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Sample records for underlying bullying behaviour

  1. Bullying and Inappropriate Behaviour among Faculty Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Käyhkö, Katinka

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the degree, nature and consequences of bullying or inappropriate behaviour among faculty personnel (n = 303) in a Finnish university. A total of 114 (38%) faculty members answered the email questionnaire. According to the results, 15% of the respondents had experienced bullying; in addition, 45% had experienced inappropriate…

  2. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Olsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  3. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

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    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114

  4. The Problem of Bullying in Schools and the Promise of Positive Behaviour Supports

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    Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…

  5. School climate as correlate of bullying behaviour among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bullying is the most common form of violence in schools. The current study examined the relationship between school climate and bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Yagba West, Kogi State, Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was a descriptive research method of the correlational ...

  6. BULLYING BEHAVIOUR OF ADOLESCENTS BASED ON GENDER, GANG AND FAMILY

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    Kadek Ayu Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.

  7. Workplace bullying and the association with suicidal ideation/thoughts and behaviour: a systematic review.

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    Leach, Liana S; Poyser, Carmel; Butterworth, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The established links between workplace bullying and poor mental health provide a prima facie reason to expect that workplace bullying increases the risk of suicidal ideation (thoughts) and behaviours. Until now, there has been no systematic summary of the available evidence. This systematic review summarises published studies reporting data on workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, or behaviour. The review sought to ascertain the nature of this association and highlight future research directions. 5 electronic databases were searched. 2 reviewers independently selected the articles for inclusion, and extracted information about study characteristics (sample, recruitment method, assessment and measures) and data reporting the association of workplace bullying with suicidal ideation and behaviour. 12 studies were included in the final review-8 reported estimates of a positive association between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, and a further 4 provided descriptive information about the prevalence of suicidal ideation in targets of bullying. Only 1 non-representative cross-sectional study examined the association between workplace bullying and suicidal behaviour. The results show an absence of high-quality epidemiological studies (eg, prospective cohort studies, which controlled for workplace characteristics and baseline psychiatric morbidity). While the available literature (predominantly cross-sectional) suggests that there is a positive association between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, the low quality of studies prevents ruling out alternative explanations. Further longitudinal, population-based research, adjusting for potential covariates (within and outside the workplace), is needed to determine the level of risk that workplace bullying independently contributes to suicidal ideation and behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Can schools reduce bullying? The relationship between school characteristics and the prevalence of bullying behaviours.

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    Muijs, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. We hypothesize that school conditions (e.g., size), school policies (e.g., behaviour policies), and school processes (e.g., teaching quality) are related to bullying prevalence. Surveys were administered to pupils in 35 primary schools in four local authorities in England. Pupils (N = 1,411) and teachers (N = 68) in the final year of primary school (year 6) were surveyed. This study drew on the following data sources: A pupil survey on bullying behaviours A survey of teachers on school policies and processes Analysis of data on school processes from school inspection reports Analysis of secondary data on school conditions and pupil characteristics. Three-level multilevel models were used to analyse the data. Results show a substantial school- and classroom-level effect on prevalence of bullying. Effective school policies were found to be related to levels of bullying. The study provides support for the importance of schools' embedded policies and practices in relation to bullying prevalence and provides evidence for policy on the importance of focusing on a broad range of outcomes. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. An exploration of bullying behaviours in nursing: a review of the literature.

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    Wilson, Janet Lynn

    This article explores bullying behaviours in nursing in the UK and other countries, why bullying happens, and suggests actions to prevent or combat it. Bullying involves intentional and repeated psychological violence, humiliating and isolating staff from colleagues. Current literature reports that 20-25% of nursing staff experience bullying behaviour. The main perpetrators are nurses in a senior position to those being bullied and colleagues who are established staff members. Those likely to be bullied are students and new staff members. Bullying can cause distress and depression, with up to 25% of those bullied leaving their jobs or the profession, and have an impact on patient care. Factors contributing to bullying are hierarchical management and employees not feeling empowered. Silence and inaction by managers and colleagues allows this behaviour to continue. A zero-tolerance policy and the addressing of this behaviour clearly and promptly by managers should be instigated. Staff being bullied should be supported by colleagues.

  10. Bullying in Schools: Addressing Desires, Not Only Behaviours

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    Rigby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Currently the main approach in responding to bullying in schools is to focus on undesired behaviours and to apply sanctions. This approach is often ineffective as well as failing to address the needs of children as persons as distinct from the behaviour they produce. A proposed alternative approach is to inquire into the motivation of children who…

  11. Bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread problem among children. This entry will look at its prevalence and offer an overview of some of the definitions developed and discussed by researchers working within childhood studies, and by practitioners trying to implement researchers’ understandings of bullying...... in their work in schools and other institutions for children. Approximately 12 % of boys and 10 % of girls, 11 year old, surveyed in the latest Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, released 2016, reported being bullied at school at least two or three times a month in the preceding months....... Bullying is often associated with a general lack of wellbeing in the classroom and a negative classroom culture – as also found by the Danish eXbus-team in a survey among 1052 Danish 15-17-year-old students, as described by Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed in 2014. Researchers discuss how to define what...

  12. Is Spiritual Well-Being Among Adolescents Associated with a Lower Level of Bullying Behaviour? The Mediating Effect of Perceived Bullying Behaviour of Peers.

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    Dutkova, Katarina; Holubcikova, Jana; Kravcova, Michaela; Babincak, Peter; Tavel, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between spiritual well-being and bullying among Slovak adolescents, and whether perceived bullying behaviour of peers mediated this relationship. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were used. Data were obtained from 9250 adolescents with a mean age of 13.48 years. The final sample consisted of 762 adolescents aged 15 years old (52.2% boys). We used logistic regression models and the Sobel test. Adolescents who reported a higher level of spiritual well-being were at lower risk of reporting that some or more schoolmates bully others or that they themselves bully others. These relationships were partially mediated by perceived norms about the bullying behaviour of schoolmates. Spiritual well-being was found to be negatively associated with bullying; in addition, a mediating role of perceived bullying behaviour of peers in this relationship was confirmed.

  13. Bullying is Detrimental to Health, but All Bullying Behaviours Are Not Necessarily Equally Damaging

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    Hoel, Helge; Faragher, Brian; Cooper, Cary L.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of 'negative behaviours' and 'bullying' in the workplace on the health and well-being of employees, to what extent the effects remain beyond the period of the experience as well as the extent to which they affect third-parties or witnesses. The paper also raises the question whether some…

  14. Understanding bullying in healthcare organisations.

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    Allen, Belinda

    2015-12-02

    Bullying is a pervasive problem in healthcare organisations. Inquiries and reports on patient care and poor practice in the NHS have emphasised the substantial negative effects this behaviour may have on patient care. If bullying is to be addressed, it is crucial we develop clarity about what behaviours constitute bullying and how these behaviours differ from other negative behaviours in the workplace. It is important that we recognise the extent of the problem; statistics on the prevalence of bullying are likely to be an underestimate because of under-reporting of bullying. Effective interventions may only be designed and implemented if there is knowledge about what precipitates bullying and the magnitude of the changes required in organisations to tackle bullying. Individuals should also be aware of the options that are available to them should they be the target of bullying behaviour and what they should do if they witness bullying in their workplace.

  15. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

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    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  16. A Review of the Extent, Nature, Characteristics and Effects of Bullying Behaviour in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adeleke, Fajoju; Omoike, Don; Afen-Akpaida, Justina

    2008-01-01

    Bullying behaviour no doubt is becoming a common feature, and a nightmare in schools all over the world. It is a worrisome practice in schools because it infringes on the child's right to human dignity, privacy, freedom and security. The physical, emotional and educational consequences of bullying behaviour can never be underestimated. Therefore,…

  17. Having been bullied in childhood: relationship to aggressive behaviour in adulthood.

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    Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Victimization through being bullied in childhood is traditionally associated with subsequent internalizing symptoms, but some literature suggests otherwise. In this study, we examined a history of being bullied in relationship to 21 externalized aggressive behaviours in adulthood. Using a cross-sectional approach and a self-report survey methodology, we examined a history of being bullied in childhood in relation to 21 aggression variables in a consecutive sample of 342 internal medicine outpatients. In comparison with the not bullied, participants who reported having been bullied in childhood had a statistically significantly greater overall number of self-reported aggressive behaviours. Longer duration of being bullied was statistically significantly correlated with a greater number of reported aggressive behaviours. With regard to individual behaviours, four were statistically significantly associated with being bullied: hitting walls; intentionally breaking things; getting into fist fights; and pushing/shoving a partner. While relationships between bullying in childhood and subsequent internalizing symptoms have been well established, the present study indicates that bullying in childhood is also associated with externalizing/aggressive behaviours in adulthood.

  18. Individual Correlates of Bullying Behaviour in Turkish Middle Schools

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    Ozer, Arif; Totan, Tarik; Atik, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between bullying involvement (bully, victim, bully/victim, and not involved) and gender, academic achievement, self-efficacies (academic, social, and emotional self-efficacies). Data were collected by administering the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (Olweus, 1996), the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire…

  19. Healthy lifestyle behaviour decreasing risks of being bullied, violence and injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia R Turagabeci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bullying and violence are problems of aggression in schools among adolescents. Basic daily healthy practices including nutritious diet, hygiene and physical activity are common approaches in comprehensive health promotion programs in school settings, however thier relationship to these aggressive behaviours is vague. We attempted to show the advantages of these healthy lifestyle behaviours in 9 developing countries by examining the association with being frequently bullied, violence and injury. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional cross-national survey of 9 countries using the WHO Global School Based Student Health Survey dataset was used. Measurements included experiences of "being frequently bullied" in the preceding 30 days and violence/injury in the past 12 months. Association of risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol, sexual behaviour and healthy lifestyle (nutrition, hygiene practices, physical activity to being bullied, and violence/injury were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Hygiene behaviour showed lower risks of being frequently bullied [male: RR = 0.7 (97.5CI: 0.5, 0.9; female: RR = 0.6 (0.5, 0.8], and lower risk of experiences of violence/injury [RR = 0.7 (0.5, 0.9 for males], after controlling for risk behaviours, age, education, poverty, and country. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Healthy lifestyle showed an association to decreased relative risk of being frequently bullied and violence/injury in developing countries. A comprehensive approach to risk and health promoting behaviours reducing bullying and violence is encouraged at school settings.

  20. Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead them to avoid school. In severe cases, teens who are bullied may feel they need to take drastic measures or react violently. Others even consider suicide. For some, the effects of bullying last a ...

  1. Frequency of Bullying Behaviours in Secondary Schools in Cluj-Napoca

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    Ioana Elena BELDEAN-GALEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “Bullying” is generally considered to be a specific form of aggressive behaviour. The aim of this paper is the investigation of gender and age-related bully and victim incidence in Cluj-Napoca secondary schools. A survey on bullying was completed by 264 students (141 girls and 123 boys; 112 students from grades 5-6 and 152 students from grades 7-8 with an age range between 10 and 14 years old. From the entire sample, results showed that 3.8% of the students bullied others once a week or more during the previous 3 months and 40.5% had been frequently bullied by other students once a week or more often during the previous 3 months. Considering the gender differences, girls showed a bullying behaviour more frequently than boys.

  2. Efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in Reducing Bullying Behaviour among In-School Adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria

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    Alabi, Yahaya Lasiele; Lami, Mustapha Mulikat

    2015-01-01

    Bullying behaviour refers to repeated negative behaviour displayed by one or more person (s) with the intention of hurting the feeling, personality and power of the victim. The objective of this study therefore was to find out the efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in reducing bullying behaviour among in-school…

  3. Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C; Pawlowski, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Bullying refers to aggressive behavior that is repetitive and intentional in which a power differential exists between the victim and bully. The negative effects of bullying on an individual's mental and physical health are substantial and in line with other major forms of child maltreatment. Efforts to increase detection of bullying are indicated, especially among youth presenting with school phobia, depression, anxiety, and declining school performance. Several antibullying efforts have been developed and promoted at the school and community level. Research indicates that many of these programs are effective and share some common elements that can help reduce the prevalence and impact of bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-12-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL.

  5. Relationship between Bullying and Suicidal Behaviour in Youth presenting to the Emergency Department.

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    Alavi, Nazanin; Reshetukha, Taras; Prost, Eric; Antoniak, Kristen; Patel, Charmy; Sajid, Saad; Groll, Dianne

    2017-07-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are visiting emergency departments with suicidal ideation. This study examines the relationship between bullying and suicidal ideation in emergency department settings. A chart review was conducted for all patients under 18 years of age presenting with a mental health complaint to the emergency departments at Kingston General or Hotel Dieu Hospitals in Kingston, Canada, between January 2011 and January 2015. Factors such as age, gender, history of abuse, history of bullying, type and time of bullying, and diagnoses were documented. 77% of the adolescents had experienced bullying, while 68.9% had suicide ideation at presentation. While controlling for age, gender, grade, psychiatric diagnosis, and abuse, a history of bullying was the most significant predictor of suicidal ideation. Individuals in this study who reported cyber bullying were 11.5 times more likely to have suicidal ideation documented on presentation, while individuals reporting verbal bullying were 8.4 times more likely. The prevalence of bullying in adolescent patients presenting to emergency departments is high. The relationship found between suicidal ideation and bullying demonstrates that clinicians should ask questions about bullying as a risk factor for suicide ideation during the assessment of children and adolescents.

  6. Can Schools Reduce Bullying? The Relationship between School Characteristics and the Prevalence of Bullying Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. Aims: The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and…

  7. Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1465, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school district must develop and implement a bullying policy. In an effort to curb bullying behavior which has far-reaching personal and social consequences, the legislation is designed to allow districts the flexibility to create a policy…

  8. Assessing the bullying and victimisation experiences of children with special educational needs in mainstream schools: Development and validation of the Bullying Behaviour and Experience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Elian; Deighton, Jessica; Humphrey, Neil; Wolpert, Miranda

    2014-11-18

    Children with special educational needs (SEN) are more likely to experience victimisation at school and there is some evidence to suggest that these children are also more likely to engage in bullying behaviours; however, no measure of bullying experiences has been designed specifically for use with these children. The Bullying Behaviour and Experiences Scale (BBES) was specifically developed as a self-report measure of victimisation and bullying behaviour for children with SEN. This study examines the initial psychometric properties of the BBES using a sample of 348 children (67 of which had SEN, mean age=10 years), and compares the incidence of both victimisation and bullying in children with SEN to their peers, controlling for behavioural and emotional difficulties. Overall, the BBES showed favourable psychometric properties using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses and differential item functioning. Comparing the frequency of victimisation and bullying using the BBES showed that children with SEN were not more likely to experience victimisation compared to their peers but when extant behavioural and emotional difficulties were controlled for then they were significantly more likely to report victimisation. Conversely, children with SEN were more likely to report bullying compared to their peers, but this effect disappeared when extant behavioural and emotional difficulties were controlled. Overall, the BBES appears to be a promising measure of victimisation and bullying for children with SEN. This study also highlights the need to consider SEN status independently of behavioural and emotional problems to help understand the nature and extent of bullying and victimisation in this important population of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in Reducing Bullying Behaviour among in-School Adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Lasiele Alabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullying behaviour refers to repeated negative behaviour displayed by one or more person (s with the intention of hurting the feeling, personality and power of the victim. The objective of this study therefore was to find out the efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in reducing bullying behaviour among in-school adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research method using a 3×2 factorial design made up of three (3 row groups (two experimental and one control. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select three secondary schools on the basis of location to prevent experimental contamination. Self-report questionnaire was used to purposively select the participants. The primary dependent variable was bullying behaviour and respondents with high score on bullying items and low scores on victimisation items were selected to participate in the treatment. The findings revealed a significant reduction in the bullying behaviour of the in-school adolescents exposed to experimental treatments; Client-Centred Therapy (CCT produced significant reduction in the bullying behaviour among the in-school adolescents, and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT produced significant reduction in the bullying behaviour of the in-school adolescents. It was recommended that CCT and REBT procedures should be employed in modifying bullying behaviours.

  10. Factors influencing intention to help and helping behaviour in witnesses of bullying in nursing settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-León, Carmen; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Olmos, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    The role played by witnesses of bullying in nursing settings remains little studied, despite their potential relevance in explaining the onset and development of bullying. The objective of this study was to develop a model to account for witnesses' intention to help and helping behaviour in response to bullying in a nursing setting. Three hundred and thirty-seven witnesses completed self-report measures of variables predicting intention to help and helping behaviour. A full structural model was constructed using structural equation modelling. The intention to help victims was elicited by tension, group identity, support to peers' initiative to intervene and absence of fear of retaliation. However, engagement in helping behaviour was only predicted by the absence of fear of retaliation. This study shows that witnesses of bullying in nursing settings do not remain impassive, but their experienced discomfort and intention to help victims is not sufficient to predict helping behaviour. Fear of possible retaliation if intervening in favour of victims constitutes a crucial factor explaining witnesses' hesitation to help victims. Several implications for the implementation of policies directed at eradicating bullying in nursing settings are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ¿What about bullying?¿ An experimental field study to understand students¿ attitudes towards bullying and victimization in Italian middle schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Attitudes towards bullying at school are influential in understanding and preventing bullying behaviour but they should be measured with reference to the particular conditions under which bullying takes place. Aims. To establish how far positive and negative judgments of bullying and

  12. Shame and Guilt as Behaviour Regulators: Relationships with Bullying, Victimization and Prosocial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: This study aimed at investigating intentional and non-intentional situations eliciting shame and guilt in relation to children's involvement in bullying, victimization and prosocial behaviour. We used the contextual model designed by Olthof, Schouten, Kuiper, Stegge, and Jennekens-Schinkel (2000) according to which certain situations…

  13. Parental Attitude and Teacher Behaviours in Predicting School Bullying

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    Erdogdu, M. Yüksel

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to present the relationship between "parental attitude and teacher behaviors in predicting school bullying". The population of this research is consisted of all primary school 4th grade students within Istanbul Küçükçekmece Municipality borders. Data were gathered from lower, mid and upper socio-economic…

  14. Gender Differences in the Relationships between Bullying at School and Unhealthy Eating and Shape-Related Attitudes and Behaviours

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    Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…

  15. Is exposure to domestic violence and violent crime associated with bullying behaviour among underage adolescent psychiatric inpatients?

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    Mustanoja, Susanna; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Säävälä, Hannu; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-08-01

    We examined the relationship of exposure to domestic violence and violence occurring outside home to bullying behaviour in a sample (508; 40.9% males, 59.1% females) of underage psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Participants were interviewed using K-SADS-PL to assess DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses and to gather information about domestic and other violence and bullying behaviour. Witnessing interparental violence increased the risk of being a victim of bullying up to 2.5-fold among boys. For girls, being a victim of a violent crime was an over 10-fold risk factor for being a bully-victim. Gender differences were seen in witnessing of a violent crime; girls were more likely to be bullies than boys. Further, as regards being a victim of a violent crime outside home and physical abuse by parents at home, girls were significantly more often bully-victims than boys. When interfering and preventing bullying behaviour, it is important to screen adolescents' earlier experiences of violence.

  16. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece.

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    Magklara, Konstantina; Skapinakis, Petros; Gkatsa, Tatiana; Bellos, Stefanos; Araya, Ricardo; Stylianidis, Stylianos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2012-02-12

    Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic associations. Our findings may add to the

  17. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magklara Konstantina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R, while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization

  18. Bullying behaviour and criminality: a population-based follow-up study of adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Riala, Kaisa; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2011-04-15

    The recent school shootings in Europe and the USA have raised the question of whether victims of bullying run an increased risk of committing violent crimes later in life, but scientific research in this area is scarce. The aim of this work was to investigate whether bullying behaviour is associated with later criminal offences committed in adolescence and young adulthood. We studied a sample of 508 Finnish adolescents (age 12-17 years) admitted to psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Data on crimes committed and the age of onset of criminal activity were extracted from the official criminal records of the national Legal Register Centre in October 2008. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to define bullying status, and to obtain DSM-IV-based psychiatric diagnoses for the adolescents. Violent crimes were statistically significantly associated with bullying behaviour, but not non-violent crimes. Furthermore, being a bully was predictive of an early onset of severe violent offences. When controlled for the psychiatric diagnoses of the adolescents, we observed decreased likelihood of criminality among victims. Thus bullying others may increase the risk of violent offences, while being a victim is not a risk factor for criminality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994-2006: findings from Europe and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Due, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify trends over 12 years in the prevalence of bullying and associated victimization among adolescents in North American and European countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11-15 year old school children......). CONCLUSION: Study findings demonstrated a significant decrease in involvement in bullying behaviour in most participating countries. This is encouraging news for policy-makers and practitioners working in the field of bullying prevention....... patterns show consistent decreases in bullying in Western European countries and in most Eastern European countries. An increase or no change in prevalence was evident in almost all English speaking countries participating in the study (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Canada, but not in the USA...

  20. A Shared Genetic Propensity Underlies Experiences of Bullying Victimization in Late Childhood and Self-Rated Paranoid Thinking in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Method: Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Results: Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). Conclusion: In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. PMID:25323579

  1. A shared genetic propensity underlies experiences of bullying victimization in late childhood and self-rated paranoid thinking in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-05-01

    Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  2. Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Hall, James; Strauss, Vicky Y; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We assessed mother-reported childhood dysregulated behaviour at 4, 7 and 8 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); maladaptive parenting (maternal hitting, punishment, and hostility) at 8 to 9 years; and bully victimisation (child and mother report) at 8, 9 and 10 years. BPD symptoms were assessed at 11 years using the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD. Control variables included adolescent depression (assessed with the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-SMFQ) and psychotic symptoms (assessed with the Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview-PLIKS) at 11 to 14 years, and mother's exposure to family adversity during pregnancy (assessed with the Family Adversity Scale-FAI). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses, childhood dysregulated behaviour and all environmental risk factors (i.e., family adversity, maladaptive parenting, and bully victimisation) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms at 11 years. Within structural equation modelling controlling for all associations simultaneously, family adversity and male sex significantly predicted dysregulated behaviour across childhood, while bully victimisation significantly predicted BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Children displaying dysregulated behaviour across childhood were significantly more likely to experience maladaptive parenting (β = 0.075, p  bullying (β = 0.097, p  < 0.001). While significant indirect associations

  3. The Relationship of Academic and Social Cognition to Behaviour in Bullying Situations among Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2004-01-01

    This research explored links between cognition (both social and academic) and children's behaviour in a bullying situation (participant roles). Participants were 186 fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from four primary schools in central Greece. Six categories of social cognition (self-efficacy for assertion, self-efficacy for aggression,…

  4. Third Graders' Perceptions on Moral Behaviour on Bullying If They Had the Infinite Powers of Superhero Defenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Johansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a serious moral concern affecting the victim's welfare and achievement in school. Lately, research on bullying phenomenon has led to successful procedures in which passive bystanders are asked to become defenders of the victims of bullying. This case study explores children's perceptions on moral behaviour on bullying and, moreover, what type of moral voice they would express if they had the infinite powers and means of superhero defenders. Children created masks, posters, and flags for ideal superheroes and described their personalities. In addition, they drew comic strips about the skills they wish to teach new hero students in superhero school. The results indicate that children's moral voices can be divided primarily into justice and care. In addition, some expressed also the dark voice of the vigilante. Findings suggest that superheroes offer one tool for educators and children to ponder about the role of defenders for the victims of bullying. The topic focuses on the core of school life, relationships between pupils, and their moral development. Sixteen third grade children (aged 9-10 from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. The results for two of the children are presented in detail as the basis for discussion.

  5. [School bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, J; Van Paemel, S; Pitchot, W

    2018-02-01

    School bullying consists of harassment behaviours in a school setting and is characterized by violence acts, mockery or even humiliations between students. More recently, with the development of new technologies, our society has seen the cyber-bullying born. This new type of harassment "on-line" comes and intersects the harassment at school. After the description of a clinical situation, we describe the impact of this phenomenon on the different actors concerned, the lines for prevention and for appropriate support.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CYBER BULLYING BEHAVIOURS AND INTERNET ADDICTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Cinar, Gozde; Beyazit, Utku; Yurdakul, Yesim; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    2017-01-01

    Developments in technology and widespread use of technology by youngpeople have enabled the use of technology to enforce bullying behaviors thatstudents have shown in schools.The malicious use of information andcommunication technologies has led to the observation of a tyranny called"cyber bullying" among bullying types among students in schools.Thisstudy examines the relationship between internet addiction and cyber bullyingbehaviors in adolescents. The sample group of the study wa...

  7. Behaviour of uranium under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, Y.; Mustelier, J.P.; Quere, Y.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses

    1964-01-01

    The main results obtained in a study of the formation of defects caused in uranium by fission at low temperature are reported. By irradiation at 20 K. it was possible to determine the number of Frenkel pairs produced by one fission. An analysis of the curves giving the variations in electrical resistivity shows the size of the displacement spikes and the mechanism of defect creation due to fission. Irradiations at 77 K gave additional information, showing behaviour differences in the case of recrystallised and of cold worked uranium. The diffusion of rare gases was studied using metal-rare gas alloys obtained by electrical discharge, and samples of irradiated uranium. Simple diffusion is only responsible for the release of the rare gases under vacuum in cases where the rare gas content is very low (very slightly irradiated U). On the other hand when the concentration is higher (samples prepared by electrical discharge) the gas is given off by the formation, growth and coalescence of bubbles; the apparent diffusion coefficient is then quite different from the true coefficient and cannot be used in calculations on swelling. The various factors governing the phenomenon of simple diffusion were examined. It was shown in particular that a small addition of molybdenum could reduce the diffusion coefficient by a factor of 100. The precipitation of gas in uranium (Kr), in silver (Kr) and in Al-Li alloy (He) have been followed by measurement of the crystal parameter and of the electrical resistivity, and by electron microscope examination of thin films. The important part played by dislocations in the generation and growth of bubbles has been demonstrated, and it has been shown also that precipitation of bubbles on the dislocation lattice could block the development of recrystallisation. The results of these studies were compared with observations made on the swelling of uranium and uranium alloys U Mo and U Nb strongly irradiated between 400 and 700 C. In the case of Cubic

  8. Parenting style influences bullying: A longitudinal study comparing children with and without behavioural problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Kruszewski, Edyta; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background More optimal parenting has been linked with lower rates of bullying. However, it is not clear whether parenting can alter the trajectories of bullying among children diagnosed with ADHD or ODD as well as those who are not so diagnosed. This study examined whether parenting at age 4 to 5 years was associated with changes in bullying over the next 4 years among children with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) relative to children without these disorders. Method Children from the New York metropolitan area (n = 162) were prospectively studied over 6 annual assessment points between preschool and 9 years of age. Parenting was assessed by laboratory observations of the parent and child; teachers rated child bullying, and parents reported on children's diagnostic status (Neither ADHD nor ODD, ADHD but not ODD, both ADHD and ODD). Results Children with comorbid ADHD and ODD were more likely to bully than the other two groups. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed a fall in bullying over five-years. Diagnostic status was significantly associated with initial levels of bullying. Irrespective of diagnostic group, children receiving more parent support for child autonomy at age 4 to 5 years showed a significantly greater decline in bullying than those provided with little support for autonomy. There was no longitudinal link between parent negative affect, emotionally supportive parenting and quality of parent-child interactions with bullying. Conclusions Greater parent support for child autonomy at age 4 to 5 years is related to reduced bullying. Interventions that encourage parent support for child autonomy at the time of entry into school may reduce bullying during early school years. PMID:26053670

  9. Bullying in the family: sibling bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Tippett, Neil; Dantchev, Slava

    2015-10-01

    Sibling relationships have a substantial and lasting effect on children's development. Many siblings experience some occasional conflict, however, up to 40% are exposed to sibling bullying every week, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression. We review evidence on the precursors, factors relating to peer bullying, and mental health consequences of sibling bullying. Parenting quality and behaviour are the intrafamilial factors most strongly associated with bullying between siblings. Sibling bullying increases the risk of being involved in peer bullying, and is independently associated with concurrent and early adult emotional problems, including distress, depression, and self-harm. The effects appear to be cumulative, with those children bullied by both siblings and peers having highly increased emotional problems compared with those bullied by siblings or peers only, probably because they have no safe place to escape from bullying. The link between sibling and peer bullying suggests interventions need to start at home. Health professionals should ask about sibling bullying and interventions are needed for families to prevent and reduce the health burden associated with sibling bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  11. Why it's important for it to stop: Examining the mental health correlates of bullying and ill-treatment at work in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Leach, Liana S; Kiely, Kim M

    2016-11-01

    There is limited Australian information on the prevalence and mental health consequences of bullying and ill-treatment at work. The aims of this study were to use data from an ongoing Australian longitudinal cohort study to (1) compare different measures of workplace bullying, (2) estimate the prevalence of bullying and ill-treatment at work, (3) evaluate whether workplace bullying is distinct from other adverse work characteristics and (4) examine the unique contribution of workplace bullying to common mental disorders in mid-life. The sample comprised 1466 participants (52% women) aged 52-58 from wave four of the Personality and Total Health (PATH) through Life study. Workplace bullying was assessed by a single item of self-labelling measure of bullying and a 15-item scale of bullying-related behaviours experienced in the past 6 months. Factor analysis the identified underlying factor structure of the behavioural bullying scale. Current bullying was reported by 7.0% of respondents, while 46.4% of respondents reported that they had been bullied at some point in their working life. Person-related and work-related bullying behaviours were more common than violence and intimidation. The multi-dimensional scale of bullying behaviours had greater concordance with a single item of self-labelled bullying (Area Under the Curve = 0.88) than other adverse work characteristics (all Area Under the Curves workplace bullying and ill-treatment in Australia. Workplace bullying is a relatively common experience, and is associated with increased risk of depression and anxiety. Greater attention to identifying and preventing bullying and ill-treatment in the workplace is warranted. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Bullying and gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rob; Mason, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Although bullying is associated with gangs, questions arise as to whether bullying, as such, takes place within gangs. To provide a critical analysis of bullying as this pertains to youth gangs and especially to violence within gangs, and as applied to the behaviour of individual gang members. Young men between 12 and 25 years of age. Review of relevant literature with a view to theorising the nature of the relationship between bullying and violence within a youth gang context. Bullying is associated with the reasons why individuals join gangs and with gang-related behaviour, but the violence within a gang is of a different character than that usually described by the term bullying. Bullying has implications for related and/or subsequent types of street violence, but is less relevant for descriptions of violence within a youth gang context as such.

