology of this fastidious human pathogen.

  18. Pyrenean ptarmigans decline under climatic and human influences through the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, N; Barbu, C M; Quéméré, E; Novoa, C; Allienne, J F; Boissier, J

    2013-11-01

    In Europe, the Quaternary is characterized by climatic fluctuations known to have led to many cycles of contraction and expansion of species geographical ranges. In addition, during the Holocene, historical changes in human occupation such as colonization or abandonment of traditional land uses can also affect habitats. These climatically or anthropically induced geographic range changes are expected to produce considerable effective population size change, measurable in terms of genetic diversity and organization. The rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) is a small-bodied grouse occurring throughout Northern hemispheric arctic and alpine tundra. This species is not considered threatened at a continental scale, but the populations in the Pyrenees are of concern because of their small population size, geographical isolation and low genetic diversity. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to investigate genetic variations and differentiations and infer the overall demographic history of Pyrenean rock ptarmigan populations. The low genetic variability found in these populations has been previously thought to be the result of a bottleneck that occurred following the last glacial maximum (i.e., 10,000 years ago) or more recently (i.e., during the last 200 years). Our results clearly indicate a major bottleneck affecting the populations in the last tenth of the Holocene. We discuss how this decline can be explained by a combination of unfavorable and successive events that increased the degree of habitat fragmentation.

  19. ANALYSIS ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS UNDER THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA FLORESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the European Union is the economic progress. In the last 50 years, and especially beginning with the ‘80s, remarkable efforts have been made for removing the borders between the EU national economies and for creating a unique market where goods, persons, capital and services could move freely. Commercial interchanges between UE states have significantly grown and at the same time EU has become a global commercial force. EU’s goal is to become the most dynamic economy based on global recognition. This implies a significant investment in research, education and forming, which allows the population to have access to this new information. This research work displays diverse aspects concerning the Romania’s ability draw of irredeemable funds in period 2007 – 2013, focusing on human capital development activity. Today, the problem absorptions are no longer able to develop projects, that knowing a significant improvement but the stage of implementation and funding.

  20. The pathogenesis of retinal damage in human eye under impact and blast load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Luca; Rossi, Tommaso; Bonora, Nicola; Clemente, Chiara

    2012-03-01

    Human eye subjected to non penetrating impact (blunt-impact) may experience severe damage. The most common type is partial tearing of the retina at specific eye locations. In ophthalmology, based on impact experiment performed by Delori et al. (1967), it is commonly accepted that the mechanism responsible for retinal damage is the vitreous pull-traction action and the equatorial expansion of the sclera. Based on the evidence of a vitrectomized patient who reported retinal damage after blunt impact, an investigation on the possible role of shockwave dynamics in the retinal damage has been performed by means of hydrocode numerical simulation. A FEM model of the eye has been developed and the experiment of Delori et al. has been reproduced. Soft tissues constitutive response has been determined by means of reverse engineering approach. It has been demonstrated that release waves at the retina-choroid interface are generated in the early time of the blunt impact and can cause retina tearing when the eye bulb is still undeformed. This result has been also confirmed for the case of blast-load exposure.

  1. Control aspects of the human cardiovascular-respiratory system under a nonconstant workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Pio Gabrielle B; Habib, Mustafa; Kappel, Franz; de Los Reyes, Aurelio A

    2017-07-01

    The human cardiovascular system (CVS) and respiratory system (RS) work together in order to supply oxygen (O 2 ) and other substrates needed for metabolism and to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Global and local control mechanisms act on the CVS in order to adjust blood flow to the different parts of the body. This, in turn, affects the RS since the amount of O 2 and CO 2 transported, respectively to and away from the tissues depends on the cardiac output and blood flow in both the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the CVS. Local metabolic control is influenced by local concentrations of blood gases affecting systemic resistance, resulting to vasoconstriction/vasodilation. Thus, the exchange of blood gases demands a tight coordination between blood flow and ventilation of the lungs. In this work, a model of the cardiovascular-respiratory system (CVRS) is considered to obtain an optimal control for time-dependent ergometric workloads by using the Euler-Lagrange formulation of the optimal control problem. The essential controls in the CVRS model are variations in the heart rate and alveolar ventilation through which the central nervous system restricts the arterial partial pressure of CO 2 ( [Formula: see text] ) close to 40  mmHg. Further, penalization terms in the cost functional are included to match the metabolic need for O 2 and the metabolic production of CO 2 with O 2 - and CO 2 -transport by blood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Deep Margins Under Pressure: Sustaining Biodiversity and Function where Climate Change and Humans Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ocean's deep continental margins (200 - 3000 m) extend for over 150,000 km and cover 45 million square km. Once considered monotonous and of limited environmental value, we now recognize that they are highly heterogeneous and that the diverse habitats and organisms provide key ecological functions and ecosystem services. Driven by increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, continental slopes are experiencing rapid changes in temperature, oxygen and pH. At the same time they are increasingly exploited for their fisheries, energy and mineral resources. This talk will highlight natural- and climate-change induced hypoxia, acidification and warming on upwelling margins. Natural variations in space and time provide lessons about the evolutionary and ecological responses of animals, communities and ecosystems to individual and multiple stressors. We ask, to what extent do they foretell the future? The overprint of stress from climate change is likely to increase ecosystem vulnerability to human disturbance from oil and gas extraction, fishing and minerals mining, with threats to biodiversity and lowered resilience. These challenges demand a global commitment to improved stewardship of deep-ocean ecosystems and resources. Sustaining the integrity of the deep ocean will require integration of oceanography, biodiversity and conservation science, technology, informatics, economics, policy, law and communication, as well as engagement of stakeholders.

  3. Human reliability under sleep deprivation: Derivation of performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Candice D.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a probabilistic approach that could use empirical data to derive values of performance shaping factor (PSF) multipliers for use in quantitative human reliability analysis (HRA). The proposed approach is illustrated with data on sleep deprivation effects on performance. A review of existing HRA methods reveals that sleep deprivation is not explicitly included at present, and expert opinion is frequently used to inform HRA model multipliers. In this paper, quantitative data from empirical studies regarding the effect of continuous hours of wakefulness on performance measures (reaction time, accuracy, and number of lapses) are used to develop a method to derive PSF multiplier values for sleep deprivation, in the context of the SPAR-H model. Data is extracted from the identified studies according to the meta-analysis research synthesis method and used to investigate performance trends and error probabilities. The error probabilities in test and control conditions are compared, and the resulting probability ratios are suggested for use in informing the selection of PSF multipliers in HRA methods. Although illustrated for sleep deprivation, the proposed methodology is general, and can be applied to other performance shaping factors. - Highlights: • Method proposed to derive performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data. • Studies reporting the effect of sleep deprivation on performance are analyzed. • Test data using psychomotor vigilance tasks are analyzed. • Error probability multipliers computed for reaction time, lapses, and accuracy measures.

  4. Acquiring Chondrocyte Phenotype from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kondo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An inflammatory milieu breaks down the cartilage matrix and induces chondrocyte apoptosis, resulting in cartilage destruction in patients with cartilage degenerative diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Because of the limited regenerative ability of chondrocytes, defects in cartilage are irreversible and difficult to repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are expected to be a new tool for cartilage repair because they are present in the cartilage and are able to differentiate into multiple lineages of cells, including chondrocytes. Although clinical trials using MSCs for patients with cartilage defects have already begun, its efficacy and repair mechanisms remain unknown. A PubMed search conducted in October 2014 using the following medical subject headings (MeSH terms: mesenchymal stromal cells, chondrogenesis, and cytokines resulted in 204 articles. The titles and abstracts were screened and nine articles relevant to “inflammatory” cytokines and “human” MSCs were identified. Herein, we review the cell biology and mechanisms of chondrocyte phenotype acquisition from human MSCs in an inflammatory milieu and discuss the clinical potential of MSCs for cartilage repair.

  5. Apoptosis and survivability of human dental pulp cells under exposure to Bis-GMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Yano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined whether 2, 2-bis [4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy phenyl] propane (Bis-GMA has effects on LSC2 cells, human dental pulp cell line. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The viability, cell cycle, and morphology of LSC2 cells were analyzed after exposure to several different concentrations of Bis-GMA. The recovery of viability of Bis-GMA exposed cells was also analyzed in the condition without Bis-GMA. Further, penetration of Bis-GMA to dentin disc was examined using isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: There was a concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in cell number in the sub-G1 population after exposure to Bis-GMA. Furthermore, the cells showed typical characteristics of apoptotic cells after the exposure to high concentration of Bis-GMA. In contrast, cells exposed to lower concentrations of Bis-GMA recovered their viability after being cultured without Bis-GMA. We also found that Bis-GMA is capable of penetrating 1-mm-thick dentin discs, though the penetrated concentration was lower than that showing cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Bis-GMA has cytotoxic effects, though dental pulp exposed to lower concentrations is able to recover their viability when Bis-GMA is removed.

  6. Lactate kinetics and mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of healthy humans under influence of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Jonathan; Jakobsson, Towe; Hebert, Christina; Klaude, Maria; Sandström, Gustaf; Wernerman, Jan; Rooyackers, Olav

    2015-08-01

    Plasma lactate is widely used as a biomarker in critical illness. The aims of the present study were to elucidate the usefulness of a three-compartment model for muscle lactate kinetics in humans and to characterize the response to an exogenous adrenaline challenge. Repeated blood samples from artery and femoral vein together with blood flow measurements and muscle biopsies were obtained from healthy male volunteers (n=8) at baseline and during an adrenaline infusion. Concentrations of lactate and enrichment of [13C]lactate were measured and kinetics calculated. Mitochondrial activity, glycogen concentration, oxygen uptake and CO2 release were assessed. The adrenaline challenge increased plasma lactate 4-fold as a result of a greater increase in the rate of appearance (R(a)) than the increase in the rate of disappearance (R(d)). Leg muscle net release of lactate increased 3.5-fold, whereas intramuscular production had a high variation but did not change. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration increased by 30%. Glycogen concentration, oxygen uptake and CO2 production remained unchanged. In conclusion a three-compartment model gives additional information to the two-compartment model but, due to its larger variation and invasive muscle biopsy, it is less likely to become a regularly used tool in clinical research. Hyperlactataemia in response to adrenergic stimuli was driven by an elevated lactate release from skeletal muscle most probably due to a redirection of a high intramuscular turnover rather than an increased production.

  7. An analytical method for predicting the geometrical and optical properties of the human lens under accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J.; Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical method to describe the accommodative changes in the human crystalline lens. The method is based on the geometry-invariant lens model, in which the gradient-index (GRIN) iso-indicial contours are coupled to the external shape. This feature ensures that any given number of iso-indicial contours does not change with accommodation, which preserves the optical integrity of the GRIN structure. The coupling also enables us to define the GRIN structure if the radii and asphericities of the external lens surfaces are known. As an example, the accommodative changes in lenticular radii and central thickness were taken from the literature, while the asphericities of the external surfaces were derived analytically by adhering to the basic physical conditions of constant lens volume and its axial position. The resulting changes in lens geometry are consistent with experimental data, and the optical properties are in line with expected values for optical power and spherical aberration. The aim of the paper is to provide an anatomically and optically accurate lens model that is valid for 3 mm pupils and can be used as a new tool for better understanding of accommodation. PMID:24877022

  8. THE VARIATIONS OF WATER IN HUMAN TISSUE UNDER CERTAIN COMPRESSION: STUDIED WITH DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENXI LI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflectance spectrum has been widely adopted to extract diagnosis information of human tissue because it possesses the advantages of noninvasive and rapidity. The external pressure brought by fiber optic probe may influence the accuracy of measurement. In this paper, a systematic study is focused on the effects of probe pressure on intrinsic changes of water and scattering particles in tissue. According to the biphasic nonlinear mixture model, the pressure modulated reflectance spectrum of both in vitro and in vivo tissue is measured and processed with second-derivation. The results indicate that the variations of bulk and bonded water in tissue have a nonlinear relationship with the pressure. Differences in tissue structure and morphology contribute to site-specific probe pressure effects. Then the finite element (FEM and Monte Carlo (MC method is employed to simulate the deformation and reflectance spectrum variations of tissue before and after compression. The simulation results show that as the pressure of fiber optic probe applied to the detected skin increased to 80 kPa, the effective photon proportion form dermis decreases significantly from 86% to 76%. Future designs might benefit from the research of change of water volume inside the tissue to mitigate the pressure applied to skin.

  9. Magnitude-dependent proliferation and contractility modulation of human bladder smooth muscle cells under physiological stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, De-Yi; Wazir, Romel; Du, Caigan; Tian, Ye; Yue, Xuan; Wei, Tang-Qiang; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and test a kind of stretch pattern which is based on modified BOSE BioDynamic system to produce optimum physiological stretch during bladder cycle. Moreover, we aimed to emphasize the effects of physiological stretch's amplitude upon proliferation and contractility of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). HBSMCs were seeded onto silicone membrane and subjected to stretch simulating bladder cycle at the range of stretches and time according to customized software on modified BOSE BioDynamic bioreactor. Morphological changes were assessed using immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscope. Cell proliferation and cell viability were determined by BrdU incorporation assay and Cell Counting Kit-8, respectively. Contractility of the cells was determined using collagen gel contraction assay. RT-PCR was used to assess phenotypic and contractility markers. HBSMCs were found to show morphologically spindle-shaped and orientation at various elongations in the modified bioreactor. Stretch-induced proliferation and viability depended on the magnitude of stretch, and stretches also regulate contractility and contraction markers in a magnitude-dependent manner. We described and tested a kind of stretch pattern which delivers physiological stretch implemented during bladder cycle. The findings also showed that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent morphological, proliferative and contractile modulation of HBSMCs in vitro.

  10. Land use mediates riverine nitrogen export under the dominant influence of human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binhui; Chang, Scott X.; Lam, Shu Kee; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing

    2017-09-01

    Riverine nitrogen (N) export is a crucial process that links upstream and downstream ecosystems and coastal zones. However, the driving forces of riverine N export that is closely related to water N pollution are still not well understood. In this study, we used a mass balance approach to quantify the sources of N discharge and analyzed the effect of land use composition on riverine N export, taking Zhejiang Province, China as a case study. We found that the total reactive N discharge to rivers in Zhejiang increased from 0.22 to 0.26 Tg yr-1 from 2000 to 2015. At the watershed scale, our estimate of N export agrees well with the monitored riverine N concentration in the eight major watersheds in Zhejiang. Direct discharge of domestic wastewater and effluents from wastewater treatment plants are dominant sources of riverine N export, followed by agricultural non-point sources. Although riverine N export increases with the increasing proportion of urban and agricultural land uses, we did not find any relationship between land use change and changes in riverine N export. This suggests that the dominant factor affecting riverine N export should be human activities (e.g. wastewater discharge and fertilization level), while land use only mediates riverine N export.

  11. Evaluation of human and bovine serum albumin on oxidation characteristics by a photosensitization reaction under complete binding of talaporfin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotsu, Mariko; Yajima, Masahiro; Takahashi, Mei; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2015-09-01

    In order to investigate the therapeutic interaction of an extra-cellular photosensitization reaction, we evaluated the oxidation characteristics of human and bovine serum albumin by this reaction with talaporfin sodium under complete binding with albumin by spectroscopic analysis in a cell-free solution. The solution was composed of 20μg/ml talaporfin sodium and 2.1mg/ml human or bovine serum albumin. A 662nm laser light was used to irradiate the solution. Visible absorbance spectra of solutions were measured to obtain the oxidized and non-oxidized relative densities of albumin and talaporfin sodium before and after the photosensitization reaction. The defined oxidation path ratio of talaporfin sodium to albumin reflected the oxidation of the solution. Absorbance wavelengths at approximately 240 and 660nm were used to calculate normalized molecular densities of oxidized albumin and talaporfin sodium, respectively. The oxidation path ratio of talaporfin sodium to albumin when binding human serum albumin was approximately 1.8 times larger than that of bovine serum albumin during the photosensitization reaction from 1 to 50J/cm(2). We hypothesized that the oxidation path ratio results might have been caused by talaporfin sodium binding affinity or binding location difference between the two albumins, because the fluorescence lifetimes of talaporfin sodium bound to human and bovine serum albumin were 7.0 and 4.9ns, respectively. Therefore, the photodynamic therapeutic interaction might be stronger with human serum albumin than with bovine serum albumin in the case of extracellular photosensitization reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, A.; Joseph, W.; Vermeeren, G.; Thielens, A.; Tanghe, E.; Martens, L.

    2014-12-01

    A simple formula to determine the human average whole-body SAR (SARwb) under realistic propagation conditions is proposed in the GHz region, i.e. from 1.45 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The methodology is based on simulations of ellipsoidal human body models. Only the exposure (incident power densities) and the human mass are needed to apply the formula. Diffuse scattered illumination is addressed for the first time and the possible presence of a Line-of-Sight (LOS) component is addressed as well. As validation, the formula is applied to calculate the average whole-body SARwb in 3D heterogeneous phantoms, i.e. the virtual family (34 year-old male, 26 year-old female, 11 year-old girl, and 6 year-old boy) and the results are compared with numerical ones—using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method—at 3 GHz. For the LOS exposure, the average relative error varies from 28% to 12% (resp. 14-12%) for the vertical polarization (resp. horizontal polarization), depending on the heteregeneous phantom. Regarding the diffuse illumination, relative errors of -39.40%, -11.70%, 10.70%, and 10.60% are obtained for the 6 year-old boy, 11 year-old girl, 26 year-old female, and 34 year-old male, respectively. The proposed formula estimates well (especially for adults) the SARwb induced by diffuse illumination in realistic conditions. In general, the correctness of the formula improves when the human mass increases. Keeping the uncertainties of the FDTD simulations in mind, the proposed formula might be important for the dosimetry community to assess rapidly and accurately the human absorption of electromagnetic radiation caused by diffuse fields in the GHz region. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed formula to personal dosimetry for epidemiological research.

  13. The Human Thirst for Water Under Global Change: What and where are the Future Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Fant, C.; Gao, X.; Strzepek, K.; Reilly, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The future of water availability and security is of paramount importance. A climacteric challenge toward the future sustainability of this precious resource is to identify where and when water may become substantially limited in the coming decades and what are the key drivers. The sustainability of water resources are affected by many factors that include: population, wealth, energy, land use, as well as climate. Yet, prediction systems are challenged by uncertainties in models and observational support as well as the practical and theoretical limits-to-prediction of the Earth's systems. This limits any one forecast of a potential future as actionable information - and the scientific community has moved toward risk-based assessments to provide a likelihood of outcomes - to the fullest extent possible. We present a synopsis of recently published and ongoing analyses from experiments with the MIT Integrated System Model (IGSM) linked to a Water Resource System (WRS). These experiments address the future of water stress in a global context as well as with regional lenses over the United States and a large portion of Southern and Eastern Asia. By 2050, global economic growth and population change can lead to an additional 1.8 billion people living under at least moderate water stress, with 80% located in developing countries. Combined, socioeconomic growth and uncertain climate change lead to a 1.0-1.3 billion increase of the world's 2050 projected population living with overly exploited water conditions—where total potential water requirements will consistently exceed surface water supply. Using a large ensemble of scenarios that are consistent across economics, emissions, climate, population, etc., we develop risk portfolios of water stress over a large portion of Asia (Figure 1) and isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth (population and wealth) and climate change. We find the number of people under water stress more than doubles from about 800 million to 1

  14. Characteristics of turbulent particle transport in human airways under steady and cyclic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PDA data allow to estimate PSD of particle velocity fluctuations in realistic model. ► PSD of micron-sized particles is independent of their size up to 700 Hz. ► Such particles follow air flow and turb. diffusion contributes to their deposition. ► Cyclic flow PSDs contain more TKE at high freq. than equivalent steady-flow PSDs. ► Exp. breathing phase differs from insp. phase at high frequency part of the spectra. - Abstract: Motion of monodispersed aerosol particles suspended in air flow has been studied on realistic transparent model of human airways using Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA). Time-resolved velocity data for particles in size range 1–8 μm were processed using Fuzzy Slotting Technique to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations. The optimum processing setup for our data was found and recommendations for future experiments to improve PSD quality were suggested. Typical PSD plots at mainstream positions of the trachea and the upper bronchi are documented and differences among (1) steady-flow regimes and equivalent cyclic breathing regimes, (2) inspiration and expiration breathing phase and (3) behaviour of particles of different sizes are described in several positions of the airway model. Systematically higher level of velocity fluctuations in the upper part of the frequency range (30–500 Hz) was found for cyclic flows in comparison with corresponding steady flows. Expiratory flows in both the steady and cyclic cases produce more high-frequency fluctuations compared to inspiratory flows. Negligible differences were found for flow of particles in the inspected size range 1–8 μm at frequencies below 500 Hz. This finding was explained by Stokes number analysis. Implied match of the air and particle flows thereby indicates turbulent diffusion as important deposition mechanism and confirms the capability to use the P/DPA data as the air flow velocity estimate.

  15. Interaction of ANS with human serum albumin under confinement: Important insights and relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Ashima; Kundu, Jayanta; Karmakar, Sandip; Lai, Sima; Chowdhury, Pramit K., E-mail: pramitc@chemistry.iitd.ac.in

    2015-11-15

    Human serum albumin (HSA) has been extensively studied over the years not only as a model protein but also as an important small molecule carrier with its ability to bind a variety of ligands. This study focuses on the modulation in the conformational disposition of HSA within the confinement of water pools of AOT reverse micelles, and its interactions with 1-anilinonapthelenesulfonate (ANS), the latter serving as a drug moiety. Circular dichroism studies show that while on one hand the incorporation of the protein in the reverse micelles leads to significant distortion in its secondary structure, however, at the same time, addition of ANS leads to a marked increase in helicity of HSA. A combination of FRET studies, time resolved anisotropy measurements and global analyses of temperature dependent spectra reveal little or no significant interaction between HSA and ANS inside the AOT water pools, this being expected, based on the observed distortion of the protein secondary structure on reverse micelle entrapment (the latter resulting in disruption of the binding pockets available to ANS). Taken together our data show possible insights into how HSA releases its bound species (when interacting with membranes or charged confined spaces) and thereby remains a viable drug carrier. - Highlights: • Perturbation of the native structure of HSA in reverse micelles was investigated. • The thermal transition of HSA was quite non-cooperative inside the water pools. • 1-ANS was use to check whether it was binding to HSA inside the water pools. • Our analyses show the HSA subdomain cavities to be perturbed not allowing ANS to bind. • This we propose is a manner that HSA can release its bound molecules.