  13. Cross-lagged structural equation models for the relationship between health-related state and behaviours and body bullying in adolescence: findings from longitudinal study ELANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatmann, Viviane S; Almquist, Ylva B; Oliveira, Aldair J; Rostila, Mikael; Lopes, Claudia S

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the stability and the directionality of being body bullied and a set of four variables- 1) Body Mass Index (BMI), 2) moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 3) television time (TV) and 4) video game/computer time (VG)-, termed in the present study as 'health-related state and behaviours (HRSB)'-across adolescence. The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) is a cohort study conducted among middle school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. We analysed data from 2010 (T1) and 2012 (T2) among 810 adolescents (aged 9-15 at T1). Gender-specific structural equation models (SEM) were estimated, including autoregressive paths for the HRSB and being body bullied over time, correlations at T1 and T2, respectively, and cross-lagged effects. The results presented significant stability coefficients for almost all variables over time in both genders (except for MVPA in boys and girls and TV time among girls). There were positive correlations between BMI and being body bullied, as well as between TV and VG for boys (0.32, peffect in being body bullied at T2 (0.12, peffect on VG at T2 (0.14, peffect of being body bullied at T1 on VG at T2 (0.16, p<0.01). Apart from MVPA, both being body bullying and HRSB were largely stable across adolescence. For boys and girls alike, exposure to being body bullied seemed to increase their time spent on VG, while for boys BMI also predicted being body bullied. This study highlighted the complex interplay between being body bullied and HRSB and the importance of acknowledging gender differences in this context.

  14. Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre (SST) was investigated and compared with that under a conventional dual tyre (CDT). Contact areas and contact pressures over a range of loading conditions were measured and compared. Two approaches were...

  15. Bullying and mental health and suicidal behaviour among 14- to 15-year-olds in a representative sample of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rebecca; King, Tania; Priest, Naomi; Kavanagh, Anne

    2017-09-01

    To provide the first Australian population-based estimates of the association between bullying and adverse mental health outcomes and suicidality among Australian adolescents. Analysis of data from 3537 adolescents, aged 14-15 years from Wave 6 of the K-cohort of Longitudinal Study of Australian Children was conducted. We used Poisson and linear regression to estimate associations between bullying type (none, relational-verbal, physical, both types) and role (no role, victim, bully, victim and bully), and mental health (measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, symptoms of anxiety and depression) and suicidality. Adolescents involved in bullying had significantly increased Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, depression and anxiety scores in all bullying roles and types. In terms of self-harm and suicidality, bully-victims had the highest risk of self-harm (prevalence rate ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval [3.26, 6.83]), suicidal ideation (prevalence rate ratio 4.3, 95% confidence interval [2.83, 6.49]), suicidal plan (prevalence rate ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval [2.54, 6.58]) and attempts (prevalence rate ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval [1.39, 5.13]), followed by victims then bullies. The experience of both relational-verbal and physical bullying was associated with the highest risk of self-harm (prevalence rate ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval [3.15, 6.60]), suicidal ideation or plans (prevalence rate ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval [3.05, 6.95]; and 4.8, 95% confidence interval [3.01, 7.64], respectively) or suicide attempts (prevalence rate ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval [1.90, 6.30]). This study presents the first national, population-based estimates of the associations between bullying by peers and mental health outcomes in Australian adolescents. The markedly increased risk of poor mental health outcomes, self-harm and suicidal ideation and behaviours among adolescents who experienced bullying highlights the

  16. Bullying-Related Behaviour in a Mainstream High School versus a High School for Autism: Self-Report and Peer-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Fink, Elian; van der Meijden, Sandra; Goossens, Frits; Olthof, Tjeert

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of bullying, victimisation and defending behaviours among children with autism spectrum disorder and normal intelligence, using both self-report and peer-report information. Peer-report and self-report data were collected on a single classroom of 26 early adolescent boys attending a special school for children…

  17. Long-term effects of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2015-09-01

    Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a 'normal rite of passage'. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Cross-lagged structural equation models for the relationship between health-related state and behaviours and body bullying in adolescence: findings from longitudinal study ELANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S Straatmann

    Full Text Available We investigated the stability and the directionality of being body bullied and a set of four variables- 1 Body Mass Index (BMI, 2 moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, 3 television time (TV and 4 video game/computer time (VG-, termed in the present study as 'health-related state and behaviours (HRSB'-across adolescence. The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA is a cohort study conducted among middle school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. We analysed data from 2010 (T1 and 2012 (T2 among 810 adolescents (aged 9-15 at T1. Gender-specific structural equation models (SEM were estimated, including autoregressive paths for the HRSB and being body bullied over time, correlations at T1 and T2, respectively, and cross-lagged effects. The results presented significant stability coefficients for almost all variables over time in both genders (except for MVPA in boys and girls and TV time among girls. There were positive correlations between BMI and being body bullied, as well as between TV and VG for boys (0.32, p<0.001 and 0.24, p<0.001, respectively and girls (0.30, p<0.001 and 0.30, p<0.001, respectively at T1. It remained significant at T2 (boys: 0.18, p<0.05 and 0.16, p<0.01; girls: 0.21, p<0.01 and 0.22, p<0.01, respectively. Examining the cross-lagged paths between being body bullied and HRSB, we observed that the reciprocal model provided the best fit for boys, indicating that BMI at T1 had a significant effect in being body bullied at T2 (0.12, p<0.05 and being body bullied at T1 had an effect on VG at T2 (0.14, p<0.01. Among girls the forward causation model showed the best fit, demonstrating a significant effect of being body bullied at T1 on VG at T2 (0.16, p<0.01. Apart from MVPA, both being body bullying and HRSB were largely stable across adolescence. For boys and girls alike, exposure to being body bullied seemed to increase their time spent on VG, while for boys

  19. What Can We Do about Schoolyard Bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Stuart

    1987-01-01

    Discusses school bullying and Harvard Schoolyard Bullying Practicum conference. Conference emphasized five points: (1) school bullying is a pervasive problem; (2) to avoid confrontation, victims skip school, play sick, and get sick under pressure; (3) victims and bullies need help; (4) bullying behavior is not normal; and (5) intervention…

  20. CANDU fuel behaviour under LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, E.

    1989-07-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of CANDU fuel-element behaviour under loss-of-coolant (LOCA) accidents. It focuses on a key in-reactor verification experiment conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and on three Canadian in-reactor tests. The in-reactor data, and the considerable body of supporting information developed from out-reactor tests, support the general conclusion that CANDU fuel behaviour during LOCA transients is well understood. Four elements of 37-element CANDU fuel-bundle design were tested under conditions typical of a large-break LOCA blowdown in a CANDU reactor. The purpose of the test was to confirm our current understanding of fuel behaviour under loss-of-coolant accident blowdown conditions. The test also provided data for comparison with predictions made with the steady-state and transient fuel-element performance codes ELESIM and ELOCA. Key components of typical LOCA transients were incorporated in the test: namely, a rapid depressurization rate of the hot coolant, a simultaneous power increase before decreasing to decay values (a power pulse), and prototype fuel element under pre-transient power and burnup conditions. The test was successfully completed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactor at INEL under contract to Ontario Hydro and AECL. The three CANDU Owners Group LOCA tests performed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories measured both the thermal-mechanical response and fission-gas release resulting from exposure to a LOCA transient. Results from these three tests provided further confirmation that the behaviour of the fuel under LOCA conditions is understood

  1. Bullying in primary school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is focussed on the bullying of, and by, Dutch students below age 13. The first questions to be answered are what is 'bullying', and how can it be distinguished from other types of disruptive behaviours? The answers to these questions are given by means of conceptual definitions, based

  2. CANDU fuel behaviour under transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segel, A.W.L.

    1979-04-01

    The Canadian R and D program to understand CANDU fuel behaviour under transient conditions is described. Fuel sheath behaviour studies have led to the development of a model of transient plastic strain in inert gas, which integrates the deformation due to several mechanisms. Verification tests demonstrated that on average the model overpredicts strain by 20%. From oxidation kinetics studies a sheath failure embrittlement criterion based on oxygen distribution has been developed. We have also established a rate equation for high-temperature stress-dependent crack formation due to embrittlement of the sheath by beryllium. An electric, simulated fuel element is being used in laboratory tests to characterize the behaviour of fuel in the horizontal. In-reactor, post-dryout tests have been done for several years. There is an axially-segmented, axisymmetric fuel element model in place and a fully two-dimensional code is under development. Laboratory testing of bundles, in its early stages, deals with the effects of geometric distortion and sheath-to-sheath interaction. In-reactor, post-dryout tests of CANDU fuel bundles with extensive central UO 2 melting did not result in fuel fragmentation nor damage to the pressure tube. (author)

  3. Resilience to Bullying: Towards an Alternative to the Anti-Bullying Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian; Woodcock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Anti-bullying strategies are significant approaches addressing bullying in schools, however their capacity to produce a reduction in bullying behaviour is open to question. This article examined a resilience-based approach to bullying. One hundred and five primary and high school students were surveyed using several standardised instruments. The…

  4. The Role of Empathy in Preparing Teachers to Tackle Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Helena; Tubritt, John; Norman, James O'Higgins

    2018-01-01

    Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970's, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in…

  5. On user behaviour adaptation under interface change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Rosman2_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2213 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Rosman2_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Haifa, Israel, 24-27 February 2014 On User Behaviour Adaptation Under Interface Change Benjamin Rosman_ Subramanian Ramamoorthy M. M. Hassan Mahmud School of Informatics University of Edinburgh...

  6. Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina

    2017-09-01

    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior. © 2016 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. "Harden Up and Face Reality:" Exploring Underlying Bullying Beliefs in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanovic, Jovana; Stuart, Jaimee; Jeffrey, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research illustrating the detrimental consequences of bullying has led to many antibullying interventions being developed. Despite good intentions, evidence suggests that such programs vary considerably in their efficacy. The current study examines the social discourse around bullying in the New Zealand environment in order to…

  8. Bullying-related behaviour in a mainstream high school versus a high school for autism: Self-report and peer-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Fink, Elian; van der Meijden, Sandra; Goossens, Frits; Olthof, Tjeert

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the frequency of bullying, victimisation and defending behaviours among children with autism spectrum disorder and normal intelligence, using both self-report and peer-report information. Peer-report and self-report data were collected on a single classroom of 26 early adolescent boys attending a special school for children with autism and compared with 23 typically developing boys attending a single mainstream secondary school. Results showed that self- and peer-reported bully and victimisation rates did not differ between boys with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing boys. However, self-reported defending behaviour was less likely to be reported by boys in the autism spectrum disorder school compared to boys in the mainstream school, although there was no such difference for peer-reported defending. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The relationship between difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood and exposure to bullying behaviour in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sesar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higherlevels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative andtraumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying.Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examinedperiods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or twoperiods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms ofanxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed tobullying during one examination period. There were no differences inthe level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding theduration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychologicaladjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specificperiod. Conclusion. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescenceare connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment inyoung adulthood.

  10. Analysis of operator's behaviour under accidental transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Lemaitre, D.; Griffon-Fouco, C.; Meslin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1979, EDF has been conducting intensive test campaigns on full-scale PWR simulators in order to study and improve the operators behaviour under incident as well as accident conditions. This paper presents some results obtained during tests carried out in 1986 on the P4 (1300 MWe power plant series) simulators of the Paluel Training Center. These results essentially concern the observed deviations, the diagnosis and the safety engineer's role. They are compared with the results of previous tests on 900 MWe unit simulators. The test organization and methodology, the result analysis methods and the biases introduced by this kind of test are also discussed. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 6 figs

  11. Behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaro, S.; Gilardi, T.; Vistoli, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Studies are carried out by the CEA in order to predict the behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under self irradiation. Bitumen radiolysis produces gas (mainly H 2 ) which diffuses in the organic matrix. If the hydrogen yield is higher than the diffusion flux through the free surface, hydrogen concentration increases and exceeds its solubility in bitumen. Beyond saturation, bubbles are formed and gas is also evacuated by bubbles drift. The aim of these studies is to evaluate the evacuation capacity of radiolytic gas produced in function of initial bituminized wasteform characteristics. A model was developed to achieve this purpose, by calculating the evolution of bubbles population considering all elementary mechanisms of gas evacuation. (authors)

  12. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  13. Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-vic...

  14. Bullying among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursel TÜRKMEN, Delia; Halis DOKGÖZ, Mihai; Semra AKGÖZ, Suzana; Bülent EREN, Bogdan Nicolae; Pınar VURAL, Horatiu; Oğuz POLAT, Horatiu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel, media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators. PMID:24371478

  15. Mechanical behaviour of nuclear fuel under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The main mechanical properties (fracture, thermal and irradiation creep) of oxide and carbide fuels are summarised and discussed. Some examples are given of the influence of these mechanical properties on the in-pile behaviour of fuel pins [fr

  16. Cyber bullying: Child and youth spirituality

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Apostolides

    2017-01-01

    Digital culture is part of children’s and adolescents’ everyday lives. Digital culture has both positive and negative consequences. One such negative consequence is cyber violence that has been termed cyber bullying. Cyber bullying can cause serious emotional, behavioural and academic problems for both the victim and the bully. Although there is ongoing research on the effects of cyber bullying on children and youth in South Africa, no research has been carried out on how children’s and youth...

  17. Composite fuel behaviour under and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.; Mocellin, A.; Eminet, G.; Caillot, L.; Delette, G.; Bauer, M.; Viallard, I.

    1997-01-01

    Two kinds of composite fuels have been irradiated in the SILOE reactor. They are made of UO 2 particles dispersed in a molybdenum metallic (CERMET) or a MgAl 2 O 4 ceramic (CERCER) matrix. The irradiation conditions have allowed to reach a 50000 MWd/t U burn-up in these composite fuels after a hundred equivalent full power days long irradiation. The irradiation is controlled by a continuous measure of the pellet centre line temperature. It allows to have information about the TANOX rods thermal behaviour and the fuels thermal conductivities in comparing the centre line temperature versus linear power curves among themselves. Our results show that the CERMET centre line temperature is much lower than the CERCER and UO 2 ones: 520 deg. C against 980 deg. C at a 300W/cm linear power. After pin puncturing tests the rods are dismantled to recover each fuel pellet. In the CERCER case, the cladding peeling off has revealed that the fuel came into contact with the cladding and that some of the pellets were linked together. Optical microscopy observations show a changing of the MgAl 2 O 4 matrix state around the UO 2 particles at the pellets periphery. This transformation may have caused a swelling and would be at the origin of the pellet-cladding and the pellet-pellet interactions. No specific damage is seen after irradiation. The CERMET pellets are not cracked and remain as they were before irradiation. The CERCER crack network is slightly different from that observed in UO 2 . Kr retention was evaluated by annealing tests under vacuum at 1580 deg. C or 1700 deg. C for 30 minutes. The CERMET fission gas release is lower than the CERCER one. Inter- and intragranular fission gas bubbles are observed in the UO 2 particles after heat treatments. The CERCER pellet periphery has also cracked and the matrix has transformed again around UO 2 particles to present a granular and porous aspect. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Workplace bullying prevention: a critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. School bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is defined as a systematic abuse of power; the development of the research program on school bullying is outlined over four phases. The distinctive nature of cyberbullying, and also of identity-based bullying, is outlined. Measurement methods are discussed, and the kinds of prevalence rates obtained. A range of risk factors for involvement as a bully, or victim, are summarized. A range of school-based interventions are described, together with discussion of a meta-analysis of their o...

  20. Association of different forms of bullying victimisation with adolescents' psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Workplace bullying: A perspective from the Job Demands-Resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja van den Broeck

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to test the work environment hypothesis by applying the Job Demands-Resources model to workplace bullying. We expected job demands and job resources to relate to both perpetrators’ and actors’ reports of workplace bullying. Motivation for the study: We aimed to extend the outcomes examined in the Job Demands- Resources model to a specific form of counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, namely workplace bullying. From the point of view of the literature on bullying, we aimed to substantiate the well-known work environment hypothesis with empirical data. Research design, approach and method: We applied structural equation modelling on questionnaire data of a large heterogeneous sample of Flemish employees (N = 749. Main findings: Job demands and job resources interacted in the prediction of perpetrators’ reports of bullying: job demands associated positively to perpetrators’ reports of bullying particularly under the condition of high job resources. Job demands related positively to targets’ reports of bullying, while job resources related negatively. These associations were (partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that workplace bullying may indeed be reduced by good job design, that is, by limiting the job demands and increasing job resources. Particular prevention plans may be developed for exhausted employees, as they are vulnerable to workplace bullying, in terms of both becoming perpetrators and victims. Contribution/value-add: This study attests to the predictive validity of the JD-R model for perpetrators’ and targets’ reports of workplace bullying. The findings also underline the complex and multi-causal nature of workplace bullying.

  2. MODELING OF THE BEHAVIOUR REOLOGICHESKIH TEL UNDER DIFFERENT LAW NAGRUZHENIYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bendyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Offered model of the behaviour reologicheskogo bodies (the viscous-elasticity of the materia, designs or systems under controlling influence of the load, acting on given law for some time.

  3. Regulatory behaviour under threat of court reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderberg, Magnus; Menezes, Flavio; Santolino, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates howregulators influence outcomes in regulated marketswhen their decisions are subject to the threat of court review.We develop a theoretical model that provides a number of behavioural implications when (i) all regulators' dislike having their decisions overturned by courts......, (ii) inexperienced regulators care more about not having their decisions overturned than experienced regulators, and (iii) experienced regulators also care about consumer surplus. The theoretical implications are tested using a database of Swedish regulatory decisions from the electricity distribution...... experience, complexity and regulatory outcomes are both statistically and economically significant. Simulations show that if those decisions that were not appealed had been appealed, then the court would have lowered the prices by 10% on average....

  4. Physiological mechanisms underlying animal social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Krause, Jens

    2017-08-19

    Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes. Environmental impacts such as hypoxia can influence maximum group sizes and structure in fish schools by altering access to oxygenated water. The nutritional environment determines group cohesion, and the increase in information collected by the group means that individuals should rely more on social information and form more cohesive groups in uncertain environments. Changing environmental contexts require rapid responses by individuals to maintain group coordination, which are mediated by neuroendocrine signalling systems such as nonapeptides and steroid hormones. Brain processing capacity may constrain social complexity by limiting information processing. Failure to evaluate socially relevant information correctly limits social interactions, which is seen, for example, in autism. Hence, functioning of a group relies to a large extent on the perception and appropriate processing of signals from conspecifics. Many if not all physiological systems are mechanistically linked, and therefore have synergistic effects on social behaviour. A challenge for the future lies in understanding these interactive effects, which will improve understanding of group dynamics, particularly in changing environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Validation of the Wider Outcomes Survey for Teachers (WOST): A Measure for Assessing the Behaviour, Relationships and Exposure to Bullying of Children and Young People with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigelsworth, Michael; Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The Wider Outcomes Survey for Teachers (WOST) is a teacher informant-report questionnaire developed to aid the assessment of behaviour difficulties, quality of relationships and exposure to bullying among students identified with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). This study examines the psychometric properties of the WOST in a…

  6. Bullying: It's Not OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Bullying: It's Not OK Page Content Article Body Bullying ... are shy, and generally feel helpless. Facts About Bullying Both girls and boys can be bullies. Bullies ...

  7. Predicting children's behaviour during dental treatment under oral sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-Matharu, L; Papineni McIntosh, A; Lo, J W

    2016-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess whether parents' own anxiety and their perception of their child's dental fear and child's general fear can predict preoperatively their child's behaviour during dental treatment under oral sedation. The secondary aim was to assess whether the child's age, gender and ASA classification grade are associated with a child's behaviour under oral sedation. Cross-sectional prospective study. The Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), Children's Fear Survey Schedule Dental-Subscale (CFSS-DS) and Children's Fear Survey Schedule Short-Form (CFSS-SF) questionnaires were completed by parents of children undergoing dental treatment with oral midazolam. Behaviour was rated by a single clinician using the overall behaviour section of the Houpt-Scale and scores dichotomised into acceptable or unacceptable behaviour. Data were analysed using χ (2), t test and logistic regression analysis. In total 404 children (215 girls, 53 %) were included, with the mean age of 4.57 years, SD = 1.9. Behaviour was scored as acceptable in 336 (83 %) and unacceptable in 68 (17 %) children. The level of a child's dental fear, as perceived by their parent, was significantly associated with the behaviour outcome (p = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that if the parentally perceived child's dental fear (CFSS-DS) rating was high, the odds of the child exhibiting unacceptable behaviour under oral sedation was two times greater than if their parents scored them a low dental fear rating (OR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.33-3.88, p = 0.003). CFSS-DS may be used preoperatively to help predict behaviour outcome when children are treated under oral sedation and facilitate treatment planning.

  8. The prevention of workplace bullying as a question of human resource management: measures adopted and underlying organizational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze measures adopted to counteract workplace bullying from the perspective of human resource management. First, the kind of measures that are adopted to prevent bullying were examined. Second, factors affecting the extent of such measures were explored. The introduction of written anti-bullying policies and the provision of information were found to be the most common measures adopted. The policies strongly emphasized the role of supervisors and the immed...

  9. Behaviour of glass plates under wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanski, Eri

    Glazing damage during strong windstorms has been considered to result mainly from windborne debris. However, recent windstorm damage reports have revealed the necessity of studying fluctuating wind loads, which appear to be another factor contributing to this damage. From an experimental point of view, studies on this topic have been limited to the application of rather simple loading patterns. Moreover, there is an uncertainty surrounding both load resistance and design load used in the current North American window glass design codes. It is of concern that these regulations may not offer sufficient accuracy on account of the limited understanding of time-dependent glass strength derived from the technology available at the time of codification. Unprecedented full-scale glass breakage tests under realistic wind pressure loading were conducted to investigate these issues. The obtained results revealed significant new information about the behavior of glass plates under fluctuating loads. Along with these tests, a numerical simulation using the Monte-Carlo technique was also performed with a subtle modification of the initial glass strength. This adjustment resulted in better correspondence with test results. Using the test and numerical simulation results, the current window glass design method was examined. The calculation methods of LR, and the reference time conversion used in the codes, were found to require further investigation. By creating a particular wind pressure time history, the practice of using peak pressures from ASCE7-05 as the design load was investigated. The results showed that there are cases when the current practice may underestimate the design load because of the duration of windstorms. KEYWORDS: Glass, Fluctuating load, Full-scale test, Load resistance, Design load, Static fatigue, Numerical simulation, Monte-Carlo technique, Brown's integral.

  10. Prevention of Bullying in Early Educational Settings: Pedagogical and Organisational Factors Related to Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that bullying behaviour begins at an early age (three to six years) and that preventive practices should target early educational settings. However, no previous studies focus on early educational settings (kindergartens) as an arena for bullying behaviour. The aim of this study was to find what kind of organisational and…

  11. Undrained behaviour of volcanic soils under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cristofaro, Martina; Brunzo, Antonia; Mottola, Luciano; Netti, Nadia; Olivares, Lucio; Orense, Rolando; Asadi, Sadeq

    2017-04-01

    Undrained behaviour of volcanic soils under monotonic and cyclic loading. In this study, we focus on the undrained behaviour of volcanic deposits under monotonic and cyclic loading in order to define the susceptibility to liquefaction of granular volcanic deposits. We assume that, in the case of saturated granular volcanic deposits susceptible to liquefaction, an undrained unstable behaviour can be responsible for both, the evolution of flowslide due to rainfall and liquefaction under seismic loading. Starting from these considerations we define a complex experimental program to analyze their undrained behaviour through laboratory testing on reconstituted specimens of cohesionless volcanic soils. The first part of the experimental program is devoted to the use of the steady state concept to evaluate the influence of void ratio and effective confining pressure on the undrained behaviour of Cervinara pyroclastic soils (Italy) under monotonic and cyclic loading. The second part of the experimental program is devoted to the analysis of the influence of particles crushing of pumice soils from Rangiriri (New Zeland) in both monotonic and cyclic undrained triaxial tests.

  12. Implications of Bullying in Schools for Aggression between Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the nature of bullying in schools can assist in understanding aggression between nations. Although there are substantial differences between bullying behaviour practised by school children and bullying attributed to nations, there are some commonalities. This article examines seven basic elements that help in identifying and…

  13. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  14. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  15. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    theories in context’, we are calling attention to the importance of the theoretical approaches that are either implicit or explicit in current research on bullying. And we seek to open up the field of school bullying – which has been heavily dominated by researchers in individual psychology......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...

  16. Behaviour of Masonry Walls under Horizontal Shear in Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadela, Marta; Bartoszek, Marek; Fedorowicz, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses behaviour of masonry walls constructed with small-sized elements under the effects of mining activity. It presents some mechanisms of damage occurring in such structures, its forms in real life and the behaviour of large fragments of masonry walls subjected to specific loads in FEM computational models. It offers a constitutive material model, which enables numerical analyses and monitoring of the behaviour of numerical models as regards elastic-plastic performance of the material, with consideration of its degradation. Results from the numerical analyses are discussed for isolated fragments of the wall subjected to horizontal shear, with consideration of degradation, impact of imposed vertical load as well as the effect of weakening of the wall, which was achieved by introducing openings in it, on the performance and deformation of the wall.

  17. Long-term effects of bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a ‘normal rite of passage’. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. PMID:25670406

  18. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent condition

  19. Cyber bullying: Child and youth spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Apostolides

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital culture is part of children’s and adolescents’ everyday lives. Digital culture has both positive and negative consequences. One such negative consequence is cyber violence that has been termed cyber bullying. Cyber bullying can cause serious emotional, behavioural and academic problems for both the victim and the bully. Although there is ongoing research on the effects of cyber bullying on children and youth in South Africa, no research has been carried out on how children’s and youth’s spirituality may be affected when they are cyber bullied. This article discusses the accumulative results from different South African institutes that have researched the cyber bullying effects on children and adolescents. These results point to the spiritual effects that children and youth may experience as a result of cyber bullying. This article proposes that spirituality may prevent cyber bullying and even help children and youth heal from the trauma caused by cyber bullying. This article contributes in starting a conversation that may result in more specific research being done on how the spiritual lives of children and adolescents may be affected through the trauma caused by cyber bullying.

  20. Bullying escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    O bullying é definido como um abuso sistemático de poder, o desenvolvimento do programa de pesquisa sobre bullying escolar é delineado em quatro fases. A natureza distinta do cyberbullying, e também da identidade baseada no bullying, são sublinhados. Os métodos de medição são discutidos, e os tipos de taxas de prevalência obtidos. São resumidos um conjunto de fatores de risco para o envolvimento como um agressor, ou vítima. Uma série de intervenções centradas na escola são descritas, juntamen...

  1. Workplace bullying: measurements and metrics to use in the NHS. Final Report for NHS Employers.

    OpenAIRE

    Illing, Jan; Thompson, Neill; Crampton, Paul; Rothwell, Charlotte; Kehoe, Amelia; Carter, Madeline; Newcastle University; NHS Employers; Northumbria University

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this report is to identify how workplace bullying can be tracked over time, to indicate what measures and metrics can be used to identify change, and to provide comparators for other sectors in the UK and internationally.\\ud Bullying can encompass a range of different behaviours. Deciding on a definition of workplace bullying can clarify what is regarded as bullying, but it may also narrow the focus and exclude relevant issues of concern. For example, bullying definitions typically...

  2. Understanding Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likelihood of victimization include: • Poor peer relationships • Low self-esteem • Perceived by peers as different or quiet National ... ME, Lumpkin CD. Bullying surveillance among youths: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements, Version ...

  3. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and relational practices – as well as the abjections by which subjects and social groups are formed – have inspired several of the articles, and the authors seek to reveal complex patterns of relating amongst children in school classes that are saturated by marginalisation and bullying practices. Foucault......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...

  4. Behaviour of gas cooled reactor fuel under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Behaviour of Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel under Accident Conditions was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the review of the development status and for the discussion on the behaviour of gas cooled reactor fuel under accident conditions and to identify areas in which additional research and development are still needed and where international co-operation would be beneficial for all involved parties. The meeting was attended by 45 participants from France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, CEC and the IAEA. The meeting was subdivided into five technical sessions: Summary of Current Research and Development Programmes for Fuel; Fuel Manufacture and Quality Control; Safety Requirements; Modelling of Fission Product Release - Part I and Part II; Irradiation Testing/Operational Experience with Fuel Elements; Behaviour at Depressurization, Core Heat-up, Power Transients; Water/Steam Ingress - Part I and Part II. 22 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. At the end of the meeting a round table discussion was held on Directions for Future R and D Work and International Co-operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Workplace bullying in the Australian health context: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharlene; Travaglia, Joanne

    2017-05-15

    Purpose During the past decade, there has been increased attention into bullying behaviours in workplaces. Research to date has varied in design, the definition of what constitutes bullying behaviour, as well as the methods used to collect data and measure bullying incidence and prevalence. Nonetheless, studies demonstrate that bullying is a significant issue, which warrants an increased research focus to develop greater understanding of the concept, its effects and implications in, and for, the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to focus on capturing a range of international and Australian literature regarding workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. As a result, this paper identified the gaps in the literature when expanded specifically to an Australian health context. Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing literature, both internationally and in Australia which examines workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. This describes the review of the literature on workplace bullying in a health context undertaken from January to April 2014. The "Preferred Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" method was used to structure the review, which covered a wide range of literature from databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and InformIT, as well as reports, and grey literature. Findings The review included 62 studies that met the inclusion criteria and reported either: factors contributing to workplace bullying, at least one significant example of workplace bullying behaviour or the impact of workplace bullying behaviours in a health context. Originality/value There is limited data on workplace bullying behaviours in an Australian health context. The literature supports there is value in future research to develop consistent definitions, policies, procedures and frameworks, which could help to prevent or address workplace bullying

  6. SUPERVISORS' TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND BULLYING IN THE WORKPLACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Éric

    2015-12-01

    The study tests the relationship between supervisors' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership and perceived bullying in the workplace. Transformational and transactional leaders can create conditions that make bullying at work less frequent but laissez-faire leadership may cause conflict that can result in bullying. The participants were 288 adults (122 women, 164 men; M age = 38.9 yr., SD = 11.7; M tenure = 7.2 yr.) employed across several organizations. Of the participants, 53.2% were contacted during an evening class in organizational behavior, and the others were workers from a waterproofing company. Scales measuring perceived leadership of a supervisor and perceived bullying at work were administered. Supervisor's transformational and transactional leadership were negatively related to work-related bullying, person-related bullying, and physically intimidating bullying. Transactional leadership was also negatively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. Supervisor's laissez-faire leadership was positively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. The use of Bass's model of transformational leadership in relation with the three-factor structure of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised is unique in research on leadership and bullying. The relationship between laissez-faire leadership and leadership support results from previous studies: transactional or transformational leadership is likely to provide an environment that makes bullying more rare than under a negative or passive leadership.

  7. Sexual behaviour under the influence of alcohol among Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A; Carballo, José L

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to compare sexual behaviour and risk and protective factors between samples of adolescents who have sex under the influence of alcohol and those who do not, and to determine predictors factors for having had sex under the influence of alcohol. We analysed differences between these two groups in sexual practices, attitudes towards HIV, subjective norms and HIV knowledge. Drawing on survey data collected from 1216 Spanish adolescents aged 14-18 (M = 15.92; SD = .76), a subset of 297 sexually experienced participants was selected. Of these, 117 reported having had sex under the influence of alcohol in the past six months (51% girls). Adolescents who combined sex and alcohol engaged more in vaginal sex, oral sex and anal sex than those who did not. Having had sex under the influence of alcohol in the past six months was associated with negative attitudes towards condom use, when there are obstacles on using them, and less consistent condom use. There were no differences in knowledge about STIs/HIV between both groups. Adolescents who combined sex and alcohol showed further characteristics associated with sexual risk. Preventive measures must address the particular characteristics of this risk group. Further evidence is need about alcohol effects on sexual behaviour.

  8. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Thérèse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  9. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna

    2010-11-23

    Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  10. Workplace Incivility and Bullying in the Library: Perception or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Shin; Vreven, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent media reports have increased awareness of workplace incivility and bullying. However, the literature regarding workplace incivility and bullying in academic libraries is under reported and under researched. This study examines the current state of librarians' perceptions on workplace incivility and bullying and evaluates the effects of…

  11. Bullying among siblings: the role of personality and relational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina; Nocentini, Annalaura

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate: (1) the influence of gender, sibling age, and sibling gender on sibling bullying and victimization; (2) the links between personality characteristics, quality of the sibling relationship, and sibling bullying/victimization; (3) the association between sibling and school bullying/victimization, and the direct and indirect associations between personality variables and school bullying/victimization. The sample comprised 195 children (98 boys and 97 girls, aged 10-12 years). Instruments included: a self-report questionnaire for bullying and victimization, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children and the Sibling Inventory of Behaviour. Results highlighted that the presence of an older brother is a risk factor for the emergence of sibling victimization. For both boys and girls, high levels of conflict in the dyad and low levels of empathy were significantly related to sibling bullying and sibling victimization. For males, energy was associated with sibling bullying and indirectly to school bullying; friendliness and high emotional instability were directly associated with school bullying. School victimization was directly associated with emotional instability for both males and females. Finally, both sibling bullying and sibling victimization were associated with bullying and victimization at school. The discussion highlights the role of a multi-contextual approach to understand and prevent bullying.

  12. Bullying among siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying.\\ud \\ud Objective: To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research?\\ud \\ud Method: Studies of sibling relation...

  13. Uncovering the Structure of and Gender and Developmental Differences in Cyber Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griezel, Lucy; Finger, Linda R.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2012-01-01

    Although literature on traditional bullying is abundant, a limited body of sound empirical research exists regarding its newest form: cyber bullying. The sample comprised Australian secondary students (N = 803) and aimed to identify the underlying structure of cyber bullying, and differences in traditional and cyber bullying behaviors across…

  14. Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Bell, Ariana; Springer, J. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has become widely viewed as an urgent social, health, and education concern that has moved to the forefront of public debate on school legislation and policy. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 was the first of many high-profile incidents of violent behavior that appeared to implicate bullying as an underlying cause…

  15. Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: staff questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, L

    1999-01-23

    To determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in an NHS community trust; to examine the association between bullying and occupational health outcomes; and to investigate the relation between support at work and bullying. Questionnaire survey. NHS community trust in the south east of England. Trust employees. Measures included a 20 item inventory of bullying behaviours designed for the study, the job induced stress scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the overall job satisfaction scale, the support at work scale, and the propensity to leave scale. 1100 employees returned questionnaires-a response rate of 70%. 421 (38%) employees reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year. 460 (42%) had witnessed the bullying of others. When bullying occurred it was most likely to be by a manager. Two thirds of the victims of bullying had tried to take action when the bullying occurred, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. Staff who had been bullied had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (mean 10.5 (SD 2. 7) v 12.2 (2.3), Pjob induced stress (mean 22.5 (SD 6.1) v 16.9 (5.8), Pjob (8.5 (2.9) v 7.0 (2.7), Pbullying. Bullying is a serious problem. Setting up systems for supporting staff and for dealing with interpersonal conflict may have benefits for both employers and staff.

  16. Contributions of Personal and Situational Factors to Bystanders' Reactions to School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Insoo; Hazler, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this study was to explore bystanders' personal and situational variables predicting their behavioural reactions to school bullying by investigating a sample of 298 college students who had witnessed bullying during middle or high school. Results indicated that the bystander personal variables, gender and past experience as a bully or…

  17. Cumulative Risk Effects in the Bullying of Children and Young People with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Students with autism are more likely to be bullied than their typically developing peers. However, several studies have shown that their likelihood of being bullied increases in the context of exposure to certain risk factors (e.g. behaviour difficulties and poor peer relationships). This study explores vulnerability to bullying from a cumulative…

  18. EPQ and Self-esteem scores of male and female Bullies in Mafikeng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bullying is an aggressive behaviour which has become a significant social problem in many secondary schools in South Africa. Previous researches on bullying have focused on trends, patterns and age groups which brings about research gaps. This paper reports personality scores of PEN and self-esteem of bullying ...

  19. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in this anthology (Hansen; Haavind; Mathiassen). Thinkers in this tradition have analysed human practices in terms of an ‘inner’ and dialectic relationship between the social and the individual as well as narrative structures and processes of subjective becoming, as opposed to many other psychological approaches...... seen amongst various the actors involved in bullying practices. Theoretical approaches based in deconstruction, discourse analysis and narrative analysis as well as mixed methods have been utilised to analyse the qualitative data. This anthology makes a particular contribution in highlighting...... the importance of qualitative research in the field of school bullying. However, the authors also acknowledge the importance of insights obtained through quantitative studies, such as survey material, and through mixed methods (see Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed on page XX, and Cross and Barnes on page XX)....

  20. Bullying among siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J

    2012-01-01

    Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying. To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research? Studies of sibling relationships were reviewed. Four quantitative studies were identified that report on both sibling and peer bullying. Sibling bullying is frequent with up to 50% involved in sibling bullying every month and between 16% and 20% involved in bullying several times a week. Experience of sibling bullying increases the risk of involvement in bullying in school. Both, bullying between siblings and school bullying make unique contributions to explaining behavioral and emotional problems. There is a clear dose-effect relationship of involvement of bullying at home and at school and behavioral or emotional problems. Those involved in both have up to 14 times increased odds of behavioral or emotional problems compared to those involved in only one context or not at all. The empirical evidence is limited and studies are mostly cross-sectional studies. Nevertheless, the review suggests that for those victimized at home and at school behavioral and emotional problems are highly increased. Sibling relationships appear to be a training ground with implications for individual well-being. Strengthening families and parenting skills and increasing sibling support is likely to reduce bullying and increase well-being.

  1. Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: prevalence and psychosocial profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul; Winefield, Tony; Trainor, Sarah; Dollard, Maureen; Anderson, Sarah; Metzer, Jacques; Hammarstrom, Anne

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the nature and prevalence of bullying/victimization by peers and teachers reported by 1,284 students (mean age = 15.2 years) drawn from a representative sample of 25 South Australian government and private schools. Students completed a self-report survey containing questions relating to teacher and peer-related bullying, measures of psychosocial adjustment, and personality. The results showed that students could be clearly differentiated according to the type of victimization they had experienced. Students reporting peer victimization typically showed high levels of social alienation, poorer psychological functioning, and poorer self-esteem and self-image. By contrast, victims of teacher victimization were more likely to be rated as less able academically, had less intention to complete school and were more likely to be engaged in high-risk behaviours such as gambling, drug use and under-age drinking. Most bullying was found to occur at school rather than outside school and involved verbal aggression rather than physical harm. Boys were significantly more likely to be bullied than girls, with the highest rates being observed amongst boys attending single-sex government schools. Girls were more likely to be subject to bullying if they attended coeducational private schools. The implications of this work for enhancing school-retention rates and addressing psychological distress amongst adolescent students are discussed.

  2. School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying ...

  3. Hospital nurses? attitudes, negative perceptions, and negative acts regarding workplace bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chien, Tsair-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in today?s work places that has adverse effects on both bullying victims and organizations. To investigate the predictors of workplace bullying is an important task to prevent bullying victims of nurses in hospitals. Objective This study aims to explore the relationships among nurses? attitudes, negative perceptions, and negative acts regarding workplace bullying under the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Methods A total o...

  4. Bullying in German Boarding Schools: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who attend boarding schools share more time with peers than do students from day schools which, in turn, could provide more opportunities for bullying. Furthermore, some students attend boarding schools because of former social problems. In order to analyse the role of these factors, we examined the bullying behaviour of 706 German…

  5. Workplace bullying and harassment new developments in international law

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkos Cobb, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Workplace Bullying and Harassment: New Developments in International Law provides a comprehensive tour around the globe, summarizing relevant legislation and key developments in workplace bullying, harassment, sexual harassment, discrimination, violence, and stress in over 50 countries in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, the Americas region, and the Middle East and Africa. Workplace bullying, harassment, and other psychological workplace hazards are becoming increasingly acknowledged and legislated against in the modern work world. The costs of bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress at work are huge and far-reaching. Frequently under-reported and misunderstood, workplace bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress wreak havoc on the vitality and prosperity of organizations and individuals alike.

  6. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm -2 at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced damages

  7. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-07-19

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm{sup -2} at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced

  8. Dealing with Bullies (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deal Why Do Bullies Act That Way? Bullying: How to Handle It Preventing a Run-In With a Bully If The Bully Says ... ignore the mean girl's taunts at school. Bullying: How to Handle ... falls into two categories: preventing a run-in with the bully, and what to do ...

  9. Morality, values, traditional bullying, and cyberbullying in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Camodeca, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate moral aspects and human values in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, in order to detect differences between the two types of bullying and to test the role of immoral and disengaged behaviours in mediating the relationships between personal values and involvement in bullying. Sample comprised 390 adolescents aged 14-18, balanced for gender, attending different high schools. Traditional and cyberbullying were detected by means of two self-report measures, while the Portrait Values Questionnaire was used to assess 10 values in four dimensions according to the value system model by Schwartz (1992): self-trascendence, self-enhancement, openness to change, and conservation. Finally, immoral and disengaged behaviours were assessed by means of five items about behavioural and personal aspects salient for morality. Results showed that, irrespective of gender, self-enhancement and self-trascendence moderately predicted cyber and traditional bullying, respectively, while immoral and disengaged behaviours predicted both. Indirect effects showed that self-enhancement and openness to change predicted both forms of bullying through immoral behaviour. Results are discussed in terms of similarities and differences between cyber and traditional bullying and with attention to the central role of morality in explaining bullying nature. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Science under pressure: problematic behaviours and social harms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Faria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will suggest the use of the Social Harm Approach (Hillyard, Pantazis, Tobs & Gordon, 2004 to problematic behaviours occurring in scientific research and higher education teaching. By analyzing data collected through interviews to scholars, it is possible to state that fabrication, falsification and plagiarism are the most criticized deviant behaviours in science. It is less common for actors to consider other problematic behaviours arising from the pressure (to publish, to get grants felt by them and originated at the heart of the organizations devoted to science. Or problematic behaviours created on the intersection of universities, corporations and/or the state (ex. commissioned research. Also, those interviewed did not have a coherent view on the rules governing science and higher education. Thus, considering the scattering of (individual and organizational problematic behaviours and rules governing them, a new approach will be put forward, one by which processes of scientific production and dissemination must be considered according to the social harms (financial, economic, physical they may cause.

  11. Buddies Not Bullies: an approach to bullying prevention education in preschool children, their families and the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchesne, Michelle A; Farquharson, Patrice E; Beauchemin, Patricia

    2017-04-11

    Bullying is a traumatic event and has been observed among children as young as four years old. We have designed the Buddies Not Bullies initiative, which is a series of projects to help preschool children protect themselves from bullying. We also designed projects to educate the families of these preschool children and their community on the effects of bullying. The Buddies Not Bullies initiative promotes social-emotional development and discourages behaviours that might lead to bullying. In this article the initiatives designed to engage preschool children and raise awareness, including an interactive puppet show, are outlined. The authors also discuss how they evaluated the success of these projects and the implications for all professionals caring for young children.

  12. Investigation of Tungsten and Beryllium Behaviour under Short Transient Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintsuk, G.; Kuehnlein, W.; Linke, J.; Roedig, M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam facility JUDITH is a rather versatile test facility for the simulation of high heat fluxes. One key issue is the simulation of the material performance under short transient events. The study of melting behaviour and crack formation, which occurs even for heat pulses below the melting threshold of the metals, is of huge importance for the qualification of materials for future nuclear devices. Heat load simulations at RT with a pulse length of 5 ms have been performed on beryllium (S65C), the ITER candidate material for the first wall, at power loads of 0.5 - 2 GW/m 2 . Crack formation, surface roughening and melt layer motion has been studied. Similar conditions during single and multiple shots below and above the melting threshold (∼50 MW·m-2·s 1 /2) have been applied to tungsten. Since its material properties are dependent on grain size and shape, 3 different grades have been tested in an as-delivered state: 1) deformed tungsten aligned in deformation direction, which corresponds to the actual ITER specification for tungsten used in the divertor; 2) deformed tungsten aligned perpendicular to the deformation direction; 3) sintered tungsten. Significant differences in the crack resistance and the crack pattern of the various tungsten grades below the melting threshold have been determined and further material degradation has been found after multiple shots. This is of importance also in regard to expected ELM loads in ITER, in which power densities below the melting threshold are applied at a high repetition rate (∼ 1 Hz). Crack formation for sintered tungsten starts at ∼20 MW·m -2 ·s -1 /2. The cracks are located across the loaded area and increase in number, length and width with increasing power load. In comparison to that for deformed tungsten cracking was first detected at ∼35 MW·m -2 ·s -1 /2. Whereas for tungsten aligned in deformation direction a crack pattern comparable to those of sintered tungsten was formed, tungsten

  13. Revenue Management under Customer Choice Behaviour with Cancellations and Overbooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D. Sierag (Dirk); G.M. Koole (Ger); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); JP.I. van der Rest (Jean-Pierre); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractRevenue management is the practice of pricing perishable goods to optimise revenue. A realistic revenue management model allows overbooking and incorporates customer buying behaviour and cancellations. The latter is motivated by our research using real data, which shows that for a

  14. Divergent pheromone-mediated insect behaviour under global atmospheric change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward B. Mondor; Michelle N. Tremblay; Caroline S. Awmack; Richard L. Lindroth

    2004-01-01

    While the effects of global atmospheric changes on vegetation and resulting insect populations('bottom-up interactions') are being increasingly studied, how these gases modify interactions among insects and their natural enemies ('top-down interactions') is less clear. As natural enemy efficacy is governed largely by behavioural mechanisms, altered...

  15. Bullying and victimisation are common in four-year-old children and are associated with somatic symptoms and conduct and peer problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilola, Anna-Marja; Lempinen, Lotta; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-05-01

    There are few population-based studies on bullying behaviour among preschool children. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour among four-year-old children, as reported by their parents, the prevalence of types of bullying behaviour and the associations between bullying behaviour and psychosocial factors. This study was based on a population-based study sample of 931 children who attended their check-up at a child health clinic at four years of age. Parents completed the questionnaire about their child's bullying behaviour and risk factors during the check-up. Bullying behaviour, especially being both a bully and a victim, was a common phenomenon among four-year-old children. Being a bully or both a bully and victim were most strongly associated with conduct problems, while being a victim was associated with somatic symptoms and peer problems. Bullying behaviour was frequently found in preschool children and associated with a wide range of other problems, which indicate that routine checking of bullying behaviour should be included in child health clinic check-ups. Bullying prevention programmes are usually targeted at school-aged children, but this study highlights the importance of focusing already on preschool children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bullied at school, bullied at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of childhood bullying victimisation are serious. Much previous research on risk factors for being bullied has used a cross-sectional design, impeding the possibility to draw conclusions on causality, and has not considered simultaneous effects of multiple risk factors....... Paying closer attention to multiple risk factors for being bullying can provide a basis for designing intervention programmes to prevent or reduce bullying among children and adolescents. Methods Risk factors for bullying were examined by using questionnaire data collected in 2004 and 2007. In 2004......, the participants were aged 14–15 years and 17–18 years in 2007. The baseline questionnaire was answered by 3054 individuals in 2004, and 2181 individuals participated in both rounds. We analysed risk factors for being bullied at the individual and societal level. Information on the social background...

  17. Bullying (1950-2010): The Bully and the Bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provis, Steven Arthur

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the bully and the bullied from 1950 to 2010. It begins by presenting a historical background of each decade with the major historical events that defined our culture. Each decade can be characterized by a particular zeitgeist, or spirit of the times. During each decade, popular movies and television programs that provided…

  18. Content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a comparison between New Zealand and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Williams, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    To undertake a detailed analysis of the content of anti-bullying policies in schools in New Zealand (NZ) and Victoria, Australia. The content of anti-bullying policies from 253 NZ schools and 93 Victorian schools were analysed in terms of definitions of bullying behaviour; reporting, recording and responding to bullying incidents; communicating and evaluating the policy; and outlining strategies for preventing bullying. There was a wide range in 'policy scores' between schools, and Victorian schools scored higher on nearly every area compared with NZ schools. In both regions, definitions rarely included bullying on the grounds of homophobia, religion or disability; or bullying between adults and students. Policies also lacked detail about the responsibilities of non-teaching staff in dealing with bullying, and rarely described follow-up after a bullying incident. Few policies explained how the policy would be evaluated, and many failed to mention preventive strategies. This study highlights some important areas that are deficient in NZ and Victorian school anti-bullying policies, and emphasises the need for guidance on how schools can develop an effective anti-bullying policy. Having more comprehensive anti-bullying policies will give schools a much better chance of reducing bullying.

  19. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  20. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether

  1. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  2. Bullying and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying happens every day in classrooms and on playgrounds all over the world. Parents, when faced with the fact that their child has become the target of a bully, experience a stream of emotions: anger, fear, the need to protect, and the realization that the child must go back to school or out to play and face the bully again the next day. Many…

  3. Adults Role in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  4. Take that, You Bully!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Academics can be found all over the Internet commiserating about academic bullying, including on "The Chronicle's" own forums and blogs. There are debates over how to resolve bullying, warnings to other scholars, and even primal cries for help. This article describes three blogs on bullying: (1) Historiann (http://www.historiann.com); (2) On…

  5. Nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of shells of revolution under arbitrary loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.W.; Arbabi-Kanjoori, F.

    1975-01-01

    A formulation and solution technique are presented for the creep analysis of shells of revolution subjected to arbitrary loads and temperature changes. Arbitrary creep laws are admitted in the formulation with specific attention given to the two common laws, i.e. strain hardening and time hardening. The governing equations for creep of shells of revolution are derived. The solution method requires the quasi-static linearization of the equations: linear incremental behaviour is assumed during each time step. The incremental equations are expanded in Fourier series and solved by a numerical integration technique. (Auth.)

  6. Bullying and Agency: Definition, Intervention and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercombe, Howard; Donnelly, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Respect"me" is a human rights organisation working to reduce the impact of bullying in Scotland. In this work, some useful conceptual and practice frameworks have emerged, distinguishing between aggression, as legitimate, if sometimes unpleasant, dominance behaviour and violence, which is unethical action involving the intent to harm.…

  7. Behaviour of a few mode fiber modal pattern under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to calculate the interference pattern at the end of a multimode weakly guiding optical fiber under stress. Whenever an optical fiber is under stress, the modal phase in the interference term of the intensity formula changes. Plots of the simulated output of a stressed fiber are presented. For multimode fibers, very complicated patterns result. Under stress, lobes in the pattern are generated, displaced and power is exchanged among them.

  8. KEPRIBADIAN MUSLIM TERHADAP PERILAKU BULLYING DI RUMAH SAKIT ISLAM WILAYAH KOTA PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Budiman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research to know the influence of Muslim Personality on Bullying Behaviours in Islamic Hospital of Palembang City Region. Some research that has been done in the West states that 56% of nurses become victims of bullying in their of workplacecausing harm to both individuals and organizations. The hypothesis of this research is that there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the comprehensionand practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace. This research using correlation research methods, research sample 214 nurses from 2 Islamic Hospital in Palembang, data collected using scalemethod, namely: Bullying Behaviour scale and Muslim Personality Scale and data analysis methods using simple regression analysis with SPSS programming. 22.5 for windows. Based on the results obtained r = 0.412in other word,there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the understanding and practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace and r2  of 0.170 means that 17% of Muslim personality contributed to bullying behaviours  in the workplace.

  9. Bullying and Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Approaching the relevance of teachers and their role in children’s bullying practices depends on the definition of bullying implied. If bullying is understood as an effect of individual traits and behavior, teachers are most often considered to be in a position to determine whether...... or not the reported or observed events can be defined as real cases of bullying. In cases deemed as bullying, they are considered responsible for taking further action in relation to the individual children involved. If bullying is understood as an effect of a dysfunctional culture in the school and in the classroom......, and enacted by the social structures in schools and other childhood institutions, it is instead seen as the teacher’s responsibility to analyze and seek to transform the climate and norms among the children. In those contexts the teachers are to transform the complex social processes in which bullying...

  10. Prevalence, causes and mental health impact of workplace bullying in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios

    2018-02-24

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Self-administered questionnaire survey. 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45-64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights

  11. Prevalence, causes and mental health impact of workplace bullying in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Design Self-administered questionnaire survey. Setting 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. Participants 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). Main outcome measures The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Results Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45–64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Conclusions Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. PMID:29478015

  12. Bullying Victimization and Perpetration Among Adolescent Sport Teammates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Blair; Adler, Ashley; Macdonald, Dany; Côté, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a specific pattern of repeated victimization explored with great frequency in school-based literature, but receiving little attention within sport. The current study explored the prevalence of bullying in sport, and examined whether bullying experiences were associated with perceptions about relationships with peers and coaches. Adolescent sport team members (n = 359, 64% female) with an average age of 14.47 years (SD = 1.34) completed a pen-and-paper or online questionnaire assessing how frequently they perpetrated or were victimized by bullying during school and sport generally, as well as recent experiences with 16 bullying behaviors on their sport team. Participants also reported on relationships with their coach and teammates. Bullying was less prevalent in sport compared with school, and occurred at a relatively low frequency overall. However, by identifying participants who reported experiencing one or more act of bullying on their team recently, results revealed that those victimized through bullying reported weaker connections with peers, whereas those perpetrating bullying only reported weaker coach relationships. With the underlying message that bullying may occur in adolescent sport through negative teammate interactions, sport researchers should build upon these findings to develop approaches to mitigate peer victimization in sport.

  13. Workplace Bullying in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Mary; Young, Christopher J; Shepherd, Heather L; Mak, Cindy; Saw, Robyn P M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and nature of workplace bullying among General Surgery trainees and consultants in Australia. An online questionnaire survey of General Surgery trainees and consultant surgeons in Australia was conducted between March and May 2012. Prevalence of bullying was measured using both a definition of workplace bullying and the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R). Sources of bullying were also examined, as well as the barriers and outcomes of formal reporting of bullying. The response rate was 34 % (370/1084) with 41 % (n = 152) of respondents being trainees. Overall, 47 % (n = 173) of respondents reported having been bullied to some degree and 68 % (n = 250) reported having witnessed bullying of surgical colleagues in the last 12 months. The prevalence of bullying was significantly higher in trainees and females, with 64 % of trainees and 57 % of females experiencing some degree of bullying. The majority of respondents (83 %) had experienced at least one negative behavior in the last 12 months, but 38 % experienced at least one negative behavior on a weekly or daily basis. The persistent negative behaviors that represent work-related bullying most commonly experienced were 'having opinions ignored' and 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload.' Consultant surgeons were the most common source of bullying for both trainees and consultants, with administration the next common source. Of those who reported being bullied, only 18 % (n = 32) made a formal complaint. Despite increased awareness and interventions, workplace bullying remains a significant problem within General Surgery in Australia. The findings in this study serve as a baseline for future questionnaires to monitor the effectiveness of implemented anti-bullying interventions.

  14. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  15. The behaviour of defective fuel under power cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.K.; Anantharaman, K.; Basu, S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the irradiation carried out with a defective fuel pin and the changes in the activity released to the coolant under power cycling conditions. This also describes the future experiments, which are being planned. (author)

  16. Monitoring fate and behaviour of Nanoceria under relevant environmental conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tancu, Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ). The results revealed significant tendency of nCeO¬2 to undergo aggregation, agglomeration and certain degree of deagglomeration processes under different environmental conditions. Moreover, the findings suggested that both electrostatic and steric interactions...