  16. Features of selenium metabolism in humans living under the conditions of North European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshukova, Olga; Potolitsyna, Natalya; Shadrina, Vera; Chernykh, Aleksei; Bojko, Evgeny

    2014-08-01

    Selenium supplementation and its effects on Northerners have been little studied. The aim of our study was to assess the selenium levels of the inhabitants of North European Russia, the seasonal aspects of selenium supplementation, and the interrelationships between selenium levels and the levels of thyroid gland hormones. To study the particular features of selenium metabolism in Northerners over the course of 1 year, 19 healthy male Caucasian volunteers (18-21 years old) were recruited for the present study. The subjects were military guards in a Northern European region of Russia (Syktyvkar, Russia, 62°N latitude) who spent 6-10-h outdoors daily. The study was conducted over a 12-month period. Selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity, as well as total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, were determined in the blood serum. The study subjects showed low levels of plasma selenium throughout the year. We observed a noticeable decrease in plasma selenium levels during the period from May to August, with the lowest levels in July. Selenium levels in the military guards correlated with the levels of selenium-dependent GP enzyme activity throughout the year. Additionally, we demonstrated a significant correlation between selenium and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (total T3, free T4, and TSH) in periods in which plasma selenium levels were lower than the established normal ranges. Over the course of 1 year, low levels of plasma selenium affect GP activity and thyroid hormone levels in humans living in North European Russia.

  17. Mechanisms underlying apoptosis-inducing effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki Won; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-02-17

    We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0-60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway.

  18. Modeling of the Human - Operator in a Complex System Functioning Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzov, Peter; Hubenova, Zoia; Yordanov, Dimitar; Popov, Wiliam

    2013-12-01

    Problems, related to the explication of sophisticated control systems of objects, operating under extreme conditions, have been examined and the impact of the effectiveness of the operator's activity on the systems as a whole. The necessity of creation of complex simulation models, reflecting operator's activity, is discussed. Organizational and technical system of an unmanned aviation complex is described as a sophisticated ergatic system. Computer realization of main subsystems of algorithmic system of the man as a controlling system is implemented and specialized software for data processing and analysis is developed. An original computer model of a Man as a tracking system has been implemented. Model of unmanned complex for operators training and formation of a mental model in emergency situation, implemented in "matlab-simulink" environment, has been synthesized. As a unit of the control loop, the pilot (operator) is simplified viewed as an autocontrol system consisting of three main interconnected subsystems: sensitive organs (perception sensors); central nervous system; executive organs (muscles of the arms, legs, back). Theoretical-data model of prediction the level of operator's information load in ergatic systems is proposed. It allows the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of a real working operator. Simulation model of operator's activity in takeoff based on the Petri nets has been synthesized.

  19. Modeling the Mechanical Response of In Vivo Human Skin Under a Rich Set of Deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-03-11

    Determining the mechanical properties of an individual\\'s skin is important in the fields of pathology, biomedical device design, and plastic surgery. To address this need, we present a finite element model that simulates the skin of the anterior forearm and posterior upper arm under a rich set of three-dimensional deformations. We investigated the suitability of the Ogden and Tong and Fung strain energy functions along with a quasi-linear viscoelastic law. Using non-linear optimization techniques, we found material parameters and in vivo pre-stresses for different volunteers. The model simulated the experiments with errors-of-fit ranging from 13.7 to 21.5%. Pre-stresses ranging from 28 to 92 kPa were estimated. We show that using only in-plane experimental data in the parameter optimization results in a poor prediction of the out-of-plane response. The identifiability of the model parameters, which are evaluated using different determinability criteria, improves by increasing the number of deformation orientations in the experiments. © 2011 Biomedical Engineering Society.

  20. Prediction of heat-illness symptoms with the prediction of human vascular response in hot environment under resting condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Yogender; Karan, Bhuwan Mohan; Das, Barsa Nand; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2008-04-01

    The thermoregulatory control of human skin blood flow is vital to maintain the body heat storage during challenges of thermal homeostasis under heat stress. Whenever thermal homeostasis disturbed, the heat load exceeds heat dissipation capacity, which alters the cutaneous vascular responses along with other body physiological variables. Whole body skin blood flow has been calculated from the forearm blood flow. Present model has been designed using electronics circuit simulator (Multisim 8.0, National Instruments, USA), is to execute a series of predictive equations for early prediction of physiological parameters of young nude subjects during resting condition at various level of dry heat stress under almost still air to avoid causalities associated with hot environmental. The users can execute the model by changing the environmental temperature in degrees C and exposure time in minutes. The model would be able to predict and detect the changes in human vascular responses along with other physiological parameters and from this predicted values heat related-illness symptoms can be inferred.

  1. The use of a DNA stabilizer in human dental tissues stored under different temperature conditions and time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    TERADA, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; da SILVA, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; GALO, Rodrigo; de AZEVEDO, Aline; GERLACH, Raquel Fernanda; da SILVA, Ricardo Henrique Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the use of a reagent to stabilize the DNA extracted from human dental tissues stored under different temperature conditions and time intervals. Material and Methods A total of 161 teeth were divided into two distinct groups: intact teeth and isolated dental pulp tissue. The samples were stored with or without the product at different time intervals and temperature. After storage, DNA extraction and genomic DNA quantification were performed using real-time PCR; the fragments of the 32 samples that represented each possible condition were analyzed to find the four pre-selected markers in STR analysis. Results The results of the quantification showed values ranging from 0.01 to 10,246.88 ng/μL of DNA. The statistical difference in the quantity of DNA was observed when the factors related to the time and temperature of storage were analyzed. In relation to the use of the specific reagent, its use was relevant in the group of intact teeth when they were at room temperature for 30 and 180 days. The analysis of the fragments in the 32 selected samples was possible irrespective of the amount of DNA, confirming that the STR analysis using an automated method yields good results. Conclusions The use of a specific reagent showed a significant difference in stabilizing DNA in samples of intact human teeth stored at room temperature for 30 and 180 days, while the results showed no justification for using the product under the other conditions tested. PMID:25141206

  2. Characteristics of turbulent particle transport in human airways under steady and cyclic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedelsky, Jan, E-mail: jedelsky@fme.vutbr.cz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Lizal, Frantisek, E-mail: lizal@fme.vutbr.cz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Jicha, Miroslav, E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDA data allow to estimate PSD of particle velocity fluctuations in realistic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PSD of micron-sized particles is independent of their size up to 700 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such particles follow air flow and turb. diffusion contributes to their deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic flow PSDs contain more TKE at high freq. than equivalent steady-flow PSDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exp. breathing phase differs from insp. phase at high frequency part of the spectra. - Abstract: Motion of monodispersed aerosol particles suspended in air flow has been studied on realistic transparent model of human airways using Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA). Time-resolved velocity data for particles in size range 1-8 {mu}m were processed using Fuzzy Slotting Technique to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations. The optimum processing setup for our data was found and recommendations for future experiments to improve PSD quality were suggested. Typical PSD plots at mainstream positions of the trachea and the upper bronchi are documented and differences among (1) steady-flow regimes and equivalent cyclic breathing regimes, (2) inspiration and expiration breathing phase and (3) behaviour of particles of different sizes are described in several positions of the airway model. Systematically higher level of velocity fluctuations in the upper part of the frequency range (30-500 Hz) was found for cyclic flows in comparison with corresponding steady flows. Expiratory flows in both the steady and cyclic cases produce more high-frequency fluctuations compared to inspiratory flows. Negligible differences were found for flow of particles in the inspected size range 1-8 {mu}m at frequencies below 500 Hz. This finding was explained by Stokes number analysis. Implied match of the air and particle flows thereby indicates turbulent diffusion as important deposition

  3. Human resources for health in six healthcare arenas under stress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Pavignani, Enrico; Beesley, Mark; Hill, Peter S

    2015-03-29

    Research on "human resources for health" (HRH) typically focuses on the public health subsector, despite the World Health Organization's inclusive definition to the contrary. This qualitative research examines the profile of HRH in six conflict-affected contexts where the public health subsector does not dominate healthcare service provision and HRH is a less coherent and cohesive entity: Afghanistan, the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), Haiti, the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Somalia. The study uses a multiple-country qualitative research design including documentary analysis and key informant interviews undertaken between 2010 and 2012. The documentary analysis included peer-reviewed articles, books, unpublished research and evaluations and donor and non-government organisation reviews. A common thematic guide, informed by this analysis, was used to undertake key informant interviews. Informants thought able to provide some insight into the research questions were identified from ministry of health organograms, and from listings of donors and non-government organisations. Local informants outside the familiar structures were also contacted. In CAR, 74 were interviewed; in Somalia 25; . in Haiti, 45; in Afghanistan, 41; in DR Congo, 32; and in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, 30. In addition, peer review was sought on the initial country reports. The study discovered, in each healthcare arena investigated, a crowded HRH space with a wide range of public, private, formal and informal providers of varying levels of competence and a diverse richness of initiatives, shaped by the easy commodification of health and an unregulated market. The weak regulatory framework and capacity to regulate, combined with limited information regarding those not on the state payroll, allowed non-state providers to flourish, if not materially then at least numerically. When examining HRH, a reliance on information provided by the

  4. Numerical investigation of transient transport and deposition of microparticles under unsteady inspiratory flow in human upper airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Arash; Shaghaghian, Sana; Abouali, Omid; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, unsteady airflow patterns and particle deposition in healthy human upper airways were simulated. A realistic 3-D computational model of the upper airways including the vestibule to the end of the trachea was developed using a series of CT scan images of a healthy human. Unsteady simulations of the inhaled and exhaled airflow fields in the upper airway passages were performed by solving the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for low breathing rates corresponding to low and moderate activities. The Lagrangian trajectory analysis approach was utilized to investigate the transient particle transport and deposition under cyclic breathing condition. Particles were released uniformly at the nostrils' entrance during the inhalation phase, and the total and regional depositions for various micro-particle sizes were evaluated. The transient particle deposition fractions for various regions of the human upper airways were compared with those obtained from the equivalent steady flow condition. The presented results revealed that the equivalent constant airflow simulation can approximately predict the total particle deposition during cyclic breathing in human upper airways. While the trends of steady and unsteady model predictions for local deposition were similar, there were noticeable differences in the predicted amount of deposition. In addition, it was shown that a steady simulation cannot properly predict some critical parameters, such as the penetration fraction. Finally, the presented results showed that using a detached nasal cavity (commonly used in earlier studies) for evaluation of total deposition fraction of particles in the nasal cavity was reasonably accurate for the steady flow simulations. However, in transient simulation for predicting the deposition fraction in a specific region, such as the nasal cavity, using the full airway system geometry becomes necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of genetic risk and detriment from barite examinations of the digestive system in Malaga (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the populations involved in barite examinations of the digestive apparatus. The values of genetically significant dose (DGS), somatically significant dose (DSS) and damage (G) are presented, as derived from the calculation of dose-area, doses in organs and effective doses. At first glance, these complex examinations contribute higher values than the simple examinations. However, our data demonstrate the opposite: DGS = 0.9 mSv; DSS = 1.89 mSv and G = 0.28 radiogenetic cancers per year. These values contradict the data determined for simple examinations for the same population. Although the reasons for this are multiple, the principal underlying cause might be the average age of the patients. These changes are more emphasized in the DGS, which affects the doses in the gonads of the patients after the irradiation. These results must be further compared with other work done in other countries

  6. There Is a "U" in Clutter: Evidence for Robust Sparse Codes Underlying Clutter Tolerance in Human Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Patrick H; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2015-10-21

    The ability to recognize objects in clutter is crucial for human vision, yet the underlying neural computations remain poorly understood. Previous single-unit electrophysiology recordings in inferotemporal cortex in monkeys and fMRI studies of object-selective cortex in humans have shown that the responses to pairs of objects can sometimes be well described as a weighted average of the responses to the constituent objects. Yet, from a computational standpoint, it is not clear how the challenge of object recognition in clutter can be solved if downstream areas must disentangle the identity of an unknown number of individual objects from the confounded average neuronal responses. An alternative idea is that recognition is based on a subpopulation of neurons that are robust to clutter, i.e., that do not show response averaging, but rather robust object-selective responses in the presence of clutter. Here we show that simulations using the HMAX model of object recognition in cortex can fit the aforementioned single-unit and fMRI data, showing that the averaging-like responses can be understood as the result of responses of object-selective neurons to suboptimal stimuli. Moreover, the model shows how object recognition can be achieved by a sparse readout of neurons whose selectivity is robust to clutter. Finally, the model provides a novel prediction about human object recognition performance, namely, that target recognition ability should show a U-shaped dependency on the similarity of simultaneously presented clutter objects. This prediction is confirmed experimentally, supporting a simple, unifying model of how the brain performs object recognition in clutter. The neural mechanisms underlying object recognition in cluttered scenes (i.e., containing more than one object) remain poorly understood. Studies have suggested that neural responses to multiple objects correspond to an average of the responses to the constituent objects. Yet, it is unclear how the identities

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates detrimental effects of saline reclaimed water in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Sánchez, J; Nicolás, E; Pedrero, F; Alarcón, J J; Maestre-Valero, J F; Fernández, F

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) on the physiological performance and production of lettuce plants grown under greenhouse conditions and supplied with reclaimed water (RW; urban-treated wastewater with high electrical conductivity; 4.19 dS m(-1)). Four treatments, fresh water, fresh water plus AMF inoculation, RW and RW plus AMF inoculation, were applied and their effects, over time, analyzed. Root mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass, leaf-ion content, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were assessed. Overall, our results highlight the significance of the AMF in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Inoculated plants increased the ability to acquire N, Ca, and K from both non-saline and saline media. Moreover, mycorrhization significantly reduced Na plant uptake. Under RW conditions, inoculated plants also showed a better performance of physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency than non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, the high concentration of nutrients already dissolved in reclaimed water suggested that adjustments in the calculation of the fertigation should be conducted by farmers. Finally, this experiment has proved that mycorrhization could be a suitable way to induce salt stress resistance in iceberg lettuce crops as plants supplied with reclaimed water satisfied minimum legal commercial size thresholds. Moreover, the maximum values of Escherichia coli in the reclaimed water were close to but never exceeded the international thresholds established (Spanish Royal Decree 1620/2007; Italian Decree, 2003) and hence lettuces were apt for sale.

  8. In Vivo Dissolution and Systemic Absorption of Immediate Release Ibuprofen in Human Gastrointestinal Tract under Fed and Fasted Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Baker, Jason R; Wen, Bo; Frances, Ann; Zhang, Huixia; Yu, Alex; Zhao, Ting; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Pai, Manjunath P; Bleske, Barry E; Zhang, Xinyuan; Lionberger, Robert; Lee, Allen; Amidon, Gordon L; Hasler, William L; Sun, Duxin

    2017-12-04

    In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. A multilumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects. Subjects received a single oral dose of ibuprofen (800 mg tablet) with 250 mL of water under fasting and fed conditions. The GI catheter facilitated collection of GI fluid from the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Ibuprofen concentration in GI fluid supernatant and plasma was determined by LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 subjects completed the study, with 11 subjects returning for an additional study visit (a total of 34 completed study visits). The subjects were primarily white (61%) and male (65%) with an average age of 30 years. The subjects had a median [min, max] weight of 79 [52, 123] kg and body mass index of 25.7 [19.4, 37.7] kg/m 2 . Ibuprofen plasma levels were higher under fasted conditions and remained detectable for 28 h under both conditions. The AUC 0-24 and C max were lower in fed subjects vs fasted subjects, and T max was delayed in fed subjects vs fasted subjects. Ibuprofen was detected immediately after ingestion in the stomach under fasting and fed conditions until 7 h after dosing. Higher levels of ibuprofen were detected in the small intestine soon after dosing in fasted subjects compared to fed. In contrast to plasma drug concentration, overall gastric concentrations remained higher under fed conditions due to increased gastric pH vs fasting condition. The gastric pH increased to near neutrality after feedingbefore decreasing to acidic levels after 7 h. Induction of the fed state reduced systemic

  9. Self-catalytic DNA depurination underlies human β-globin gene mutations at codon 6 that cause anemias and thalassemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Amosova, Olga; Fresco, Jacques R

    2013-04-19

    The human β-globin gene contains an 18-nucleotide coding strand sequence centered at codon 6 and capable of forming a stem-loop structure that can self-catalyze depurination of the 5'G residue of that codon. The resultant apurinic lesion is subject to error-prone repair, consistent with the occurrence about this codon of mutations responsible for 6 anemias and β-thalassemias and additional substitutions without clinical consequences. The 4-residue loop of this stem-loop-forming sequence shows the highest incidence of mutation across the gene. The loop and first stem base pair-forming residues appeared early in the mammalian clade. The other stem-forming segments evolved more recently among primates, thereby conferring self-depurination capacity at codon 6. These observations indicate a conserved molecular mechanism leading to β-globin variants underlying phenotypic diversity and disease.

  10. Medium chain acylcarnitines dominate the metabolite pattern in humans under moderate intensity exercise and support lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise is an extreme physiological challenge for skeletal muscle energy metabolism and has notable health benefits. We aimed to identify and characterize metabolites, which are components of the regulatory network mediating the beneficial metabolic adaptation to exercise. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we investigated plasma from healthy human subjects who completed two independent running studies under moderate, predominantly aerobic conditions. Samples obtained prior to and immediately after running and then 3 and 24 h into the recovery phase were analyzed by a non-targeted (NT- metabolomics approach applying liquid chromatography-qTOF-mass spectrometry. Under these conditions medium and long chain acylcarnitines were found to be the most discriminant plasma biomarkers of moderately intense exercise. Immediately after a 60 min (at 93% V(IAT or a 120 min run (at 70% V(IAT a pronounced, transient increase dominated by octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine was observed. The release of acylcarnitines as intermediates of partial beta-oxidation was verified in skeletal muscle cell culture experiments by probing (13C-palmitate metabolism. Further investigations in primary human myotubes and mouse muscle tissue revealed that octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine were able to support the oxidation of palmitate, proving more effective than L-carnitine. CONCLUSIONS: Medium chain acylcarnitines were identified and characterized by a functional metabolomics approach as the dominating biomarkers during a moderately intense exercise bout possessing the power to support fat oxidation. This physiological production and efflux of acylcarnitines might exert beneficial biological functions in muscle tissue.

  11. The interplay between GRP78 expression and Akt activation in human colon cancer cells under celecoxib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaobo; Chang, Weilong; Du, Hansong; Bai, Jie; Sun, Zhenhai; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Guangsheng; Tao, Kaixiong; Long, Yueping

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported previously that celecoxib shows antitumor effects in many types of cancers. Here, we detected its effects on DLD-1 and SW480 (two human colon cancer cell lines) and investigated the dynamic relationship between the 78-kDa glucose-regulatory protein (GRP78) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Gene expression was detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis; the cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. First, the results showed that celecoxib induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found the celecoxib-triggered unfolded protein response and the bidirectional regulation of Akt activation in both cell lines. Inhibiting the Akt activation by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly enhanced GRP78 expression. Besides, silencing the GRP78 expression regulated Akt activation in a time-dependent manner and increased the induction of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) as well as considerably promoted celecoxib-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that under the celecoxib treatment, GRP78 plays a protective role by modulating Akt activation and abrogating CHOP expression. However, Akt activation can provide a feedback loop to inhibit GRP78 expression. These studies can lead to novel therapeutic strategies for human colon cancer.

  12. Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Peter M; Emlen, Stephen T

    2003-07-22

    This study tested two hypotheses concerning the cognitive processes underlying human mate choice in Western society: (i) mate preference is conditional in that the selectivity of individuals' mate preference is based on their perception of themselves as long-term partners, and (ii) the decision rule governing such conditional mate preference is based on translating perception of oneself on a given attribute into a comparable selectivity of preference for the same attribute in a mate. Both hypotheses were supported. A two-part questionnaire was completed by 978 heterosexual residents of Ithaca, New York, aged 18-24; they first rated the importance they placed on 10 attributes in a long-term partner and then rated their perception of themselves on those same attributes. Both women and men who rated themselves highly were significantly more selective in their mate preference. When the 10 attributes were grouped into four evolutionarily relevant categories (indicative of wealth and status, family commitment, physical appearance, and sexual fidelity), the greatest amount of variation in the selectivity of mate preference in each category was explained by self-perception in the same category of attributes. We conclude that, in Western society, humans use neither an "opposites-attract" nor a "reproductive-potentials-attract" decision rule in their choice of long-term partners but rather a "likes-attract" rule based on a preference for partners who are similar to themselves across a number of characteristics.

  13. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G. V.; Katkova, M. N.; Shoshina, R. R.; Synzynys, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable.

  14. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentyeva, G V; Katkova, M N; Shoshina, R R; Synzynys, B I

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable. (paper)

  15. Radiation detriment ascribable to infants and children undergoing micturating cystourethrograms - A review of studies in Spain, Britain, New Zealand and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.L.; Canete, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The detriment, due to ionizing irradiation, ascribable to infants and children may be as high as three times that to adults. Recent interest in dose reduction, in part associated with the advent of the Diamentor dose-area product meter, has led to several studies reporting average dose-area products at a number of centres for micturating cystourethrograms (MCUGS) and other radiological examinations. In this review the data has been further processed to yield the ICRP 60 Equivalent Doses and a detriment factor applied to yield the numbers of infants and children likely to suffer detriment in future life as a result of having undergone the procedure at the centres reviewed. (author)

  16. Compartment-specific distribution of human intestinal innate lymphoid cells is altered in HIV patients under effective therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Krämer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs, a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa and subsequent microbial translocation. However, although ILCs are preferentially localized at mucosal surfaces, only little is known regarding distribution and function of ILCs in the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we show that in HIV(- individuals composition and functional capacity of intestinal ILCs is compartment-specific with group 1 ILCs representing the major fraction in the upper gastrointestinal (GI tract, whereas ILC3 are the predominant population in ileum and colon, respectively. In addition, we present first data indicating that local cytokine concentrations, especially that of IL-7, might modulate composition of gut ILCs. Distribution of intestinal ILCs was significantly altered in HIV patients, who displayed decreased frequency of total ILCs in ileum and colon owing to reduced numbers of both CD127(+ILC1 and ILC3. Of note, frequency of colonic ILC3 was inversely correlated with serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14, surrogate markers for loss of gut barrier integrity and microbial translocation, respectively. Both expression of the IL-7 receptor CD127 on ILCs as well as mucosal IL-7 mRNA levels were decreased in HIV(+ patients, especially in those parts of the GI tract with reduced ILC frequencies, suggesting that impaired IL-7 responses of ILCs might contribute to incomplete reconstitution of ILCs under effective anti-retroviral therapy. This is the first report comparing distribution and function of ILCs along the intestinal mucosa of the entire human gastrointestinal tract in HIV(+ and HIV(- individuals.

  17. Feeding deterrence and detrimental effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Annika; Janke, Martina; von der Ohe, Werner; Kempf, Michael; Theuring, Claudine; Hartmann, Thomas; Schreier, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies have shown the occurrence of plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in retail honeys and pollen loads, but little is known about how these compounds influence the fitness of foraging honey bees. In feeding experiments, we tested a mix of tertiary PAs and the corresponding N-oxides from Senecio vernalis, pure monocrotaline, and 1,2-dihydromonocrotaline in 50% (w/w) sucrose solutions. The bees were analyzed chemically to correlate the observed effects to the ingested amount of PAs. PA-N-oxides were deterrent at concentrations >0.2%. 1,2-Unsaturated tertiary PAs were toxic at high concentrations. The observed PAs mortality could be linked directly to the presence of the 1,2-double bond, a well established essential feature of PA cytotoxicity. In contrast, feeding experiments with 1,2-dihydromonocrotaline revealed no toxic effects. Levels of less than 50 microg 1,2-unsaturated tertiary PAs per individual adult bee were tolerated without negative effects. PA-N-oxides fed to bees were reduced partially to the corresponding tertiary PAs. Unlike some specialized insects, bees are not able to actively detoxify PAs through N-oxidation. To gain insight into how PAs are transmitted among bees, we tested for horizontal PA transfer (trophallaxis). Under laboratory conditions, up to 15% of an ingested PA diet was exchanged from bee to bee, disclosing a possible route for incorporation into the honey comb. In the absence of alternative nectar and pollen sources, PA-containing plants might exhibit a threat to vulnerable bee larvae, and this might affect the overall colony fitness.

  18. Australia's Unprecedented Future Temperature Extremes Under Paris Limits to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie C.; King, Andrew D.; Mitchell, Daniel M.

    2017-10-01

    Record-breaking temperatures can detrimentally impact ecosystems, infrastructure, and human health. Previous studies show that climate change has influenced some observed extremes, which are expected to become more frequent under enhanced future warming. Understanding the magnitude, as a well as frequency, of such future extremes is critical for limiting detrimental impacts. We focus on temperature changes in Australian regions, including over a major coral reef-building area, and assess the potential magnitude of future extreme temperatures under Paris Agreement global warming targets (1.5°C and 2°C). Under these limits to global mean warming, we determine a set of projected high-magnitude unprecedented Australian temperature extremes. These include extremes unexpected based on observational temperatures, including current record-breaking events. For example, while the difference in global-average warming during the hottest Australian summer and the 2°C Paris target is 1.1°C, extremes of 2.4°C above the observed summer record are simulated. This example represents a more than doubling of the magnitude of extremes, compared with global mean change, and such temperatures are unexpected based on the observed record alone. Projected extremes do not necessarily scale linearly with mean global warming, and this effect demonstrates the significant potential benefits of limiting warming to 1.5°C, compared to 2°C or warmer.

  19. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): Impact on hepatitis A virus and on a human Norovirus surrogate under natural solar conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, David; García-Fernández, Irene; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar water disinfection (SODIS) in the reduction and inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and of the human Norovirus surrogate, murine Norovirus (MNV-1), under natural solar conditions. Experiments were performed in 330 ml polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles containing HAV or MNV-1 contaminated waters (10(3) PFU/ml) that were exposed to natural sunlight for 2 to 8 h. Parallel experiments under controlled temperature and/or in darkness conditions were also included. Samples were concentrated by electropositive charged filters and analysed by RT-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) and infectivity assays. Temperature reached in bottles throughout the exposure period ranged from 22 to 40ºC. After 8 h of solar exposure (cumulative UV dose of ~828 kJ/m2 and UV irradiance of ~20 kJ/l), the results showed significant (PSODIS conditions induced a loss of infectivity between 33.4% and 83.4% after 4 to 8 h in HAV trials, and between 33.4% and 66.7% after 6 h to 8 h in MNV-1 trials. The results obtained indicated a greater importance of sunlight radiation over the temperature as the main factor for viral reduction. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  20. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications.

  1. Expression and function of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in human melanoma under non-hypoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Sandeep S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α protein is rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. When oxygen tensions fall HIF-1α protein stabilizes and transactivates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. We have examined the normoxic expression of HIF-1α RNA and protein in normal human melanocytes and a series of human melanoma cell lines isolated from radial growth phase (RGP, vertical growth phase (VGP and metastatic (MET melanomas. Results HIF-1α mRNA and protein was increased in RGP vs melanocytes, VGP vs RGP and MET vs VGP melanoma cell lines. We also detected expression of a HIF-1α mRNA splice variant that lacks part of the oxygen-dependent regulation domain in WM1366 and WM9 melanoma cells. Over-expression of HIF-1α and its splice variant in the RGP cell line SbCl2 resulted in a small increase in soft agar colony formation and a large increase in matrigel invasion relative to control transfected cells. Knockdown of HIF-1α expression by siRNA in the MET WM9 melanoma cell line resulted in a large decrease in both soft agar colony formation and matrigel invasion relative to cells treated with non-specific siRNA. There is a high level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in WM9 cells, indicating an activated Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Treatment of WM9 cells with 30 μM U0126 MEK inhibitor, decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and resulted in a decrease in HIF-1α expression. However, a 24 h treatment with 10 μM U0126 totally eliminated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of MEK siRNA did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Conclusion We speculate that metabolic products of U0126 decrease HIF-1alpha expression through "off target" effects. Overall our data suggest that increased HIF-1α expression under normoxic conditions contributes to some of the malignant phenotypes exhibited by human melanoma cells. The expanded role of HIF-1α in melanoma biology increases

  2. From Performance to Decision Processes in 33 Years: A History of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes under James C. Naylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber

    1998-12-01

    For the past 33 years, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes has thrived under a single editor. That editor, James C. Naylor, is retiring from his long stewardship. This article chronicles the course of the journal under Jim's direction and marks some of the accomplishments and changes over the past three decades that go to his credit. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. A modified device for continuous non-invasive blood pressure measurements in humans under hyperbaric and/or oxygen-enriched conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bel, René; Sliggers, Bart C.; van Houwelingen, Marc J.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Halliwill, John R.; van Hulst, Robert A.; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2016-01-01

    It would be desirable to safely and continuously measure blood pressure noninvasively under hyperbaric and/or hyperoxic conditions, in order to explore haemodynamic responses in humans under these conditions. A systematic analysis according to 'failure mode and effects analysis' principles of a

  4. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S; Clohisey, Sara; Gray, Alan; Neyton, Lucile P A; Barrett, Jeffrey; Stahl, Eli A; Tenesa, Albert; Andersson, Robin; Brown, J Ben; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Lizio, Marina; Schaefer, Ulf; Daub, Carsten; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kondo, Naoto; Lassmann, Timo; Kawai, Jun; Mole, Damian; Bajic, Vladimir B; Heutink, Peter; Rehli, Michael; Kawaji, Hideya; Sandelin, Albin; Suzuki, Harukazu; Satsangi, Jack; Wells, Christine A; Hacohen, Nir; Freeman, Thomas C; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hume, David A

    2018-03-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns of transcriptional activity. Accordingly, shared transcriptional activity (coexpression) may help prioritise loci associated with a given trait, and help to identify underlying biological processes. Using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) profiles of promoter- and enhancer-derived RNAs across 1824 human samples, we have analysed coexpression of RNAs originating from trait-associated regulatory regions using a novel quantitative method (network density analysis; NDA). For most traits studied, phenotype-associated variants in regulatory regions were linked to tightly-coexpressed networks that are likely to share important functional characteristics. Coexpression provides a new signal, independent of phenotype association, to enable fine mapping of causative variants. The NDA coexpression approach identifies new genetic variants associated with specific traits, including an association between the regulation of the OCT1 cation transporter and genetic variants underlying circulating cholesterol levels. NDA strongly implicates particular cell types and tissues in disease pathogenesis. For example, distinct groupings of disease-associated regulatory regions implicate two distinct biological processes in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; a further two separate processes are implicated in Crohn's disease. Thus, our functional analysis of genetic predisposition to disease defines new distinct disease endotypes. We predict that patients with a preponderance of susceptibility variants in each group are likely to respond differently to pharmacological therapy. Together, these findings enable a deeper biological understanding of the causal basis of complex traits.

  5. Long-lived hypopituitary Ames dwarf mice are resistant to the detrimental effects of high-fat diet on metabolic function and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cristal M; Fang, Yimin; Miquet, Johanna G; Sun, Liou Y; Masternak, Michal M; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling stimulates the production of IGF-1; however, increased GH signaling may induce insulin resistance and can reduce life expectancy in both mice and humans. Interestingly, disruption of GH signaling by reducing plasma GH levels significantly improves health span and extends lifespan in mice, as observed in Ames dwarf mice. In addition, these mice have increased adiposity, yet are more insulin sensitive compared to control mice. Metabolic stressors such as high-fat diet (HFD) promote obesity and may alter longevity through the GH signaling pathway. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effects of a HFD (metabolic stressor) on genetic mechanisms that regulate metabolism during aging. We show that Ames dwarf mice fed HFD for 12 weeks had an increase in subcutaneous and visceral adiposity as a result of diet-induced obesity, yet are more insulin sensitive and have higher levels of adiponectin compared to control mice fed HFD. Furthermore, energy expenditure was higher in Ames dwarf mice fed HFD than in control mice fed HFD. Additionally, we show that transplant of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) from Ames dwarf mice fed HFD into control mice fed HFD improves their insulin sensitivity. We conclude that Ames dwarf mice are resistant to the detrimental metabolic effects of HFD and that visceral adipose tissue of Ames dwarf mice improves insulin sensitivity in control mice fed HFD. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Selection of the important performance influencing factors for the assessment of human error under accident management situations in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Jung, W. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    This paper introduces the process and final results of selection of the important Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants for use in the assessment of human errors. We collected two types of PIF taxonomies, one is the full set PIF list mainly developed for human error analysis, and the other is the PIFs for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). 5 PIF taxonomies among the full set PIF list and 10 PIF taxonomies among HRA methodologies (CREAM, SLIM, INTENT), were collected in this research. By reviewing and analyzing PIFs selected for HRA methodologies, the criterion could be established for the selection of appropriate PIFs under emergency operation and accident management situations. Based on this selection criteria, a new PIF taxonomy was proposed for the assessment of human error under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants.

  7. Mechanism Governing Human Kappa-Opioid Receptor Expression under Desferrioxamine-Induced Hypoxic Mimic Condition in Neuronal NMB Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Babcock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular adaptation to hypoxia is a protective mechanism for neurons and relevant to cancer. Treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO to induce hypoxia reduced the viability of human neuronal NMB cells. Surviving/attached cells exhibited profound increases of expression of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hKOR and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. The functional relationship between hKOR and HIF-1α was investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, luciferase reporter, mutagenesis, siRNA and receptor-ligand binding assays. In surviving neurons, DFO increased HIF-1α expression and its amount in the nucleus. DFO also dramatically increased hKOR expression. Two (designated as HIFC and D out of four potential HIF response elements of the hKOR gene (HIFA–D synergistically mediated the DFO response. Mutation of both elements completely abolished the DFO-induced effect. The CD11 plasmid (containing HIFC and D with an 11 bp spacing produced greater augmentation than that of the CD17 plasmid (HIFC and D with a 17 bp-spacing, suggesting that a proper topological interaction of these elements synergistically enhanced the promoter activity. HIF-1α siRNA knocked down the increase of endogenous HIF-1α messages and diminished the DFO-induced increase of hKOR expression. Increased hKOR expression resulted in the up-regulation of hKOR protein. In conclusion, the adaptation of neuronal hKOR under hypoxia was governed by HIF-1, revealing a new mechanism of hKOR regulation.

  8. Genomic instability after targeted irradiation of human lymphocytes: Evidence for inter-individual differences under bystander conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadhim, Munira A., E-mail: mkadhim@brookes.ac.uk [School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Lee, Ryonfa [Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Moore, Stephen R.; Macdonald, Denise A. [Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD (United Kingdom); Chapman, Kim L. [School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Patel, Gaurang; Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    Environmental {sup 222}radon exposure is a human health concern, and many studies demonstrate that very low doses of high LET {alpha}-particle irradiation initiate deleterious genetic consequences in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells. One consequence, radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI), is a hallmark of tumorigenesis and is often assessed by measuring delayed chromosomal aberrations. We utilised a technique that facilitates transient immobilization of primary lymphocytes for targeted microbeam irradiation and have reported that environmentally relevant doses, e.g. a single {sup 3}He{sup 2+} particle traversal to a single cell, are sufficient to induce RIGI. Herein we sought to determine differences in radiation response in lymphocytes isolated from five healthy male donors. Primary lymphocytes were irradiated with a single particle per cell nucleus. We found evidence for inter-individual variation in radiation response (RIGI, measured as delayed chromosome aberrations). Although this was not highly significant, it was possibly masked by high levels of intra-individual variation. While there are many studies showing a link between genetic predisposition and RIGI, there are few studies linking genetic background with bystander effects in normal human lymphocytes. In an attempt to investigate inter-individual variation in the induction of bystander effects, primary lymphocytes were irradiated with a single particle under conditions where fractions of the population were traversed. We showed a marked genotype-dependent bystander response in one donor after exposure to 15% of the population. The findings may also be regarded as a radiation-induced genotype-dependent bystander effect triggering an instability phenotype.

  9. Words are more than the sum of their parts: evidence for detrimental effects of word-level information in alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Katja; Humphreys, Glyn W; Olson, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    The effects of sequential letter presentation on reading were investigated with both normal readers and an alexic patient. Normal readers showed longer naming latencies when words were presented letter-by-letter than when all the letters were presented simultaneously. In contrast, naming latencies for the alexic reader were shorter when words were presented letter-by-letter (error rates did not differ for the patient and the controls). Further experiments provided evidence for the patient being abnormally affected by lateral masking between stimuli, though she could access phonology from subword functional spelling units. The experiments demonstrate that, for alexic and normal readers alike, words are more than the sum of their individual letters; however, for normal readers a supra-letter reading strategy is useful whereas it can be detrimental in alexia.

  10. Water-ecosystem-economy nexus under human intervention and climate change: a study in the Heihe River Basin (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wu, X.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, "One Belt and One Road" initiative, namely, building the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and "21st Century Maritime Silk Road", has become a global strategy of China and has been discussed as China's "Marshall Plan". The overland route of "One Belt" comes across vast arid lands, where the local population and ecosystem compete keenly for limited water resources. Water and environmental securities represent an important constraint of the "One Belt" development, and therefore understanding the complex water-ecosystem-economy nexus in the arid inland areas is very important. One typical case is Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest inland river basin of China, where the croplands in its middle part sucked up the river flow and groundwater, causing serious ecological problems in its lower part (Gobi Desert). We have developed an integrated hydrological-ecological model for the middle and lower HRB (the modeling domain has an area of 90,589 km2), which served as a platform to fuse multi-source data and provided a coherent understanding on the regional water cycle. With this physically based model, we quantitatively investigated how the nexus would be impacted by human intervention, mainly the existing and potential water regulations, and what would be the uncertainty of the nexus under the climate change. In studying the impact of human intervention, simulation-optimization analyses based on surrogate modeling were performed. In studying the uncertainty resulted from the climate change, outputs of multiple GCMs were downscaled for this river basin to drive ecohydrological simulations. Our studies have demonstrated the significant tradeoffs among the crop production in the middle HRB, the water and environmental securities of the middle HRB, and the ecological health of the lower HRB. The underlying mechanisms of the tradeoffs were also systematically addressed. The climate change would cause notable uncertainty of the nexus, which makes the water resources

  11. Postnatal depression is associated with detrimental life-long and multi-generational impacts on relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sarah; Johns, Sarah E

    2018-01-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is known to be associated with a range of detrimental child and adolescent outcomes, resulting from its disruptive impact on mother-child relationship quality. However, until now little has been known about the impact of PND on the longer-term relationships between mothers and their children, and any intergenerational effects this may have. Mother-child relationship quality is of interest from an evolutionary perspective as it plays a role in the accrual of offspring embodied capital, thus affecting offspring quality and offspring's capacity to subsequently invest in their own children. Relationships with offspring also mediate grandparent-grandchild relations; if PND negatively affects long-term mother-offspring relationship quality, it is also likely to negatively affect grandmaternal investment via reduced grandmother-grandchild relationship quality. Here, we use responses to a retrospective questionnaire study of postmenopausal women, largely from the UK and US, to assess the impact of PND occurring in generation 1 on mother-child relationship quality across the life course of the child (generation 2) with whom it was associated, and also on the relationship quality with grandchildren (generation 3) from that child. Average mother-child relationship quality was lower when the child's birth was associated with PND. Multi-level regression modelling found that mother-child relationship quality decreased as PND symptom severity increased after controlling for individual effects and a variety of other factors known to influence relationship quality (individual mothers n  = 296, mother-child dyads n  = 646). Additionally, intergenerational relationships appear to be affected, with PND negatively associated with grandmother-grandchild relations (individual grandmothers n  = 125, relations with grandchildren from n  = 197 grandmother-parent dyads). That PND has long-term detrimental consequences for mother-child relationships, well

  12. Using the effect of alcohol as a comparison to illustrate the detrimental effects of noise on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R.C Molesworth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to provide a user-friendly index of the relative impairment associated with noise in the aircraft cabin. As such, the relative effect of noise, at a level typical of an aircraft cabin was compared with varying levels of alcohol intoxication in the same subjects. Since the detrimental effect of noise is more pronounced on non-native speakers, both native English and non-native English speakers featured in the study. Noise cancelling headphones were also tested as a simple countermeasure to mitigate the effect of noise on performance. A total of 32 participants, half of which were non-native English speakers, completed a cued recall task in two alcohol conditions (blood alcohol concentration 0.05 and 0.10 and two audio conditions (audio played through the speaker and noise cancelling headphones. The results revealed that aircraft noise at 65 dB (A negatively affected performance to a level comparable to alcohol intoxication of 0.10. The results also supported previous research that reflects positively on the benefits of noise cancelling headphones in reducing the effects of noise on performance especially for non-native English speakers. These findings provide for personnel involved in the aviation industry, a user-friendly index of the relative impairment associated with noise in the aircraft cabin as compared with the effects of alcohol. They also highlight the benefits of a simple countermeasure such as noise cancelling headphones in mitigating some of the detrimental effects of noise on performance.

  13. Anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of gypenosides on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gypenosides (Gyp, the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM. RESULTS: After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. CONCLUSION: The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti

  14. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-Chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels both in cultured cells and animal models. It has been suggested that the packaging of chromatin fibers in the interphase nucleus is closely related to genome function, and the changes in transcriptional activity are tightly correlated with changes in chromatin folding. This study explores the changes of chromatin conformation and chromatin-chromatin interactions in the simulated microgravity environment, and investigates their correlation to the expression of genes located at different regions of the chromosome. To investigate the folding of chromatin in interphase under various culture conditions, human epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes were fixed in the G1 phase. Interphase chromosomes were hybridized with a multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) probe for chromosome 3 which distinguishes six regions of the chromosome as separate colors. After images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the 3-dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 was reconstructed at multi-mega base pair scale. In order to determine the effects of microgravity on chromosome conformation and orientation, measures such as distance between homologous pairs, relative orientation of chromosome arms about a shared midpoint, and orientation of arms within individual chromosomes were all considered as potentially impacted by simulated microgravity conditions. The studies revealed non-random folding of chromatin in interphase, and suggested an association of interphase chromatin folding with radiation-induced chromosome aberration hotspots. Interestingly, the distributions of genes with expression changes over chromosome 3 in cells cultured under microgravity environment are apparently clustered on specific loci and chromosomes. This data provides important insights into how mammalian cells respond to microgravity at molecular level.

  15. Chromosome segregation regulation in human zygotes: altered mitotic histone phosphorylation dynamics underlying centromeric targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Werken, C; Avo Santos, M; Laven, J S E; Eleveld, C; Fauser, B C J M; Lens, S M A; Baart, E B

    2015-10-01

    regulatory kinase pathways involved in centromeric CPC targeting revealed normal phosphorylation dynamics of histone H2A at T120 (H2ApT120) by Bub1 kinase and subsequent recruitment of Shugoshin. However, phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 3 (H3pT3) by Haspin kinase failed to show the expected centromeric enrichment on metaphase chromosomes in the zygote, but not at later stages. Inhibition of Haspin revealed this activity to be essential for proper mitotic checkpoint complex activation in human zygotes, thus demonstrating an active mitotic checkpoint under normal conditions. Abolishment of H3pT3 during zygotic prometaphase further shows that centromeric H2ApT120 alone is not sufficient for proper shugoshin and CPC localization. As the removal of H3pT3 from the chromosome arms during prometaphase normally contributes to further centromeric enrichment of the CPC in somatic cells, CPC targeting may be less accurate in human zygotes. Owing to ethical limitations, tripronuclear zygotes were used in functional experiments. Although these represent the best available models, it is unknown if they are completely representative for dipronuclear zygotes. In addition, further research is needed to determine to what extent the differences we observed in H3T3 phosphorylation dynamics and CPC localization affect chromosome attachment. In the zygote, paternal and maternal chromosomes coming from two separate pronuclei, and with contrasting epigenetic signatures, need to be aligned on a single metaphase plate. Our results suggest that adaptations in mechanisms regulating CPC targeting exist in the human zygote, to ensure symmetric recruitment despite the epigenetic asymmetry between maternal and paternal chromosomes. This adaptation may come at a price regarding chromosome segregation fidelity. This study was funded by the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare

  16. CD146+ human umbilical cord perivascular cells maintain stemness under hypoxia and as a cell source for skeletal regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Pui Tsang

    Full Text Available The human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs have been considered as an alternative source of mesenchymal progenitors for cell based regenerative medicine. However, the biological properties of these cells remain to be well characterized. In the present study, HUCPVCs were isolated and sorted by CD146(+ pericyte marker. The purified CD146(+ HUCPVCs were induced to differentiate efficiently into osteoblast, chondrocyte and adipocyte lineages in vitro. Six weeks following subcutaneous transplantation of CD146(+ HUCPVCs-Gelfoam-alginate 3D complexes in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice, newly formed bone matrix with embedded osteocytes of donor origin was observed. The functional engraftment of CD146(+ HUCPVCs in the new bone regenerates was further confirmed in a critical-sized bone defect model in SCID mice. Hypoxic conditions suppressed osteogenic differentiation while increased cell proliferation and colony-forming efficiency of CD146(+ HUCPVCs as compared to that under normoxic conditions. Re-oxygenation restored the multi-differentiation potential of the CD146(+ HUCPVCs. Western blot analysis revealed an upregulation of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and OCT-4 protein expression in CD146(+ HUCPVCs under hypoxia, while there was no remarkable change in SOX2 and NANOG expression. The gene expression profiles of stem cell transcription factors between cells treated by normoxia and hypoxic conditions were compared by PCR array analysis. Intriguingly, PPAR-γ was dramatically downregulated (20-fold in mRNA expression under hypoxia, and was revealed to possess a putative binding site in the Hif-2α gene promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the binding of PPAR-γ protein to the Hif-2α promoter and the binding was suppressed by hypoxia treatment. Luciferase reporter assay showed that the Hif-2α promoter activity was suppressed by PPAR expression. Thus, PPAR-γ may involve in the regulation of HIF-2α for stemness

  17. Loss of variation of state detected in soybean metabolic and human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional networks under external stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Sakata, Katsumi

    2016-10-24

    Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state–space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants. Loss of variation of state was also observed in a human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional network in response to a phorbol-ester stimulus. Thus, we detected a loss of variation of state under external stimuli in two biological systems, regardless of the regulation and stimulus types. Our results suggest that a loss of robustness may occur concurrently with the loss of variation of state in biological systems. We describe the possible applications of the quantity of variation of state in plant genetic engineering and cell biology. Finally, we present a hypothetical “external stimulus-induced information loss” model of biological systems.