  17. Assemblies and fuel pin behaviour under irradiation in FBR-350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaulov, V.N.; Blynski, A.P.; Yakovlev, I.L.; Kononova, E.V.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of all types of assemblies and fuel pins of the reactor BN-350 is considered in detail. The factors limiting the efficiency are indicated. The behaviour of assemblies with stainless steel ducts is studied. It is shown that the efficiency is restricted in this case by shape and dimensional changes of hexagonal ducts due to radiation swelling and radiation creep of structural materials. The problem of dimensional changes of ducts was solved for cores of reactors BN-350 and BN-600 after testing in BN-350 of experimental assemblies with ducts made of ferritic-martensitic steel 12Cr13Mo2NbVB. For fuel pins of the second type of loading with clad made of stainless steel 0Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb the efficiency is limited by burnup of 13% h.a. and damage dose of 90 dpa. To increase the burnup the core of the BN-350 is supplied by assemblies of modernized type with pins having a large gas plenum and clad made of the stainless steel 0Cr16Ni15Mo2Mn2TiVB that has a good resistance to irradiation. The efficiency of fuel pins of modernized assemblies in the reactor BN-350 core conditions is provided up to 15% h.a. and damage dose 105 dpa. (author)

  18. Behaviour of Ti-doped CFCs under thermal fatigue tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centeno, A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Apdo. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Gualco, C. [Ansaldo Energia, I-16152 Genoa (Italy); Blanco, C., E-mail: clara@incar.csic.es [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Apdo. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Santamaria, R.; Granda, M.; Menendez, R. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Apdo. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    In spite of the remarkable progress in the design of in-vessel components for the divertor of the first International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a great effort is still put into the development of manufacturing technologies for carbon armour with improved properties. Newly developed 3D titanium-doped carbon fibre reinforced composites and their corresponding undoped counterparts were brazed to a CuCrZr heat sink to produce actively cooled flat tile mock-ups. By exposing the mock-ups to thermal fatigue tests in an electron beam test facility, the material behaviour and the brazing between the individual constituents in the mock-up was qualified. The mock-ups with titanium-doped CFCs exhibited a significantly improved thermal fatigue resistance compared with those undoped materials. The comparison of these mock-ups with those produced using pristine NB31, one of the reference materials as plasma facing material for ITER, showed almost identical results, indicating the high potential of Ti-doped CFCs due to their improved thermal shock resistance.

  19. Helping Kids Deal with Bullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be prepared if it does happen. Identifying Bullying Most kids have been teased by a sibling ... their appearance or lack of talent. Signs of Bullying Unless your child tells you about bullying — or ...

  20. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn’t just ...

  1. Prevalence of bullying at work and its association with self-esteem scores in a Spanish nurse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    Bullying has been recognized as an important and increasing problem for nurses, who are faced with different kinds of bullying. Recent research has suggested a possible association between bullying and low self-esteem. To determine the prevalence of bullying at work in a sample of Spanish nurses; to examine the association between bullying and self-esteem; and to investigate the prognostic factors that determine bullying at work. A descriptive survey study was developed to represent the population of Spanish nurses. The sample consisted of 538 nurses who met the inclusion criteria of having worked for a minimum of one year in adult or paediatric services in the public or private heath care system of Principado de Asturias-Spain. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) standardized for Spain were used to measure self-esteem and bullying behaviours respectively. Our results show that about one in five nurses (17%) experienced subjective bullying, and 8% of these cases reported weekly or daily bullying. The negative acts reported most frequently in bullied and non-bullied nurses were work-related bullying behaviours, such as 'Being given tasks with unreasonable or impossible targets or deadlines' (2.71 SD = 1.33). However, bullied nurses reported significantly higher rates in all questions of the NAQ, and self-reported bullying was significantly related to low self-esteem (χ(2) = 109; p self-reported bullying is high among Spanish nurses and is clearly associated with higher exposure to bullying behaviours at work and lower levels of self-esteem.

  2. Frictional behaviour of polymer films under mechanical and electrostatic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginés, R; Christen, R; Motavalli, M; Bergamini, A; Ermanni, P

    2013-01-01

    Different polymer foils, namely polyimide, FEP, PFA and PVDF were tested on a setup designed to measure the static coefficient of friction between them. The setup was designed according to the requirements of a damping device based on electrostatically tunable friction. The foils were tested under different mechanically applied forces and showed reproducible results for the static coefficient of friction. With the same setup the measurements were performed under an electric field as the source of the normal force. Up to a certain electric field the values were in good agreement. Beyond this field discrepancies were found. (paper)

  3. Behavioural modelling of irrigation decision making under water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Providing effective policy solutions to aquifer depletion caused by abstraction for irrigation is a key challenge for socio-hydrology. However, most crop production functions used in hydrological models do not capture the intraseasonal nature of irrigation planning, or the importance of well yield in land and water use decisions. Here we develop a method for determining stochastic intraseasonal water use that is based on observed farmer behaviour but is also theoretically consistent with dynamically optimal decision making. We use the model to (i) analyse the joint land and water use decision by farmers; (ii) to assess changes in behaviour and production risk in response to water scarcity; and (iii) to understand the limits of applicability of current methods in policy design. We develop a biophysical model of water-limited crop yield building on the AquaCrop model. The model is calibrated and applied to case studies of irrigated corn production in Nebraska and Texas. We run the model iteratively, using long-term climate records, to define two formulations of the crop-water production function: (i) the aggregate relationship between total seasonal irrigation and yield (typical of current approaches); and (ii) the stochastic response of yield and total seasonal irrigation to the choice of an intraseasonal soil moisture target and irrigated area. Irrigated area (the extensive margin decision) and per-area irrigation intensity (the intensive margin decision) are then calculated for different seasonal water restrictions (corresponding to regulatory policies) and well yield constraints on intraseasonal abstraction rates (corresponding to aquifer system limits). Profit- and utility-maximising decisions are determined assuming risk neutrality and varying degrees of risk aversion, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the formulation of the production function has a significant impact on the response to water scarcity. For low well yields, which are the major concern

  4. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, Jan; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-07-02

    Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5-6 years. One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  5. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  6. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  7. Seismic Behaviour Evaluation of Suleymaniye Mosque Under Different Earthquake Records

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Ayhan; Sahin, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 3D structural model of SuleymaniyeMosque which Mimar Sinan began the construction in 1550and finished in 7 years is developed and the behavior isexamined under the influence of different earthquakes. Finiteelement (FE) model of the structure is generated and modalanalysis is carried out. The obtained dynamic characteristicssuch as natural frequencies and mode shapes are comparedwith experimental works and the FE model is updated.Earthquake analysis of the mosque is carried out ...

  8. Bullying in schools − The educator’s role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Venter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide there is a problem with violent incidents occurring amongst learners in schools. Bullying is one mode of violence that often occurs at school level. Bullying means repeatedly attacking a person psychologically, physically and/or emotionally in order to inflict harm. Bullying behaviour cannot be ignored, because the victims often report physical and mental health problems caused by the abuse they suffered. The future of the bully is also at stake, because such a person can turn into an abuser in his or her adult years. This research focused on the challenges for teachers in the school system to handle bullying behaviour. The specific aims of the study were to research the role of school policies and ethos, as well as the teacher’s role, in dealing with bullying. The researchers investigated the problem by using social identity theory as theoretical framework and Christianity as worldview. The researchers mainly used a qualitative research design. Data for this study were collected by means of a literature study and questionnaires with closed questions as well as open-ended questions about teachers’ experiences regarding bullying. The main emphasis was on the feedback on the open-ended questions. It became clear from the research that schools should adopt an anti-bullying policy. Teachers should give more attention to classroom rules and they should become skilled in dealing with bullying. Recommendations were made concerning the role of teachers as well as the place of school ethos and policies when the above-mentioned behavioural problem needs to be managed.

  9. Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Dianne; O'Driscoll, Michael; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D; Roche, Maree; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T T; Trenberth, Linda

    2016-04-27

    The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.

  10. Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Gardner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB, in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15% of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8% of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.

  11. Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Dianne; O’Driscoll, Michael; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D.; Roche, Maree; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Trenberth, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes. PMID:27128929

  12. Experimental program on fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Cecchi, P.

    1985-01-01

    During LMFBR plant operation, fuel developments are primarily concerned with the fuel pin irradiation behaviour under steady-state conditions up to high burn-up levels. But additional studies under off-normal conditions are necessary in order to assess fuel pin performance and to define operational limits. (author)

  13. Behaviour of Epoxy Silica Nanocomposites Under Static and Creep Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Picu, Radu Catalin; Sandu, Marin; Apostol, Dragos Alexandru; Sandu, Adriana; Baciu, Florin

    2017-12-01

    Specific manufacturing technologies were applied for the fabrication of epoxy-based nanocomposites with silica nanoparticles. For dispersing the fillers in the epoxy resin special equipment such as a shear mixer and a high energy sonicator with temperature control were used. Both functionalized and unfunctionalized silica nanoparticles were added in three epoxy resins. The considered filling fraction was in most cases 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt%.. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to monotonic uniaxial and creep loading at room temperature. The static mechanical properties were not significantly improved regardless the filler percentage and type of epoxy resin. Under creep loading, by increasing the stress level, the nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% silica creeps less than all other materials. Also the creep rate is reduced by adding silica nanofillers.

  14. Bullying and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    as a basic premise for the emergence of bullying behavior. Others conceptualize bullying as an effect of dysfunctional social mechanisms in groups. In line with such diverse understandings of how to define and understand bullying, researchers also discuss the part played by parents in children’s bullying...... to focus on the ways in which parents interact with each other and with school professionals as one of a number of aspects involved in the processes and outcomes of the school environment as a whole. This entry looks at the conseqences of such approaches for the encounter between school and parents....

  15. FEM modelling of soil behaviour under compressive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, N.; Vlăduţ, V.; Biriş, S. Şt

    2017-01-01

    Artificial compaction is one of the most dangerous forms of degradation of agricultural soil. Recognized as a phenomenon with multiple negative effects in terms of environment and agricultural production, soil compaction is strongly influenced by the size of external load, soil moisture, size and shape of footprint area, soil type and number of passes. Knowledge of soil behavior under compressive loads is important in order to prevent or minimize soil compaction. In this paper were developed, by means of the Finite Element Method, various models of soil behavior during the artificial compaction produced by the wheel of an agricultural trailer. Simulations were performed on two types of soil (cohesive and non-cohesive) with known characteristics. By applying two loads (4.5 kN and 21 kN) in footprints of different sizes, were obtained the models of the distributions of stresses occuring in the two types of soil. Simulation results showed that soil stresses increase with increasing wheel load and vary with soil type.

  16. Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-03-24

    Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator. A two-stage design was used. In stage 1, adolescents (n = 2782) from five UK secondary schools were screened for bullying involvement using self and peer reports. In stage 2, a sample of bullies, victims, bully-victims and uninvolved adolescents (n = 767) completed a battery of assessments. The measures included the eating behaviours component of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which was reduced to one factor (weight loss preoccupation) and used as the outcome variable. Measures of self-esteem, body-esteem and emotional problems were reduced to a latent (mediator) variable of psychological functioning. Multi-group analysis examined the effects of sex and all models were adjusted for covariates (BMI, pubertal stage, age, parental education and ethnicity). Bullies, victims and bully-victims were at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation compared to adolescents uninvolved in bullying. The mechanism by which bullying involvement related to increased weight loss preoccupation varied by bullying role: in bullies the effect was direct, in victims the effect was indirect (via reduced psychological functioning) and in bully-victims the effect was both direct and indirect. Sex significantly moderated the relationship in bullies: weight loss preoccupation was only statistically significant in bullies who were

  17. MATERNAL HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN ZIMBABWE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadoka-Mutanda, Nyasha; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2017-05-01

    Under-five mortality remains a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. Zimbabwe is one of the countries in the region that failed to achieve Millennium Developmental Goal 4 in 2015. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which maternal health-seeking behaviour prior to and during pregnancy and post-delivery influences the likelihood of under-five mortality among Zimbabwean children. The study was cross-sectional and data were extracted from the 2010/11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS). The study sample comprised 5155 children who were born five years preceding the 2010/11 ZDHS to a sample of 4128 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Cox Proportional Hazard regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between maternal health-seeking behaviour and under-five mortality. The results showed that maternal health-seeking behaviour factors are associated with the risk of dying during childhood. Children born to mothers who had ever used contraceptives (HR: 0.38, CI 0.28-0.51) had a lower risk of dying during childhood compared with children born to mothers who had never used any contraceptive method. The risk of under-five mortality among children who had a postnatal check-up within two months after birth (HR: 0.36, CI 0.23-0.56) was lower than that of children who did not receive postnatal care. Small birth size (HR: 1.70, CI 1.20-2.41) and higher birth order (2+) increased the risk of under-five mortality. Good maternal health-seeking behaviour practices at the three critical stages around childbirth have the potential to reduce under-five mortality. Therefore, public health programmes should focus on influencing health-seeking behaviour among women and removing obstacles to effective maternal health-seeking behaviour in Zimbabwe.

  18. The "B" in EBD Is Not Just for Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Problems in defining emotional and behavioural difficulties of all types, including bullying, are discussed. Interactions among seeing, naming and communicating about these phenomena are considered. School and community characteristics of students with emotional and behavioural difficulties are touched upon. Major problems in definition and…

  19. When Is Peer Aggression "Bullying?" An Analysis of Elementary and Middle School Student Discourse on Bullying at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Christopher; Rosen, Dina; Almeida, Angela; Brandwein, David

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of peer aggression are referred to as "bullying" by students, parents and adults, and this can be a source of confusion in schools. The main purpose of this study is to explore the circumstances under which students characterize peer aggression as "bullying" incidents. A secondary goal is to examine the feelings…

  20. Experimental study of the behavioural mechanisms underlying self-organization in human crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Helbing, Dirk; Garnier, Simon; Johansson, Anders; Combe, Maud; Theraulaz, Guy

    2009-08-07

    In animal societies as well as in human crowds, many observed collective behaviours result from self-organized processes based on local interactions among individuals. However, models of crowd dynamics are still lacking a systematic individual-level experimental verification, and the local mechanisms underlying the formation of collective patterns are not yet known in detail. We have conducted a set of well-controlled experiments with pedestrians performing simple avoidance tasks in order to determine the laws ruling their behaviour during interactions. The analysis of the large trajectory dataset was used to compute a behavioural map that describes the average change of the direction and speed of a pedestrian for various interaction distances and angles. The experimental results reveal features of the decision process when pedestrians choose the side on which they evade, and show a side preference that is amplified by mutual interactions. The predictions of a binary interaction model based on the above findings were then compared with bidirectional flows of people recorded in a crowded street. Simulations generate two asymmetric lanes with opposite directions of motion, in quantitative agreement with our empirical observations. The knowledge of pedestrian behavioural laws is an important step ahead in the understanding of the underlying dynamics of crowd behaviour and allows for reliable predictions of collective pedestrian movements under natural conditions.

  1. The Toll of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…

  2. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  3. Bullying Prevalence among Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Hulya

    2008-01-01

    Bullying is now recognized as a concern in schools worldwide. Bullying is a relatively new study field classified in the category of aggression. A person is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of one or more persons. This study was conducted to acquire types of bullying behaviors and…

  4. Mechanical behaviour and microstructural evolution of alloy 800H under biaxial cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolabella Portella, P.; Feng Jiao; Oesterle, W.; Ziebs, J.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of alloy 800H under biaxial cyclic loading was investigated at room temperature and at 800 C. The low-cycle fatigue experiments were carried out using tubular specimens under axial and torsional loading with constant total equivalent strain amplitude following either proportional or nonproportional loading paths. The cyclic hardening observed under nonproportional loading was clearly higher than that under proportional loading. The extra hardening due to the nonproportional loading path was more pronounced at room temperature. The evolution of the dislocation structure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy of specimens after interrupted fatigue tests. The changes in the dislocation structure and the precipitation phenomena are in accordance with the observed mechanical behaviour of the specimens. Twinning was observed in very few grains of some specimens and does not influence the extra hardening under nonproportional loading, martensite was not detected in any specimen. (orig.)

  5. Impacts of bullying on senior high school students in Ghana | Antiri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bullying is an aggressive behaviour which could affect students' psychological wellbeing and their academic performance. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to examine the impacts of bullying on students of senior high schools in Ghana. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study.

  6. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  7. Bullying in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Definitions of school bullying vary, when it comes to more detailed descriptions of what this entails and, not least, of why bullying occurs. Some definitions emphasize the individual’s personality and upbringing to explain the cause of bullying behavior. Other, more recent, definitions point...... to dysfunctional relational patterns in social groups characterized by low tolerance, leading to the upholding of norms that allow an ongoing production of contempt and social exclusion. A number of intervention strategies are employed in schools to intervene in bullying behavior. Research suggests that direct...... sanctions are less likely to effect more permanent changes to the social climate in a class blighted by bullying since they do not lead to a transformation of norms or relational patterns in the child community. Restorative strategies and mediation involves a dialogue between offender and victim facilitated...

  8. Educators' understanding of workplace bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Corene de Wet

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens o a two-dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59 participants' descriptions of workplace bullying. The study found that the theoretical model provided a valuable framework for studying bullying in this context....

  9. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  10. Changes in fishing behaviour of two fleets under fully documented catch quota management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, van A.T.M.; Chen, C.; Trapman, B.K.; Kraan, M.; Poos, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    A Dutch pilot study of fully documented fisheries provided the opportunity to observe actual changes in fishing behaviour under catch quota management (CQM). Interviews with fishers in the pilot study aided in interpreting the results and giving insight in the decision making process and

  11. The behaviour of irradiated fuel under RIA transients: Interpretation of the CABRI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, J.; Rigat, H.; Breton, J.P.; Schmitz, F.

    1996-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigation of highly irradiated PWR fuel behaviour under fast power transients conducted in a sodium loop of CABRI reactor, as well as the results on development and validation of computer code SCANAIR. (author). 8 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Thermo-Hydraulic Behaviour of Coolant in Nuclear Reactor VVER-440 Under Refuelling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulech Juraj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical simulation of thermo-hydraulic behaviour of coolant in the VVER- 440 nuclear reactor under standard outage conditions. Heating-up and flow of coolant between the reactor pressure vessel and spent fuel storage pool are discussed.

  13. Friction and wear behaviour of ceramic-hardened steel couples under reciprocating sliding motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Schipper, Dirk J.; Bakker, P.M.V.; Bakker, P.M.V.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.; Verweij, H.

    1995-01-01

    The friction and wear behaviour of ZrO2-Y203, ZrO2-Y203-CeO2 and ZrO2-A1203 composite ceramics against hardened steel AISI-52100 were investigated using a pin on plate configuration under reciprocating motion. The reproducibility of the results was examined in this configuration. Wear

  14. Analysis of the behaviour of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 3 under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, V.; Saraeva, V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the analysis is to study the behaviour of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 3 under severe accident conditions. The analysis is performed using computer code MELCOR 1.8.4. This report includes a brief description of Unit 3 active core as well as description and comparison of the key events

  15. Why Worry about Bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Debra J; German, Jennifer; Craig, Wendy; Yamada, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review research to identify bullying as a critical public health issue for Canada. Drawing from recent World Health Organization surveys, they examine the prevalence of Canadian children and youth involved in bullying others or being victimized. There is a strong association between involvement in bullying and health problems for children who bully, those who are victimized and those involved in both bullying and being victimized. Health problems can manifest as physical complaints (e.g., headaches), mental health concerns (e.g., depression, anxiety) and psychosocial problems (e.g., substance use, crime). In Canada, there has recently been a disturbing incidence of Canadian children who have committed suicide as a result of prolonged victimization by peers. Healthcare professionals play a major role in protecting and promoting the health and well-being of Canadian children and youth. Given the significant mental and physical health problems associated with involvement in bullying, it is important that clinicians, especially primary care healthcare professionals, be able to identify signs and symptoms of such involvement. Healthcare professionals can play an essential role supporting children and their parents and advocating for the safety and protection for those at risk. By understanding bullying as a destructive relationship problem that significantly impacts physical and mental health, healthcare professionals can play a major role in promoting healthy relationships and healthy development for all Canadian children and youth. This review provides an overview of the nature of bullying and the physical and psychological health problems associated with involvement in bullying. The review is followed by a discussion of the implications for health professionals and a protocol for assessing the potential link between bullying and a child's physical and psychological symptoms.

  16. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  17. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  18. Bullying in schools: the state of knowledge and effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Salmivalli, Christina

    2017-03-01

    During the school years, bullying is one of the most common expressions of violence in the peer context. Research on bullying started more than forty years ago, when the phenomenon was defined as 'aggressive, intentional acts carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him- or herself'. Three criteria are relevant in order to define aggressive behaviour as bullying: (1) repetition, (2) intentionality and (3) an imbalance of power. Given these characteristics, bullying is often defined as systematic abuse of power by peers. It is recognised globally as a complex and serious problem. In the present paper, we discuss the prevalence, age and gender differences, and various types of bullying, as well as why it happens and how long it lasts, starting from the large surveys carried out in western countries and to a lower extent in low- and middle-income countries. The prevalence rates vary widely across studies; therefore, specific attention will be devoted to the definition, time reference period and frequency criterion. We will also focus on risk factors as well as short- and long-term outcomes of bullying and victimisation. Finally, a section will be dedicated to review what is known about effective prevention of bullying.

  19. A numerical investigation into the behaviour of cracks in uPVC pipes under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Ing. This study is a numerical investigation into the behaviour of cracks in uPVC pipes under pressure. This study is a continuation of a Masters dissertation which showed that leakage exponents vary significantly from the theoretical orifice exponent of 0.5 for cracks in pipes for different materials. This study looks at the behaviour of cracks in more detail and specifically with regard to the parameters of the pipe and crack. Using Finite Element Analysis the relationship between the ...

  20. Teachers bullied by students: forms of bullying and perpetrator characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Teemu; Pörhölä, Maili

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is on the forms in which the bullying of school teachers by students manifests itself, the characteristics of the students who engage in the bullying, and the manner in which the students who engage in bullying behave in their own peer relationships. The data was gathered from primary and lower secondary school teachers by means of an Internet survey. The answers of 70 teachers who had experienced bullying by their students are examined. The teachers had been exposed to different forms of bullying by students. They had typically been bullied by male students. In most cases, the bullying had been perpetrated by an individual student or a small group of students. According to the teachers' assessment, the majority of the students who bullied them also bullied their fellow students.

  1. Cyber Bullying and Traditional Bullying: Differential Association with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Nansel, Tonja R.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The study compared levels of depression among bullies, victims and bully-victims of traditional (physical, verbal and relational) and cyber bullying, and examined the association between depression and frequency of involvement in each form of bullying. Methods A U.S. nationally-representative sample of students in grades 6 to 10 (N = 7313) completed the bullying and depression items in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey. Results Depression was associated with each of four forms of bullying. Cyber victims reported higher depression than bullies or bully-victims, a finding not observed in other forms of bullying. For physical, verbal and relational bullies, victims and bully victims, the frequently-involved group reported significantly higher level of depression than the corresponding occasionally-involved group. For cyber bullying, differences were found only between occasional and frequent victims. Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of further study of cyber bullying as its association with depression is distinct from traditional forms of bullying. PMID:21402273

  2. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. METHODS A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. RESULTS Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. CONCLUSION Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours. PMID:28401049

  3. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G

    2017-03-22

    To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours.

  4. Nuclear cooling tower submitted to shrinkage; behaviour under weight and wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witasse, R.; Georgin, J.F.; Reynouard, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical formulation to analyse nuclear cooling tower submitted to creep and shrinkage of concrete is presented in this paper. Both humidity effects and non-linear mechanical behaviour of the constitutive materials are taken into account. Moisture migration is described using a single diffusion equation in which the relative humidity is the driving force and delayed strains are obtained in a phenomenological way. To capture the time-dependent behaviour, an extension of a continuum plasticity model which incorporates viscous behaviour, has been developed and its main parameters are obtained from experimental results. The effects produced by internal stresses that result from time-dependent deformations are finally presented for nuclear tower under services loading

  5. Does the Association between Workplace Bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms differ across Educational Groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islamoska, Sabrina; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self......-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were...... not reported differently among those with experience of workplace bullying. Implementing bullying policies is an important step in promoting a healthy psychosocial working environment. All targets of workplace bullying would benefit from interventions aiming to reduce progression of PTSD symptoms.The aim...

  6. Does the Association between Workplace Bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms differ across Educational Groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Islamoska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were not reported differently among those with experience of work-place bullying. Implementing bullying policies is an important step in promoting a healthy psychosocial working environment. All targets of workplace bullying would benefit from interventions aiming to reduce progression of PTSD symptoms.

  7. School bullying, homicide and income inequality: a cross-national pooled time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Pickett, Kate E; Pickett, William; Craig, Wendy; Molcho, Michal; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Lenzi, Michela

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relation between income inequality and school bullying (perpetration, victimisation and bully/victims) and explore whether the relation is attributable to international differences in violent crime. Between 1994 and 2006, the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 117 nationally representative samples of adolescents about their involvement in school bullying over the previous 2 months. Country prevalence rates of bullying were matched to data on income inequality and homicides. With time and country differences held constant, income inequality positively related to the prevalence of bullying others at least twice (b = 0.25), victimisation by bullying at least twice (b = 0.29) and both bullied and victimisation at least twice (b = 0.40). The relation between income inequality and victimisation was partially mediated by country differences in homicides. Understanding the social determinants of school bullying facilitates anti-bullying policy by identifying groups at risk and exposing its cultural and economic influences. This study found that cross-national differences in income inequality related to the prevalence of school bullying in most age and gender groups due, in part, to a social milieu of interpersonal violence.

  8. Physiotherapy students' experiences of bullying on clinical internships: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Diana; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy

    2014-03-01

    To consider the experiences of final-year physiotherapy students who have experienced workplace bullying on a clinical internship. Qualitative methodology using individual semi-structured interviews. A university in the Midlands region of the UK. Eight undergraduate physiotherapy students who had experienced one incident of bullying on a clinical internship. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews. Four main themes were identified: (1) external and situational influences of bullying; (2) students' reactions to the experience of bullying; (3) inability to reveal the experience; and (4) overcoming problems. Bullying had a range of adverse effects on the students, with many expressing self-doubt in their competence and viewing their supervisor as unapproachable and unsupportive. Five students were not initially able to recognise the experience as bullying. In addition, students did not feel able to report the experience and use the support mechanisms in place. This may have been a result of having concerns that the problem would escalate if they reported the experience and, as a consequence, have a negative effect on their grade. Students were keen to offer a range of strategies for clinical practice in order to prevent bullying for future generations of students. Students' health, security and confidence in their ability as a physiotherapist can be at great risk from bullying. Steps are needed to ensure that students are better protected from bullying, and feel more able to address bullying behaviour during clinical internships. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Health behaviours and their facilitation under depletion conditions: the case of snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellahewa, Dilan A; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that depletion (the state ensuing from self-control exertion) engenders lapses in health behaviours. The present study tested for that effect in relation to the health behaviour of limiting snacking, and investigated whether health goal-priming might facilitate such health behaviours even under depletion conditions. A laboratory study was conducted involving an analytic sample of 85 undergraduates (mean age = 20.08, SD = 3.96; female: n= 63). Depletion was manipulated by having participants watch a humorous video while suppressing their responses (depletion condition) or remaining natural (non-depletion condition). The activation of participants' health goals was then manipulated by subtly exposing (goal-priming condition) or not exposing (non-priming condition) participants to health-related words in a Scrambled Sentence Task. Finally, snacking was measured using a bogus taste-test. Controlling for initial hunger, snacking was higher among depleted compared to non-depleted participants. Snacking was lower among primed compared to non-primed participants. The interaction between depletion and goal-priming was not significant. These findings suggest that depletion should be recognised as a risk factor for lapses in health behaviours, and that health goal-priming may be a useful technique for facilitating such behaviours even when individuals are depleted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether this differs by gender. We used data from the Slovak part of the 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The final sample comprised 8050 adolescents aged 11 to 15 years old (mean age 13.57), less than half of whom were boys. The association between self-reported body image and involvement in bullying was determined using multinomial logistic regression. We found a significant association between body dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying. Adolescents dissatisfied with their bodies because due to feeling overweight were more likely to become passive or reactive victims. Self-reported thinness was found to be significantly associated with bully-victims only in boys. Adolescent body dissatisfaction is strongly associated with bullying behaviour. Our findings point out the importance of incorporating at schools different types of intervention programmes supporting positive self-perceptions of adolescents and reducing bullying behaviour.

  11. Bullying in Elementary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Tine L. Mundbjerg; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread social phenomenon that is thought to have detrimental effects on life outcomes. This paper investigates the link between bullying and later school performance. We rely on rich survey and register-based data for children born in a region of Denmark during 1990–92, which...... allows us to carefully consider possible confounders including psychological factors. We implement an IV strategy inspired by Carrell and Hoekstra (2010) where we instrument victim status with the proportion of peers from troubled homes in one’s classroom. We show that bullied children suffer in terms...