  18. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia K. Farris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.

  19. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  20. Dynamic gamma frequency feedback coupling between higher and lower order visual cortices underlies perceptual completion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratti, S; Méndez-Bértolo, C; Del-Pozo, F; Strange, B A

    2014-02-01

    To perceive a coherent environment, incomplete or overlapping visual forms must be integrated into meaningful coherent percepts, a process referred to as "Gestalt" formation or perceptual completion. Increasing evidence suggests that this process engages oscillatory neuronal activity in a distributed neuronal assembly. A separate line of evidence suggests that Gestalt formation requires top-down feedback from higher order brain regions to early visual cortex. Here we combine magnetoencephalography (MEG) and effective connectivity analysis in the frequency domain to specifically address the effective coupling between sources of oscillatory brain activity during Gestalt formation. We demonstrate that perceptual completion of two-tone "Mooney" faces induces increased gamma frequency band power (55-71Hz) in human early visual, fusiform and parietal cortices. Within this distributed neuronal assembly fusiform and parietal gamma oscillators are coupled by forward and backward connectivity during Mooney face perception, indicating reciprocal influences of gamma activity between these higher order visual brain regions. Critically, gamma band oscillations in early visual cortex are modulated by top-down feedback connectivity from both fusiform and parietal cortices. Thus, we provide a mechanistic account of Gestalt perception in which gamma oscillations in feature sensitive and spatial attention-relevant brain regions reciprocally drive one another and convey global stimulus aspects to local processing units at low levels of the sensory hierarchy by top-down feedback. Our data therefore support the notion of inverse hierarchical processing within the visual system underlying awareness of coherent percepts. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human iPS cell-derived insulin producing cells form vascularized organoids under the kidney capsules of diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu P Raikwar

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is caused by autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Transplantation of cadaveric pancreatic organs or pancreatic islets can restore normal physiology. However, there is a chronic shortage of cadaveric organs, limiting the treatment of the majority of patients on the pancreas transplantation waiting list. Here, we hypothesized that human iPS cells can be directly differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs capable of secreting insulin. Using a series of pancreatic growth factors, we successfully generated iPS cells derived IPCs. Furthermore, to investigate the capability of these cells to secrete insulin in vivo, the differentiated cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of diabetic immunodeficient mice. Serum glucose levels gradually declined to either normal or near normal levels over 150 days, suggesting that the IPCs were secreting insulin. In addition, using MRI, a 3D organoid appeared as a white patch on the transplanted kidneys but not on the control kidneys. These organoids showed neo-vascularization and stained positive for insulin and glucagon. All together, these data show that a pancreatic organ can be created in vivo providing evidence that iPS cells might be a novel option for the treatment of T1D.

  2. Blue limits of the Blue Planet : An exploratory analysis of safe operating spaces for human water use under deep uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Timmermans, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    In the Nature article ‘A safe operating space for humanity’, Rockström et al. (2009) introduce the concept of a safe operating space for humanity. A safe operating space is the space for human activities that will not push the planet out of the ‘Holocene state’ that has seen human civilizations

  3. Postnatal depression is associated with detrimental life-long and multi-generational impacts on relationship quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Myers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression (PND is known to be associated with a range of detrimental child and adolescent outcomes, resulting from its disruptive impact on mother-child relationship quality. However, until now little has been known about the impact of PND on the longer-term relationships between mothers and their children, and any intergenerational effects this may have. Mother-child relationship quality is of interest from an evolutionary perspective as it plays a role in the accrual of offspring embodied capital, thus affecting offspring quality and offspring’s capacity to subsequently invest in their own children. Relationships with offspring also mediate grandparent-grandchild relations; if PND negatively affects long-term mother–offspring relationship quality, it is also likely to negatively affect grandmaternal investment via reduced grandmother–grandchild relationship quality. Here, we use responses to a retrospective questionnaire study of postmenopausal women, largely from the UK and US, to assess the impact of PND occurring in generation 1 on mother–child relationship quality across the life course of the child (generation 2 with whom it was associated, and also on the relationship quality with grandchildren (generation 3 from that child. Average mother-child relationship quality was lower when the child’s birth was associated with PND. Multi-level regression modelling found that mother-child relationship quality decreased as PND symptom severity increased after controlling for individual effects and a variety of other factors known to influence relationship quality (individual mothers n = 296, mother-child dyads n = 646. Additionally, intergenerational relationships appear to be affected, with PND negatively associated with grandmother-grandchild relations (individual grandmothers n = 125, relations with grandchildren from n = 197 grandmother-parent dyads. That PND has long-term detrimental consequences for mother

  4. Benefits and detriments of unilateral cochlear implant use on bilateral auditory development in children who are deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have explored both the benefits and detriments of providing electrical input through a cochlear implant in one ear to the auditory system of young children. A cochlear implant delivers electrical pulses to stimulate the auditory nerve, providing children who are deaf with access to sound. The goals of implantation are to restrict reorganization of the deprived immature auditory brain and promote development of hearing and spoken language. It is clear that limiting the duration of deprivation is a key factor. Additional considerations are the onset, etiology, and use of residual hearing as each of these can have unique effects on auditory development in the pre-implant period. New findings show that many children receiving unilateral cochlear implants are developing mature-like brainstem and thalamo-cortical responses to sound with long term use despite these sources of variability; however, there remain considerable abnormalities in cortical function. The most apparent, determined by implanting the other ear and measuring responses to acute stimulation, is a loss of normal cortical response from the deprived ear. Recent data reveal that this can be avoided in children by early implantation of both ears simultaneously or with limited delay. We conclude that auditory development requires input early in development and from both ears.

  5. Benefits and detriments of unilateral cochlear implant use on bilateral auditory development in children who are deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karen A.; Jiwani, Salima; Papsin, Blake C.

    2013-01-01

    We have explored both the benefits and detriments of providing electrical input through a cochlear implant in one ear to the auditory system of young children. A cochlear implant delivers electrical pulses to stimulate the auditory nerve, providing children who are deaf with access to sound. The goals of implantation are to restrict reorganization of the deprived immature auditory brain and promote development of hearing and spoken language. It is clear that limiting the duration of deprivation is a key factor. Additional considerations are the onset, etiology, and use of residual hearing as each of these can have unique effects on auditory development in the pre-implant period. New findings show that many children receiving unilateral cochlear implants are developing mature-like brainstem and thalamo-cortical responses to sound with long term use despite these sources of variability; however, there remain considerable abnormalities in cortical function. The most apparent, determined by implanting the other ear and measuring responses to acute stimulation, is a loss of normal cortical response from the deprived ear. Recent data reveal that this can be avoided in children by early implantation of both ears simultaneously or with limited delay. We conclude that auditory development requires input early in development and from both ears. PMID:24137143

  6. Pentoxifylline mitigates detrimental impact of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis on sperm characteristics, reproductive hormones and histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, S; Ahmadi-Hamedani, M; Narenji Sani, R; Moslemi, H R; Ghafari Khaligh, S; Darvishi, M M

    2017-12-18

    The protective role of pentoxifylline (PTX) on sperm characteristics, reproductive hormones and histopathology following carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) was investigated in male Wistar rats. Thirty-six rats were grouped into six rats per group. Group 1 (control) received saline normal. Group 2 received a single intraprostatic dose of 3% carrageenan (50 μl) on day 1 (CNP). Groups 3 and 5 received cernilton (standard drug) and PTX orally at 100 and 50 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days respectively. Groups 4 and 6 received a single dose of 3% carrageenan (50 μl) intraprostatically on day 1 followed by cernilton and PTX orally at 100 and 50 mg/kg on the eighth day for 14 consecutive days respectively. Prostatic index, serum prostatic specific antigen, malondialdehyde, testosterone and luteinising hormone levels were significantly increased (p Histopathology of prostate revealed leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen in CNP group and these aberrations were improved by PTX. According to these findings, we concluded that PTX effectively mitigated detrimental impact of CNP on sperm characteristics, reproductive hormones and histopathology in rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Synthetic pesticides in agro-ecosystems: are they as detrimental to nontarget invertebrate fauna as we suspect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sommer; Hoffmann, Ary A; Mccoll, Stuart; Tsitsilas, Angelos; Umina, Paul A

    2013-04-01

    Broad-spectrum pesticides used to protect field crops and pastures from invertebrate pests are frequently reported to reduce populations of nontarget fauna, but there is often little relevant field data. Nonetheless, this notion is used to promote the adoption of more selective pesticides with less impact on nontarget invertebrates, including beneficial insects. Selective pesticides are not widely available for broad-acre grain crops and pastures in southern Australia; however, several options available in other industries could be compatible with these agricultural systems. In this study, the impact of broad-spectrum pesticides and several selective pesticides on nontarget invertebrate fauna was assessed in five field trials in wheat and canola fields. Despite extensive sampling over short and medium timeframes, few treatment effects on nontarget groups were detected. In cases where broad-spectrum pesticides were detrimental, patterns were often inconsistent among nontarget groups and between field trials. In contrast, the pest species, Halotydeus destructor Tucker and Penthaleus spp., were effectively controlled by the broad-spectrum treatments and less effectively by the selective pesticides. The inconsistent and relatively small impact of broad-spectrum pesticides on some nontarget invertebrates demonstrates that caution is required when extrapolating from laboratory-based assessments routinely used to assess the impacts of pesticides to field conditions in agriculture.

  8. Exercise as a mean to reverse the detrimental effect of high-fat diet on bone’s fracture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Doulamis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether exercise can reverse some of the adverse effects of high-fat-diet-induced obesity on lipid metabolism and bone biomechanical properties. A total of 26 adult male C57bl/6J mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (A Control group (n=6, (B High-fat diet group (n=10, (C High-fat diet and exercise group (n=10. Body mass and relevant biochemical parameters were measured for the duration of the experimental protocol (37 weeks. Mechanical strength of both femurs of each animal was assessed in-vitro based on three point bending tests. It was re¬vealed that exposure to high-fat diet led to significant increase of body mass and cholesterol levels and also to substantial changes in bone mor-phology and strength. Ultimate stress for the animals exposed to high-fat diet and those exposed to high-fat-diet and exercise was 25% and 24% lower compared to control, respectively. Exercise increased bone thickness by 15% compared to animals that were not exposed to exer¬cise. It was concluded that high-fat-diet ap¬pears to have a detrimental effect on bone biomechanics and strength. Exer¬cise reversed the reduction in bone thickness that appears to be induced by high-fat diet. However no statistically significant increase in bone strength was observed.

  9. The Detrimental Effects of Carbon Additives in Li10GeP2S12-Based Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Culver, Sean P; Koerver, Raimund; Das, Dyuman; Weber, Dominik A; Zeier, Wolfgang G; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-10-18

    All-solid-state batteries (SSBs) have recently attracted much attention due to their potential application in electric vehicles. One key issue that is central to improve the function of SSBs is to gain a better understanding of the interfaces between the material components toward enhancing the electrochemical performance. In this work, the interfacial properties of a carbon-containing cathode composite, employing Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 as the solid electrolyte, are investigated. A large interfacial charge-transfer resistance builds up upon the inclusion of carbon in the composite, which is detrimental to the resulting cycle life. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that carbon facilitates faster electrochemical decomposition of the thiophosphate solid electrolyte at the cathode/solid electrolyte interface-by transferring the low chemical potential of lithium in the charged state deeper into the solid electrolyte and extending the decomposition region. The occurring accumulation of highly oxidized sulfur species at the interface is likely responsible for the large interfacial resistances and aggravated capacity fading observed.

  10. Untangling human development and natural gradients: implications of underlying correlation structure for linking landscapes and riverine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Lucero; E. Ashley Steel; Kelly M. Burnett; Kelly. Christiansen

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, ecologists seek to identify and quantify relationships between landscape gradients and aquatic ecosystems. Considerable statistical challenges emerge in this effort, some of which are attributable to multicollinearity between human development and landscape gradients. In this paper, we measure the covariation between human development—such as agriculture...

  11. Intragastric formation and modulation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model under human physiological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Schothorst, R.C.; Havenaar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Human exposure to carcinogenic N-alkylnitrosamines can occur exogenously via food consumption or endogenously by formation of these compounds through nitrosation of amine precursors. Information on the intragastric formation of NDMA from complex mixtures of precursors and inhibitors in humans is not

  12. Kaempferol targets estrogen-related receptor α and suppresses the angiogenesis of human retinal endothelial cells under high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Qinmei; Zhang, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and a major cause of new-onset blindness in the developed world. The present study aimed to examine the effect of kaempferol on high glucose-induced human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) in vitro . The expression levels of various mRNAs and proteins were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. The target of kaempferol was determined using a luciferase reporter assay. In addition, HREC proliferation, migration and cell sprouting were determined using Cell Counting kit-8, wound scratch and tube formation assays, respectively. RT-qPCR and western blotting results showed that treatment with 30 mM glucose for 12, 24 and 48 h increased the expression level of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) mRNA and protein. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited ERRα activity in HRECs. Compared with 5 mM normal glucose treatment, high (30 mM) glucose significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HRECs, which was antagonized by 10 and 30 µM kaempferol in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 30 mM glucose also increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein, and the expression levels of VEGF mRNA and protein were suppressed by kaempferol (10 and 30 µM). Kaempferol (30 µM) treatment also increased the expression levels of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS-1) mRNA; however, TSP-1 and ADAMTS-1 levels did not differ between high glucose and normal (5 mM) glucose conditions. The results of this study suggest that kaempferol targets ERRα and suppresses the angiogenesis of HRECs under high glucose conditions. Kaempferol may be a potential drug for use in controlling the progression of DR; however, in vivo studies are required to evaluate its efficacy and safety.

  13. An analysis on half century morphological changes in the Changjiang Estuary: Spatial variability under natural processes and human intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Guo, Leicheng; He, Qing; Wang, Zheng Bing; van Maren, D. S.; Wang, Xianye

    2018-05-01

    Examination of large scale, alluvial estuarine morphology and associated time evolution is of particular importance regarding management of channel navigability, ecosystem, etc. In this work, we analyze morphological evolution and changes of the channel-shoal system in the Changjiang Estuary, a river- and tide-controlled coastal plain estuary, based on bathymetric data between 1958 and 2016. We see that its channel-shoal pattern is featured by meandering and bifurcated channels persisting over decades. In the vertical direction, hypsometry curves show that the sand bars and shoals are continuously accreted while the deep channels are eroded, leading to narrower and deeper estuarine channels. Intensive human activities in terms of reclamation, embankment, and dredging play a profound role in controlling the decadal morphological evolution by stabilizing coastlines and narrowing channels. Even though, the present Changjiang Estuary is still a pretty wide and shallow system with channel width-to-depth ratios >1000, much larger than usual fluvial rivers and small estuaries. In-depth analysis suggests that the Changjiang Estuary as a whole exhibited an overall deposition trend over 59 years, i.e., a net deposition volume of 8.3 × 108 m3. Spatially, the pan-South Branch was net eroded by 9.7 × 108 m3 whereas the mouth bar zone was net deposited by 18 × 108 m3, suggesting that the mouth bar zone is a major sediment sink. Over time there is no directional deposition or erosion trend in the interval though riverine sediment supply has decreased by 2/3 since the mid-1980s. We infer that the pan-South Branch is more fluvial-controlled therefore its morphology responds to riverine sediment load reduction fast while the mouth bar zone is more controlled by both river and tides that its morphological response lags to riverine sediment supply changes at a time scale >10 years, which is an issue largely ignored in previous studies. We argue that the time lag effect needs

  14. Inimkonna hämarus: Marie Under ja saksa ekspressionism / The Twilight of Humanity: Marie Under's Translations of German Expressionist Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Ann Kirss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: 1920. aastal avaldas Marie Under eestikeelse tõlkevalimiku saksa uuemast lüürikast, milles suurim osakaal on ekspressionistlikel luuletajatel. Koos selle vaatlusega käsitleb artikkel Underi hinnangut ekspressionismile kui kultuurinähtusele ning ekspressionistlikke siirdeid kahes Underi luulekogus, „Verivalla“ ja „Pärisosa“. Luule tõlkimine võib toita luuletaja loomingulisi allikaid, kuid huvitavad on ka need juhtumid, kui luuletaja neist läbitöötatud vormidest lõpuks loobub.   In 1920 Estonian poet Marie Under published an anthology of translations from recent German poetry, the largest number of which were expressionists. Most of the poems were chosen from Kurt Pinthus’ anthology Menschheitsdämmerung: Symphonie jüngster Dichtung, published in 1920, a carefully composed summa of German expressionist poetry. Under’s first examples of expressionist translations, published in the album of the Siuru group of poets in 1919 met with arch and scathing criticism, particularly on the level of style: ostensibly she had “beautified” expressionist rhetoric. She was not deterred, but persisted, and alongside the volume of translations published a short critical article on expressionism and its ethical dimension in the newspaper Tallinna Teataja, where she outlined Kurt Pinthus’ justifications for the composition and structuring of his edited anthology. This paper explores Under’s part in the cultural transfer of German expressionist lyric poetry into Estonian: her selections of authors and individual poems, the periodization of the movement through the table of contents, the emphases and omissions of the resultant whole. Secondly, and more importantly the paper investigates the impact of expressionist topics and rhetoric on Under’s two next volumes of poetry, Verivalla (Land of Blood, 1919–1920 and Pärisosa (Portion, 1920–1922. The main focus of this analysis is on Under’s lexical experiments and stylistic

  15. Digital evaluation of sitting posture comfort in human-vehicle system under Industry 4.0 framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Kang, Jinsheng; Sun, Wenlei; Li, Zhaobo; Huo, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Most of the previous studies on the vibration ride comfort of the human-vehicle system were focused only on one or two aspects of the investigation. A hybrid approach which integrates all kinds of investigation methods in real environment and virtual environment is described. The real experimental environment includes the WBV(whole body vibration) test, questionnaires for human subjective sensation and motion capture. The virtual experimental environment includes the theoretical calculation on simplified 5-DOF human body vibration model, the vibration simulation and analysis within ADAMS/VibrationTM module, and the digital human biomechanics and occupational health analysis in Jack software. While the real experimental environment provides realistic and accurate test results, it also serves as core and validation for the virtual experimental environment. The virtual experimental environment takes full advantages of current available vibration simulation and digital human modelling software, and makes it possible to evaluate the sitting posture comfort in a human-vehicle system with various human anthropometric parameters. How this digital evaluation system for car seat comfort design is fitted in the Industry 4.0 framework is also proposed.

  16. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.

  17. Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 2 cation channel regulates detrimental immune cell invasion in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Melzer, Nico; Schattling, Benjamin; Göb, Eva; Hicking, Gordon; Arunachalam, Priyadharshini; Bittner, Stefan; Ufer, Friederike; Herrmann, Alexander M; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Gerloff, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G; Friese, Manuel A; Magnus, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Brain injury during stroke results in oxidative stress and the release of factors that include extracellular Ca(2+), hydrogen peroxide, adenosine diphosphate ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These alterations of the extracellular milieu change the activity of transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel expressed in the central nervous system and the immune system. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of TRPM2 to the tissue damage after stroke. In accordance with current quality guidelines, we independently characterized Trpm2 in a murine ischemic stroke model in 2 different laboratories. Gene deficiency of Trpm2 resulted in significantly improved neurological outcome and decreased infarct size. Besides an already known moderate neuroprotective effect of Trpm2 deficiency in vitro, ischemic brain invasion by neutrophils and macrophages was particularly reduced in Trpm2-deficient mice. Bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that Trpm2 deficiency in the peripheral immune system is responsible for the protective phenotype. Furthermore, experiments with mixed bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that Trpm2 is essential for the migration of neutrophils and, to a lesser extent, also of macrophages into ischemic hemispheres. Notably, the pharmacological TRPM2 inhibitor, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid, was equally protective in the stroke model. Although a neuroprotective effect of TRPM2 in vitro is well known, we can show for the first time that the detrimental role of TRPM2 in stroke primarily depends on its role in activating peripheral immune cells. Targeting TRPM2 systemically represents a promising therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Angiogenesis-related protein expression in bevacizumab-treated metastatic colorectal cancer: NOTCH1 detrimental to overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Tadeu Ferreira Jr.; Jesus, Victor Hugo Fonseca de; Marques, Raul Amorim; Costa, Alexandre André Balieiro Anastácio da; Macedo, Mariana Petaccia de; Peresi, Patricia Maria; Damascena, Aline; Rossi, Benedito Mauro; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Lima, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de

    2015-01-01

    The development of targeted therapies has undoubtedly broadened therapeutic options for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The use of bevacizumab to reduce angiogenesis has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, an urgent need for prognostic/predictive biomarkers for anti-angiogenic therapies still exists. Clinical data of 105 CRC patients treated with bevacizumab in conjunction with chemotherapy were analyzed. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, NOTCH1 receptor and its ligand DLL4 were determined by immunohistochemistry. Tumor samples were arranged on a tissue microarray. The association between protein expression and clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes was determined. Bevacizumab was administered as a first-line of treatment in 70.5 % of our cases. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.2 months. The median overall survival (OS) of the total cohort was 24.4 months. Bevacizumab, as the first-line of treatment, and the presence of liver metastasis were independently associated with objective response rate. Membrane VEGFR1 and VEGFR3 expressions were associated with the presence of lung metastasis; interestingly, VEGFR3 was associated with less liver metastasis. NOTCH1 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis. There was a trend toward association between improved PFS and lower NOTCH1 expression (p = 0.06). Improved OS was significantly associated with lower NOTCH1 expression (p = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) performance status, liver metastasis, histological grade, and NOTCH1 expression were independently associated with OS. Our findings illustrated the expression profile of angiogenesis-related proteins and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes. NOTCH1 expression is a detrimental prognostic factor in metastatic CRC patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. The online version of

  19. Chromosome segregation regulation in human zygotes : Altered mitotic histone phosphorylation dynamics underlying centromeric targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Werken, C.; Avo Santos, M.; Laven, J. S E; Eleveld, C.; Fauser, B. C J M; Lens, S. M A; Baart, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are the kinase feedback loops that regulate activation and centromeric targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), functional during mitosis in human embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER Investigation of the regulatory kinase pathways involved in centromeric CPC targeting revealed normal

  20. Quantifying and Maximizing Performance of a Human-Centric Robot under Precision, Safety, and Robot Specification Constraints

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research project is an effort towards achieving 99.99% safety of mobile robots working alongside humans while matching the precision performance of industrial...