  12. BEHAVIOUR OF BACKFILL MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  13. Correlates of self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour in children under five who are at risk of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J L; Bacarese-Hamilton, M; Davies, L E; Oliver, C

    2014-01-01

    Several behavioural correlates of self-injury, aggression and destructive behaviour have been identified in children and young adults with intellectual disabilities. This cross-sectional study aimed to further explore these correlates in very young children with developmental delay. Parents of 56 children (40 male) under the age of five years (mean age 2 years 10 months) completed a questionnaire about their child's behaviour and the presence of behavioural correlates, including repetitive, over-active or impulsive behaviour and more severe developmental delay. Parents reported very high prevalence of self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour: 51%, 64% and 51%, respectively. A binary logistic regression revealed that a higher score on a measure of overactive and impulsive behaviour significantly predicted the presence of destructive behaviour. A multiple linear regression revealed that both repetitive behaviour and number of health problems approached significance as independent predictors of severe self-injurious behaviour. Despite the very small sample, several factors emerged as potential predictors of self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour. These findings support the need for further investigation in a larger sample. Confirmation in this age group could help guide the development of targeted early intervention for these behaviours by identifying behavioural risk markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The New Age of Bullying and Violence in Health Care: Part 3: Managing the Bullying Boss and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink-Samnick, Ellen

    PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING(S):: Applicable to all health care sections where case management is practiced. This article is the third of a 4-part series on the topic of bullying in the health care workplace. Part 3 addresses the dimensions of the bullying boss and leadership, posing major implications for patient safety plus the mental health of staff members. The complex constructs and dynamics broached by the bullying boss and department leadership are explored. These include the underlying forces at play such as power, gender, leadership styles, plus weaves in assessment models. Strategic and proactive management of bullying by leadership is vital to workforce retention and well-being. The increasing incidence and impact of bullying across all sectors have made it a major workforce performance management challenge. Health care settings are especially tense environments, often making it difficult for individuals to distinguish between bullying behavior and high expectations for staff. Bullying impacts both direct targets and bystanders who witness the assaultive behaviors, with ethical implications as well.Case management is poised to promote a safe health care workplace for patients and practitioners alike amid these intricate circumstances. Understanding types of bullying bosses and leadership styles is integral to a case manager's success in the workplace.

  15. Behaviour of LWR core materials under accident conditions. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    At the invitation of the Government of the Russian Federation, following a proposal of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, the IAEA convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Behaviour of LWR Core Materials Under Accident Conditions from 9 to 13 October 1995 in Dimitrovgrad to analyze and evaluate the behaviour of LWR core materials under accident conditions with special emphasis on severe accidents. In-vessel severe accidents phenomena were considered in detail, but specialized thermal hydraulic aspects as well as ex-vessel phenomena were outside the scope of the meeting. Forty participants representing eight countries attended the meeting. Twenty-three papers were presented and discussed during five sessions. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Evaluation of the AZ31 cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour under multiaxial loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Components and structures are designed based in their material’s mechanical properties such as Young's modulus or yield stress among others. Often those properties are obtained under monotonic mechanical tests but rarely under cyclic ones. It is assumed that those properties are maintained during the material fatigue life. However, under cyclic loadings, materials tend to change their mechanical properties, which can improve their strength (material hardening or degrade their mechanical capabilities (material softening or even a mix of both. This type of material behaviour is the so-called cyclic plasticity that is dependent of several factors such as the load type, load level, and microstructure. This subject is of most importance in design of structures and components against fatigue failures in particular in the case of magnesium alloys. Magnesium alloys due to their hexagonal compact microstructure have only 3 slip planes plus 1 twining plane which results in a peculiar mechanical behaviour under cyclic loading conditions especially under multiaxial loadings. Therefore, it is necessary to have a cyclic elastic-plastic model that allows estimating the material mechanical properties for a certain stress level and loading type. In this paper it is discussed several aspects of the magnesium alloys cyclic properties under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions at several stress levels taking into account experimental data. A series of fatigue tests under strain control were performed in hour glass specimens test made of a magnesium alloy, AZ31BF. The strain/stress relation for uniaxial loadings, axial and shear was experimentally obtained and compared with the estimations obtained from the theoretical elastic-plastic models found in the state-of-the-art. Results show that the AZ31BF magnesium alloy has a peculiar mechanical behaviour, which is quite different from the steel one. Moreover, the state of the art cyclic models do not capture in

  17. Protocol for the design of an instrument to measure preadolescent children's self-report of covert aggression and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly

    2015-11-09

    Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8-12 years (grades 4-6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. What is bullying?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    Bullying can be understood as an extreme extension of an everyday social dynamic among children in school. In order to contemplate which conditions might hinder the movement from the normal flow of inclusions and exclusions to bullying, it is vital to understand the mechanisms that can cause...... marginalisation to escalate. One of the central mechanisms has to do with the fear of social exclusion as a driver for bullying practices. The concept of social exclusion anxiety is founded in a social psychological understanding of humans as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. Social embeddedness may...... of empathy will be discussed. The work on new conceptualisations of bullying practices is inspired by poststructuralist and agential realist authors such as Karen Barad, Judith Butler and Bronwyn Davies. The methodology involves analyses of interviews with and observations among children aged 10-14 as well...

  19. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS: IDENTIFYING BUYING MOTIVES FOR COOL DRINKS AMONGST SOUTH AFRICANS UNDER 35 YEARS OLD

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Edu; Iliuță Costel Negricea; Alexandru Ionescu

    2013-01-01

    The consumer is in the centre of any marketing endeavour. Finding out what the consumers (individual or organization) need, desire and demand is the starting point of a marketing approach.Our research is focused on determining consumer behaviour coordinates pertaining to cool drinks amongst South Africans under the age of 35. The findings of this study provide significant information concerning the buying motives considered when purchasing cool drinks which can be extended to other categories...

  20. A numerical investigation into the behaviour of leak openings in pipes under pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    South Africa is a water scarce country where a large number of people still are not provided with adequate water. This project will help to manage water resources in a sustainable manner that will benefit the country as a whole. This study concentrated on the behaviour of pipe materials with leak openings under different pressure conditions. The stress distribution throughout a pipe is known due to the pressures within the pipe i.e. the longitudinal and circumferential stresses as well as the...

  1. The Social, Behavioral, and Emotional Correlates of Bullying and Victimization in a School-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmaryami, Farrah N; Frick, Paul J; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kahn, Rachel E; Crapanzano, Annie M; Terranova, Andrew M

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a prevalent problem in schools that is associated with a number of negative outcomes for both the child who bullies and his or her victims. In a community sample of 284 ethnically diverse school-children (54.2 % girls) between the ages of 9 and 14 years (M = 11.28, SD = 1.82), the current study examined whether the level of victimization moderated the association between bullying and several behavioral, social, and emotional characteristics. These characteristics were specifically chosen to integrate research on distinct developmental pathways to conduct problems with research on the characteristics shown by children who bully others. Results indicated that both bullying and victimization were independently associated with conduct problems. However, there was an interaction between bullying and victimization in the prediction of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such that the association between bullying and CU traits was stronger for those lower on victimization. Further, bullying was positively associated with positive attitudes towards bullying and anger expression and neither of these associations were moderated by the level of victimization. In contrast, bullying was not associated with the child's perceived problems regulating anger, suggesting that children with higher levels of bullying admit to expressing anger but consider this emotional expression as being under their control.

  2. The contribution of callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems to bullying in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Simmonds, Elizabeth; Petrides, K V; Frederickson, Norah

    2009-04-01

    Although a lot is known about the association of conduct problems with bullying, less attention has been paid to co-occurring traits, such as callous-unemotional (CU) traits that might additionally contribute to the risk of engaging in bullying. This study investigated the contribution of CU traits to direct and indirect bullying, alongside the contributions made by conduct problems and gender. Seven hundred and four 11-13-year-olds completed self-report measures of callous-emotional traits and psychopathology, including conduct problems. Peer-report measures of direct and indirect bullying were collected from classmates. Higher levels of CU traits were associated with higher levels of direct bullying, over and above the association between bullying and conduct problems. Conduct problems and CU traits interacted in the prediction of both direct and indirect bullying. In line with previous research, males were more likely to engage in direct and females in indirect bullying. This study highlights the importance of viewing CU traits and conduct problems, not only as related phenomena, but also as distinct entities in mediating the underlying susceptibility of children to bully others directly. Furthermore, a combination of these traits appears to be a particularly potent risk factor for both direct and indirect bullying. Implications for intervention are discussed, in particular the concern that lack of empathy and insensitivity to punishment in those with CU traits may also make them particularly resistant to current forms of bullying intervention.

  3. Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary M; Cook-Fasano, Hazel T; Sibbaluca, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year. Bullying can result in emotional distress, depression, anxiety, social isolation, low self-esteem, school avoidance/refusal, and substance abuse for the victim and the bully. Preventive measures include encouraging patients to find enjoyable activities that promote confidence and self-esteem, modeling how to treat others with kindness and respect, and encouraging patients to seek positive friendships. For those who feel concern or guilt about sharing their experiences, it may be useful to explain that revealing the bullying may not only help end the cycle for them but for others as well. Once bullying has been identified, family physicians have an important role in screening for its harmful effects, such as depression and anxiety. A comprehensive, multitiered approach involving families, schools, and community resources can help combat bullying. Family physicians are integral in recognizing children and adolescents who are affected by bullying-as victims, bullies, or bully- victims-so they can benefit from the intervention process.

  4. Behaviour of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) under defensible and indefensible patterns of food delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed Heydarnejad, M.; Purser, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the behaviour of rainbow trout ( n=30), Oncorhynchus mykiss, in small raceways when either self-feeders (T2) or hand-feeding (t2) were used. The method of food delivery in T2 was defensible while that of t2 was indefensible. Fish in both raceways were subjected to restricted feeding (RF) for 25 days. Food was available in the morning (09:00-10:00) in the downstream area and in the afternoon (16:00-17:00) in the upstream area of the raceways. The results showed that the behaviour of rainbow trout was significantly different under interference competition (T2) for food compared with that under scramble competition (t2). RF in T2 fish limited food availability to meal times when feeding rewards were available while t2 fish only responded to the location of food delivery. The aggressive fish in T2 were dominant, and t2 fish at high densities showed intense social interactions under the indefensible pattern of food distribution; these interactions did not dampen to a minimum level to suppress the development of dominance hierarchies. Further, the stocking density did not break down the dominance hierarchies between the T2 fish. This suggests that decreased efficiency in the search for food or inefficient foraging, induced by interference competition at high densities, affected the behaviour of rainbow trout.

  5. #bully: Uses of Hashtags in Posts about Bullying on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Angela J.; Bellmore, Amy; Xu, Jun-Ming; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    To understand how bullying is represented within social media, the characteristics of hashtags associated with public mentions of bullying on Twitter between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 are explored in this study. The most frequently used 500 hashtags among the 552,831 distinct hashtags used with the keywords "bully,"…

  6. Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  7. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  8. Bullying at a University: Students' Experiences of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on bullying at a Finnish university. In May 2010 an e-questionnaire was sent to each university student (N?=?10,551), and 27% of these students (N?=?2,805) responded. According to the results, 5% of the university students had experienced either indirect public bullying or direct verbal bullying on campus. In most cases, the…

  9. Bullying 101: The Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bullying 101" is the Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention. A visually-friendly, age-appropriate, 16-page colorful guide for students to read or for parents to use when talking with children, this guide describes and explains what bullying is and is not, the roles of other students, and tips on what each student can do to prevent…

  10. Ballistic Behaviour of Tempered Steel Armour Plates under Plane Strain Condition .

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the ballistic behaviour of tempered steel armour plates under plane strain condition at normal angle of attack. A conical-shaped steel projectile of 6.1 mmdiameter was impacted on 20 mm thick steel annour plates of 350, 450 and 550 Hv hardness, in the velocity range 200 -700 m/s at zero obliquity. Ballistic performance measured in terms of the depthof penetration indicates that, under plane strain condition, behavio1Do" f 550 Hv steel plate is better than ...

  11. High temperature study of the control rod behaviour under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, V.; Pomeschikov, A.; Sougonjaev, V.; Ponomarenko, V.; Scheglov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Control rod behaviour under accident conditions is considered. A comparative assessment of various types of absorbers is carried out in this respect. It was found that the best absorbers are dysprosium based absorbers. Dysprosium based control rods show no failure at temperatures below 1300 deg. C. Boron based control rods may be liquefied at a temperature of 1150 deg. C. Besides, the cladding may burst at lower temperature, due to the released helium. Experiments indicate that the absorber materials may initiate severe core damage under severe accidents. The beginning of core structure degradation is caused by the boron control rod liquefaction. (author)

  12. Health correlates of workplace bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. METHODS: In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past......-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. RESULTS: Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms...... were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses...

  13. Job stress, occupational position and gender as factors differentiating workplace bullying experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Drabek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of our research broaden the knowledge concerning the correlates of mobbing. The study is aimed at finding out whether an employee's gender, his/her occupational position and level of occupational stress are related to bullying experience. Material and Methods: 1313 employees of a transport company participated in the study. The relationships between gender, occupational position, the level of stress and bullying were analysed. Bullying was measured by the use of the MDM Questionnaire, while work environment was assessed using the Subjective Assessment of Work Questionnaire. Results: It was found that women were generally more exposed to bullying than men (Z = –1.999; p < 0.05. Women experienced more bullying by their colleagues than men did (Z = –2.712; p < 0.01, in particular: bullying by colleagues that destroys the worker's image (Z = –2.922; p < 0.01 and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = –3.004; p < 0.01. Individuals with managerial jobs experienced overall bullying (Z = –2.762; p < 0.01, bullying by colleagues (Z = –0.014; p < 0.05 and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = –2.260; p < 0.05 more often than the individuals with non-management positions. The results of the study also indicated that employees with higher level of stress in comparison with less stressed co-workers reported more incidents of bullying behaviour (overall bullying – Z = –8.171; p < 0.001, bullying by colleagues – Z = –7.114; p < 0.001, bullying by supervisors – Z = –6.716; p < 0.001, all types of behaviour – p < 0.001. Conclusions: Comparing the results of our study to the previous research, it seems that the pattern of relationships between individual characteristics and bullying is rooted in the wider cultural context, the specificity of the company, its organisational culture as well as its situation. Therefore it's difficult to talk about irrefutable individual

  14. Job stress, occupational position and gender as factors differentiating workplace bullying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, Marcin; Merecz, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The results of our research broaden the knowledge concerning the correlates of mobbing. The study is aimed at finding out whether an employee's gender, his/her occupational position and level of occupational stress are related to bullying experience. 1313 employees of a transport company participated in the study. The relationships between gender, occupational position, the level of stress and bullying were analysed. Bullying was measured by the use of the MD)M Questionnaire, while work environment was assessed using the Subjective Assessment of Work Questionnaire. It was found that women were generally more exposed to bullying than men (Z = -1.999; p < 0.05). Women experienced more bullying by their colleagues than men did (Z = -2.712; p < 0.01), in particular: bullying by colleagues that destroys the worker's image (Z = -2.922; p < 0.01) and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = -3.004; p < 0.01). Individuals with managerial jobs experienced overall bullying (Z = -2.762; p < 0.01), bullying by colleagues (Z = -0.014; p < 0.05) and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = -2.260; p < 0.05) more often than the individuals with non-management positions. The results of the study also indicated that employees with higher level of stress in comparison with less stressed co-workers reported more incidents of bullying behaviour (overall bullying--Z = -8.171; p < 0.001, bullying by colleagues - Z = -7.114; p < 0.001, bullying by supervisors--Z = -6.716; p < 0.001, all types of behaviour - p < 0.001). Comparing the results of our study to the previous research, it seems that the pattern of relationships between individual characteristics and bullying is rooted in the wider cultural context, the specificity of the company, its organisational culture as well as its situation. Therefore it's difficult to talk about irrefutable individual correlates of bullying at work.

  15. Bullying, Genealogy of the Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem among children in schools and institutions. However, it is only relatively recently that bullying has emerged as a field of research, although the phenomenon itself has likely existed in various forms among children for as long as mankind has walked the earth....... The genealogy of bullying as a concept has taken the understanding of bullying in different directions with a varying emphasis on either the roles played by individuals (victims and perpetrators) or on social and relational aspects....

  16. Perilaku Bullying Pada Mahasiswa Berasrama

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Mangadar

    2012-01-01

    Students' bullying characteristics phenomena has become a concern because educational institution where educative individuals are being train has in fact become a place of bullying. Bullying is an act of hurting someone done by an individual or group. Bullying is not limited to a community or educational institutional, such as a university, as a whole, but it happened in a narrower area that is related to a campus – dormitory. Dormitory, a place conducive for learning is a social laboratory, ...

  17. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health correlates of workplace bullying: a 3-wave prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias; Persson, Roger; Hogh, Annie; Willert, Morten Vejs; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past 6-12 months and data on health characteristics were obtained by self-reports. We identified major depression using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interviews and the Major Depression Inventory. We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of outcomes according to self-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses adjusting for bullying during follow-up, all health correlates except poor sleep quality persisted up to four years. Self-reported health correlates of workplace bullying including sick-listing, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and a diagnosis of depression tend to persist for several years regardless of whether bullying is discontinued or not. Independent measures of bullying and outcomes are needed to learn whether these findings reflect long lasting health consequences of workplace bullying or whether self-labelled workplace bullying and health complaints are correlated because of common underlying factors.

  19. Obesity and bullying: different effects for boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, L J; Wolke, D; Page, A S; Horwood, J P

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether weight category (underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese) at age 7.5 predicts bullying involvement at 8.5 years. Models were tested separately for boys and girls to investigate gender differences in association patterns. Prospective cohort study in southwest England. Height and weight were measured in children at age 7.5 (n = 8210). BMI (kg/m2) was used to define underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese children, according to British age and gender specific growth reference data. Overt (n = 7083) and relational (n = 6932) bullying behaviour was assessed in children at age 8.5. After adjustment for parental social class, compared to average weight boys, obese boys were 1.66 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.66) times more likely to be overt bullies and 1.54 (1.12 to 2.13) times more likely to be overt victims. Obese girls were 1.53 (1.09 to 2.15) times more likely to be overt victims compared to average weight girls. Obesity is predictive of bullying involvement for both boys and girls. Preadolescent obese boys and girls are more likely to be victims of bullying because they deviate from appearance ideals. Other obese boys are likely to be bullies, presumably because of their physical dominance in the peer group.

  20. Evolution of fuel rod support under irradiation impact on the mechanical behaviour of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, Antoine; Waeckel, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    New fuel management targets imply to increase fuel assembly discharge burnup. Therefore, the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of the irradiated fuel assembly is essential such as excessive fuel assembly distortion induce incomplete Rod Cluster Control Assembly insertion problems (safety issue) or fuel rod vibration induced wear leading to leaking rods (plant operation problems). Within this framework, one of the most important parameter is the knowledge of the fuel rod support in the grid cell because it directly governs the mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly and consequently allows to predict the behaviour of irradiated structures in terms of (1) axial and lateral deformation (global behaviour of the assembly) and (2) rod vibration induced wear (local behaviour of the rod). Generally, fuel rod support is provided by a spring-dimple system fixed to the grid. During irradiation, the spring force decreases and a gap between the rod and the spring may occur. This phenomenon is due to (1) stress relieving in the spring and in the dimples, (2) grid growth and (3) reduction of the rod diameter. Two models have been developed to predict the behaviour of the rod in the cell. The first model is dedicated to the evaluation of the spring force relaxation during irradiation. The second one can assess the rotation characteristic of the fuel rod in the cell, function of the spring force. The main input parameters are (1) the creep laws of the grid materials, (2) the growth law of the grid, (3) the evolution of rod diameter and (4) the design of the fuel rod support. The aim of this paper is to: (1) evaluate the consequences of grid support design modifications on the rod vibration sensitivity in terms of predicted rod to grid maximum gap during irradiation and time in operation with an open rod to grid gap, (2) evaluate, using a linear or non-linear Finite Element assembly model, the impact of the evolution of grid support under irradiation on the overall mechanical

  1. On the behaviour characterization of metallic cellular materials under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dai-Ning; Li, Yu-Long; Zhao, Han

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews the common mechanical features of the metallic cellular material under impact loading as well as the characterization methods of such behaviours. The main focus is on the innovations of various testing methods at impact loading rates. Following aspects were discussed in details. (1) The use of soft nylon Hopkinson/Kolsky bar for an enhanced measuring accuracy in order to assess if there is a strength enhancement or not for this class of cellular materials under moderate impact loading; (2) The use of digital image correlations to determine the strain fields during the tests to confirm the existence of a pseudo-shock wave propagation inside the cellular material under high speed impact; (3) The use of new combined shear compression device to determine the loading envelop of cellular materials under impact multiaxial loadings.

  2. Addressing Bullying: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Bradford C.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…

  3. Mapping the Landscapes of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana; Schmidtlein, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Past bullying research has consistently identified common locations (e.g. bathrooms, hallways, playgrounds) on school campuses where bullying occurs, but not specific locations. This limitation does not allow researchers to take into account the unique geography of individual schools and how it contributes to bullying. A random sample of 741 grade…

  4. Dealing with Bullying (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Bullying KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Bullying What's in ... Print en español Cómo reaccionar ante la intimidación Bullying Is a Big Problem Every day thousands of ...

  5. Educators' Understanding of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens of a two- dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59…

  6. Antidepressant-Resistant Depression and Antidepressant-Associated Suicidal Behaviour: The Role of Underlying Bipolarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Rihmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex relationship between the use of antidepressants and suicidal behaviour is one of the hottest topics of our contemporary psychiatry. Based on the literature, this paper summarizes the author's view on antidepressant-resistant depression and antidepressant-associated suicidal behaviour. Antidepressant-resistance, antidepressant-induced worsening of depression, antidepressant-associated (hypomanic switches, mixed depressive episode, and antidepressant-associated suicidality among depressed patients are relatively most frequent in bipolar/bipolar spectrum depression and in children and adolescents. As early age at onset of major depressive episode and mixed depression are powerful clinical markers of bipolarity and the manic component of bipolar disorder (and possible its biological background shows a declining tendency with age antidepressant-resistance/worsening, antidepressant-induced (hypomanic switches and “suicide-inducing” potential of antidepressants seem to be related to the underlying bipolarity.

  7. Non-equilibrium behaviour in coacervate-based protocells under electric-field-induced excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yudan; Niu, Lin; Zhu, Xiaocui; Zhao, Meiping; Zhang, Zexin; Mann, Stephen; Liang, Dehai

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous strategies are now available to generate rudimentary forms of synthetic cell-like entities, minimal progress has been made in the sustained excitation of artificial protocells under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we demonstrate that the electric field energization of coacervate microdroplets comprising polylysine and short single strands of DNA generates membrane-free protocells with complex, dynamical behaviours. By confining the droplets within a microfluidic channel and applying a range of electric field strengths, we produce protocells that exhibit repetitive cycles of vacuolarization, dynamical fluctuations in size and shape, chaotic growth and fusion, spontaneous ejection and sequestration of matter, directional capture of solute molecules, and pulsed enhancement of enzyme cascade reactions. Our results highlight new opportunities for the study of non-equilibrium phenomena in synthetic protocells, provide a strategy for inducing complex behaviour in electrostatically assembled soft matter microsystems and illustrate how dynamical properties can be activated and sustained in microcompartmentalized media.

  8. Electrical behaviour of carbon nanotubes under low-energy proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, Elisabeth; Schüler, Tilman; Klosz, Stefan; Starruß, Elisa; Pilz, Wolfgang; Böttger, Roman; Kluge, Oliver; Schmiel, Tino; Tajmar, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Several applications for carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been proposed for space applications in the last years. However, their behaviour in the harsh space environment is mostly unknown. Energetic particles such as protons can influence the material degradation in space. This material damage could result in a system failure of space systems. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the performance of new materials under proton irradiation. Screen and jet printed disordered single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes/resin composites (ME) were exposed to 1 keV, 15 keV and 100 keV protons. The electrical behaviour of the CNT conductor paths was measured during the experiment. After this exposure, the CNTs were analyzed using Raman scattering and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Their is a clear evidence that proton radiation can destroy carbon nanotubes and influence their electrical performance.

  9. Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and breakfast skipping among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393

  11. Exploring leadership capability and emotional intelligence as moderators of workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Marie; Hurley, John

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential for emotionally intelligent leadership as a way to mitigate bullying behaviour within nursing workplace environments. As the body of evidence about bullying continues to grow there is an increasing need for researchers to direct their attention to developing theoretical frameworks that explain how bullying and victimization occur, and the types of strategies that may address the problem. The narrative synthesis of the literature presented in this paper is forwarded as supporting the need for strengthening leadership capability, especially those capabilities associated with emotional intelligence, as a means of diminishing experienced bullying within nursing. Stemming from our expanding understandings about bullying is an appreciation of the range of factors within organizations that influence the occurrence of bullying, and an awareness of the need to understand the expression, experience and management of emotions in the workplace. While both leadership and emotional intelligence capabilities offer real potential to mitigate bullying behaviour, disparity exits between clinical and managerial nurses toward preferred leadership styles and emotional intelligence is open to challenges towards its content validity. Nursing management is challenged to build upon procedural responses to bullying to include a ground up approach to leadership enhancement capability, better responses to emotions in the workplace and supporting the interpersonal and intrapersonal capabilities of the nursing workforce. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. TEACHERS' KNOWLEDGE OF BULLYING AND THEIR ANTI-BULLYING ATTITUDE

    OpenAIRE

    Yzedin Hajdaraj

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that bullying is a serious problem in schools. Teachers are the ones who play an important role in stopping bullying in schools. It is essential to understand what teachers know about bullying, what their attitude towards it is and how they implement the anti-bullying policy. The attitudes of teachers and the culture they nurture will influence which anti-bullying strategies they will use which can benefit the school. In this context, based on the literature review, this pap...

  13. Tensile behaviour of geopolymer-based materials under medium and high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Costantino; Asprone, Domenico; Forni, Daniele; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Bozza, Anna; Prota, Andrea; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Geopolymers are a promising class of inorganic materials typically obtained from an alluminosilicate source and an alkaline solution, and characterized by an amorphous 3-D framework structure. These materials are particularly attractive for the construction industry due to mechanical and environmental advantages they exhibit compared to conventional systems. Indeed, geopolymer-based concretes represent a challenge for the large scale uses of such a binder material and many research studies currently focus on this topic. However, the behaviour of geopolymers under high dynamic loads is rarely investigated, even though it is of a fundamental concern for the integrity/vulnerability assessment under extreme dynamic events. The present study aims to investigate the effect of high dynamic loading conditions on the tensile behaviour of different geopolymer formulations. The dynamic tests were performed under different strain rates by using a Hydro-pneumatic machine and a modified Hopkinson bar at the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The results are processed in terms of stress-strain relationships and strength dynamic increase factor at different strain-rate levels. The dynamic increase factor was also compared with CEB recommendations. The experimental outcomes can be used to assess the constitutive laws of geopolymers under dynamic load conditions and implemented into analytical models.

  14. Crack Growth Behaviour of P92 Steel Under Creep-fatigue Interaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING Hong-yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Creep-fatigue interaction tests of P92 steel at 630℃ under stress-controlled were carried out, and the crack propagation behaviour of P92 steel was studied. The fracture mechanism of crack growth under creep-fatigue interaction and the transition points in a-N curves were analyzed based on the fracture morphology. The results show that the fracture of P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is creep ductile fracture and the (Ctavg parameter is employed to demonstrate the crack growth behaviour; in addition, the fracture morphology shows that the crack growth for P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is mainly caused by the nucleation and growth of the creep voids and micro-cracks. Furthermore, the transition point of a-lg(Ni/Nf curve corresponds to the turning point of initial crack growth changed into steady crack growth while the transition point of (da/dN-N curve exhibits the turning point of steady creep crack growth changed into the accelerated crack growth.

  15. Effect of Rational Emotive Theraphy in the Reduction of Bullying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a growing recognition of the widespread prevalence and serious harm of bullying in schools. Governments, teachers, educators and parents alike are not comfortable, particularly as youth behaviours begin to disrupt their families, social interactions and performance in schools.