  1. Viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Under Human Gastrointestinal Conditions Simulated In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Karina C. Pacheco; Gustavo V. Del Toro; Fabian R. Martinez; Enrique Duran-Paramo

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is a lactic bacteria mostly used in the production of yoghurt and it has an important probiotic activity that brings benefits to the human body. However, the gastrointestinal tract has aggressive conditions, such as the acid pH in the stomach and the bile in the duodenum, that reduce the viability of this bacteria. Approach: In order to evaluate the effect of the human gastrointestinal conditions on Lactobacillus delbrueckiis viab...

  2. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Cell model for efficient simulation of wave propagation in human ventricular tissue under normal and pathological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Tusscher, K. H. W. J.; Panfilov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we formulate a model for human ventricular cells that is efficient enough for whole organ arrhythmia simulations yet detailed enough to capture the effects of cell level processes such as current blocks and channelopathies. The model is obtained from our detailed human ventricular cell model by using mathematical techniques to reduce the number of variables from 19 to nine. We carefully compare our full and reduced model at the single cell, cable and 2D tissue level and show that the reduced model has a very similar behaviour. Importantly, the new model correctly produces the effects of current blocks and channelopathies on AP and spiral wave behaviour, processes at the core of current day arrhythmia research. The new model is well over four times more efficient than the full model. We conclude that the new model can be used for efficient simulations of the effects of current changes on arrhythmias in the human heart.

  4. Cell model for efficient simulation of wave propagation in human ventricular tissue under normal and pathological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusscher, K H W J Ten; Panfilov, A V [Department of Theoretical Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-12-07

    In this paper, we formulate a model for human ventricular cells that is efficient enough for whole organ arrhythmia simulations yet detailed enough to capture the effects of cell level processes such as current blocks and channelopathies. The model is obtained from our detailed human ventricular cell model by using mathematical techniques to reduce the number of variables from 19 to nine. We carefully compare our full and reduced model at the single cell, cable and 2D tissue level and show that the reduced model has a very similar behaviour. Importantly, the new model correctly produces the effects of current blocks and channelopathies on AP and spiral wave behaviour, processes at the core of current day arrhythmia research. The new model is well over four times more efficient than the full model. We conclude that the new model can be used for efficient simulations of the effects of current changes on arrhythmias in the human heart.

  5. The initiation of embryonic-like collagen fibrillogenesis by adult human tendon fibroblasts when cultured under tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Yeung, Chin-Yan C; Kadler, Karl E

    2010-01-01

    Tendon fibroblasts synthesize collagen and form fibrils during embryonic development, but to what extent mature fibroblasts are able to recapitulate embryonic development and develop normal tendon structure is unknown. The present study examined the capability of mature human tendon fibroblasts......, and fibroblasts stained positive for integrin alpha(5). Finally, the presence of cell extensions into the extracellular space with membrane-enclosed fibrils in fibripositors indicated characteristics of embryonic tendon. We conclude that mature human tendon fibroblasts retain an intrinsic capability to perform...... collagen fibrillogenesis similar to that of developing tendon, which implies that the hormonal/mechanical milieu, rather than intrinsic cellular function, inhibits regenerative potential in mature tendon....

  6. A modified device for continuous non-invasive blood pressure measurements in humans under hyperbaric and/or oxygen-enriched conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bel, René; Sliggers, Bart C; van Houwelingen, Marc J; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Halliwill, John R; van Hulst, Robert A; Krediet, C T Paul

    2016-03-01

    It would be desirable to safely and continuously measure blood pressure noninvasively under hyperbaric and/or hyperoxic conditions, in order to explore haemodynamic responses in humans under these conditions. A systematic analysis according to 'failure mode and effects analysis' principles of a commercially available beat-by-beat non-invasive blood pressure monitoring device was performed using specifications provided by the manufacturer. Possible failure modes related to pressure resistance and fire hazard in hyperbaric and oxygen-enriched environments were identified and the device modified accordingly to mitigate these risks. The modified device was compared to an unaltered device in five healthy volunteers under normobaric conditions. Measurements were then performed under hyperbaric conditions (243 kPa) in five healthy subjects. Modifications required included: 1) replacement of the carbon brush motorized pump by pressurized air connected through a balanced pressure valve; 2) modification of the 12V power supply connection in the multiplace hyperbaric chamber, and 3) replacement of gas-filled electrolytic capacitors by solid equivalents. There was concurrence between measurements under normobaric conditions, with no significant differences in blood pressure. Measurements under pressure were achieved without problems and matched intermittent measurement of brachial arterial pressure. The modified system provides safe, stable, continuous non-invasive blood pressure trends under both normobaric and hyperbaric conditions.

  7. Lactobacillus reuteri strains protect epithelial barrier integrity of IPEC-J2 monolayers from the detrimental effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shokoufeh; Jonsson, Hans; Lundh, Torbjörn; Roos, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is an inhabitant of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals and birds and several strains of this species are known to be effective probiotics. The mechanisms by which L. reuteri confers its health-promoting effects are far from being fully understood, but protection of the mucosal barrier is thought to be important. Leaky gut is a state of abnormal intestinal permeability with implications for the pathophysiology of various gastrointestinal disorders. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can invade the intestinal mucosa and induce changes in barrier function by producing enterotoxin or by direct invasion of the intestinal epithelium. Our hypothesis was that L. reuteri can protect the mucosal barrier, and the goal of the study was to challenge this hypothesis by monitoring the protective effect of L. reuteri strains on epithelial dysfunction caused by ETEC. Using an infection model based on the porcine intestinal cell line IPEC-J2, it was demonstrated that pretreatment of the cells with human-derived L. reuteri strains (ATCC PTA 6475, DSM 17938 and 1563F) and a rat strain (R2LC) reduced the detrimental effect of ETEC in a dose-dependent manner, as monitored by permeability of FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Moreover, the results revealed that ETEC upregulated proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα and decreased expression of the shorter isoform of ZO-1 (187 kDa) and E-cadherin. In contrast, pretreatment with L. reuteri DSM 17938 and 1563F downregulated expression of IL-6 and TNFα, and led to an increase in production of the longer isoform of ZO-1 (195 kDa) and maintained E-cadherin expression. Interestingly, expression of ZO-1 (187 kDa) was preserved only when the infected cells were pretreated with strain 1563F. These findings demonstrate that L. reuteri strains exert a protective effect against ETEC-induced mucosal integrity disruption. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by

  8. Dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias: under-recognized movement disorders in domestic animals? A comparison with human dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eRichter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e. dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans, and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals.

  9. The initiation of embryonic-like collagen fibrillogenesis by adult human tendon fibroblasts when cultured under tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Yeung, Chin-Yan C; Kadler, Karl E

    2010-01-01

    Tendon fibroblasts synthesize collagen and form fibrils during embryonic development, but to what extent mature fibroblasts are able to recapitulate embryonic development and develop normal tendon structure is unknown. The present study examined the capability of mature human tendon fibroblasts t...

  10. Returns to human capital under the communist wage grid and during the transition to a market economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münich, Daniel; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2005), s. 100-123 ISSN 0034-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : human capital * wages Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/0034653053327559

  11. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Girls' explanations for being unvaccinated or under vaccinated against human papillomavirus: a content analysis of survey responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Waller, Jo; Bowyer, Harriet L; Marlow, Laura A V

    2015-12-22

    In England HPV vaccination is offered to all girls age 12-13 years, free-at-the-point-of-receipt, mostly in schools. Coverage is good, but around 20% of girls remain unvaccinated. This research sought to explore reasons for being un-/under vaccinated. An ethnically diverse sample of girls aged 15-16 years attending one of twelve London schools completed a survey three years after being offered HPV vaccination. Girls reported their HPV vaccine status and those who were unvaccinated (had not received any doses of the vaccine) or under vaccinated (had not completed the recommended 3-dose course) recorded reasons for their un-/under vaccinated status. Reasons were reported using free-text and content analysis was used to analyse responses. Around 74% of un-/under vaccinated girls provided a reason for their vaccination status (n = 259). Among unvaccinated girls, the most common reasons related to lack of perceived need for vaccination, concerns about safety and lack of parental consent. Girls who were under vaccinated gave practical reasons, including the need for more information (e.g. not knowing that multiple doses were needed), administrative issues (e.g. school absence), health and procedural concerns (e.g. fear of needles). Descriptively, there were few differences in the reasons given between girls from different ethnic backgrounds. Girls from Black and Asian backgrounds more commonly thought that the vaccine was not needed. Lack of parental consent without providing further explanation was most often cited by girls from Black backgrounds. Safety concerns and lack of perceived need should be addressed to encourage informed uptake of HPV vaccination. Immunisation programme coordinators may be able to increase series completion by tackling practical problems facing under vaccinated girls.

  13. Regulation of glucose transporter protein-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia inducible factor 1α under hypoxic conditions in Hep-2 human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ou; Li, Xiaoming; Qu, Yongtao; Liu, Shuang; An, Jie; Wang, Maoxin; Sun, Qingjia; Zhang, Wen; Lu, Xiuying; Pi, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Shen, Yupeng

    2012-12-01

    The present study evaluated the regulation of glucose transporter protein-1 (Glut-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) under hypoxic conditions in Hep-2 human cells to explore the feasibility of these three genes as tumor markers. Hep-2 cells were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. The proliferation of Hep-2 cells was evaluated using an MTT assay. The protein and mRNA expression levels of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and VEGF were detected using the S-P immunocytochemical method, western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that the expression levels of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and VEGF protein in Hep-2 cells were significantly elevated under hypoxic conditions compared with those under normoxic conditions over 36 h. Under hypoxic conditions, mRNA levels of HIF-1α were stable, while mRNA levels of Glut-1 and VEGF changed over time. In conclusion, Glut-1 and VEGF were upregulated by HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions in a time-dependent manner in Hep-2 cells and their co-expression serves as a tumor marker.

  14. The prevention of workplace bullying as a question of human resource management: measures adopted and underlying organizational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze measures adopted to counteract workplace bullying from the perspective of human resource management. First, the kind of measures that are adopted to prevent bullying were examined. Second, factors affecting the extent of such measures were explored. The introduction of written anti-bullying policies and the provision of information were found to be the most common measures adopted. The policies strongly emphasized the role of supervisors and the immed...

  15. Contractile Defect Caused by Mutation in MYBPC3 Revealed under Conditions Optimized for Human PSC-Cardiomyocyte Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Birket

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing baseline function of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs is essential for their effective application in models of cardiac toxicity and disease. Here, we aimed to identify factors that would promote an adequate level of function to permit robust single-cell contractility measurements in a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. A simple screen revealed the collaborative effects of thyroid hormone, IGF-1 and the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone on the electrophysiology, bioenergetics, and contractile force generation of hPSC-CMs. In this optimized condition, hiPSC-CMs with mutations in MYBPC3, a gene encoding myosin-binding protein C, which, when mutated, causes HCM, showed significantly lower contractile force generation than controls. This was recapitulated by direct knockdown of MYBPC3 in control hPSC-CMs, supporting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency. Modeling this disease in vitro using human cells is an important step toward identifying therapeutic interventions for HCM.

  16. Constitutive modeling of the human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) under uniaxial loading using viscoelastic prony series and hyperelastic five parameter Mooney-Rivlin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Mondal, Debabrata; Motalab, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this present study, the stress-strain behavior of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is studied under uniaxial loads applied with various strain rates. Tensile testing of the human ACL samples requires state of the art test facilities. Furthermore, difficulty in finding human ligament for testing purpose results in very limited archival data. Nominal Stress vs. deformation gradient plots for different strain rates, as found in literature, is used to model the material behavior either as a hyperelastic or as a viscoelastic material. The well-known five parameter Mooney-Rivlin constitutivemodel for hyperelastic material and the Prony Series model for viscoelastic material are used and the objective of the analyses comprises of determining the model constants and their variation-trend with strain rates for the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) material using the non-linear curve fitting tool. The relationship between the model constants and strain rate, using the Hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model, has been obtained. The variation of the values of each coefficient with strain rates, obtained using Hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model are then plotted and variation of the values with strain rates are obtained for all the model constants. These plots are again fitted using the software package MATLAB and a power law relationship between the model constants and strain rates is obtained for each constant. The obtained material model for Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) material can be implemented in any commercial finite element software package for stress analysis.

  17. Estuarine Response to River Flow and Sea-Level Rise under Future Climate Change and Human Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Voisin, Nathalie; Copping, Andrea E.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the response of river flow and estuarine hydrodynamics to climate change, land-use/land-cover change (LULC), and sea-level rise is essential to managing water resources and stress on living organisms under these changing conditions. This paper presents a modeling study using a watershed hydrology model and an estuarine hydrodynamic model, in a one-way coupling, to investigate the estuarine hydrodynamic response to sea-level rise and change in river flow due to the effect of future climate and LULC changes in the Snohomish River estuary, Washington, USA. A set of hydrodynamic variables, including salinity intrusion points, average water depth, and salinity of the inundated area, were used to quantify the estuarine response to river flow and sea-level rise. Model results suggest that salinity intrusion points in the Snohomish River estuary and the average salinity of the inundated areas are a nonlinear function of river flow, although the average water depth in the inundated area is approximately linear with river flow. Future climate changes will shift salinity intrusion points further upstream under low flow conditions and further downstream under high flow conditions. In contrast, under the future LULC change scenario, the salinity intrusion point will shift downstream under both low and high flow conditions, compared to present conditions. The model results also suggest that the average water depth in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise but at a slower rate, and the average salinity in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise; however, the response of salinity intrusion points in the river to sea-level rise is strongly nonlinear.

  18. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  19. Harmonizing human-hydrological system under climate change: A scenario-based approach for the case of the headwaters of the Tagus River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Anastasia; Liersch, Stefan; Tàbara, J. David; Koch, Hagen; Hattermann, Fred F.; Krysanova, Valentina

    2017-05-01

    Conventional water management strategies, that serve solely socio-economic demands and neglect changing natural conditions of the river basins, face significant challenges in governing complex human-hydrological systems, especially in the areas with constrained water availability. In this study we assess the possibility to harmonize the inter-sectoral water allocation scheme within a highly altered human-hydrological system under reduction in water availability, triggered by projected climate change applying scenario-based approach. The Tagus River Basin headwaters, with significant disproportion in the water resources allocation between the environmental and socio-economic targets were taken as a perfect example of such system out of balance. We propose three different water allocation strategies for this region, including two conventional schemes and one imposing shift to sustainable water management and environmental restoration of the river. We combine in one integrated modelling framework the eco-hydrological process-based Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM), coupled with the conceptual reservoir and water allocation modules driven by the latest bias-corrected climate projections for the region and investigate possible water allocation scenarios in the region under constrained water availability in the future. Our results show that the socio-economic demands have to be re-considered and lowered under any water allocation strategy, as the climate impacts may significantly reduce water availability in the future. Further, we show that a shift to sustainable water management strategy and river restoration is possible even under reduced water availability. Finally, our results suggest that the adaptation of complex human-hydrological systems to climate change and a shift to a more sustainable water management are likely to be parts of one joint strategy to cope with climate change impacts.

  20. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S

    2018-01-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns...... the regulation of the OCT1 cation transporter and genetic variants underlying circulating cholesterol levels. NDA strongly implicates particular cell types and tissues in disease pathogenesis. For example, distinct groupings of disease-associated regulatory regions implicate two distinct biological processes...... in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; a further two separate processes are implicated in Crohn's disease. Thus, our functional analysis of genetic predisposition to disease defines new distinct disease endotypes. We predict that patients with a preponderance of susceptibility variants in each group are likely...

  1. Annual Report 2011 from the Human Resources Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Annual Report 2011 from the Human Resources Department concerning the settlement of disputes and discipline under Chapter VI of the Staff Rules and Regulations.   1) Introduction The 2011 Annual Report under Chapter VI (“Settlement of Disputes and Discipline”) of the Staff Rules and Regulations serves to report: • cases of submission of requests for review, • internal appeals, • appeals to the ILOAT, and • cases in which disciplinary action was taken.   2) Disciplinary Action Under Article S VI 2.01 of the Staff Rules, the Director-General may take disciplinary action against members of the personnel who, whether intentionally or through carelessness, are guilty of a breach of the Staff Rules and Regulations or of misconduct that is to the detriment of the Organization. Article S VI 2.02 of the Staff Rules stipulates that depending on the gravity of the breach or misconduct involved, the disciplinary action may be: • a...

  2. Assessing behind armor blunt trauma (BABT) under NIJ standard-0101.04 conditions using human torso models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Andrew C; Ward, Emily E; O'Connor, James V; Roberts, Jack C

    2008-06-01

    Although soft armor vests serve to prevent penetrating wounds and dissipate impact energy, the potential of nonpenetrating injury to the thorax, termed behind armor blunt trauma, does exist. Currently, the ballistic resistance of personal body armor is determined by impacting a soft armor vest over a clay backing and measuring the resulting clay deformation as specified in National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard-0101.04. This research effort evaluated the efficacy of a physical Human Surrogate Torso Model (HSTM) as a device for determining thoracic response when exposed to impact conditions specified in the NIJ Standard. The HSTM was subjected to a series of ballistic impacts over the sternum and stomach. The pressure waves propagating through the torso were measured with sensors installed in the organs. A previously developed Human Torso Finite Element Model (HTFEM) was used to analyze the amount of tissue displacement during impact and compared with the amount of clay deformation predicted by a validated finite element model. All experiments and simulations were conducted at NIJ Standard test conditions. When normalized by the response at the lowest threat level (Level I), the clay deformations for the higher levels are relatively constant and range from 2.3 to 2.7 times that of the base threat level. However, the pressures in the HSTM increase with each test level and range from three to seven times greater than Level I depending on the organ. The results demonstrate the abilities of the HSTM to discriminate between threat levels, impact conditions, and impact locations. The HTFEM and HSTM are capable of realizing pressure and displacement differences because of the level of protection, surrounding tissue, and proximity to the impact point. The results of this research provide insight into the transfer of energy and pressure wave propagation during ballistic impacts using a physical surrogate and computational model of the human torso.

  3. Risk factors for child under-nutrition with a human rights edge in rural villages of North Wollo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, J; Abate, G; Kogi-Makau, W; Sorensen, P

    2005-12-01

    To identify the factors associated with childhood under-nutrition in North Wollo, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study. Four purposefully selected rural villages (kebeles) in North Wollo zone of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. One hundred-forty four sampled households with under five year old children (n=200) comprising of 96 male-headed, 24 female-headed and 24 landless with children aged between six and 59 months. Determinations of anthropometric measurements and various socio-economic factors. The overall prevalence rate of under nutrition as determined by stunting, underweight and wasting was 44.5%, 25.0% and 9.0% respectively with more preponderance among the toddlers. The proportion of under nutrition was higher in female-headed households. Shortage of farmland, lack of irrigation, dispossession of livestock, shortage of non-farm employment options, parental illiteracy, high number of children, water inadequacy, food taboos and wrong eating habits of families, poor child feeding practices, deprivation of health nutrition education as well as maternal attributes such as young motherhood, low body mass index and short stature of mothers influenced the nutritional status of the children. The prominent risk factors for undernutrition among children were dispossession of livestock, child food taboos and wrong eating habits of families, deprivation of health/nutrition education, short stature and early marriage of mothers. This study led to the conclusion that improvement of household resources through promotion of irrigation and initiation of income generating livelihood options can reverse the nutrition situation for better. Health and nutrition education focusing on appropriate child feeding, eradication of harmful traditional practices such as early marriage and inequitable intra-household food distribution, encouragement of family planning and nutrition interventions including food diversification is recommended.

  4. The evaluation of the state of environment under a strong human impact on the basis of SWOT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dråg, Magdalena; Zimnol, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Environmental assessment of areas subject to strong human pressure is a growing problem worldwide. This is true also for Poland The Upper Silesian conurbation, which is dominated by heavy industry: steel mills, mining, chemical industry, as well as power plants and thermal power plants. The assessment analyses catchment Kłodnica in which anthropogenic impacts are very strong and long lasting. In order to assess the current state of the environment, a cartogram was established in which both factors, positively and negatively affecting the environment of the analysed area are reflected. To create a results-cartogram, SWOT analysis was used.

  5. Evaluation of Detrimental Effects on Mechanical Properties of Zry-4 Due to Hydrogen Absorption by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) In-Situ Observation of Crack Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L; Fernandez, G.E; Bertolino, G; Meyer, G

    2001-01-01

    The study of mechanical properties degradation of zirconium alloys due to hydrides assumes fundamental importance in the nuclear industry.During normal nuclear reactors operation, structural parts absorbed hydrogen generated from radiolysis of water, causing detrimental effects on mechanical properties.As a consequence, these materials are easily cracked in the presence of mechanical solicitation due to loss of ductility of the hydride-phase.The presence of cracks indicates fracture mechanic as the most suitable methodology in the study of mechanical properties degradation.In this work we used the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) criteria to evaluate the detrimental effects on mechanical properties with the observation in SEM of crack propagation.The samples used were SEN (B) of Zry-4 and cathodic homogenous charged with hydrogen concentrations lower than 400 ppm

  6. Comparative analysis of human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue under xeno-free conditions for cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-yu; Wu, Xiao-yun; Tong, Jia-bei; Yang, Xin-xin; Zhao, Jing-li; Zheng, Quan-fu; Zhao, Guo-bin; Ma, Zhi-jie

    2015-04-13

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapies. Human platelet lysate represents an efficient alternative to fetal bovine serum for clinical-scale expansion of MSCs. Different media used in culture processes should maintain the biological characteristics of MSCs during multiple passages. However, bone marrow-derived MSCs and adipose tissue-derived MSCs have not yet been directly compared with each other under human platelet lysate conditions. This study aims to conduct a direct head-to-head comparison of the biological characteristics of the two types of MSCs under human platelet lysate-supplemented culture conditions for their ability to be used in regenerative medicine applications. The bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were cultured under human platelet lysate conditions and their biological characteristics evaluated for cell therapy (morphology, immunophenotype, colony-forming unit-fibroblast efficiency, proliferation capacity, potential for mesodermal differentiation, secreted proteins, and immunomodulatory effects). Under human platelet lysate-supplemented culture conditions, bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs exhibited similar fibroblast-like morphology and expression patterns of surface markers. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs had greater proliferative potential than bone marrow-derived MSCs, while no significantly difference in colony efficiency were observed between the two types of cells. However, bone marrow-derived MSCs possessed higher capacity toward osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation compared with adipose tissue-derived MSCs, while similar adipogenic differentiation potential wase observed between the two types of cells. There were some differences between bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs for several secreted proteins, such as cytokine (interferon-γ), growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1), and chemokine (stem

  7. Numerical Tests of the Virtual Human Model Response Under Dynamic Load Conditions Defined in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23.562 and 25.562 – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Lukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the presented research was to check mechanical response of human body model under loads that can occur during airplane accidents and compare results of analysis with some results of experimental tests described in literature. In simulations, new multi-purpose human body model, the VIRTHUMAN, was used. The whole model, as well as its particular segments, was earlier validated based on experimental data, which proved its accuracy to simulate human body dynamic response under condition typical for car crashes, but it was not validated for loads with predominant vertical component (loads acting along spinal column, typical for airplane crashes. Due to limitation of available experimental data, the authors focused on conducting calculations for the case introduced in 14 CFR: Parts 23.562 and 25.562, paragraph (b(1, knowing as the 60° pitch test. The analysis consists in comparison of compression load measured in lumbar section of spine of the FAA HIII Dummy (experimental model and in the Virthuman (numerical model. The performed analyses show numerical stability of the model and satisfactory agreement between experimental data and simulated Virthuman responses. In that sense, the Virthuman model, although originally developed for automotive analyses, shows also great potential to become valuable tool for applications in aviation crashworthiness and safety analyses, as well.

  8. FoxO3a Serves as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Human Lens Epithelial Cells under Conditions of Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilangovan Raju

    Full Text Available Forkhead box 'O' transcription factors (FoxOs are implicated in the pathogenesis of type2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Abnormal activity of FoxOs was reported in the glucose and insulin metabolism. Expression of FoxO proteins was reported in ocular tissues; however their function under hyperglycemic conditions was not examined.Human lens epithelial cell line was used to study the function of FoxO proteins. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Western blotting were employed to detect the FoxO proteins under the conditions of hyperglycemia.In this study we examined the role of FoxO3a in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells. FoxO3a protein expression was elevated in a dose- and time-dependent fashion after high glucose treatment. Anti-oxidant defense mechanisms of the lens epithelial cells were diminished as evidenced from loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity and lowered MnSOD after 72 h treatment with high glucose. Taken together, FoxO3a acts as a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress and cell homeostasis in human lens epithelial cells during diabetic conditions.FoxO3a is an early stress response protein to glucose toxicity in diabetic conditions.

  9. [Carl Arthur Scheunert's experiments on human nutrition, 1938-1943: boundary transgressions of a scientist under national socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Carl Arthur Scheunert (1879-1957) was a German scientist who supervised several studies with prisoners that were designed to assess the optimal vitamin and nutrient supply, and were conducted by his associate Karl-Heinz Wagner (1911-2007) from 1938 to 1943. This contribution describes the aims, results and conclusions of Scheunert's research 1923 to 1945 in comparison with the national and international vitamin research and its consequences for public health measures. Conditions and results of the human experiments are reconstructed and compared with similar studies performed in other countries. Burden as well as health risks for the study participants are assessed. In addition, it is discussed whether general rules for human experimentation were followed (e.g. informed consent and minimizing of health risks). Although the available documents support the conclusion that no deaths or lasting injuries were caused, the experiments violated ethical standards, in particular because of the conditions in the Waldheim prison including progressive deterioration of nutrition and health.

  10. Image-based cell quality evaluation to detect irregularities under same culture process of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Risako; Gotou, Yuto; Yoshida, Kei; Kanie, Kei; Shimizu, Kazunori; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2017-05-01

    To meet the growing demand for human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for various applications, technologies that enable the manufacturing of iPSCs on a large scale should be developed. There are several technological challenges in iPSC manufacturing technology. Image-based cell quality evaluation technology for monitoring iPSC quality in culture enables the manufacture of intact cells for further applications. Although several studies have reported the effectiveness of image-based evaluation of iPSCs, it remains challenging to detect irregularities that may arise using the same processing operations during quality evaluation of automated processing. In this study, we investigated the evaluation performance of image-based cell quality analysis in detecting small differences that can result from human measurement, even when the same protocol is followed. To imitate such culture conditions, by image-analysis guided colony pickup, we changed the proportions of morphologically different subpopulations: "good morphology, regular morphology correlated with undifferentiation marker expression" and "bad morphology, irregular morphology correlated with loss of undifferentiation marker expression". In addition, comprehensive gene-expression and metabolomics analyses were carried out for the same samples to investigate performance differences. Our data shows an example of investigating the usefulness and sensitivity of quality evaluation methods for iPSC quality monitoring. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the oxidative stress damage of human retinal pigment epithelium and epithelial-mesenchymal transition under high glucose state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of high glucose environment on oxidative stress injury of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE as well as pithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods: Human PRE cells were cultivated and divided into low glucose control group, hyperosmosis control group and high glucose intervention group that were treated with DMEM medium with glucose concentration 5.5 mmol/L, DMEM medium with osmotic concentration 60.0 mmol/L and glucose concentration 5.5 mmol/L as well as the DMEM medium with glucose concentration 60.0 mmol/L respectively, and after 24 h, the levels of oxidative stress molecules, cell apoptosis molecules and mesenchymal cell marker molecules in cells were determined. Results: ROS, MDA, 3-NT, Nrf2, ARE, Caspase-3, Bax, JNK, c-JUN, α-SMA, Vimentin and N-cadherin levels in high glucose intervention group were significantly higher than those of low glucose control group and hyperosmosis control group while GST and HO-1 levels were significantly lower than those of low glucose control group and hyperosmosis control group; ROS, MDA, 3-NT, Nrf2, ARE, Caspase-3, Bax, JNK, c-JUN, α-SMA, Vimentin, N-cadherin, GST and HO-1 levels were not significantly different between low glucose control group and hyperosmosis control group. Conclusion: High glucose environment can enhance the oxidative stress response of RPE cells to start the cell apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

  12. Community assembly processes underlying phytoplankton and bacterioplankton across a hydrologic change in a human-impacted river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabwe, Alain; Yang, Jun R; Wang, Yongming; Liu, Lemian; Chen, Huihuang; Yang, Jun

    2018-02-27

    Although the influence of microbial community assembly processes on aquatic ecosystem function and biodiversity is well known, the processes that govern planktonic communities in human-impacted rivers remain largely unstudied. Here, we used multivariate statistics and a null model approach to test the hypothesis that environmental conditions and obstructed dispersal opportunities, dictate a deterministic community assembly for phytoplankton and bacterioplankton across contrasting hydrographic conditions in a subtropical mid-sized river (Jiulong River, southeast China). Variation partitioning analysis showed that the explanatory power of local environmental variables was larger than that of the spatial variables for both plankton communities during the dry season. During the wet season, phytoplankton community variation was mainly explained by local environmental variables, whereas the variance in bacterioplankton was explained by both environmental and spatial predictors. The null model based on Raup-Crick coefficients for both planktonic groups suggested little evidences of the stochastic processes involving dispersal and random distribution. Our results showed that hydrological change and landscape structure act together to cause divergence in communities along the river channel, thereby dictating a deterministic assembly and that selection exceeds dispersal limitation during the dry season. Therefore, to protect the ecological integrity of human-impacted rivers, watershed managers should not only consider local environmental conditions but also dispersal routes to account for the effect of regional species pool on local communities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional reorganization of the brain in humans following spinal cord injury: evidence for underlying changes in cortical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Luke A; Gustin, Sylvia M; Macey, Paul M; Wrigley, Paul J; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-02-16

    Loss of somatosensory drive results in functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). While the phenomenon of functional cortical reorganization is well established, it remains unknown whether in humans, functional reorganization results from changes in brain anatomy, or simply reflects an unmasking of already existing dormant synapses. In 20 subjects with complete thoracic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) and 23 controls, we used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether SI reorganization was associated with changes in SI anatomy. SCI resulted in a significant SI reorganization, with the little finger representation moving medially toward the lower body representation (i.e., area of sensory loss). Furthermore, although SCI was associated with gray matter volume loss in the lower body representation, this loss was minimized as reorganization increased. That is, the greater the medial shift in little finger representation, the greater the gray matter preservation in the lower body representation. In addition, in the region of greatest SI reorganization (little finger), fractional anisotropy was correlated with SI reorganization. That is, as SI reorganization increased, the extent of aligned structures decreased. Finally, although thalamocortical fibers remained unchanged, the ease and direction of water movement within the little finger representation was altered, being directed more toward the midline in SCI subjects. These data show that SI reorganization following SCI is associated with changes in SI anatomy and provide compelling evidence that SI reorganization in humans results from the growth of new lateral connections, and not simply from the unmasking of already existing lateral connections.

  14. Health, environment and development. Approaches to drafting country-level strategies for human well-being under Agenda 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past half century, the forces of national independence, population growth, technological advancement, and socioeconomic development have transformed the environments that determine human health. Whether we look at the global climate, altered regional ecosystems, patterns of urban living, the movement of ideas, or agricultural production methods, we see continuing and rapid environmental change. Many of the positive and negative health effects of these environmental changes are well known. Socioeconomic development has improved the health status of millions and extended their longevity; underdevelopment denies health to other millions. At the same time, development widens the range of health hazards, with global impacts that, if unchecked, could render the planet unable to meet the needs of the human species. These concerns for human well-being were given new prominence in the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) - the 'Earth Summit'. UNCED made it clear that our health prospects depend on whether we properly and sustainably develop our natural and social environment. Health cannot be separated from a myriad of environmental elements as diverse as air and freshwater, poverty and urban concentration, chemicals and disease vectors, overconsumption and underdevelopment, technology and trade. These conclusions, and the agreements reached at UNCED, compel new thinking, new policies, and new action programmes. Only systemic approaches can ensure that the health gains of recent decades will be retained and that good health can be attained by the billions of our contemporaries to whom decent environmental conditions are denied - or by generations to come. This document spells out the health implications of current environmental trends and of Agenda 21, UNCED's charter for action in the coming years. It is addressed not only to national and local health leaders, but also to the decision-makers in all governmental and private sectors

  15. Polyamines: Bio-Molecules with Diverse Functions in Plant and Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtar K. Handa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines—polyamines (PAs, particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants—exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments. Thus, one or more PAs are commonly found in genomic and metabolomics studies using plants, particulary during different abiotic stresses. In humans, a general decline in PA levels with aging occurs parallel with some human health disorders. Also, high PA dose is detrimental to patients suffering from cancer, aging, innate immunity and cognitive impairment during Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. A dichotomy exists in that while PAs may increase longevity and reduce some age-associated cardiovascular diseases, in disease conditions involving higher cellular proliferation, their intake has negative consequences. Thus, it is essential that PA levels be rigorously quantified in edible plant sources as well as in dietary meats. Such a database can be a guide for medical experts in order to recommend which foods/meats a patient may consume and which ones to avoid. Accordingly, designing both high and low polyamine diets for human consumption are in vogue, particularly in medical conditions where PA intake may be detrimental, for instance, cancer patients. In this review, literature data has been collated for the levels of the three main PAs, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, in different edible sources—vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, meat, sea food, cheese, milk, and eggs. Based on our analysis of vast literature, the effects of PAs in human/animal health fall into two broad, Yang and Yin

  16. Polyamines: Bio-Molecules with Diverse Functions in Plant and Human Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Avtar K; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K

    2018-01-01

    Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments. Thus, one or more PAs are commonly found in genomic and metabolomics studies using plants, particulary during different abiotic stresses. In humans, a general decline in PA levels with aging occurs parallel with some human health disorders. Also, high PA dose is detrimental to patients suffering from cancer, aging, innate immunity and cognitive impairment during Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. A dichotomy exists in that while PAs may increase longevity and reduce some age-associated cardiovascular diseases, in disease conditions involving higher cellular proliferation, their intake has negative consequences. Thus, it is essential that PA levels be rigorously quantified in edible plant sources as well as in dietary meats. Such a database can be a guide for medical experts in order to recommend which foods/meats a patient may consume and which ones to avoid. Accordingly, designing both high and low polyamine diets for human consumption are in vogue, particularly in medical conditions where PA intake may be detrimental, for instance, cancer patients. In this review, literature data has been collated for the levels of the three main PAs, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, in different edible sources-vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, meat, sea food, cheese, milk, and eggs. Based on our analysis of vast literature, the effects of PAs in human/animal health fall into two broad, Yang and Yin, categories: beneficial for

  17. Polyamines: Bio-Molecules with diverse functions in plant and human health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Avtar K.; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2018-02-01

    Biogenic amines – polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine (and thermospermine) are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants – exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments. Thus, one or more PAs are commonly found in genomic and metabolomics studies using plants, particulary during different abiotic stresses. In humans, a general decline in PA levels with aging occurs parallel with some human health disorders. Also, high PA dose is detrimental to patients suffering from cancer, aging, innate immunity and cognitive impairment during Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. A dichotomy exists in that while PAs may increase longevity and reduce some age-associated cardiovascular diseases, in disease conditions involving higher cellular proliferation, their intake has negative consequences. Thus, it is essential that PA levels be rigorously quantified in edible plant sources as well as in dietary meats. Such a database can be a guide for medical experts in order to recommend which foods/meats a patient may consume and which ones to avoid. Accordingly, designing both high and low polyamine diets for human consumption are in vogue, particularly in medical conditions where PA intake may be detrimental, for instance, cancer patients. In this review, literature data has been collated for the levels of the three main PAs, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, in different edible sources - vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, meat, sea food, cheese, milk and eggs. Based on our analysis of vast literature, the effects of PAs in human/animal health fall into two broad, Yang and

  18. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gattás

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation.

  19. SERS spectroscopy of kaempferol and galangin under the interaction of human serum albumin with adsorbed silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Bai, Xueyuan; Wang, Yingping; Zhao, Bing; Zhao, Daqing; Zhao, Yu

    Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy were employed to probe the interaction of the flavonol drugs, kaempferol and galangin, with human serum albumin (HSA). SERS spectra of both flavonol derivatives were obtained from a colloidal silver surface in physiological condition, based on the high performance of the enhanced substrate, the most enhanced modes of kaempferol and galangin were those with certain motions perpendicular to the metal surface. The SERS spectra were allowed to predict similar orientation geometry for both of the drugs on the colloidal surface with minor difference. In addition, both flavonols-HSA complexes were prepared in different concentration ratios and the orientated differences between kaempferol and galangin were investigated by SERS.

  20. Mechanisms underlying metabolic and neural defects in zebrafish and human multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanquan Song

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In humans, mutations in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH lead to MADD/glutaric aciduria type II, an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of devastating neurological, systemic and metabolic symptoms. We show that a zebrafish mutant in ETFDH, xavier, and fibroblast cells from MADD patients demonstrate similar mitochondrial and metabolic abnormalities, including reduced oxidative phosphorylation, increased aerobic glycolysis, and upregulation of the PPARG-ERK pathway. This metabolic dysfunction is associated with aberrant neural proliferation in xav, in addition to other neural phenotypes and paralysis. Strikingly, a PPARG antagonist attenuates aberrant neural proliferation and alleviates paralysis in xav, while PPARG agonists increase neural proliferation in wild type embryos. These results show that mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to an increase in aerobic glycolysis, affects neurogenesis through the PPARG-ERK pathway, a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Marta; Maqueda, Ana Elda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans. We measured drug-induced changes in spontaneous brain oscillations and subjective effects in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study involving the oral administration of ayahuasca (0.75mg DMT/kg body weight) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (40mg). Twelve healthy, experienced psychedelic users (5 females) participated in four experimental sessions in which they received the following drug combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+ayahuasca, ketanserin+placebo and ketanserin+ayahuasca. Ayahuasca induced EEG power decreases in the delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Current density in alpha-band oscillations in parietal and occipital cortex was inversely correlated with the intensity of visual imagery induced by ayahuasca. Pretreatment with ketanserin inhibited neurophysiological modifications, reduced the correlation between alpha and visual effects, and attenuated the intensity of the subjective experience. These findings suggest that despite the chemical complexity of ayahuasca, 5-HT2A activation plays a key role in the neurophysiological and visual effects of ayahuasca in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Confocal Raman spectroscopy: In vivo biochemical changes in the human skin by topical formulations under UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosato, M G; Orallo, D E; Ali, S M; Churio, M S; Martin, A A; Dicelio, L

    2015-12-01

    A new approach to the study of the effects on human skin of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and gadusol (Gad) incorporated in polymer gel is proposed in this work. The depth profile and photoprotector effects of Pluronic F127® gels containing each of the natural actives were evaluated by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy aiming at the analysis of the biochemical changes on human skin. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed that the data corresponding to different depths of the skin, from surface to 4 μm, and from 6 to 16 μm, remained in the same cluster. In vivo Raman spectra, classified into five different layers of epidermis according to their similarities, indicated that the amount of Gad gel increased by about 26% in the outermost layer of the stratum corneum (SC) and that MAAs gel at 2 μm depth was 103.4% higher than in the outermost layer of the SC. Variations in the SC of urocanic acid at 1490-1515 cm(-1) and 1652 cm(-1) and histidine at 1318 cm(-1) were calculated, before and after UV exposure with or without gels. With the application of gels the vibrational modes that correspond to lipids in trans conformation (1063 and 1128 cm(-1)) increased with respect to normal skin, whereas gauche conformation (1085 cm(-1)) disappeared. Our studies suggest that gels protected the skin against the stress of the natural defense mechanism caused by high levels of UV exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Small human sperm vacuoles observed under high magnification are pocket-like nuclear concavities linked to chromatin condensation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitrelle, F; Albert, M; Petit, J-M; Ferfouri, F; Wainer, R; Bergere, M; Bailly, M; Vialard, F; Selva, J

    2013-08-01

    Since an embryo's ability to grow to the blastocyst stage and implant can be improved by selection of a normal spermatozoon with a vacuole-free head, this study set out to determine the nature of small sperm vacuoles observed under high magnification (>×6300). For 15 infertile men with various sperm profiles, high-magnification microscopy was used to select motile, morphometrically normal spermatozoa with no vacuoles (n=450) or more than two small vacuoles (each of which occupied less than 4% of the head's area; n=450). Spermatozoa acrosome reaction status and degree of chromatin condensation were analysed. Three-dimensional deconvolution microscopy was used to accurately image the nucleus and acrosome at all depths in all spermatozoa. In all 450 spermatozoa with small vacuoles, the latter were seen to be abnormal, DNA-free nuclear concavities. Spermatozoa with small vacuoles were significantly more likely than vacuole-free spermatozoa to have noncondensed chromatin (39.8% versus 9.3%, respectively; Pvacuoles observed under high magnification are pocket-like nuclear concavities related to failure of chromatin condensation. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intracellular Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Underlying 17beta-Estradiol-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression in Human Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Xiong, Wenqian; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Hengwei; Li, Na; Du, Yu; Liu, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling is necessary for ectopic endometrium implantation. Many studies have shown an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the ectopic endometrium of endometriosis. However, the signaling pathways and cellular effects related to this process remain incompletely elucidated. The objective of our study was to investigate the association between MMP9 and the Wnt signaling pathway under the regulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in endometrial stromal cells. We found that MMP9 was elevated in tissues from women with endometriosis compared with normal women. Furthermore, MMP9 and beta-catenin increased concurrently in a time- and dose-dependent manner after E2 treatment. To clarify the relationship between MMP9 and beta-catenin, we performed luciferase promoter reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. A beta-catenin/TCF3/LEF1 complex bound to a specific site on the MMP9 promoter that promoted MMP9 gene and protein expression. The promotion of MMP9 by the Wnt signaling pathway under the regulation of E2 may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Application of the critical angle method to refractive index measurement of human skin in vivo under partial contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichiro; Ohkubo, Kohji; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Iwata, Kayoko

    2013-03-01

    We adapted the critical angle method for measuring rough surfaces under partial contact to acquire an in vivo skin refractive index (RI). Assuming that the total reflection is the simple sum of reflection from areas that are in contact and reflection from those that are not in contact, the RI can be estimated even for partial contact with a rough surface. We found that cheek skin is sufficiently soft that a sufficiently large area can be in contact and that the critical angle was detectable. The RIs of the cheeks of adult females were measured. The RI range was about 1.51 to 1.53, at a wavelength of 550 nm, without considering systematic errors. The RIs of cheeks are significantly correlated with their conductance, which corresponds to their water content. We determined the relationship between the RI and conductance within the variation of skin under normal conditions; this relationship was theoretically obtained in previous studies. In the present study, a direct in vivo measurement method was developed that enabled us to measure the RI in daily life, although this method contains errors for several reasons, including disregarding absorption.

  6. Human rights and immigrants’ access to care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Parmet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the human right to health is well established under international law, many states limit non-citizens’ participation in public insurance programs. In the United States, immigrants face especially high barriers due to the lack of recognition of a broad right to health as well as federal statutes restricting many immigrants’ eligibility to federally-funded insurance. High rates of uninsurance among immigrants have a detrimental effect on their health, as well as on the health of citizens who live in their communities. Finch vs. Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector, a recent case decided by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, recognized the rights of legal immigrants in Massachusetts to state-supported health care, and demonstrates the importance of insuring immigrants in broadly-based, rather than immigrant-specific, programs.