  16. Apprenticeship Bullying in the Building and Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggall, Michaela; Skues, Jason; Wise, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the definition, prevalence, antecedents, consequences and coping behaviours associated with apprenticeship bullying in the building and construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprises 13 participants aged between 22 and 27 (M = 23.8, SD = 1.26) who were all men who had…

  17. Spotlight on Ethics: Institutional Review Boards as Systemic Bullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Caleb T.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying, often considered an interpersonal or intergroup behaviour, has not been explored as an unintended artefact of organisational structure. Institutional review boards (IRBs), the 'human research ethics committees' at US universities, help oversee the protection of human research subjects, particularly in the social sciences within…

  18. Perilaku Bullying pada Mahasiswa Berasrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangadar Simbolon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students’ bullying characteristics phenomena has become a concern because educational institution where educative individuals are being train has in fact become a place of bullying. Bullying is an act of hurting someone done by an individual or group. Bullying is not limited to a community or educational institutional, such as a university, as a whole, but it happened in a narrower area that is related to a campus – dormitory. Dormitory, a place conducive for learning is a social laboratory, with an educative, social, moral and regeneration function. Based on the statistical data of bullying cases of university A, released by the office of the student affairs in 2008, it was found out that there are 1 or 2 cases every semester. Bullies usually consist of 1 to 8 students.To know the types of bullying, factors and affects that causes the act on the victims and dormitory community, and efforts of prevention. A qualitative research was done to dig deep into the real picture of bullying. An interview and discussions were done toward 14 reseach subject. Sources and methodology triangular were done to validate the data. Data analysis was done using the open coding steps. Bullying causes factors in university A is the same in general that is seniority factor, imitating the past experiences. Seniors expect themselves to be honored and problem occurred when juniors dishonored them. Bullies bullied because they were once victims, therefore bullying is somehow done as an act of revenge. Bullying acts occurred in dormitory of university A in Bandung. Anti-bullying systems designed by the university are: Religious understanding development, religious teaching implementation, uplifting moral values. Others things done are improving students’ controlling system by the dormitory deans and monitors (dormitory workers. Keywords: bullying, dormitory, students

  19. Bully, bullied and abused. Associations between violence at home and bullying in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Steven; Jernbro, Carolina; Tindberg, Ylva; Janson, Staffan

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to examine experiences of bullying among Swedish adolescents and whether victims and perpetrators were also exposed to violence in the home, with particular focus on how abuse severity affected the risk of exposure to bullying. A nationally representative sample of pupils aged 14-15 responded to a questionnaire exploring exposure to corporal punishment and other types of violence. Results were analysed using Pearson's chi-square and multiple logistic regression, adjusting for factors regarding the child, the parents and the families' socioeconomic status. Among the 3197 respondents, a significant proportion reported at least one incident of either bullying victimisation (girls 36%, boys 26%) or bullying perpetration (girls 24%, boys 36%). Physical and emotional violence in the home, including witnessed intimate partner violence, were significantly associated with both bullying victimisation and bullying perpetration. Odds ratios for exposure to bullying rose with increasing frequency and severity of abuse. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 for any event of abuse vs. single episodes of bullying to 20.3 for multiple types of abuse vs. many episodes of bullying. The child's gender and the presence of a chronic health condition were consistently associated with nearly all levels of abuse and bullying. Bullying experiences are common among youth and are clearly associated with abuse. Frequent bullying, whether as victim or perpetrator, warrants particular vigilance, as it appears to be an indicator of severe violence in the home. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Repetition, Power Imbalance, and Intentionality: Do These Criteria Conform to Teenagers' Perception of Bullying? A Role-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The criteria that researchers use to classify aggressive behaviour as bullying are "repetition", "power imbalance", and "intent to hurt". However, studies that have analyzed adolescents' perceptions of bullying find that most adolescents do not simultaneously consider these three criteria. This paper examines adolescents' perceptions of bullying…

  1. PENGETAHUAN GURU TENTANG BULLYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziyah Indahyani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat pengetahuan guru sekolah dasar tentang bullying di kecamatan Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan tes pengetahuan, subjek penelitiannya adalah guru sekolah dasar di Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. Teknik pengambilan sampel data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah clustered sampling. Jumlah populasi penelitian adalah 403 guru dari sekolah dasar di kecamatan Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. 40% di antaranya diambil sebagai sampel, sehingga sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 130 guru sekolah dasar dari kecamatan Sokaraja, Banyumas kabupaten Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan guru tentang bullying rata-rata, hal ini ditunjukkan dalam analisis yang menunjukkan bahwa 130 guru sekolah dasar, 92 di antaranya 70,77% kategori rata-rata dalam mengetahui bullying verbal (70,77%. Sedangkan untuk pengetahuan bullying fisik, dari 130 guru, 91 guru atau 70,00% dikategorikan ke tingkat rata-rata. Kemudian, dari 130 guru sekolah dasar, 70,00% dikategorikan ke dalam pengetahuan rata-rata yang berhubungan dengan pengetahuan mental. Kata kunci: Pengetahuan tentang Bullying, Guru Sekolah Dasar

  2. BULLYING NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aparecida Grillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to conduct an analysis and reflection of one of the important issues which it is education: bullying, because it is a violence that occurs in the school of repetitive and deliberate manner in which its consequences can cause damage significant to emotional training, psychological and socio-educational of the victim, if the student. Note that bullying is increasing in epidemic form in schools and its effects are traumatizing students to witness and those who suffer the action, because it is violence with deliberate and repetitive character. In terms of overall objective, conduct yourself will this article in order to obtain information about bullying in the school environment, more specifically will address: The Bullying conceptions; Investigate the causes and consequences can be seen in the behavior of students; To study the key players of Bullying in school. Thus, it is a qualitative methodological approach that will make the use of literature by various authors for the issue of deepening. It resulted contribute in the actions of professionals in the face of violence. Therefore, it is concluded that the school is a place of learning, where change is necessary, both in order to act as the thinking of people and students.

  3. Investigation into the behaviour of concrete anchored diaphragm walls under earthquake condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, H. R.; Rahaii, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are frequently used in civil Engineering projects. Considering the variety and important volume of consumed materials (concrete, anchors and soil), one of the important factors for design and construction of these walls, are their behaviour under different executive, and loading conditions. In this paper, various models of concrete diaphragms with different number of anchors and soil parameters under static and dynamic loading have been investigated using finite element method with nonlinear models. Results including the internal forces in diaphragm walls, variation of forces in the anchors, shape of the sliding surface and variation of pressure in soil are obtained and compared. An experimental tool with suitable measurement systems for determining the pressure and internal forces was designed and realised. Also with similitude and dimensional analyses, diaphragms with different number of anchors were built and set on the shaking table test and experimented under different accelograms. Finally results of nonlinear dynamic analysis were compared with experimental results

  4. Strengthening Elementary School Bully Prevention with Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Moulton, Emily; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Brown, Alec

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of bullying are both widespread and severe. It disrupts learning, threatens school safety, and poses long-term emotional repercussions for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Although multiple strategies have targeted bullying, bullying must be understood within a social contextual framework beyond the bully-victim dyad. Davis and…

  5. Comparative study of power mosfet behaviour under the influence of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarac, J.; Manson, S.

    1986-01-01

    In space applications, such as in converters, the use of MOSPOWER FETS seems to be an interesting solution. Nevertheless, it is necessary to know the behaviour of this kind of component under the influence of ionizing radiations. Those transistors which are made with MOS structures are very susceptible to hard irradiation; when ionizing is absorbed in this structure, electron-hole pairs and created which induce a degradation of the electrical parameters. Ionizing which is located at the interface silicon-oxyde tends to modify the bias conditions. Due to the diversity of technologies proposed by the manufacturers, comparative tests have been made [fr

  6. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whe......PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  7. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2017-11-29

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The thrill of bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2018-01-01

    effects in school groups saturated with bullying practices. Ridicule appears to be widespread, very much feared, and not amenable to adult interventions. With this article I look into the many and frequently subtle ways humour intertwines itself in relational practices among children, with a particular...... view towards children in groups plagued by bullying and social tension. I focus on the entanglement of humour in the complex manoeuvrings that characterise children’s worlds, and the subtle mechanisms involved in the self-regulation of their communities in and outside schools. The analyses, concepts...

  9. Bullying: Conhecer para Prevenir

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete Fernandes; Sónia Henriques; Susana Mendes; Esperança Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    O bullying é um fenómeno que suscita a apreensão de toda a sociedade. Deste modo, enquanto pais, educadores e profissionais, devemos reconhecer que a violência entre pares em meio escolar afeta gravemente o desenvolvimento saudável das crianças. Conhecer e identificar as causas que estão na origem do bullying, bem como as consequências que este comportamento acarreta no desenvolvimento psicossocial dos seus alvos, é fundamental para melhor intervir. Proteger as crianças e jovens de hoje contr...

  10. Bullied at school, bullied at work: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas; Hansen, Claus D

    2015-10-12

    The consequences of childhood bullying victimisation are serious. Much previous research on risk factors for being bullied has used a cross-sectional design, impeding the possibility to draw conclusions on causality, and has not considered simultaneous effects of multiple risk factors. Paying closer attention to multiple risk factors for being bullying can provide a basis for designing intervention programmes to prevent or reduce bullying among children and adolescents. Risk factors for bullying were examined by using questionnaire data collected in 2004 and 2007. In 2004, the participants were aged 14-15 years and 17-18 years in 2007. The baseline questionnaire was answered by 3054 individuals in 2004, and 2181 individuals participated in both rounds. We analysed risk factors for being bullied at the individual and societal level. Information on the social background of the participants was derived from a national register at Statistics Denmark. Several risk factors were identified. Being obese, low self-assessed position in school class, overprotective parents, low self-esteem, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied at school. Being overweight, smoking, low self-assessed position in class, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied at work. However, most associations between risk factors in 2004 and being bullied in 2007 disappeared after adjustment for being bullied in 2004. The strongest risk factor for being bullied was being previously bullied. Our results stress the importance of early prevention of bullying at schools. In addition, attention should be drawn to the role of overprotective parents.

  11. The behaviour of consolidated volcanic tuffs: weathering mechanisms under simulated laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stück, H.; Forgó, L. Z.; Rüdrich, J.; Siegesmund, S.; Török, Á.

    2008-12-01

    Five volcanic tuffs ranging from dacitic tuffs of Hungary to rhyolite, phonolite and basaltic tuffs of Germany were consolidated under laboratory conditions. Prior to consolidation an anti-hygro, a hydrous consolidant, which reduces the swelling ability of clay minerals, was applied. The three consolidants, a silicic acid ester (SAE), an elastic silicic acid ester (eSAE) and an acrylate resin (PMMA) were applied on test specimens under vacuum. Petrographic characterisation (polarizing microscopy, XRD, SEM) provided data for fabric analyses and the mineral composition of the tuffs. Changes in fabric, effective porosity, density, tensile strength, ultrasonic wave velocity were evaluated after the treatment. Weathering simulation tests such as hygric dilatation and thermal dilatation aimed to prove the effectiveness of consolidation and the durability of consolidated tuff samples. More than 500 samples were analysed. The tests showed that SAE caused the highest increase in indirect tensile strength. The water absorption and the pore size distribution of the tuffs were modified by consolidation. The PMMA reduced the water absorption the most, whereas SAE modified it the least. All the tested consolidants increased the thermal dilatation of the tuffs. The changes in hygric dilatation were not uniform: for most tuffs SAE increased and PMMA decreased the hygric dilatation, although the clay-rich Habichtswald tuff showed the opposite trend. The changes in hygric and thermal behaviour of consolidated tuff require special care when specific consolidants are chosen. These products modify the physical properties of consolidated tuffs and change the behaviour of weathering.

  12. Behaviour and failure of C-Mn steel in presence of ageing under strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotteau Schroeder, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    As carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steels are largely used in various mechanical applications, and more particularly in secondary circuit pipes of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWR), this research thesis reports the behaviour and failure modelling of such a steel within a large temperature domain (between 20 and 350 deg C). Tensile tests have been performed on smooth samples and on notches axisymmetric samples, and tear tests have been performed on CT samples. The model of Es trin Kubin-McCormick which takes ageing under strain into account has been used to simulate most of the effects of ageing under strain: negative sensitivity of flow stress to strain rate, Luders bands, PLC effect, modification of tensile mechanical properties, so on. The model is applied to the considered samples. In order to predict the failure of notched specimens, a failure local approach has been applied [fr

  13. High-Velocity Impact Behaviour of Prestressed Composite Plates under Bird Strike Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of the response of laminated composite plates under high-velocity impact loads of soft body gelatine projectiles (artificial birds is presented. The plates are exposed to tensile and compressive preloads before impact in order to cover realistic loading conditions of representative aeronautic structures under foreign object impact. The modelling methodology for the composite material, delamination interfaces, impact projectile, and preload using the commercial finite element code Abaqus are presented in detail. Finally, the influence of prestress and of different delamination modelling approaches on the impact response is discussed and a comparison to experimental test data is given. Tensile and compressive preloading was found to have an influence on the damage pattern. Although this general behaviour could be predicted well by the simulations, further numerical challenges for improved bird strike simulation accuracy are highlighted.

  14. The role of family and school-level factors in bullying and cyberbullying: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Leonardo; Shackleton, Nichola; Hale, Daniel; Allen, Elizabeth; Bond, Lyndal; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Fletcher, Adam; Jones, Rebecca; Miners, Alec; Scott, Stephen; Wiggins, Meg; Bonell, Chris; Viner, Russell M

    2017-07-11

    Bullying and cyberbullying are common phenomena in schools. These negative behaviours can have a significant impact on the health and particularly mental health of those involved in such behaviours, both as victims and as bullies. This UK study aims to investigate student-level and school-level characteristics of those who become involved in bullying and cyberbullying behaviours as victims or perpetrators. We used data from 6667 Year 7 students from the baseline survey of a cluster randomized trial in 40 English schools to investigate the associations between individual-level and school-level variables with bullying victimization, cyberbullying perpetration, and cyberbullying victimization. We ran multilevel models to examine associations of bullying outcomes with individual-level variables and school-level variables. In multilevel models, at the school level, school type and school quality measures were associated with bullying risk: students in voluntary-aided schools were less likely to report bullying victimization (0.6 (0.4, 0.9) p = 0.008), and those in community (3.9 (1.5, 10.5) p = 0.007) and foundation (4.0 (1.6, 9.9) p = 0.003) schools were more likely to report being perpetrators of cyberbullying than students in mainstream academies. A school quality rating of "Good" was associated with greater reported bullying victimization (1.3 (1.02, 1.5) p = 0.03) compared to ratings of "Outstanding." Bullying victimization and cyberbullying prevalence vary across school type and school quality, supporting the hypothesis that organisational/management factors within the school may have an impact on students' behaviour. These findings will inform future longitudinal research investigating which school factors and processes promote or prevent bullying and cyberbullying behaviours. Trial ID: ISRCTN10751359 Registered: 11/03/2014 (retrospectively registered).

  15. Primary School Teachers and Parents Perception of Peer Bullying Among Children in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Somaieh; Patel, Ahmed; Taghavi, Mona; Pooravari, Minoo

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to recognize bullying behavior in the students in Iran and analyze the perception of school teachers and parents in this regard. Several semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted with four teachers and eight parents of children involved in bully/victim problems and the analysis was interpreted through established comparative evaluation methods. Iranian teachers and the parents perceived bullying mainly as physical and verbal attacks with little understanding of the psychological factors. They emphasized that the underlying influence of religious beliefs should also be considered in the context of bullying among Iranian society due to the strict conformance applied by parents upon their child. Based on the outcomes of the study, it is recommended that the teachers participate in anti-bullying programs orientated to prevent bullying behaviors and develop strong supportive relationship with parents to reduce this behavior through personal contacts and interactive workshops.

  16. Experiences of social exclusion and bullying at school among children and youth with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; McPherson, Amy C

    2012-01-01

    Although bullying amongst typically developing school-aged children has been well explored, it is under-researched for children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of exclusion and bullying among children with disabilities. We draw on qualitative in-depth interviews and a focus group with children and youth with disabilities (n = 15) to explore their experiences of exclusion and bullying. Our results showed that restrictions in the socio-contextual environment influenced the social exclusion that children experienced. Youth encountered social exclusion from both teachers and peers. Children reported that teachers' attitudes toward children with disabilities often influenced the social exclusion experienced by peers. Bullies engaged in both implicit and explicit forms of social exclusion toward children with disabilities which often lead to verbal and physical bullying. Children with cerebral palsy are victims of bullying and social exclusion within the school context. More opportunities for social inclusion are needed.

  17. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  18. Role of Brittle Behaviour of Soft Calcarenites Under Low Confinement: Laboratory Observations and Numerical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Andriani, Gioacchino Francesco

    2017-07-01

    The strength decay that occurs in the post-peak stage, under low confinement stress, represents a key factor of the stress-strain behaviour of rocks. However, for soft rocks this issue is generally underestimated or even neglected in the solution of boundary value problems, as for example those concerning the stability of underground cavities or rocky cliffs. In these cases, the constitutive models frequently used in limit equilibrium analyses or more sophisticated numerical calculations are, respectively, rigid-plastic or elastic-perfectly plastic. In particular, most of commercial continuum-based numerical codes propose a variety of constitutive models, including elasticity, elasto-plasticity, strain-softening and elasto-viscoplasticity, which are not exhaustive in simulating the progressive failure mechanisms affecting brittle rock materials, these being characterized by material detachment and crack opening and propagation. As a consequence, a numerical coupling with mechanical joint propagation is needed to cope with fracture mechanics. Therefore, continuum-based applications that treat the simulation of the failure processes of intact rock masses at low stress levels may need the adoption of numerical techniques capable of implementing fracture mechanics and rock brittleness concepts, as it is shown in this paper. This work is aimed at highlighting, for some applications of rock mechanics, the essential role of post-peak brittleness of soft rocks by means of the application of a hybrid finite-discrete element method. This method allows for a proper simulation of the brittle rock behaviour and the related mechanism of fracture propagation. In particular, the paper presents two ideal problems, represented by a shallow underground cave and a vertical cliff, for which the evolution of the stability conditions is investigated by comparing the solutions obtained implementing different brittle material responses with those resulting from the assumption of perfectly

  19. [Cyber-bullying in adolescents: associated psychosocial problems and comparison with school bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, V; Fontaine, R; Huré, K; Rusch, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents engaged in cyber-bullying and then to identify whether students involved in cyber- and school bullying present the same characteristics of internalizing problems (insomnia, perceived social disintegration, psychological distress) and externalizing problems (general aggressiveness, antisocial behavior). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 738 adolescents from a high-school and a middle-school (mean age=14.8 ± 2.7). The Electronic Bullying Questionnaire and the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire were used to identify profiles of cyber-bullying (cyber-victim, cyber-bully, cyber-bully/victim and cyber-neutral) and school bullying (victim, bully, bully/victim and neutral). Internalizing problems were investigated using the Athens Insomnia Scale, a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing problems were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. Almost one student in four was involved in cyber-bullying (16.4% as cyber-victim, 4.9% as cyber-bully and 5.6% as cyber-bully/victim); 14% of our sample was engaged in school bullying as a victim, 7.2% as a bully and 2.8% as a bully/victim. The majority of adolescents involved in cyber-bullying were not involved in school bullying. With regard to the problems associated with school bullying, internalizing problems were more prevalent in victims and bully/victims, whereas externalizing problems were more common in bullies and bully/victims. A similar pattern was found in cyber-bullying where internalizing problems were characteristic of cyber-victims and cyber-bully/victims. Insomnia was elevated in the cyber-bully group which is specific to cyberbullying. General aggressiveness and antisocial behavior were more prevalent in cyber-bullies and cyber-bully/victims. Looking at the differences between types of bullying, victims of "school only" and "school and cyber

  20. School bullying from a sociocultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maunder, Rachel E.; Crafter, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    School bullying is an important concern. Whilst there is growing knowledge about the nature, extent and effects of school bullying, areas of complexity in research findings remain. In this paper we develop our thinking on school bullying using a sociocultural theoretical framework. We review existing literature around three main themes: 1) The conceptualisation and interpretation of bullying; 2) The relational aspects of bullying 3) Bullying as part of someone's life trajectory. For each them...

  1. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  2. No Place for Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James

    2010-01-01

    After a tragic event, suicide, or violent act of revenge that occurs as a result of frequent bullying, the public is outraged at school employees who they think did nothing to prevent it. The public asks the obvious questions: How come nobody cared enough to do something to stop it? How could the staff be so heartless and callous? Where were the…

  3. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  4. The Bully Roundup

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-12-27

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about things you can do to deal with bullying.  Created: 12/27/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 12/27/2011.

  5. Obesity as a determinant of two forms of bullying in Ontario youth: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukaswadia, Atif; Craig, Wendy; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2011-01-01

    Obesity can have negative effects in terms of stigma and discriminatory behavior. Past cross-sectional analyses have shown that overweight and obese youths are more likely to be involved in bullying. Here, we examine such relationships in a longitudinal analysis. Study outcomes were self-reports of: i) physical bullying victimization and perpetration and ii) relational bullying victimization and perpetration. Participants were administered the Health Behaviour in School-Age Children Survey in 2006 and then again in 2007, and included 1,738 youths from 17 Ontario high schools. Relationships between adiposity and each of the four forms of bullying were evaluated using multi-level analyses. Excess adiposity was shown to precede bullying involvement in this study. Obese and overweight males reported 2-fold increases in both physical and relational victimization, while obese females reported 3-fold increases in perpetration of relational bullying. Among those free of bullying at baseline (2006), significant increases in perpetration of relational bullying were reported by obese females in 2007 relative to normal-weight females (14.8 vs. 3.8% among normal-weight girls; p = 0.02). Findings are congruent with previous cross-sectional studies and confirm that obese youths are at increased risk of social consequences attributable to their appearance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of zinc deposits obtained under pulse current electrodeposition: Effects of coumarin as additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Ricq, L.; Douglade, J.; Bercot, P.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of zinc deposits obtained under pulsed current electrodeposition from an acidic chloride bath in the presence and absence of coumarin has been investigated. The effects of pulse peak current density (J p ) on the morphology of zinc deposits were studied by scanning electron microscopy. An increase in J p from 40 to 280 A dm -2 yields deposits with a finer grain size. The refinement of the grain size was more considerable in the presence of coumarin (J p = 280 A dm -2 ). The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was studied by X-ray diffraction. At J p = 40 A dm -2 , the preferred orientation of zinc deposits was (1 0 3) and changed to (0 0 2) at J p = 80 A dm -2 . An increase in J p to 280 A dm -2 did not change the preferred crystallographic orientations except for an increase in the peak intensity of the (0 0 2) plane. In the presence of coumarin, the preferred crystallographic orientations changed at J p = 280 A dm -2 from the (0 0 2) plane to the (1 0 3) plane. The corrosion behaviour was investigated in an aerated 3.5% NaCl solution; the anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy curves were performed. The corrosion resistance of zinc deposits was improved by increasing the pulse peak current density (J p ); whereas, the presence of coumarin did not improve the corrosion resistance

  7. Experimental and Numerical Study of Mild Steel Behaviour under Cyclic Loading with Variable Strain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Krolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To simulate the effect of variable strains on steel grades S275 and S355, an experimental displacement control test of plate specimens was performed. Specimens were tested under monotonic and cyclic loading according to the standard loading protocol of SAC 2000. During experimental testing, strain values were measured with an extensometer at the tapered part of the specimen. Strains obtained by the experimental tests are disproportional to the applied displacements at the ends of the specimens. This phenomenon occurs due to the imperfections of the specimen, hardening of the material, and the buckling behaviour that appears in real structures due to the high deformation experienced during earthquakes. Due to the relative simplicity and wide applicability of the Chaboche hardening model of steel, the calibration of hardening parameters based on experimental test results was conducted. For the first time, calibration of steel hardening parameters was performed following the Chaboche procedure to define the cyclic behaviour with variable strain ranges. The accuracy of the hardening model with variable strain ranges, which were simulated using ABAQUS software, was verified using the experimental results.

  8. Mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective phosphorene nanotubes under uniaxial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2017-12-01

    The easy formation of vacancy defects and the asymmetry in the two sublayers of phosphorene nanotubes (PNTs) may result in brand new mechanical properties and failure behaviour. Herein, we investigate the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective PNTs under uniaxial tension using molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that atomic vacancies cause local stress concentration and thus significantly reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain of PNTs. More specifically, a 1% defect concentration is able to reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain by as much as 50% and 66%, respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the mechanical properties is found to depend on the defect location: a defect located in the outer sublayer has a stronger effect than one located in the inner layer, especially for PNTs with a small diameter. Temperature is also found to strongly influence the mechanical properties of both defect-free and defective PNTs. When the temperature is increased from 0 K to 400 K, the fracture strength and fracture strain of defective PNTs with a defect concentration of 1% are reduced further by 71% and 61%, respectively. These findings are of great importance for the structural design of PNTs as building blocks in nanodevices.

  9. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elmar C.; Agostinho, Luewton L. F.; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R. Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschläger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  10. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Agostinho, Luewton L F; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschlaeger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  11. Vibration transmissibility and damping behaviour for auxetic and conventional foams under linear and nonlinear regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matteo; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the vibration transmissibility behaviour in conventional and auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio) foams under low and high amplitude vibrations. Auxetic foam pads were manufactured from conventional open cell PU-PE based blocks using an alternative manufacturing process to the one currently used in the mainstream literature. The dynamic behaviour of both conventional and auxetic porous materials was assessed within the frequency bandwidth 5-500 Hz using a base excitation technique with a calibrated seismic mass. The foam pads were subjected to white noise broadband excitation at low dynamic strain, followed by a sine sweep around the resonance of the foam-mass system. The experimental data have been used to perform an inverse identification of the nonlinear dependence of the foam permeability versus the amplitude and frequency of excitation using a single-degree-of-freedom poroelastic vibration model. The auxetic foam shows higher dynamic stiffness and enhanced viscous dissipation characteristics, in particular when subjected to nonlinear vibration loading.

  12. Wall thickness variation effect on tank’s shape behaviour under critical harmonic settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shamel Fahmy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wall thickness variation on tank’s wall buckling mode under the effect of critical harmonic settlement for open top tanks. The study was performed on four tanks which have the same geometric and material properties except wall thickness, for each case the tank was subjected to several settlement waves which has the same settlement amplitude, and the buckling mode and critical vertical settlement results were compared. For buckling mode, the results show that tanks with wall thickness at a close range have similar buckling mode behaviour and in case using too thick wall the buckling mode starts to change. And for the effect on critical vertical settlement, the results show that vertical settlement is sensitive to any variation in wall thickness beside that settlement value changes with the effected wave number and this variation could change the whole behaviour of the tanks. The study recommended that in case of performing analysis for a tank with neglecting the variation in wall thickness values, the value of chosen wall thickness should be the average of wall thickness values obtained from the designed equation.

  13. National Time Trends in Bullying among Adolescents in the Czech Republic from 1994 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarková, Mária; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    Bullying in school is a public health concern which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in bullying behaviour among school-aged children in the Czech Republic. Data were obtained from cross-sectional self-report surveys in the years 1994-2014 as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) from a representative sample of 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds. The highest proportion of children who bullied others (20-47%) occurred during the years 1994 and 1998. The logistic regression models showed significant decreasing trends in bullying others and also in being bullied, regardless of age and gender. The decreasing trend in bullying may be the consequence of a preventive policy in the Czech Republic, but also a change in the understanding of the concept of bullying in society. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  14. Depresi Pada Remaja Korban Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Ramadhani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menemukan hubungan antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja. Hipotesis penelitian adalah ada korelasi positif antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 146 siswa SMA. Data dianalisis dengan korelasi product moment. Hasil analisis menemukan terdapat hubungan positif antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja, dengan r = 0.218 (p 0,05. Hasil penelitian menemukan tidak terdapat perbedaan frekuensi bullying yang dialami subjek laki-laki dan perempuan dengan t=1,759 (p>0,05. Hasil menemukan perbedaan frekuensi bullying jenis fisik yang dialami oleh subjek laki-laki dan perempuan dengan t = 2,167 (p<0,05. Laki-laki lebih banyak mengalami bullying dibandingkan perempuan.

  15. New perspectives on the positioning of parents in children’s bullying at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the subject of parents with respect to children’s bullying at school. The overarching claim is that parental agency and positions on children’s bullying at school are produced and made possible by an apparatus of multiple, concurrent forces that provide poor conditions...... for a constructive partnership between parents and schools in cases of bullying. This research adds to the existing literature in the field by suggesting that the connections between schools, parents and their children’s social behaviour at school must be seen as complexly entangled and involving a range of forces...

  16. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  17. Bullying and victimization among 8-year-old children: a 16-year population-based time-trend study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilola, Anna-Marja; Sourander, Andre

    2013-06-01

    Bullying has been recognized as a major social and health problem among children. There are only few studies about changes in the prevalence of bullying behaviour, especially among younger children. To examine changes in the prevalence of bullying behaviour at three time-points, 1989, 1999 and 2005, among 8-year-old children living in south-western Finland. Three representative cross-sectional samples of 8-year-old children from south-western Finland were compared. All children born in 1981 (n = 1038), 1991 (n = 1035) and 1997 (n = 1030) and living in selected school districts were included in the study samples. The sampling, procedure and methods were similar at all three time-points. The participation rate varied from 84% to 96%. Children, parents and teachers filled in questionnaires asking about bullying and victimization. In 2005, statistically significantly fewer boys were victimized than in 1989. Among girls, there was a decreasing trend of victimization but this was statistically significant only in parental reports. More girls were frequent victims in 2005 than in 1989. Among boys, the number of bullies also decreased. However, teachers found more bullies among girls in 2005 than in 1989. There was a slight decrease in bullying behaviour among boys from 1989 to 2005. The main finding among girls was an almost twofold increase in teacher-reported bullies (from 5% to 9%). Bullying and its prevention are major challenges for educational and school health services. Peer relationships and a non-violent school environment are major challenges of children's lives; therefore, continuous monitoring of bullying behaviour is important.