  7. Mechanisms underlying the growth inhibitory effects of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2005-01-01

    Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 are being extensively studied as anticancer agents. In the present study we evaluated the mechanisms by which a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, affects tumor growth of two differentially invasive human breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (moderately invasive) cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of celecoxib in vitro, and the effects of this agent on cell growth and angiogenesis were monitored by evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and vasculogenic mimicry. The in vitro results of MDA-MB-231 cell line were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells express higher levels of COX-2 than do the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells. Celecoxib treatment inhibited COX-2 activity, indicated by prostaglandin E 2 secretion, and caused significant growth arrest in both breast cancer cell lines. In the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, the mechanism of celecoxib-induced growth arrest was by induction of apoptosis, associated with reduced activation of protein kinase B/Akt, and subsequent activation of caspases 3 and 7. In the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells, growth arrest was a consequence of cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 checkpoint. Celecoxib-induced growth inhibition was reversed by addition of exogenous prostaglandin E 2 in MDA-MB-468 cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells formed significantly fewer extracellular matrix associated microvascular channels in vitro than did the high COX-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Celecoxib treatment not only inhibited cell growth and vascular channel formation but also reduced vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The in vitro findings corroborated in vivo data from a mouse xenograft model in which daily administration of celecoxib significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with reduced vascularization and

  8. Mechanisms underlying the growth inhibitory effects of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2005-01-01

    Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 are being extensively studied as anticancer agents. In the present study we evaluated the mechanisms by which a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, affects tumor growth of two differentially invasive human breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (moderately invasive) cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of celecoxib in vitro, and the effects of this agent on cell growth and angiogenesis were monitored by evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and vasculogenic mimicry. The in vitro results of MDA-MB-231 cell line were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells express higher levels of COX-2 than do the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells. Celecoxib treatment inhibited COX-2 activity, indicated by prostaglandin E2 secretion, and caused significant growth arrest in both breast cancer cell lines. In the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, the mechanism of celecoxib-induced growth arrest was by induction of apoptosis, associated with reduced activation of protein kinase B/Akt, and subsequent activation of caspases 3 and 7. In the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells, growth arrest was a consequence of cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. Celecoxib-induced growth inhibition was reversed by addition of exogenous prostaglandin E2 in MDA-MB-468 cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells formed significantly fewer extracellular matrix associated microvascular channels in vitro than did the high COX-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Celecoxib treatment not only inhibited cell growth and vascular channel formation but also reduced vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The in vitro findings corroborated in vivo data from a mouse xenograft model in which daily administration of celecoxib significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with reduced vascularization and

  9. Physiologically motivated time-delay model to account for mechanisms underlying enterohepatic circulation of piroxicam in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvrdonova, Martina; Dedik, Ladislav; Mircioiu, Constantin; Miklovicova, Daniela; Durisova, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to formulate a physiologically motivated time-delay (PM TD) mathematical model for human beings, which incorporates disintegration of a drug formulation, dissolution, discontinuous gastric emptying and enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of a drug. Piroxicam, administered to 24 European, healthy individuals in 20 mg capsules Feldene Pfizer, was used as a model drug. Plasma was analysed for piroxicam by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The PM TD mathematical model was developed using measured plasma piroxicam concentration-time profiles of the individuals and tools of a computationally efficient mathematical analysis and modeling, based on the theory of linear dynamic systems. The constructed model was capable of (i) quantifying different fractions of the piroxicam dose sequentially disposable for absorption and (ii) estimating time delays between time when the piroxicam dose reaches stomach and time when individual of fractions of the piroxicam dose is disposable for absorption. The model verification was performed through a formal proof, based on comparisons of observed and model-predicted plasma piroxicam concentration-time profiles. The model verification showed an adequate model performance and agreement between the compared profiles. Accordingly, it confirmed that the developed model was an appropriate representative of the piroxicam fate in the individuals enrolled. The presented model provides valuable information on factors that control dynamic mechanisms of EHC, that is, information unobtainable with the models proposed for the EHC analysis previously.

  10. Oxidation of [U-13C]glucose in the human brain at 7T under steady state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshkov, Sergey; Dimitrov, Ivan E; Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Good, Levi; Kelly, Dorothy; Rajasekaran, Karthik; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Pascual, Juan M; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2017-12-01

    Disorders of brain energy metabolism and neurotransmitter recycling have been implicated in multiple neurological conditions. 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 13 C MRS) during intravenous administration of 13 C-labeled compounds has been used to measure turnover rates of brain metabolites. This approach, however, requires prolonged infusion inside the magnet. Proton decoupling is typically required but may be difficult to implement with standard equipment. We examined an alternative approach to monitor glucose metabolism in the human brain. 13 C-enriched glucose was infused in healthy subjects outside the magnet to a steady-state level of 13 C enrichment. Subsequently, the subjects were scanned at 7T for 60 min without 1 H decoupling. Metabolic modeling was used to calculate anaplerosis. Biomarkers of energy metabolism and anaplerosis were detected. The glutamate C5 doublet provided information about glucose-derived acetyl-coenzyme A flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via pyruvate dehydrogenase, and the bicarbonate signal reflected overall TCA cycle activity. The glutamate C1/C5 ratio is sensitive to anaplerosis. Brain 13 C MRS at 7T provides information about glucose oxidation and anaplerosis without the need of prolonged 13 C infusions inside the scanner and without technical challenges of 1 H decoupling, making it a feasible approach for clinical research. Magn Reson Med 78:2065-2071, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Cellular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of flufenamic acid on chloride secretion in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawin Pongkorpsakol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Cl− secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas including cholera. We recently demonstrated that flufenamic acid (FFA suppressed Vibrio cholerae El Tor variant-induced intestinal fluid secretion via mechanisms involving AMPK activation and NF-κB-suppression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FFA on transepithelial Cl− secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84 cells. FFA inhibited cAMP-dependent Cl− secretion in T84 cell monolayers with IC50 of ∼8 μM. Other fenamate drugs including tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid and mefenamic acid exhibited the same effect albeit with lower potency. FFA also inhibited activities of CFTR, a cAMP-activated apical Cl− channel, and KCNQ1/KCNE3, a cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channel. Mechanisms of CFTR inhibition by FFA did not involve activation of its negative regulators. Interestingly, FFA inhibited Ca2+-dependent Cl− secretion with IC50 of ∼10 μM. FFA inhibited activities of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels and KCa3.1, a Ca2+-activated basolateral K+ channels, but had no effect on activities of Na+–K+–Cl− cotransporters and Na+–K+ ATPases. These results indicate that FFA inhibits both cAMP and Ca2+-dependent Cl− secretion by suppressing activities of both apical Cl− channels and basolateral K+ channels. FFA and other fenamate drugs may be useful in the treatment of secretory diarrheas.

  12. Human Performance under Extreme Conditions with Respect to a Resilient Organisation. Proceedings of a CSNI International Workshop, 24-26 February 2015, Brugg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi accident a number of initiatives have been undertaken internationally to learn from the accident and to implement lessons learned to improve nuclear safety. The accident has shown in particular the challenges in supporting reliable human performance under extreme conditions. Acknowledging that further work is needed to be better prepared for the HOF (Human and Organisational Factors) challenges of the extreme conditions that may be present in severe accidents, the NEA's Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF), one of the working groups for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated a new task with the objectives to: - share experiences and knowledge of human and organisational performance under extreme conditions, - identify specific currently applied HOF principles in nuclear and other high risk industries and compare them with the available knowledge, - provide a basis for improvements and necessary research taking into account HOF issues in the design and use of measures, and - make recommendations with the aim to achieve the best level of human and organisational performance as possible under extreme conditions. In order to move those issues forward WGHOF hosted together with the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI a workshop entitled 'Human Performance under Extreme Conditions with respect to a Resilient Organization'. The workshop was conducted with participation of a number of invited key speakers from academic research and a range of industries, including nuclear. Thirty-four experts from 12 countries, the IAEA and OECD/Halden participated. Experts came from nuclear authorities, research centres, technical support organisations, training simulator centres, utilities and from non-nuclear field (aircraft accident investigation, fire fighting, military, design of resilient organisations). From the discussions at the workshop, it is clear that the accident at

  13. Effects of RNAi-mediated TUSC3 silencing on radiation-induced autophagy and radiation sensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Guang; Liang, Nai-Xin; Qin, Ying-Zhi; Ma, Dong-Jie; Huang, Chang-Jin; Liu, Lei; Li, Shan-Qing

    2016-11-30

    This study examined the effects of RNAi-mediated TUSC3 silencing on radiation-induced autophagy and radiation sensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 under hypoxic condition. Different CoCl 2 concentrations were used to treat A549 cells and establish a CoCl 2 -induced hypoxic model of A549 cells. MTT and clone formation assays were used to determine the effects of different concentrations of CoCl 2 on the growth and proliferation of A549 cells treated by different doses of X-ray irradiation. The siRNA-expressing vector was transfected by liposomes and for silencing of TUSC3. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle changes and apoptosis rate. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was performed to detect the expression of TUSC3 mRNA. Western blotting was applied to detect the changes of TUSC3, LC3, and p62 proteins under different CoCl 2 concentrations and after siRNA silencing of TUSC3. The TUSC3 levels in A549 cells increased under hypoxic conditions in a dose-dependent manner (P A549 cells and promoted apoptosis (P A549 cells showed significantly increased growth and proliferation and decreased apoptosis (P A549 cell growth and proliferation after radiotherapy under hypoxic condition, promoted apoptosis, increased G0/G1 phase cells, and reduced S phase cells (all P A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  14. On the Sequence-Directed Nature of Human Gene Mutation: The Role of Genomic Architecture and the Local DNA Sequence Environment in Mediating Gene Mutations Underlying Human Inherited Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David N.; Bacolla, Albino; Férec, Claude; Vasquez, Karen M.; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Chen, Jian-Min

    2011-01-01

    Different types of human gene mutation may vary in size, from structural variants (SVs) to single base-pair substitutions, but what they all have in common is that their nature, size and location are often determined either by specific characteristics of the local DNA sequence environment or by higher-order features of the genomic architecture. The human genome is now recognized to contain ‘pervasive architectural flaws’ in that certain DNA sequences are inherently mutation-prone by virtue of their base composition, sequence repetitivity and/or epigenetic modification. Here we explore how the nature, location and frequency of different types of mutation causing inherited disease are shaped in large part, and often in remarkably predictable ways, by the local DNA sequence environment. The mutability of a given gene or genomic region may also be influenced indirectly by a variety of non-canonical (non-B) secondary structures whose formation is facilitated by the underlying DNA sequence. Since these non-B DNA structures can interfere with subsequent DNA replication and repair, and may serve to increase mutation frequencies in generalized fashion (i.e. both in the context of subtle mutations and SVs), they have the potential to serve as a unifying concept in studies of mutational mechanisms underlying human inherited disease. PMID:21853507

  15. Neuropsychological Aspects Observed in a Nuclear Plant Simulator and its Relation with Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, E.A.P. do; Martins, M.; Pinheiro, A.; Silveira, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will discuss preliminary results of an evaluation methodology for the analysis and quantification of errors in manual (human) operation by training cognitive parameters and skill levels in the complex control system operation using Neuropsychophysiology and Neuro feedback equipment. The research was conducted using a game (nuclear power plant simulator) that simulates concepts of operation of a nuclear plant with a split sample evaluating aspects of learning and knowledge in the nuclear area. Operators were monitored using biomarkers (ECG, EEG, GSR, face detection and eye tracking) and the results were analyzed by Statistical multivariate techniques. An important component in the evaluation of complex systems is the human reliability during operation. Human reliability refers to the probability of the human element perform the tasks scheduled during the defined period for system operation when tested under specified environmental conditions, and additionally not to take any action detrimental to system operation.

  16. Magnitude-dependent and inversely-related osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells under dynamic compressive strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Christopher B; Hirota, Koji; Liu, Junze; Maldonado, Maricela; Hyle Park, B; Nam, Jin

    2018-02-01

    Biomechanical forces have been shown to significantly affect tissue development, morphogenesis, pathogenesis and healing, especially in orthopaedic tissues. Such biological processes are critically related to the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). However, the mechanistic details regarding how mechanical forces direct MSC differentiation and subsequent tissue formation are still elusive. Electrospun three-dimensional scaffolds were used to culture and subject hMSCs to various magnitudes of dynamic compressive strains at 5, 10, 15 or 20% (ε = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) at a frequency of 1 Hz for 2 h daily for up to 28 days in osteogenic media. Gene expression of chondrogenic markers (ACAN, COL2A1, SOX9) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis were upregulated in response to the increased magnitudes of compressive strain, whereas osteogenic markers (COL1A1, SPARC, RUNX2) and calcium deposition had noticeable decreases by compressive loading in a magnitude-dependent manner. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed enhanced viscoelastic modulus with respect to the increased dynamic strain peaking at 15%, which coincides with the maximal GAG synthesis. Furthermore, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography revealed that mechanical loading enhanced the alignment of extracellular matrix to the greatest level by 15% strain as well. Overall, we show that the degree of differentiation of hMSCs towards osteogenic or chondrogenic lineage is inversely related, and it depends on the magnitude of dynamic compressive strain. These results demonstrate that multiphenotypic differentiation of hMSCs can be controlled by varying the strain regimens, providing a novel strategy to modulate differentiation specification and tissue morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Measurement of the force–displacement response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-06-01

    The non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties of human skin vary according to location on the body, age, and individual. The measurement of skin\\'s mechanical properties is important in several fields including medicine, cosmetics, and forensics. In this study, a novel force-sensitive micro-robot applied a rich set of three-dimensional deformations to the skin surface of different areas of the arms of 20 volunteers. The force-displacement response of each area in different directions was measured. All tested areas exhibited a non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic force-displacement response. There was a wide quantitative variation in the stiffness of the response. For the right anterior forearm, the ratio of the maximum probe reaction force to maximum probe displacement ranged from 0.44Nmm-1 to 1.45Nmm-1. All volunteers exhibited similar qualitative anisotropic characteristics. For the anterior right forearm, the stiffest force-displacement response was when the probe displaced along the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The response of the anterior left forearm was stiffest in a direction 20° to the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The posterior upper arm was stiffest in a direction 90° to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The averaged posterior upper arm response was less stiff than the averaged anterior forearm response. The maximum probe force at 1.3mm probe displacement was 0.69N for the posterior upper arm and 1.1N for the right anterior forearm. The average energy loss during the loading-unloading cycle ranged from 11.9% to 34.2%. This data will be very useful for studying the non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behaviour of skin and also for generating material parameters for appropriate constitutive models. © 2011 IPEM.

  18. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eKilcullen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1 and 14579 (BC2 in aerated and microaerobic (static cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO, and metabolic product(s such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid.

  19. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Kathleen; Teunis, Allison; Popova, Taissia G; Popov, Serguei G

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1) and 14579 (BC2) in aerobic and microaerobic (static) cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1 was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1 cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid.

  20. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  1. Animal testing and alternative approaches for the human health risk assessment under the proposed new European chemicals regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Thomas; Gerner, Ingrid; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Liebsch, Manfred; Schulte, Agnes; Spielmann, Horst; Vogel, Richard; Wettig, Klaus

    2004-10-01

    During the past 20 years the EU legislation for the notification of chemicals has focussed on new chemicals and at the same time failed to cover the evaluation of existing chemicals in Europe. Therefore, in a new EU chemicals policy (REACH, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) the European Commission proposes to evaluate 30,000 chemicals within a period of 15 years. We are providing estimates of the testing requirements based on our personal experiences during the past 20 years. A realistic scenario based on an in-depth discussion of potential toxicological developments and an optimised "tailor-made" testing strategy shows that to meet the goals of the REACH policy, animal numbers may be significantly reduced below 10 million if industry would use in-house data from toxicity testing, which are confidential, if non-animal tests would be used, and if information from quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) would be applied in substance-tailored testing schemes. The procedures for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have the strongest impact on the total number of animals bred for testing under REACH. We are assuming both an active collaboration with our colleagues in industry and substantial funding of the development and validation of advanced non-animal methods by the EU Commission, specifically in reproductive and developmental toxicity.

  2. [Trace elements storage peculiarities and metallothionein content in human thyroid gland under iodine deficiency euthyroid nodular goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal'fushins'ka, H I; Hnatyshyna, L L; Osadchuk, O Ĭ; Shydlovs'kyĭ, V O; Stoliar, O B

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of iodine and copper in the node, paranodular and contralateral (not affected tissue by node) tissues of thyroid gland in relation to the level of metal-binding proteins, potential antioxidants and oxidative changes in tissue was investigated. To assess the severity of the pathological process the molecular markers of cytotoxicity were used. The reduction of total iodine (by 19.5%), increase of inorganic iodine fraction (by 82.4%) and total copper content (twice) in paranodular and nodular tissues compared with contrlateral part have been established. Excess of copper in goitrous-changes tissue was partially accumulated in the metallothioneins. The level of metal-binding form of metallothioneins and reserve of free thiols of these proteins was higher two-three times and lower content of reduced glutathione in node-affected tissue compared to the contralateral part. Signs of cytotoxicity among them: higher cathepsine D free activity (up to 84.6% and 134.4% in paranodular tissue and node respectively) and higher level of DNA strand breaks in the node (up to 22.6%) were observed. In paranodular tissue the range of indices variability compared with parenchyma of contralateral part is shorter than in the node. Thus, under low level of iodine organification and high copper level in goitrous-modified tissue of thyroid gland metallothionein may provide a partial compensatory effect on prooxidative processes.

  3. Life sentence penalty and extradition under article 3 of the ECHR: A leading case of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Life sentence penalty covers a diverse range of practices, from the most severe form of life imprisonment without parole, in which a person is sentenced to die in prison so long as their sentence stands, to more indeterminate sentences in which at the time of sentencing it is not clear how long the sentenced person will spend in prison. Dealing with the question whether the extradition of a person to a foreign state where is accused of a crime for which a sentence of life imprisonment can be imposed can potentially violate article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. What all these sentences have in common, however, is that at the time the sentence is passed, a person is liable to be detained for the rest of his or her natural life. We all know “The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules” and relevant international instruments on the rehabilitation of imprisonment, but at the moment more than 73 States in the world retain life imprisonment as a penalty for offences committed while under the age of 18. General perspective of criminal justice reform in Latin America should take into a right account the meaning of life - imprisonment penalty under article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which prohibits torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  4. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  5. Recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusion in low-birth weight preterm infants under restrictive transfusion guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.; Pourmirzaiee, Mohmmad A.; Naseri, F.; Kelishadi, R.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the number and volume of red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) in very low birth weight infants under restrictive red blood cell transfusion guidelines with and without erythropoietin administration. In a controlled clinical trial conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between April 2002 to April 2004, 60 premature infants with gestational age up to 34 weeks, birth weight up to 1500 g, and postnatal age between 8 and 14 days were included. The newborns were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 received 3 doses of 400 IU/kg erythropoietin per week for 6 weeks, and Group 2 received no treatment aside from their conventional medications. The 2 groups did not differ significantly with respect to their mean gestational age, birth weight and hematocrit at the study entry. Fewer transfusions were administered to those receiving erythropoietin (26.7% versus 50%, p=0.03), but there was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to volume of transfusion. Compared with the placebo group, the infants receiving erythropoietin had a higher mean hematocrit (34% +/- 4.3 versus 29% +/- 5.9, p<0.001) and absolute reticulocyte count (57 +/- 19 versus 10 +/- 4.8 x 106, p<0.001) at the end of the study. We found no significant difference in the incidence of thrombocytopenia and leukopenia between the 2 groups. We conclude that when the restrictive RBCT guidelines were followed, treatment with erythropoietin can be useful in reduction of the number of RBCTs. (author)

  6. Modulation of cellular redox state underlies antagonism between oxaliplatin and cetuximab in human colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Laetitia; Sadok, Amine; Formento, Jean-Louis; Seitz, Jean François; Kovacic, Hervé

    2009-09-01

    Oxaliplatin is the first platinum-based compound effective in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin combined with cetuximab for metastatic colorectal cancer is under evaluation. The preliminary results seem controversial, particularly for the use of cetuximab in K-Ras mutated patients. K-Ras mutation is known to affect redox homeostasis. Here we evaluated how the efficacy of oxaliplatin alone or combined with cetuximab varied according to the Ras mutation and redox status in a panel of colorectal tumour cell lines. Viability was evaluated by methylthiazoletetrazolium assay, reactive oxygen species production by DCFDA and lucigenin on HT29-D4, Caco-2, SW480 and SW620 cell lines. Combination of oxaliplatin and cetuximab was less cytotoxic than oxaliplatin alone in colorectal cells harbouring wild-type Ras and membrane expression of receptors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as HT29-D4 and Caco-2 cells. In contrast, cetuximab did not affect oxaliplatin efficiency in cells harbouring K-Ras(V12) mutation, irrespective of membrane EGFR expression (SW620 and SW480 cells). Transfection of HT29-D4 with K-Ras(V12) decreased oxaliplatin IC(50) and impaired cetuximab sensitivity, without affecting expression of membrane EGFR compared with HT29-D4 control. Oxaliplatin efficacy relies on endogenous production of H(2)O(2). Cetuximab inhibits H(2)O(2) production inhibiting the EGFR/Nox1 NADPH oxidase pathway. Oxaliplatin efficacy was impaired by short hairpin RNA for Nox1 and by catalase (H(2)O(2) scavenger). Cetuximab limited oxaliplatin efficiency by affecting the redox status of cancer cells through Nox1. Such combined therapy might be improved by controlling H(2)O(2) elimination.

  7. Bone marrow stromal cell defects and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 deficiency underlying human myeloid leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazsek, I; Farabos, C; Quittet, P; Labat, M L; Bringuier, A F; Triana, B K; Machover, D; Reynes, M; Misset, J L

    1996-01-01

    impaired prior to initiation or during the accelerated expansion of leukemia cells. The lack of organized stromal network and the decreased level of some lipophylic hormones, acting probably as morphogens, may contribute to the onset and progression of human myeloid leukemias.

  8. Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maathuis, Annet; Havenaar, Robert; He, Tao; Bellmann, Susann

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of true ileal protein digestion and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a goat milk-based infant formula (GIF), a cow milk-based infant formula (CIF), and human milk (HM). The GIF, CIF, and HM were investigated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model simulating infant conditions. Digested compounds were dialyzed from the intestinal compartment as bioaccessible fraction. Dialysate was collected in 15 to 60-minute periods for 4 hours. True ileal protein digestibility and DIAAS were determined as bioaccessible nitrogen (N) and amino acids. N bioaccessibility from the GIF showed similar kinetics to that of HM. The CIF showed a delay in N bioaccessibility versus the GIF and HM. In the 1st hour of digestion, N bioaccessibility was 19.9% ± 3.5% and 23.3% ± 1.3% for the GIF and HM, respectively, and 11.2% ± 0.6% for CIF (P < 0.05 vs HM). In the 3rd hour of digestion, the N bioaccessibility was higher (P < 0.05) for the CIF (28.9% ± 1.2%) than for the GIF (22.5% ± 1.6%) and HM (20.6% ± 1.0%). After 4 hours, the true ileal protein digestibility of the GIF, CIF, and HM was 78.3% ± 3.7%, 73.4% ± 2.7%, and 77.9% ± 4.1%, respectively. The DIAAS for the GIF, CIF, and HM for 0- to 6-month-old infants was 83%, 75%, and 77% for aromatic AA. The protein quality is not different between the GIF, CIF, and HM, but the kinetics of protein digestion of the GIF is more comparable to that of HM than that of the CIF.