  18. Bullying and Victimization Trends in Undergraduate Medical Students - A Self-Reported Cross-Sectional Observational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pbullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (pbullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.

  19. Effect of pre-stressing on the behaviour of CFRP under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pre-stressing on the behaviour of CFRP composites under gamma irradiation has been studied for three materials: 0 deg carbon/epoxy, 0 deg carbon/toughened epoxy and 0 deg/90 deg carbon/PES. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature and at 77 K. Preliminary results illustrate that pre-stressing can significantly affect the degradation of these materials, particularly after irradiation at room temperature. The data indicate that stress cannot be ignored when assessing the durability of structural composites for space applications. This work, which completes the preliminary assessment of low-temperature irradiation effects, has highlighted a number of queries which should be of concern to those using structural composites in space applications. (Author). 15 refs., 17 figs

  20. Flexural strength and behaviour of SFRSCC ribbed slab under four point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hazrina; Hashim, Mohd Hisbany Mohd; Bakar, Afidah Abu; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Rahman, Fadhillah Abdul

    2017-11-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study the ultimate strength and behaviour of SFRSCC ribbed slab under four point bending. Comparison was been made between ribbed slab that was fully reinforced with steel fibres (SFWS) with conventionally reinforced concrete ribbed slab (CS and CRC). The volume fraction of the 35 mm hooked end steel fibres used in the mix was 1% (80 kg/m3) with the aspect ratio of 65. Three full scale slab samples with the dimension of 2.8 x 1.2 m with 0.2 m thickness was constructed for the purpose of this study. The slab samples was loaded until failure in a four point bending test. As a whole, based on the results, it can be concluded that the performance of the steel fiber reinforced samples (SFWS) was found to be almost equivalent to the conventionally reinforced concrete ribbed slab sample (CRC).

  1. Investigations on the lifetime behaviour of a P23 pipe under fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, V.; Hartrott, P. von [Fraunhofer IWM, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The performance of girth welds on new P23 low chromium steel pipes under cyclic loading at 450 C was investigated. The loading conditions were chosen to be representative for bore crack initiation and growth observed in main steam lines fabricated of 0.5Cr0.5Mo0.25V (CrMoV) steel. The microstructure of the base material and weldments was analysed. A lifetime model, initially set up for the prediction of thermo-cyclic loading, is used to predict the isothermal component behaviour. It is based on a Chaboche-type deformation model and the DTMF crack growth model. The failure mechanism of two component tests was compared to the model assumptions and the component lifetimes and failure locations are compared to the model predictions. (orig.)

  2. Mechanical behaviour of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) beans under loading compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalingging, R.; Herak, D.; Kabutey, A.; Sigalingging, C.

    2018-02-01

    The uniformity of the product of the grinding process depends on various factors including the brittleness of the roasted coffee bean and it affects the extraction of soluble solids to obtain the coffee brew. Therefore, the reaching of a certain degree of brittleness is very important for the grinding to which coffee beans have to be subjected to before brewing. The aims of this study to show the mechanical behaviour of Arabica coffee beans from Tobasa (Indonesia) with roasted using different roasting time (40, 60 and 80 minutes at temperature 174 °C) under loading compression 225 kN. Universal compression testing machine was used with pressing vessel diameter 60 mm and compression speed 10 mm min-1 with different initial pressing height ranging from 20 to 60 mm. The results showed that significant correlation between roasting time and the brittleness.

  3. Behaviour under Impact of Mixed Adhesive Joints for the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. G. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The automotive industry is increasingly using adhesive joints bonding advanced lightweight materials to reduce vehicle weight. Strength under impact loadings is a major concern for this application and mixed adhesive joints can effectively improve the joints by combining stiffness and flexibility on the same overlap. This work introduces and studies several configurations for static and impact tests of mixed adhesive joints with four adhesives in different combinations. The main purpose of this work is the development of a strong adhesive joint using a mixed adhesive layer and perform a series of mechanical to study its mechanical behaviour. It is concluded that the use of the mixed adhesive technique improves both static and impact strength by introducing flexibility to the joint which subsequently allows more energy absorption when introduced in crash resistant structures.

  4. Proximal Variables Related to School Violence and Bullying in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda Mendoza González; Tania Morales Reynoso; Yazmín Arriaga Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Description of bullying has mainly focused on pupils in basic education, for which it is necessary to describe more this behavior in students of education average superior to allowing delineate protocols of action and intervention programs. The objective is to know differences between groups of students participating in school violence, bullying and which not is involved, depending on variables proximal as disruptive behaviour, conflict between professors and students, antisocial and proso...

  5. Time trends of technology mediated communication with friends among bullied and not bullied children in four Nordic countries between 2001 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Löfstedt, P; Bjarnason, T; Tynjälä, J; Välimaa, R; Petzold, M

    2017-05-01

    Friends are important in childhood and adolescence, especially to bullied children. Technology mediated communication (TMC) could be used both to develop and maintain friendship. The present study examined (1) trends in the use of TMC with friends between 2001 and 2010; (2) possible differences between bullied and not bullied children and (3) differences between children with few close friends and children with several close friends. Data were obtained from three waves of the serial cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey conducted in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden during 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. The total sample consisted of 65 953 children aged 11, 13 and 15. Two trends were observed. The first trend showed an increased use of TMC in all countries. Children that were not bullied and/or had several close friends had increased their use of TMC with friends from 2001 to 2010. The second trend was applicable only for bullied children with few close friends; they had not as other children increased their use of TMC and thus remained at the same levels as in 2001/2002. Bullied children with few close friends were excluded from communication forums that usually allow children to maintain and develop friendships. This is a concern because friends are important during childhood and adolescence, especially for bullied children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Educators' understanding of workplace bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens o a two-dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59 participants' descriptions of workplace bullying. The study found that the theoretical model provided a valuable framework for studying bullying in this context. The analysis of the educators' descriptions provided the following insights about the relational and organisational foundations of workplace bullying: (1 The relational powerless victims are subjected to public humiliation, disregard, isolation and discrimination. The bullying of educators results in escalating apathy and disempowerment, to the detriment of their professional and private wellbeing. (2 Bullying is likely to occur in schools where organisational chaos reigns. Such schools are characterised by incompetent, unprincipled, abusive leadership, lack of accountability, fairness and transparency. (3 There is interplay between relational powerlessness and organisational chaos, i.e. the absence of principled leadership, accountability and transparency gives rise to workplace bullying.

  7. Experimental Study on Fatigue Behaviour of BFRP-Concrete Bond Interfaces under Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhe Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP composites are increasingly being used to retrofit concrete structures by external bonding. For such strengthened members, the BFRP-concrete interface plays the crucial role of transferring stresses. This study aims to investigate the fatigue behaviour of the interface under bending load. A series of tests were conducted on BFRP-concrete bonded joint, including static, fatigue, and postfatigue loading. The fatigue failure modes, the development of deflection, the evolution of BFRP strains, and the propagation of interfacial cracks were analysed. In addition, the debonding-induced fatigue life of BFRP-concrete bonded joints was studied. Finally, a new model of fatigue life was proposed by defining the effective fatigue bond stress. The results showed that the fatigue experience has a significant effect on the BFRP strength especially near the root of concrete transverse crack and on the bond performance of the adhesive near the interface crack tip. There are two main fatigue failure modes: BFRP rupture and BFRP debonding. The fatigue damage development of the bond interface has three stages: rapid, stable, and unstable growth. The proposed model for the debonding-induced fatigue life is more conservative for the BFRP-concrete bonded joints under pure shear load than for those under bending load.

  8. Review of experimental data for modelling LWR fuel cladding behaviour under loss of coolant accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Extensive range of experiments has been conducted in the past to quantitatively identify and understand the behaviour of fuel rod under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs). The obtained experimental data provide the basis for the current emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria under LOCA conditions for LWRs. The results of recent experiments indicate that the cladding alloy composition and high burnup effects influence LOCA acceptance criteria margins. In this report, we review some past important and recent experimental results. We first discuss the background to acceptance criteria for LOCA, namely, clad embrittlement phenomenology, clad embrittlement criteria (limitations on maximum clad oxidation and peak clad temperature) and the experimental bases for the criteria. Two broad kinds of test have been carried out under LOCA conditions: (i) Separate effect tests to study clad oxidation, clad deformation and rupture, and zirconium alloy allotropic phase transition during LOCA. (ii) Integral LOCA tests, in which the entire LOCA sequence is simulated on a single rod or a multi-rod array in a fuel bundle, in laboratory or in a tests and results are discussed and empirical correlations deduced from these tests and quantitative models are conferred. In particular, the impact of niobium in zirconium base clad and hydrogen content of the clad on allotropic phase transformation during LOCA and also the burst stress are discussed. We review some recent LOCA integral test results with emphasis on thermal shock tests. Finally, suggestions for modelling and further evaluation of certain experimental results are made.

  9. Teacher and peer reports of overweight and bullying among young primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-09-01

    Overweight is a potential risk factor for peer victimization in late childhood and adolescence. The current study investigated the association between BMI in early primary school and different bullying involvement roles (uninvolved, bully, victim, and bully-victim) as reported by teachers and children themselves. In a population-based study in the Netherlands, measured BMI and teacher-reported bullying behavior were available for 4364 children (mean age = 6.2 years). In a subsample of 1327 children, a peer nomination method was used to obtain child reports of bullying. In both teacher- and child-reported data, a higher BMI was associated with more victimization and more bullying perpetration. For instance, a 1-point increase in BMI was associated with a 0.05 increase on the standardized teacher-reported victimization score (95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.07; P bullying scores into different types of bullying involvement showed that children with obesity, but not children with overweight, had a significantly higher risk to be a bully-victim (odds ratio = 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 3.14) than normal-weight peers. At school entry, a high BMI is a risk factor associated with victimization and bullying perpetration, with obese children particularly likely to be victims and aggressors. Results were consistent for teacher and child reports of bullying, supporting the validity of our findings. Possibly, obesity triggers peer problems, but the association may also reflect a common underlying cause that makes obese children vulnerable to bullying involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. [The bullied who bullies: the reciprocal relationship between victim and aggressor in workplace bullying situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Muñoz, Alfredo; Moreno Jiménez, Bernardo; Baillien, Elfi; Sanz Vergel, Ana Isabel; Moreno López, Ynomig

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships between organizational factors (workload and procedural justice) and targets and perpetrators of workplace bullying. We compared several causal models (baseline or stability, normal, reversed and reciprocal models). The sample comprised 286 employees from two companies in Madrid, and we used a time-lag of one year. Results of structural equation modeling analyses showed that reciprocal model fit the data the best. We found that T1 workload was related positively to T2 target of bullying, and T1 procedural justice was related negatively to T2 target of bullying. There was a significant reverse effect of T1 target of bullying on T2 workload. Furthermore, we found a reciprocal relationship between being the target and the perpetrator of bullying. Overall, these findings emphasize the need to extend the traditional causal models of workplace bullying to more dynamic approaches.

  11. Multifactor leadership styles and new exposure to workplace bullying: a six-month prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUNO, Kanami; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between supervisor leadership styles and workplace bullying. Altogether 404 civil servants from a local government in Japan completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The leadership variables and exposure to bullying were measured by Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, respectively. The prevalence of workplace bullying was 14.8% at baseline and 15.1% at follow-up. Among respondents who did not experience bullying at baseline (n=216), those who worked under the supervisors as higher in passive laissez-faire leadership had a 4.3 times higher risk of new exposure to bullying. On the other hand, respondents whose supervisors with highly considerate of the individual had a 70% lower risk of new exposure to bullying. In the entire sample (n=317), passive laissez-faire leadership was significantly and positively associated, while charisma/inspiration, individual consideration, and contingent reward were negatively associated both after adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics at baseline, life events during follow-up, and exposure to workplace bullying at baseline. Results indicated that passive laissez-faire and low individual consideration leadership style at baseline were strong predictors of new exposure to bullying and high individual consideration leadership of supervisors/managers could be a preventive factor against bullying. PMID:25382384

  12. Multifactor leadership styles and new exposure to workplace bullying: a six-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between supervisor leadership styles and workplace bullying. Altogether 404 civil servants from a local government in Japan completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The leadership variables and exposure to bullying were measured by Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, respectively. The prevalence of workplace bullying was 14.8% at baseline and 15.1% at follow-up. Among respondents who did not experience bullying at baseline (n=216), those who worked under the supervisors as higher in passive laissez-faire leadership had a 4.3 times higher risk of new exposure to bullying. On the other hand, respondents whose supervisors with highly considerate of the individual had a 70% lower risk of new exposure to bullying. In the entire sample (n=317), passive laissez-faire leadership was significantly and positively associated, while charisma/inspiration, individual consideration, and contingent reward were negatively associated both after adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics at baseline, life events during follow-up, and exposure to workplace bullying at baseline. Results indicated that passive laissez-faire and low individual consideration leadership style at baseline were strong predictors of new exposure to bullying and high individual consideration leadership of supervisors/managers could be a preventive factor against bullying.

  13. Hospital nurses' attitudes, negative perceptions, and negative acts regarding workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chien, Tsair-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in today's work places that has adverse effects on both bullying victims and organizations. To investigate the predictors of workplace bullying is an important task to prevent bullying victims of nurses in hospitals. This study aims to explore the relationships among nurses' attitudes, negative perceptions, and negative acts regarding workplace bullying under the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A total of 811 nurses from three hospitals in Taiwan were surveyed. Nurses' responses to the 201 items of 10 scales were calibrated using Rasch analysis and then subjected to path analysis with partial least-squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The instrumental attitude was significant predictors of nurses' negative perceptions to be bullied in the workplace. Instead, the other TPB components of subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were not effective predictors of nurses' negative acts regarding workplace bullying. The findings provided hospital nurse management with important implications for prevention of bullying, particularly to them who are tasked with providing safer and more productive workplaces to hospital nurses. Awareness of workplace bullying was recommended to other kinds of workplaces for further studies in future.

  14. Making a Difference for the Bullied: Teachers' Responsibilities for Responding to Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarra, Janet F.; Forrester, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a challenging issue for classroom teachers. The authors provide seven recommendations to prevent bullying and for intervention if bullying occurs: (a) know the forms of bullying and recognize the effects forms of bullying and recognize the effects, (b) promote a positive classroom environment, (c) teach a variety of…

  15. Parent Retrospective Recollections of Bullying and Current Views, Concerns, and Strategies to Cope with Children's Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leigh A.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, parent history of bullying was examined in terms of general involvement with bullying, specific types of bullying experienced, level of hurtfulness associated with the experience, and when bullying occurred. Parent current views, levels of concern, and strategies used to cope with bullying were also evaluated. Finally, the…

  16. Bullied youth: the impact of bullying through lesbian, gay, and bisexual name calling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline B R; Chapman, Mimi V

    2014-11-01

    Bullying is a common experience for many school-aged youth, but the majority of bullying research and intervention does not address the content of bullying behavior, particularly teasing. Understanding the various forms of bullying as well as the language used in bullying is important given that bullying can have persistent consequences, particularly for victims who are bullied through biased-based bullying, such as being called gay, lesbian, or queer. This study examines bullying experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 3,379 rural elementary-, middle-, and high-school youth. We use latent class analysis to establish clusters of bullying behaviors, including forms of biased-based bullying. The resulting classes are examined to ascertain if and how bullying by biased-based labeling is clustered with other forms of bullying behavior. This analysis identifies 3 classes of youth: youth who experience no bullying victimization, youth who experience social and emotional bullying, and youth who experience all forms of social and physical bullying, including being bullied by being called gay, lesbian, or queer. Youth in Classes 2 and 3 labeled their experiences as bullying. Results indicate that youth bullied by being called gay, lesbian, or queer are at a high risk of experiencing all forms of bullying behavior, highlighting the importance of increased support for this vulnerable group. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The moderating role of perceived organisational support in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention across sectors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena-Mari van Schalkwyk

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: To investigate the role of POS as moderator in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention across sectors in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Workplace bullying is a worldwide concern and it is unclear whether perceived organisational support moderates the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey approach with a quantitative research design was used (N = 13 911. The South African Employee Health and Wellness Survey (SAEHWS was administered to explore the experiences of bullying behaviour, POS and turnover intention. Main findings: Bullying by superiors is more prevalent than bullying by colleagues. A positive relationship exists between workplace bullying and turnover intention. Role clarity, participation in decision-making and supervisory relationship moderates the relationship between bullying by superiors and turnover intention. Practical/managerial implications: This study creates an awareness of the prevalence of workplace bullying in the South African context so that sufficient counteraction can be encouraged. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research regarding workplace bullying in the South African context by quantifying the relationships between workplace bullying POS and turnover intention.

  18. Motivations behind "Bullies Then Offenders" versus "Pure Bullies": Further Suggestions for Anti-Bully Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pattie; Tankersley, Merrie; Joenson, Trevor; Hupp, Mikey; Buckley, Jennifer; Redmond-McGowan, Margaret; Zanzinger, Allison; Poirier, Alex; Walsh, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Cyber-bullying has become increasingly problematic in academic settings including universities and colleges. The bullying literature has been expanding investigation of the bully behaviors and has identified four bully types to include pure offender, pure victim, offender and victim, neither-offender-nor-victim. The majority of research has…

  19. When is Peer Aggression 'Bullying?' An Analysis of Elementary and Middle School Student Discourse on Bullying at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Donoghue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many forms of peer aggression are referred to as "bullying" by students, parents and adults, and this can be a source of confusion in schools. The main purpose of this study is to explore the circumstances under which students characterize peer aggression as “bullying” incidents. A secondary goal is to examine the feelings students have about the effectiveness of reporting peer aggression to adults. Both objectives are intended to reveal information that will enhance communication about peer aggression and bullying between students and adults. Six focus groups with 54 students in grades three through eight were conducted. The groups were organized in patterns based on grade level and gender, and qualitative methods were used to analyze the results. The findings showed that although the students defined bullying in ways that are similar to the criteria in the literature, they chose different words to describe them. Younger students also expressed greater faith in the ability of adults to respond effectively to bullying situations. Older students preferred to confront a bully with equal force or to reason with a bully to stop the aggression.

  20. Effects of the Dutch Skills for Life Program on the Health Behavior, Bullying, and Suicidal Ideation of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, M.; van de Sande, M. C. E.; Gravesteijn, J. C.; Pannebakker, F. D.; Buijs, G. J.; Diekstra, R. F. W.; Kocken, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the Dutch "Skills for Life" programme on students' health behaviours, bullying behaviour and suicidal ideation. Design/methodology/approach: The effectiveness of the "Skills for Life" programme on health behaviour outcomes was evaluated at three points in time in…

  1. Effects of the Dutch skills for life program on the health behavior, bullying, and suicidal ideation of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekkes, M.; Sande, M.C.E. van de; Gravesteijn, J.C.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Buijs, G.J.; Diekstra, R.F.W.; Kocken, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the Dutch “Skills for Life” programme on students’ health behaviours, bullying behaviour and suicidal ideation. Design/methodology/approach – The effectiveness of the “Skills for Life” programme on health behaviour outcomes was

  2. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  3. Bullying the Meek: A Conceptualisation of Vietnamese School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Kvist Lindholm, Sofia; Nguyen, Thu Hang

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at three lower secondary schools in the northern Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Haiphong, this article provides a contextually nuanced conceptualisation of Vietnamese school bullying. In doing so, the article not only addresses the lack of knowledge about Vietnamese school bullying, but also poses a…

  4. Health seeking behaviour among caregivers of under-five children in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesuwa Q. Aigbokhaode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Timely and appropriate healthcare seeking behaviours if practiced by caregivers of under-five children can have a significant impact on child survival. This study assessed the knowledge of, and general health seeking practices among mothers of under-five children in Nigeria. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among caregivers of under-five children in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2013. A multi-staged sampling technique was used to recruit respondents. Data collection was done by means of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire adapted from UNICEF/IMCI household baseline survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 370 caregivers (mean age: 31.1±5.9 years participated in the study. Almost all of them were females 368 (99.5%, 234 (63.2% had secondary education and 283 (76.5% were in the unskilled social class. Over 70%, 76%, 72%, 76% and 82% of participants did not know that being unable to eat/drink, fast breathing, blood in stool and convulsion, respectively, were symptoms of a child not feeling well. The place of primary care of children by caregivers was at home 142 (38.4%, chemist shop 91 (24.6% and health facility 80 (21.6%. Cost and long waiting time were major reasons for not seeking care in health facilities. Conclusion: This study showed poor health seeking practices among caregivers of under-five children in Edo State, Nigeria. There should be continuous education of  caregivers on recognition of danger signs in children and the need to seek appropriate medical care in health facilities.

  5. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  6. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years). Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  7. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean±SD age: 14.3±1.8 years). Results Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16–5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48–4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63–4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20–3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26–2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18–2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. Conclusion These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:25076490

  8. Monitoring the mechanical behaviour of electrically conductive polymer nanocomposites under ramp and creep conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzoli, D; Dorigato, A; Pegoretti, A

    2012-05-01

    Various amounts of carbon black (CB) and carbon nanofibres (CNF) were dispersed in an epoxy resin to prepare nanocomposites whose mechanical behaviour, under ramp and creep conditions, was monitored by electrical measurements. The electrical resistivity of the epoxy resin was dramatically reduced by both nanofillers after the percolation threshold (1 wt% for CB and 0.5 wt% for CNF), reaching values in the range of 10(3)-10(4) omega . cm for filler loadings higher than 2 wt%. Due to the synergistic effects between the nanofillers, an epoxy system containing a total nanofiller amount of 2 wt%, with a relative CB/CNF ratio of 90/10 was selected for the specific applications. A direct correlation between the tensile strain and the increase of the electrical resistance was observed over the whole experimental range, and also the final failure of the samples was clearly detected. Creep tests confirmed the possibility to monitor the various deformational stages under constant loads, with a strong dependency from the temperature and the applied stress. The obtained results are encouraging for a possible application of nanomodified epoxy resin as a matrix for the preparation of structural composites with sensing (i.e., damage-monitoring) capabilities.

  9. THE INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS’ BEHAVIOUR UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIRTEA MARILEN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available On the subject of financial globalization a lot of literature has been written, annalyzing all sorts of effects ithad. Still, the changes induced by globalization at the level of the financial markets are not always clear. The veritableflooding of capitals, constantly moving, created a continuous game of investment opportunities, of arbitrationpossibilities and funding sources, made institutional investors adopt various attitudes, the role of institutional investorsin the activation of capital markets being sustained by the financial globalization and the extension of multinationalfinancial groups, on one side, and by the increased performance of the share and bond markets, on the other side.By the present paper, we propose to underline the behaviour of the main institutional investors (mutual funds,pension funds and hedge funds under the impact of the current global financial crisis, the modifications whichintervened in asset assignment and investment relocation, showing that the instability generated in the global financialsystem had immediate effects on all the portfolios of institutional investors, regardless of their classificationcategory.Under conditions of capital flow increase, adjusted by the global financial crisis, the presented analysis andempirical proofs show a tendency of institutional investors’ asset reallocation on developed markets and thewithdrawal from the emergent ones.

  10. Characterization of ash melting behaviour at high temperatures under conditions simulating combustible solid waste gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Miaomiao; Dong, Qing; Huang, Yaji; Jin, Baosheng; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Haiming

    2018-03-01

    To achieve high-temperature gasification-melting of combustible solid waste, ash melting behaviour under conditions simulating high-temperature gasification were studied. Raw ash (RA) and gasified ash (GA) were prepared respectively by waste ashing and fluidized bed gasification. Results of microstructure and composition of the two-ash indicated that GA showed a more porous structure and higher content of alkali and alkali earth metals among metallic elements. Higher temperature promoted GA melting and could reach a complete flowing state at about 1250°C. The order of melting rate of GA under different atmospheres was reducing condition > inert condition > oxidizing condition, which might be related to different existing forms of iron during melting and different flux content with atmosphere. Compared to RA, GA showed lower melting activity at the same condition due to the existence of an unconverted carbon and hollow structure. The melting temperature for sufficient melting and separation of GA should be at least 1250°C in this work.

  11. Structural behaviour of nearly stoichiometric ZrC under ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosset, Dominique [Materiaux Fonctionnels pour l' Energie, CEA - CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris, CEA/DEN/SRMA 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette and SPMS 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France)], E-mail: dominique.gosset@cea.fr; Dolle, Mickael; Simeone, David; Baldinozzi, Gianguido [Materiaux Fonctionnels pour l' Energie, CEA - CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris, CEA/DEN/SRMA 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette and SPMS 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Thome, Lionel [CSNSM - CNRS, Orsay University, Bat. 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2008-06-15

    Zirconium carbide is one of the candidate materials considered as a component for the fuel elements of some nuclear reactors in the Gen-IV international project. This material has complex bonding and the actual materials have a high vacancy concentration and a non-negligible oxygen substitution on the carbon sub-network. Few data exist regarding its behaviour under irradiation. To study the structural stability of zirconium carbide in the nuclear environment, we have performed low energy ion irradiations (4 MeV Au) at room temperature of two different materials, a nearly stoichiometric ZrC{sub 0.95} and a ternary ZrC{sub 0.85}O{sub 0.08}. Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to monitor the microstructural changes of those materials as a function of the ion fluence. The analyses of the X-ray diffraction diagrams show a moderated swelling, lower for the ternary compound, and high internal strains, both of them saturate at a fluence around 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. TEM observations show that the microscopic origin of these strains is mainly due to the formation of a high density of small faulted dislocation loops. As a result, it appears that a high substitution of carbon by oxygen in zirconium carbide does not modify the nature of the defects created under ion irradiation.

  12. Substance Use, Bullying, and Body Image Disturbances in Adolescents and Young Adults Under the Prism of a 3D Simulation Program: Validation of MySchool4web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Álvaro I; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Ulloa, Valentina G; Carmona-Torres, José A; Cangas, Adolfo J

    2016-01-01

    The use of virtual reality or three-dimensional (3D) simulation programs has been explored in different mental health problems and contexts. One of the applications that showed evidence of a suitable assessment for behavioral and emotional problems in adolescents is the 3D questionnaire called MySchool4web. The aim of this work was to analyze the psychometric properties of a tailored version of MySchool4web. A correlational, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study was carried out. The participants were 668 secondary students from schools in Santiago, Chile with a mean age of 15.74 years. Adolescents completed MySchool4web in the informatics classroom of each school. Results indicated that two of the items had to be removed, and a three-factor solution was found representing the dimensions substance use, bullying, and body image. This final model of 10 items showed acceptable internal consistency per factor, and its scores were significantly associated with other related measures in nine items. These outcomes suggest that this version of MySchool4web is a reliable and valid measure of a 3D instrument for the screening of risky behaviors and emotional problems in adolescents and young adults in a school context.

  13. Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…

  14. Bullying among Young Children: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emily; Tamburrino, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is an increasing problem within childcare facilities, preschool programs, and public schools. As a result, many districts are instituting anti-bullying intervention programs. This article defines bullying and explains the direct and indirect forms it can take. First, it examines research on bullying during the beginning years of school.…

  15. Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, I.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly vulnerable to be involved in bullying compared to their peers without ASD. Studies have found that students with ASD are at higher risk to be involved in bullying as a bully (i.e., perpetrator of bullying), a victim

  16. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  17. Bullying Victims: The Effects Last into College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Frank D.; Lawrence, Gloria J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether those bullied in schools continued to show the effects of being bullied after they enrolled in an institution of higher education. There were 269 undergraduate students participating in the study. Previous studies (2006; 2008) conducted by the authors suggested the effects of bullying upon both the victim and bully are…

  18. Bullying: Conhecer para Prevenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O bullying é um fenómeno que suscita a apreensão de toda a sociedade. Deste modo, enquanto pais, educadores e profissionais, devemos reconhecer que a violência entre pares em meio escolar afeta gravemente o desenvolvimento saudável das crianças. Conhecer e identificar as causas que estão na origem do bullying, bem como as consequências que este comportamento acarreta no desenvolvimento psicossocial dos seus alvos, é fundamental para melhor intervir. Proteger as crianças e jovens de hoje contribui para potenciar um futuro sem violência, através da existência de adultos equilibrados. Assim, a criação e implementação de estratégias de prevenção do bullying em contexto escolar constitui-se como dever social, porquanto só através de diversificadas conjugações de esforços será possível contribuir para um amanhã mais seguro.