  9. Experimental investigation into the interaction between the human body and room airflow and its effect on thermal comfort under stratum ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2016-04-01

    Room occupants' comfort and health are affected by the airflow. Nevertheless, they themselves also play an important role in indoor air distribution. This study investigated the interaction between the human body and room airflow under stratum ventilation. Simplified thermal manikin was employed to effectively resemble the human body as a flow obstacle and/or free convective heat source. Unheated and heated manikins were designed to fully evaluate the impact of the manikin at various airflow rates. Additionally, subjective human tests were conducted to evaluate thermal comfort for the occupants in two rows. The findings show that the manikin formed a local blockage effect, but the supply airflow could flow over it. With the body heat from the manikin, the air jet penetrated farther compared with that for the unheated manikin. The temperature downstream of the manikin was also higher because of the convective effect. Elevating the supply airflow rate from 7 to 15 air changes per hour varied the downstream airflow pattern dramatically, from an uprising flow induced by body heat to a jet-dominated flow. Subjective assessments indicated that stratum ventilation provided thermal comfort for the occupants in both rows. Therefore, stratum ventilation could be applied in rooms with occupants in multiple rows. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Health-related rehabilitation and human rights: analyzing states' obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Globally, disability represents a major challenge for health systems and contributes to the rising demand for rehabilitation care. An extensive body of evidence testifies to the barriers that people with disabilities confront in accessing rehabilitation services and to the enormous impact this has on their lives. The international legal dimension of rehabilitation is underexplored, although access to rehabilitation is a human right enshrined in numerous legal documents, specifically the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. However, to date, no study has analyzed the implications of the Convention for Rehabilitation Policy and Organization. This article clarifies states' obligations with respect to health-related rehabilitation for persons with disabilities under the Convention. These obligations relate to the provision of rehabilitation but extend across several key human right commitment areas such as equality and nondiscrimination; progressive realization; international cooperation; participation in policymaking processes; the accessibility, availability, acceptability, and quality of rehabilitation services; privacy and confidentiality; and informed decision making and accountability. To support effective implementation of the Convention, governments need to focus their efforts on all these areas and devise appropriate measures to monitor compliance with human rights principles and standards in rehabilitation policy, service delivery, and organization. This article lays the foundations for a rights-based approach to rehabilitation and offers a framework that may assist in the evaluation of national rehabilitation strategies and the identification of gaps in the implementation of the Convention. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inclusive Democracy: Franchise Limitations on Non-Resident Citizens as an Unjust Restriction of Rights under the European Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fraser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Public International Law and Policy Group (PILPG advises parties in peace negotiations, on drafting post-conflict constitutions, and assists in prosecuting war criminals. As part of this work, PILPG assists States in establishing and implementing electoral systems that meet international standards for democratic elections, and undertakes election monitoring. Free and fair elections are crucial for the legitimacy of democratic States and are protected by human rights law. The present article focuses on the issue of the franchise and on the restrictions permitted under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR. Specifically, this article addresses franchise restrictions on non-resident citizens across ECHR member States. Setting out the protections for the franchise in Article 3 of Protocol No. 1 ECHR, this article analyses the permissible limitations on those rights according to the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR. The article presents a comparative analysis of other voting rights cases, such as the limitations on prisoners’ franchise. After considering whether residency-based limitations pursue legitimate and proportionate aims, it questions whether blanket restrictions disenfranchising non-resident citizens should be permissible today. The article concludes by advocating the importance of an inclusive franchise for the legitimacy of democratic systems as well as the protection of individual rights, and inviting the ECtHR to revisit its jurisprudence on this topic.

  12. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND UNDER THE MULTIANNUAL FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK 2014–2020

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    Iwona Kowalska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investment in human capital is a key determinant of socio-economic development in the twenty-fi rst century. These investments in rural areas require well-planned interventions in the fi eld of education. The necessary funds for this purpose will be available under the multiannual fi nancial framework EU 2014–2020. Interventions in this area in Poland are planned mainly under the Operational Programme Knowledge Education Development POWER and the Regional Operational Programmes (RPO. It should therefore be valuable to preliminarily assess the opportunities and threats connected with the development of human capital in rural areas in Poland in the fi eld of education in 2014–2020. The aim of this article is, thus, an attempt to make such an assessment, taking into account the following aspects: scope of the EU support; procedures for obtaining fi nancial support; available funds and financial instruments. The article verifi es the following hypothesis: based on program POWER establishments and RPO 2014–2020 in the section on education potential chances of the HRD in rural areas mainly result from wide range scope of this suport; while the main threats stem from a very limited scale of prioritization in the procedure of obtaining fi nancial support and the use of non-repayable fi nancial instruments (grants. The article draws upon the analysis of regulations of the European Commission and national legislative sources, as well as literature on development of human capital in rural areas and the absorption of EU funds for social projects.

  13. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of hepatocyte growth factor gene to human dental pulp stem cells under good manufacturing practice improves their potential for periodontal regeneration in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Liu, Zhenhai; Xie, Yilin; Hu, Jingchao; Wang, Hua; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jingsong; Wu, Chu-Tse; Wang, Songlin

    2015-12-15

    Periodontitis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases in humans. We previously promoted significant periodontal tissue regeneration in swine models with the transplantation of autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and PDLSC sheet. We also promoted periodontal tissue regeneration in a rat model with a local injection of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the roles of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in periodontal tissue regeneration in swine. In the present study, we transferred an adenovirus that carried HGF gene into human DPSCs (HGF-hDPSCs) under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. These cells were then transplanted into a swine model for periodontal regeneration. Twenty miniature pigs were used to generate periodontitis with bone defect of 5 mm in width, 7 mm in length, and 3 mm in depth. After 12 weeks, clinical, radiological, quantitative and histological assessment of regenerated periodontal tissues was performed to compare periodontal regeneration in swine treated with cell implantation. Our study showed that injecting HGF-hDPSCs into this large animal model could significantly improve periodontal bone regeneration and soft tissue healing. A hDPSC or HGF-hDPSC sheet showed superior periodontal tissue regeneration compared to the injection of dissociated cells. However, the sheets required surgical placement; thus, they were suitable for surgically-managed periodontitis treatments. The adenovirus-mediated transfer of the HGF gene markedly decreased hDPSC apoptosis in a hypoxic environment or in serum-free medium, and it increased blood vessel regeneration. This study indicated that HGF-hDPSCs produced under GMP conditions significantly improved periodontal bone regeneration in swine; thus, this method represents a potential clinical application for periodontal regeneration.

  14. Spatial-temporal evolution of the eastern Nanhui mudflat in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary under intensified human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yexin; Zhu, Longhai; Chi, Wanqing; Yang, Zuosheng; Wang, Biying; Lv, Kai; Wang, Hongmin; Lu, Zhiyong

    2018-05-01

    The eastern Nanhui mudflat (ENM), located in the southern flank of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary, plays a key role in storm protection, defense against sea level rise, and land resource provision for Shanghai, China's largest city. Recently, there has been a great deal of concern for its evolutionary fate, since a drastic reduction in the Changjiang sediment discharge rate and an increased number of estuarine enclosures might negatively impact the environmental protection functions that this mudflat provides. In this paper, a novel method, which employed the envelope lines of instantaneous shoreline positions identified in 436 Landsat satellite images from 1975 to 2016, was used to demonstrate the evolution of the mudflat high and low tide lines in a detailed, quantitative way. Our study reveals the southeast progradation rate of the mudflat doubled from 24 m/yr in 713-1974 CE to 49 m/yr in 1975-1995 CE, probably due to the influence of the estuarine turbidity maximum zone shifting to the ENM. Under the ample sediment input directly from the turbidity maximum zone, the spatial evolution of the ENM was governed predominantly by the changing morphology of the South Passage due to the quick progradation of the ENM, which narrowed the South Passage by pushing the South Passage Trumpet southeastward. Therefore, the ENM experienced rapid accretion during 1975-2016. The accretion rate of the high tide line increased 2-13 times due to vegetation and intertidal enclosures, resulting in the rapid reduction of the intertidal area. The area decreased from 97 km2 in 1976 to 66 km2 in 1995, mainly due to vegetation, and continued decreasing to 12 km2 in 2006 due to the intertidal enclosures. In contrast, the accretion rate of the low tide line increased by 25 times due to subtidal enclosures and caused the intertidal area increased to 78 km2 in 2015. The almost disappeared intertidal zones in 2006 reappeared. However, this reappearance might be a temporary transitional

  15. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O; Kuloba, Bernard; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Kanga, Erustus

    2017-01-01

    increased overall whereas that of herbivores first increased from 1996 to 2006 and then levelled off thereafter. Aggregate herbivore biomass increased linearly with increasing cumulative wet season rainfall. The densities of the 30 most abundant species were either strongly positively or negatively correlated with cumulative past rainfall, most commonly with the early wet season component. The collaborative wildlife conservation and management initiatives undertaken on the mosaic of private, communal and public lands were thus associated with increase or no decrease in numbers of 32 and decrease in numbers of 12 of the 44 species. Despite the decline by some species, effective community-based conservation is central to the future of wildlife in the NWC and other rangelands of Kenya and beyond and is crucially dependent on the good will, effective engagement and collective action of local communities, working in partnerships with various organizations, which, in NWC, operated under the umbrella of the Nakuru Wildlife Forum.

  16. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    carnivores increased overall whereas that of herbivores first increased from 1996 to 2006 and then levelled off thereafter. Aggregate herbivore biomass increased linearly with increasing cumulative wet season rainfall. The densities of the 30 most abundant species were either strongly positively or negatively correlated with cumulative past rainfall, most commonly with the early wet season component. The collaborative wildlife conservation and management initiatives undertaken on the mosaic of private, communal and public lands were thus associated with increase or no decrease in numbers of 32 and decrease in numbers of 12 of the 44 species. Despite the decline by some species, effective community-based conservation is central to the future of wildlife in the NWC and other rangelands of Kenya and beyond and is crucially dependent on the good will, effective engagement and collective action of local communities, working in partnerships with various organizations, which, in NWC, operated under the umbrella of the Nakuru Wildlife Forum.

  17. The Freedom of Expression of Members of the Armed Forces Under the European Convention on Human Rights In Jokšas V. Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchner Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of expression is one of the most fundamental rights in a democratic society. In fact, the freedom to express one’s opinion and to impart, as well as to receive, information, is essential for the participation in the democratic process. The ability to make decisions as a citizen requires access to information; the participation in the life of the society requires the ability to express one’s opinions. It is imperative that in a democratic society, as it is envisaged by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, everybody is able to express their views, regardless as to whether these views correspond to the views of those who are in power. This ability is one of the key differences between democracy anddictatorship. In particular in the nation-states of Eastern Europe, which have only known freedom for a bit less than a quarter of a century, the growth of democratic structures is inextricably linked to the ability to exercise this right. But while human rights in principle pit the citizen against the State, the citizen who serves the State in a professional function might also wish to express opinions that go against the view of those who are entrusted with leading the State. This is particularly the case when it comes to members of the armed forces. The jurisprudence of the Convention organs with regard to the right of public officials and other State agents to express their opinion freely is not as coherent as it is with regard to other questions concerning the ECHR. In a case decided in late 2013, the European Court of Human Rights dealt with this question with regard to Lithuania. In this article, the authors look at the question of how far the State can restrict the freedom of expression of members of the armed forces under the European Convention on Human Rights.

  18. Gain-of-function mutations in the ALS8 causative gene VAPB have detrimental effects on neurons and muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sanhueza

    2013-12-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a motor neuron degenerative disease characterized by a progressive, and ultimately fatal, muscle paralysis. The human VAMP-Associated Protein B (hVAPB is the causative gene of ALS type 8. Previous studies have shown that a loss-of-function mechanism is responsible for VAPB-induced ALS. Recently, a novel mutation in hVAPB (V234I has been identified but its pathogenic potential has not been assessed. We found that neuronal expression of the V234I mutant allele in Drosophila (DVAP-V260I induces defects in synaptic structure and microtubule architecture that are opposite to those associated with DVAP mutants and transgenic expression of other ALS-linked alleles. Expression of DVAP-V260I also induces aggregate formation, reduced viability, wing postural defects, abnormal locomotion behavior, nuclear abnormalities, neurodegeneration and upregulation of the heat-shock-mediated stress response. Similar, albeit milder, phenotypes are associated with the overexpression of the wild-type protein. These data show that overexpressing the wild-type DVAP is sufficient to induce the disease and that DVAP-V260I is a pathogenic allele with increased wild-type activity. We propose that a combination of gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms is responsible for VAPB-induced ALS.

  19. Gain-of-function mutations in the ALS8 causative gene VAPB have detrimental effects on neurons and muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Mario; Zechini, Luigi; Gillespie, Trudy; Pennetta, Giuseppa

    2014-01-15

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron degenerative disease characterized by a progressive, and ultimately fatal, muscle paralysis. The human VAMP-Associated Protein B (hVAPB) is the causative gene of ALS type 8. Previous studies have shown that a loss-of-function mechanism is responsible for VAPB-induced ALS. Recently, a novel mutation in hVAPB (V234I) has been identified but its pathogenic potential has not been assessed. We found that neuronal expression of the V234I mutant allele in Drosophila (DVAP-V260I) induces defects in synaptic structure and microtubule architecture that are opposite to those associated with DVAP mutants and transgenic expression of other ALS-linked alleles. Expression of DVAP-V260I also induces aggregate formation, reduced viability, wing postural defects, abnormal locomotion behavior, nuclear abnormalities, neurodegeneration and upregulation of the heat-shock-mediated stress response. Similar, albeit milder, phenotypes are associated with the overexpression of the wild-type protein. These data show that overexpressing the wild-type DVAP is sufficient to induce the disease and that DVAP-V260I is a pathogenic allele with increased wild-type activity. We propose that a combination of gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms is responsible for VAPB-induced ALS.

  20. Radiosensitization by 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloroquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide under oxia and hypoxia in human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itani, Wafica; Geara, Fady; Haykal, Joelle; Haddadin, Makhluf; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

    2007-01-01

    The sensitizing effects of 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloroquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (DCQ) and ionizing radiation (IR) were determined in four colon cancer cells and in FHs74Int normal intestinal cells. Cell cycle modulation, TUNEL assay, clonogenic survival and DNA damage were examined under oxia or hypoxia. Effects on apoptotic molecules and on p-Akt and Cox-2 protein expression were investigated. The four cell lines responded differently to DCQ+IR; HT-29 cells were most resistant. Combination treatment caused significant increases in preG 1 (apoptosis) in HCT-116, while G 2 /M arrest occurred in DLD-1. DCQ potentiated IR effects more so under hypoxia than oxia. Pre-exposure of DLD-1 to hypoxia induced 30% apoptosis, and G 2 /M arrest in oxia. The survival rate was 50% lower in DCQ+IR than DCQ alone and this rate further decreased under hypoxia. FHs74Int normal intestinal cells were more resistant to DCQ+IR than cancer cells.Greater ssDNA damage occurred in DLD-1 exposed to DCQ+IR under hypoxia than oxia. In oxia, p-Akt protein expression increased upon IR exposure and drug pre-treatment inhibited this increase. In contrast, in hypoxia, exposure to IR reduced p-Akt protein and DCQ restored its expression to the untreated control. Apoptosis induced in hypoxic DLD-1 cells was independent of p53-p21 modulation but was associated with an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the inhibition of the Cox-2 protein. DCQ is a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer in DLD-1 human colon cancer cells

  1. Protective and detrimental effects of kaempferol in rat H4IIE cells: Implication of oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niering, Petra; Michels, Gudrun; Waetjen, Wim; Ohler, Sandra; Steffan, Baerbel; Chovolou, Yvonni; Kampkoetter, Andreas; Proksch, Peter; Kahl, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous substances in fruits and vegetables. Among them, the flavonol kaempferol contributes up to 30% of total dietary flavonoid intake. Flavonoids are assumed to exert beneficial effects on human health, e.g., anticancer properties. For this reason, they are used in food supplements at high doses. The aim of this project was to determine the effects of kaempferol on oxidative stress and apoptosis in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells over a broad concentration range. Kaempferol is rapidly taken up and glucuronidated by H4IIE cells. The results demonstrate that kaempferol protects against H 2 O 2 -induced cellular damage at concentrations which lead to cell death and DNA strand breaks in the absence of H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidative stress. Preincubation with 50 μM kaempferol exerts protection against the loss of cell viability induced by 500 μM H 2 O 2 (2 h) while the same concentration of kaempferol reduces cell viability by 50% in the absence of H 2 O 2 (24 h). Preincubation with 50 μM kaempferol ameliorates the strong DNA damage induced by 500 μM H 2 O 2 while 50 μM kaempferol leads to a significant increase of DNA breakage in the absence of H 2 O 2 . Preincubation with 50 μM kaempferol reduces H 2 O 2 -mediated caspase-3 activity by 40% (4 h) while the same concentration of kaempferol leads to the formation of a DNA ladder in the absence of H 2 O 2 (24 h). It is concluded that the intake of high dose kaempferol in food supplements may not be advisable because in our cellular model protective kaempferol concentrations can also induce DNA damage and apoptosis by themselves

  2. Catalase supplementation on thawed bull spermatozoa abolishes the detrimental effect of oxidative stress on motility and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Santos, M R; Domínguez-Rebolledo, A E; Esteso, M C; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F

    2009-08-01

    The potential protective effect of catalase supplementation during in vitro culture of frozen/thawed bull spermatozoa was investigated. Frozen/thawed semen collected from three fighting bulls was diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and incubated at 37 degrees C under different experimental conditions: Control, Catalase (CAT) (200 U/mL), Oxidant (OXI) (100 microm Fe(2+)/1 mm ascorbate), and Catalase + Oxidant (CAT/OXI). We assessed sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin status (SCSA) at 0, 2 and 6 h of incubation. Our results showed that catalase abolished the effect of the oxidant, protecting spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species, and improving both sperm motility and chromatin status during incubation. The OXI treatment significantly reduced the percentage of motile sperm after 6 h of incubation. The statistical model also showed that there were differences in sperm motility between CAT/OXI (20.8 +/- 2.9%) and OXI (11.6 +/- 7.6%) (p Catalase prevented DNA fragmentation even in the presence of the oxidant (%DFI: 30.3 +/- 0.8% OXI vs. 17.4 +/- 0.7% CAT/OXI). We conclude that catalase supplementation after thawing could protect bull spermatozoa against oxidative stress, and it could improve media used for processing thawed spermatozoa.

  3. The effect of gaze angle on the evaluations of SAR and temperature rise in human eye under plane-wave exposures from 0.9 to 10 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Yinliang; Leung, Sai-Wing; Sun, Weinong; Siu, Yun-Ming; Kong, Richard; Hung Chan, Kwok

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of gaze angle on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature rise in human eye under electromagnetic exposures from 0.9 to 10 GHz. Eye models in different gaze angles are developed based on bio-metric data. The spatial-average SARs in eyes are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and the corresponding maximum temperature rises in lens are calculated by the finite-difference method. It is found that the changes in the gaze angle produce a maximum variation of 35, 12 and 20 % in the eye-averaged SAR, peak 10 g average SAR and temperature rise, respectively. Results also reveal that the eye-averaged SAR is more sensitive to the changes in the gaze angle than peak 10 g average SAR, especially at higher frequencies. (authors)

  4. Micro-arthropod communities under human disturbance: is taxonomic aggregation a valuable tool for detecting multivariate change? Evidence from Mediterranean soil oribatid coenoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Tancredi; Migliorini, Massimo

    2006-07-01

    Animal communities are sensitive to environmental disturbance, and several multivariate methods have recently been developed to detect changes in community structure. The complex taxonomy of soil invertebrates constrains the use of the community level in monitoring environmental changes, since species identification requires expertise and time. However, recent literature data on marine communities indicate that little multivariate information is lost in the taxonomic aggregation of species data to high rank taxa. In the present paper, this hypothesis was tested on two oribatid mite (Oribatida, Acari) assemblages under two different kinds of disturbance: metal pollution and fires. Results indicate that data sets built at the genus and family systematic rank can detect the effects of disturbance with little loss of information. This is an encouraging result in view of the use of the community level as a preliminary tool for describing patterns of human-disturbed soil ecosystems.

  5. Transcriptional profiling of human breast cancer cells cultured under microgravity conditions revealed the key role of genetic gravity sensors previously detected in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Lavan, David; Diego Orihuela-Tacuri, M.; Sanabria, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Currently, studies in Drosophila melanogaster has shown emerging evidence that microgravity stimuli can be detected at the genetic level. Analysis of the transcriptome in the pupal stage of the fruit flies under microgravity conditions versus ground controls has suggested the presence of a few candidate genes as "gravity sensors" which are experimentally validated. Additionally, several studies have shown that microgravity causes inhibitory effects in different types of cancer cells, although the genes involved and responsible for these effects are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the genes suggested as the sensors of gravitational waves in Drosophila melanogaster and their human counterpart (orthologous genes) are highly involved in carcinogenesis, proliferation, anti-apoptotic signals, invasiveness, and metastatic potential of breast cancer cell tumors. The transcriptome analyses suggested that the observed inhibitory effect in cancer cells could be due to changes in the genetic expression of these candidates. These results encourage the possibility of new therapeutic targets managed together and not in isolation.

  6. A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of dienogest in human plasma and its pharmacokinetic applications under fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapothu, Leela Mohan Kumar; Batta, Neelima; Pigili, Ravi Kumar; Yejella, Rajendra Prasad

    2015-02-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection with positive ion electrospray ionization was developed for the determination of dienogest in human K2 EDTA plasma using levonorgestrel d6 as an internal standard (IS). Dienogest and IS were extracted from human plasma using simple liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax XDB-Phenyl column (4.6 × 75 mm, 3.5 µm) under isocratic conditions using acetonitrile-5 mm ammonium acetate (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.60 mL/min. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for dienogest and IS were at m/z 312.30 → 135.30 and 319.00 → 251.30, respectively. The method was validated with a linearity range of 1.003-200.896 ng/mL having a total analysis time for each chromatograph of 3.0 min. The method has shown tremendous reproducibility with intra- and inter-day precision (coefficient of variation) dienogest tablets to healthy female volunteers and was proved to be highly reliable for the analysis of clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Phenotyping and comparing the immune cell populations of free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and dolphins under human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Shirazi, Mahyar; Bible, Brittany F; Zeng, Menghua; Tamjidi, Saba; Bossart, Gregory D

    2017-03-27

    Studies suggest that free-ranging bottlenose dolphins exhibit a suppressed immune system because of exposure to contaminants or microorganisms. However, due to a lack of commercially available antibodies specific to marine mammal immune cell surface markers, the research has been indecisive. The purpose of this study was to identify cross-reactive terrestrial-specific antibodies in order to assess the changes in the immune cell populations of dolphins under human care and free-ranging dolphins. The blood and PBMC fraction of blood samples from human care and free-ranging dolphins were characterized by H&E staining of cytospin slides and flow cytometry using a panel of terrestrial-specific antibodies. In this study, we show that out of 65 terrestrial-specific antibodies tested, 11 were cross-reactive and identified dolphin immune cell populations within their peripheral blood. Using these antibodies, we found significant differences in the absolute number of cells expressing specific markers within their lymphocyte and monocyte fractions. Interestingly, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell profile of free-ranging dolphins retained an additional population of cells that divided them into two groups showing a low (56%) percentage of smaller cells resembling granulocytes. We found that the cross-reactive antibodies not only identified specific changes in the immune cells of free-ranging dolphins, but also opened the possibility to investigate the causal relationship between immunosuppression and mortality seen in free-ranging dolphins.