  19. Annual Research Review: The persistent and pervasive impact of being bullied in childhood and adolescence: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Louise

    2018-04-01

    We have known for some time that being bullied was associated with children's and adolescents' adjustment difficulties and well-being. In recent years, we have come to recognise that the impact of childhood bullying victimisation on the development of mental health problems is more complex. This paper aims to review the evidence for an independent contribution of childhood bullying victimisation to the development of poor outcomes throughout the life span, including mental, physical and socioeconomic outcomes, and discuss the implications for policy and practice. Existing research indicates that (a) being bullied in childhood is associated with distress and symptoms of mental health problems. This large body of evidence supports actions aimed at reducing the occurrence of bullying behaviours; (b) the consequences of childhood bullying victimisation can persist up to midlife and, in addition to mental health, can impact physical and socioeconomic outcomes. These new findings indicate that interventions should also focus on supporting victims of bullying and helping them build resilience; (c) research has identified some factors that predispose children to be targeted by bullying behaviours. These studies suggest that public health interventions could aim at preventing children from becoming the target of bullying behaviours from an early age. It is a truism to emphasise that further work is needed to understand why and how young people's aspirations are often cut short by this all too common adverse social experience. In parallel, we must develop effective strategies to tackle this form of abuse and its consequences for the victims. Addressing bullying in childhood could not only reduce children's and adolescents' mental health symptoms but also prevent psychiatric and socioeconomic difficulties up to adulthood and reduce considerable costs for society. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Proceedings of a specialist meeting on the behaviour of water reactor fuel elements under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The contributions of this meeting report experimental, numerical and research investigations on the oxidation behaviour of zircaloy in case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), analysis of the kinetics of the oxidation rate, very high temperature behaviour of fuel rod claddings (failure mechanics, ballooning), the interaction between cladding and fuel, the mechanical behaviour of zircaloy, etc. Numerous experimental and computer code analysis results are given

  1. Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…

  2. Students' perspectives on cyber bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatston, Patricia W; Kowalski, Robin; Limber, Susan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of cyber bullying on students and the possible need for prevention messages targeting students, educators, and parents. A total of 148 middle and high school students were interviewed during focus groups held at two middle and two high schools in a public school district. The focus groups were approximately 45 minutes in length. Students were divided by gender and asked a series of scripted questions by a same-gender student assistance counselor. We found that students' comments during the focus groups suggest that students-particularly females-view cyber bullying as a problem, but one rarely discussed at school, and that students do not see the school district personnel as helpful resources when dealing with cyber bullying. Students are currently experiencing the majority of cyber bullying instances outside of the school day; however there is some impact at school. Students were able to suggest some basic strategies for dealing with cyber bullying, but were less likely to be aware of strategies to request the removal of objectionable websites, as well as how to respond as a helpful bystander when witnessing cruel online behavior. We conclude that school districts should address cyber bullying through a combination of policies and information that are shared with students and parents. Schools should include cyber bullying as part of their bullying prevention strategies and include classroom lessons that address reporting and bystander behavior.

  3. Cyber Bullying and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the emotional and physiological effects of cyber bullying on the university students. The primary objective of this investigation is to identify the victims of cyber bullying and critically analyze their emotional state and frame of mind in order to provide them with a workable and feasible intervention in fighting cyber…

  4. A Bully-Free School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Christine S.

    2012-01-01

    Bullies come in all sizes, shapes, ages, genders, and ethnicities. Bullies generally attack that which they do not understand, what is strange, different from their perception of the norm or someone whom they resent. Their motivation has to do with making themselves feel stronger, more secure or to compensate for their own sad experiences.…

  5. Bullying. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Doris Rhea

    Nearly 160,000 students skip school each day because of intimidation by their peers. Bullying has been a persistent problem that, with the heightened attention to school violence, has been recently recognized as a pervasive issue needing attention. Bullying can take many forms; racial discrimination and sexual harassment are examples of abuse…

  6. What Students Say about Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stan; Nixon, Charisse

    2011-01-01

    Educators striving to create safe, respectful, bully-free school climates have many programs and approaches to choose from--but it's difficult to know which will work best. The experiences of students who have been bullied can help educators decide what works and what doesn't. The authors conducted a large-scale survey of students, and asked 3,000…

  7. Fatigue behaviour and crack growth of ferritic steel under environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X.; Weissenberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of fatigue and cyclic crack growth behaviour of safety relevant components is of importance for the ageing management with regard to safety and reliability. For cyclic stress evaluation different codes and standards provide fatigue analysis procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. For the fatigue design curves used as a limiting criteria the influence of different factors like e.g. environment, surface finish and temperature must be taken into consideration in an appropriate way. Fatigue tests were performed in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) und high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime with low alloy steels as well as with Nb- and Ti-stabilized German austenitic stainless steels in air and high temperature (HT) boiling water reactor environment to extend the state of knowledge of environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) as it can occur in boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. Using the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel 22NiMoCr3-7 experimental data were developed to verify the influence of BWR coolant environment (high purity water as well as sulphate containing water with 90 ppb SO 4 at a test temperature of 240 C and an oxygen content of 400 ppb) on the fatigue life and to extend the basis for a reliable estimation of the remaining service life of reactor components. Corresponding experiments in air were performed to establish reference data to determine the environmental correction factor F en accounting for the environment. The experimental results are compared with international available mean data curves, the new design curves and on the basis of the environmental factor F en . Furthermore the behaviour of steel 22NiMoCr3-7 in oxygenated high temperature water under transient loading conditions was investigated with respect to crack initiation and cyclic crack growth. In this process the stress state of the specimen and the chemical composition of the high

  8. Adolescent Bullying, Dating, and Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally believed to be the result of maladaptive development, bullying perpetration is increasingly being viewed as a potentially adaptive behavior. We were interested in determining whether adolescents who bully others enjoy a key evolutionary benefit: increased dating and mating (sexual opportunities. This hypothesis was tested in two independent samples consisting of 334 adolescents and 144 university students. The data partly supported our prediction that bullying, but not victimization, would predict dating behavior. The data for sexual behavior more clearly supported our hypothesis that bullying behavior predicts an increase in sexual opportunities even when accounting for age, sex, and self-reports of attractiveness, likeability, and peer victimization. These results are generally congruent with the hypothesis that bullying perpetration is, at least in part, an evolutionary adaptive behavior.

  9. The Behaviour of Palm Oil Fibre Block Masonry Prism under Eccentric Compressive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kolop, Roslan; Baizura Hamid, Nor; Kaamin, Masiri; Farhan Rosdi, Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-08-01

    Dry-stacked masonry offers great benefits in constructing masonry buildings. Several examples from previous research show that dry masonry is reasonable alternative to the traditional building system. By addition of fibre, the ductility and the propagation of cracking will be improved. This study investigates the dry stack oil palm fibre block prisms which were subjected to eccentricity compression loads. These concrete blocks were cast using a single mould with suitable fibre-cement composition namely 1:4 (cement: sand) and 0.40 water to the cement ratio based on cement weight. Prisms test using 400 (length) × 150 (width) × 510 (height) mm specimen was carried under eccentric load. There were forty eight (48) prisms built with different configurations based on their volume of fibre. In this study, one types of grout were used namely the fine grout of mix 1:3:2 (cement: sand: aggregate (5mm maximum). Based on the test performed, the failure mechanism and influencing parameters were discussed. From compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with the increase of fibre used. Although the control sample has the higher strength compared to concrete with EFB, it can be seen from mode failure of masonry prism that fibre could extend the cracking time. These results show that the oil palm fibre blocks can improve the failure behaviour and suitable to be used as load bearing wall construction in Malaysia.

  10. Experimental Study for Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Panel (PLP) Under Flexural Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, W. I.; Mohamad, N.; Tay, Y. L.; Rahim, N. H. A.; Jhatial, A. A.; Samad, A. A. A.; Abdullah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Precast lightweight concrete slab is first fabricated in workshop or industrial before construction and then transported to site and installed by skilled labour. It can reduce construction time by minimizing user delay and time for cast-in-situ to increase workability and efficiency. is environmental friendly and helps in resource reduction. Although the foamed concrete has low compressive strength compared to normal weight concrete but it has excellent thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is environmental friendly and helps in resource reduction. To determine the material properties of foamed concrete, nine cubes and six cylindrical specimens were fabricated and the results were recorded. In this study, structural behaviour of precast lightweight panel (PLP) with dry density of 1800 kg/m3 was tested under flexural load. The results were recorded and analysed in terms of ultimate load, crack pattern, load-deflection profiles and strain distribution. Linear Voltage Displacement Transducers (LVDT) and strain gauges were used to determine the deflection and strain distribution of PLP. The theoretical and experimental ultimate load of PLP was analysed and recorded to be 70 and 62 kN respectively, having a difference of 12.9%. Based on the results, it can be observed that PLP can resist the adequate loading. Thus, it can be used in precast industry for construction purposes.

  11. Behaviour of wrapped cold-formed steel columns under different loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabu, B. Hari; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The use of Cold Formed Steel (CFS) sections as structural members is widely accepted because of its light nature. However, the load carrying capacity of these sections will be less compared to hot rolled sections. This study is meant to analyze the possibility of strengthening cold formed members by wrapping it with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminates. Light gauge steel columns of cross sectional dimensions 100mm x 50mm x 3.15mm were taken for this study. The effective length of the section is about 750mm. A total of 8 specimens including the control specimen is tested under axial and eccentric loading. The columns were tested keeping both ends hinged. For both loading cases the buckling behaviour, ultimate load carrying capacity and load-deflection characteristics of the CFS columns were analyzed. The GFRP laminates were wrapped on columns in three different ways such that wrapping the outer surface of web and flange throughout the length of specimen, wrapping the outer surface of web alone throughout the length of specimen and wrapping the outer surface of web and flange for the upper half length of the specimen where the buckling is expected. For both loading cases, the results indicated that the column with wrapping at the outer surface of web and flange throughout the length of specimen provides better strength for it.

  12. Influence of microstructural parameters on the deformation and failure behaviour of the ODS alloy PM 2000 under creep and creep-fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, K.; Kussmaul, K.; Maile, K.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of grain size, manufacturing type and specimen direction (anisotropy) with respect to deformation and failure behaviour under creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue load was investigated. Thus, a basis for the correlation between microstructure and mechanical behaviour has been established. The specific damage and failure behaviour could be explained by means of the different microstructures observed. (orig.)

  13. Bullying and Cyberbullying: Their Legal Status and Use in Psychological Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthanna Samara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.

  14. Bullying and Cyberbullying: Their Legal Status and Use in Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K.; Morsi, Hisham

    2017-01-01

    Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour. PMID:29186780

  15. Bullying and Cyberbullying: Their Legal Status and Use in Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K; Morsi, Hisham

    2017-11-24

    Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.

  16. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  17. Verification of Dinamika-5 code on experimental data of water level behaviour in PGV-440 under dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beljaev, Y.V.; Zaitsev, S.I.; Tarankov, G.A. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Comparison of the results of calculational analysis with experimental data on water level behaviour in horizontal steam generator (PGV-440) under the conditions with cessation of feedwater supply is presented in the report. Calculational analysis is performed using DIMANIKA-5 code, experimental data are obtained at Kola NPP-4. (orig.). 2 refs.

  18. TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOURS OF ABS AND PA6 POLYMERMETAL SLIDING COMBINATIONS UNDER DRY FRICTION, WATER ABSORBED AND ELECTROPLATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHUN V. KULKARNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 and poly-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS sliding against metal under dry sliding, water absorption and electroplated (EP conditions were studied by using a pin-ondisc tribometer. The effect of applied load and sliding speed on the tribological behaviours of the polymer–metal sliding combinations under dry sliding, water absorbed and EP conditions were also investigated. The worn surfaces were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Experimental results showed that ABS samples under water absorbed conditions showed higher wear loss compared to normal samples and the EP samples had exhibited lower wear loss compared to the water absorbed samples. Similarly EP-PA6 samples exhibited excellent wear resistance when compared with EP-ABS samples. Further, it was observed that the frictional heat produced on account of sliding action had a significant effect on the tribological behaviours of samples under dry sliding and water absorbed conditions.

  19. Interventions for prevention of bullying in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G

    2017-01-30

    internal validity items from the Downs and Black quality assessment tool to evaluate included studies' risk of bias. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. They had altogether 4116 participants. They were underpinned by theory and measured behaviour change in relation to bullying and related absenteeism. The included studies measured the effectiveness of interventions on the number of cases of self-reported bullying either as perpetrator or victim or both. Some studies referred to bullying using common synonyms such as mobbing and incivility and antonyms such as civility. Organisational/employer level interventionsTwo studies with 2969 participants found that the Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workforce (CREW) intervention produced a small increase in civility that translates to a 5% increase from baseline to follow-up, measured at 6 to 12 months (mean difference (MD) 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.28).One of the two studies reported that the CREW intervention produced a small decrease in supervisor incivility victimisation (MD -0.17; 95% CI -0.33 to -0.01) but not in co-worker incivility victimisation (MD -0.08; 95% CI -0.22 to 0.08) or in self-reported incivility perpetration (MD -0.05 95% CI -0.15 to 0.05). The study did find a decrease in the number of days absent during the previous month (MD -0.63; 95% CI -0.92 to -0.34) at 6-month follow-up. Individual/job interface level interventionsOne controlled before-after study with 49 participants compared expressive writing with a control writing exercise at two weeks follow-up. Participants in the intervention arm scored significantly lower on bullying measured as incivility perpetration (MD -3.52; 95% CI -6.24 to -0.80). There was no difference in bullying measured as incivility victimisation (MD -3.30 95% CI -6.89 to 0.29).One controlled before-after study with 60 employees who had learning disabilities compared a cognitive-behavioural intervention with no intervention. There was no significant difference in bullying

  20. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of two reference Belgian clay formations under non-isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.; Romero, E.; Gens, A.; Li, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Two deep clay formations are being investigated in Belgium in connection with the design of a repository for 'High-Level Radioactive Waste': Boom clay BC at Mol (located between 160 and 270 m depths), considered the reference host formation, and Ypresian clay YC at Kallo (located between 300 and 450 m depths) as an alternative one. A comprehensive experimental programme has been carried out on these materials to explore water permeability at different temperatures and sample orientations, as well as to analyse volume change behaviour on loading/unloading at different temperatures and sample orientations (including pre and post-yield compressibility, yield properties and volume changes on drained thermal loading). Table 1 summarises some properties of BC and YC. Figure 1 presents the pore size distribution PSD curves of both clays obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry. They display contrasting features (bi-modal pore network in YP with larger dominant pore sizes). Larger water permeability values are expected on YC as indicated in Table 1 and Figure 2, not only as a consequence of its higher void ratio but also due to these double porosity features. Water retention properties, of particular concern on sample retrieval from large depths, are also affected due to desaturation processes that are associated with the double porosity network of YP and its effects on air-entry value (a lower initial suction is measured on YP, despite being retrieved from larger depths). Figure 2 shows vertical and horizontal water permeability results under constant volume conditions and different temperatures. BC and YC display small anisotropy at sample scale - permeability is slightly larger on horizontal direction-. With regard to temperature effects, the figure shows that water permeability dependency on temperature in YC is slightly higher than the water viscosity prediction for both orientations. Instead BC displayed a thermal

  1. Characterisation and behaviour under irradiation of rare-earth doped powellite phases - Application to the long term behaviour of nuclear waste matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, C.

    2010-09-01

    This work deals with the behaviour under irradiation of a glass-ceramic made after heat treatment of a molybdenum rich R7/T7 type glass. Rare earth elements (Eu 3+ and Nd 3+ ) are used as surrogates of minor actinides and fission products as well as structural luminescent probes. We will focus on the behaviour of the crystalline phase which is a powellite type calcium molybdate that incorporated other elements including rare earth elements. In order to determine the crystalline-chemical properties of the powellite structure, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence analyses are led on natural powellite samples and synthetic ceramics with compositions from pure CaMoO 4 to Ca 0.76 Sr 0.1 Na 0.07 Eu 0.01 La 0.02 Nd 0.02 Pr 0.02 MoO 4 , a model composition of the crystalline phase of the glass-ceramic. The analyses of synthetic samples irradiated with He, Ar and Pb ions compared to the behaviour of a natural powellite sample that contains uranium indicate that powellite resist strongly to irradiation and never reach the amorphous state. (author)

  2. Students' Perceptions of Bullying in Oklahoma Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Patricia Paulsen; Middleton, Katherine M.; Marshall, David D.

    2009-01-01

    We studied perceptions of Oklahoma public school students (n = 7,848) regarding bullying. Specifically, we asked for their thoughts about the seriousness of bullying, the hurtfulness of bullying, their involvement in bullying (as victim or perpetrator), their responses to being bullied or seeing someone else being bullied, and what they wanted…

  3. Estuarine sediment resuspension and acidification: Release behaviour of contaminants under different oxidation levels and acid sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Torre, M Camino; Cifrian, Eva; Ruiz, Gema; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology to reduce the emissions of this gas to the atmosphere by sequestering it in geological formations. In the case of offshore storage, unexpected CO 2 leakages will acidify the marine environment. Reductions of the pH might be also caused by anthropogenic activities or natural events such as acid spills and dredging operations or storms and floods. Changes in the pH of the marine environment will trigger the mobilisation of elements trapped in contaminated shallow sediments with unclear redox boundary. Trace element (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) release from anoxic and oxic estuarine sediment is analysed and modelled under different laboratory acidification conditions using HNO 3 (l) and CO 2 (g): acidification at pH = 6.5 as worst-case scenario in events of CO 2 leakages and acid spills, and acidification at pH = 7.0 as a seawater scenario under CO 2 leakages, acid spills, as well as sediment resuspension. The prediction of metal leaching behaviour appear to require sediment specific and site specific tools. In the present work it is demonstrated that the proposed three in-series reactions model predicts the process kinetics of the studied elements under different simulated environmental conditions (oxidation levels and acid sources). Differences between HNO 3 and CO 2 acidification are analysed through the influence of the CO 2 gas on the ionic competition of the medium. The acidification with CO 2 provokes higher released concentrations from the oxic sediment than from the anoxic sediment, except in the case of Zn, which influences the release of the other studied elements. Slight acidification can endanger the aquatic environment through an important mobilisation of contaminants. The obtained prediction of the contaminant release from sediment (kinetic parameters and maximum concentrations) can contribute to the exposure assessment stage for risk management and preincidental planning in

  4. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Araya, Ricardo; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. 59,348 students from 1,453 schools and 26 state capitals and the Federal District participated in the National Survey of School Health among 9th Grade Students (PeNSE, 2009). We performed multilevel logistic regression in a three level model (individual, school and city). The 30-day prevalence of verbal bullying among these students was 14.2%. We found that 1.8% and 0.3% of the total variance in bullying occurred at school-level and city-level, respectively, and 97.9% at individual-level. At city-level, all factors included failed to demonstrate a significant association with bullying (p school-level, private schools presented more bullying than public schools (OR = 1.17, CI 1.04-1.31). At individual-level, male gender, younger age, not living with both parents, exposed to domestic violence, under or overweight were all associated with bullying. All socioeconomic indicators assessed contributed little to explain the variance in bullying at individual, school or city-level. Population subgroups at risk identified according to their individual profile could be targeted in future interventions in Brazil.

  5. School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-09-25

    School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention.

  6. Childhood bullying and becoming a young father in a national cohort of Finnish boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti, Venla; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Almqvist, Fredrik; Sourander, Andre

    2012-12-01

    Childhood bullying is known to be associated with various adverse psychosocial outcomes in later life. No studies exist on its association with becoming a young father. The study is based on a national cohort, which included 2,946 Finnish boys at baseline in 1989. Information on bullying was collected from children, their parents and their teachers. Follow-up data on becoming a father under the age of 22 were collected from a nationwide register. The follow-up sample included 2,721 boys. Bullying other children frequently was significantly associated with becoming a young father independently of being victimized, childhood psychiatric symptoms and parental educational level. Being a victim of bullying was not associated with becoming a young father when adjusted for possible confounders. When the co-occurrence of bullying and victimization was studied, it was found that being a bully-victim, but not a pure bully or a pure victim, is significantly associated with becoming a young father. This study adds to other studies, which have shown that the risk profile and relational patterns of bully-victims differ from those of other children, and it emphasizes the importance of including peer relationships when studying young fathers. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention. PMID:28946682

  8. Bullying prevention in schools: position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; Smith, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) is a crucial member of the team participating in the prevention of bullying in schools. School nurses are the experts in pediatric health in schools and, therefore, can have an impact on the health and safety of all students, including students who bully, students who are bullied, or students who both bully and are bullied by others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011a, 2011b). The school nurse role includes the prevention of bullying and the identification of students who are bullied, bully others, or both. The school nurse has a significant leadership role in the implementation of bullying prevention policies and strategies.

  9. School bullying: its nature and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; De La Rue, Lisa

    2011-11-04

    Recent youth suicides only highlight a persistent problem in schools - bullying and sustained peer victimization. Being a target or victim of bullying has long been recognized has having short- and long-term psychological effects on children and adolescents across the world today. School bullying is one of the most significant public health concerns facing children and adolescents. Involvement in the social phenomena of school bullying is often explained as emerging from a wide range of risk and protective factors within the social-ecology of youth. The social-ecological model posits that bullying behaviors are shaped by various interrelated contexts including individual characteristics, family, peers and the school environment. Research is reviewed to highlight the correlates of bullying involvement across these context using social-ecological and social-learning frameworks. Meta-analytic studies are reviewed on the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Specific recommendations for prevention planning and future research efforts are provided. Bullying is a multi-faceted issue, which is best understood in the larger social context in which it occurs. Individual characteristics of students contribute to bullying involvement when students have families that promote violence, teachers that ignore or dismiss bullying, schools that have negative climates and students who socialize with friends who bully. These social contexts need to be targeted in bully prevention programs to reduce bullying and peer victimization in schools.

  10. Behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils under freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Anne; Schönborn, Maike; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The arctic region will be one of the most affected regions by climate change due to the predicted temperature rise. As a result of anthropogenic actions as mining, exploration and refining as well as atmospheric transport pollutions can be found in arctic soils. Therefore questions on the behaviour of organic contaminants in permafrost influenced soils are of high relevance. First investigations showed that permafrost can act as a semi-permeable layer for PAH (Curtosi et al., 2007). Therefore it can be assumed that global warming could result in a mobilization of PAH in these permafrost influenced soils. On the other hand a low but detectable mineralization of organic hydrocarbons by microorganisms under repeated freeze-thaw cycles was analysed (Börresen et al. 2007, Eschenbach et al. 2000). In this study the behaviour and distribution of PAH under freezing and periodically freezing and thawing were investigated in laboratory column experiments with spiked soil materials. Two soil materials which are typical for artic regions, a organic matter containing melt water sand and a well decomposed peat, were homogeneously spiked with a composite of a crude oil and the PAH anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene. After 14days preincubation time the soil material was filled in the laboratory columns (40cm high and 10 cm in diameter). Based on studies by Chuvilin et al. (2001) the impact of freezing of the upper third of the column from the surface downwards was examined. The impact of freezing was tested in two different approaches the first one with a single freezing step and the second one with a fourfold repeated cycle of freezing and thawing which takes about 6 or 7 days each. The experimental design and very first results will be shown and discussed. In some experiments with the peat a higher concentration of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be detected below the freezing front in the unfrozen part of the column. Whereas the concentration of PAH had slightly decreased in

  11. Behaviour of (Th, U)O2 microspheres under compression tests and pelletization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, R.A.N.

    1982-12-01

    The interrelation between the behaviour of isolated microspheres in compression tests and the microstructure of sintered pellets obtained with these microspheres, was investigated. Various batches of (Th, 5 w/o U)O 2 microspheres were produced applying the so-called gel process. The production parameters were diversified both as to the composition and to the heat treatments. The resulting products underwent compression tests in an universal tension and compression machine as single microspheres and, as bulk material, were compacted and sintered. The results of the compression tests revealed the existence of two distinct classes of fragmentation behaviour. Each of these classes causes a distinct behaviour during the pelletization, too, resulting in fuel pellets with quite different microstructures. It was evidenced that there is a relationship between these differences in the microstructure and the behaviour of the single microspheres in the compression test. (Author) [pt

  12. Fission products and nuclear fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions part 1: Main lessons learnt from the first VERDON test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontillon, Y.; Geiger, E.; Le Gall, C.; Bernard, S.; Gallais-During, A.; Malgouyres, P. P.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the first VERDON test performed at the end of September 2011 with special emphasis on the behaviour of fission products (FP) and actinides during the accidental sequence itself. Two other papers discuss in detail the post-test examination results (SEM, EPMA and SIMS) of the VERDON-1 sample. The first VERDON test was devoted to studying UO2 fuel behaviour and fission product releases under reducing conditions at very high temperature (∼2883 K), which was able to confirm the very good performance of the VERDON loop. The fuel sample did not lose its integrity during this test. According to the FP behaviour measured by the online gamma station (fuel sight), the general classification of the FP in relation to their released fraction is very accurate, and the burn-up effect on the release rate is clearly highlighted.

  13. Behaviour of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete beam–column joints under reverse cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, N.; Indira, P.V.; Sabeena, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a high performance hybrid fibre reinforced cementitious composite. • Exterior beam-column joints have been tested under reversed cyclic loading. • Ductility factor, energy dissipation and stiffness degradation have been evaluated. • Contribution to reduce congestion of reinforcement in beam column joints. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of hybrid fibres on the strength and behaviour of High performance concrete beam column joints subjected to reverse cyclic loads. A total of 12 reinforced concrete beams column joints were cast and tested in the present investigation. High performance concrete of M60 grade was designed using the modified ACI method suggested by Aïtcin. Crimped steel fibres and polypropylene fibres were used in hybrid form. The main variables considered were the volume fraction of (i) crimped steel fibres viz. 0.5% (39.25 kg/m 3 ) and 1.0% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) and (ii) polypropylene fibres viz. 0.1% (0.9 kg/m 3 ), 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ), and 0.2% (1.8 kg/m 3 ). Addition of fibres in hybrid form improved many of the engineering properties such as the first crack load, ultimate load and ductility factor of the composite. The combination of 1% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of steel fibres and 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of polypropylene fibres gave better performance with respect to energy dissipation capacity and stiffness degradation than the other combinations

  14. Care seeking behaviour and various delays in tuberculosis patients registered under RNTCP in Pune city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Sachin Gothankar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Case finding in tuberculosis is known to be influenced by factors such as patient motivation, care seeking, the degree of diagnostic suspicion by health care provider which could result in a delayed diagnosis.Objective: To determine care seeking behaviour and delay in diagnosis and treatment of new sputum positive tuberculosis patients registered under RNTCP.Material and Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study. 283 new sputum positive tuberculosis patients (≥15 years of age registered during a period of six months at two randomly selected tuberculosis unit of Pune city. Questionnaire by WHO was modified and used. Interviews were conducted in DOT centres. Statistical analysis: Frequency, mean and standard deviation, chi square test.Results: Mean age of patients was 35 (±15 years18% of patients were unemployed and 77% resided in urban slums. The commonest co morbidity in 7.4% and 3.5 % patients was HIV/ AIDS followed by diabetics respectively. Majority of the patients, for the first and second time visited a general practitioner. Median patient, health care system and total delay were 18, 22 and 47 days with mean of 24±21, 32±30 and 56±33 days respectively. Health care system delay was less (p<0.05 in patients who first visited the public health care facility than patients who first visited a private health care provider.Conclusions: General practitioners are preferred first choice of health care provider for tuberculosis patients. Mean health care system delay is more than patient delay.

  15. Behaviour of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grapes under semi-arid tropical climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, Ashok K; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K; Prakash, G S; Kumar, Sampath

    2010-08-01

    A mixture of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole is excellent in controlling both powdery and downy mildew of grapes. The objective of the present work was to study the behaviour of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape berries and soil following treatment with Nativo 75 WG, a formulation containing both fungicides (trifloxystrobin 250 + tebuconazole 500 g kg(-1)). This study was carried out for planned registration of this mixture for use on grapes in India. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grapes were below their maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 and 2 mg kg(-1), respectively, when Nativo 75 WG was applied at the recommended dose of 175 g product ha(-1). The residues dissipated gradually to 0.02 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) by 30 days, and were below the quantifiable limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (60 days after the last treatment). Trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole dissipated at a pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 36 and 34 days, respectively, from the recommended treatment dose. The acid metabolite of trifloxystrobin, CGA 321 113, was not detected in grape berries at any point in time. Soil at harvest was free of any pesticide residues. Residue levels of both trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below MRLs when grapes were harvested 30 days after the last of four applications of 175 g product ha(-1) (trifloxystrobin 44 g AI ha(-1), tebuconazole 88 g AI ha(-1)) under the semi-arid tropical climatic conditions of India. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. CYCLIC PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF UFG COPPER UNDER CONTROLLED STRESS AND STRAIN LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Navrátilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stress- and strain-controlled loading on microstructure and cyclic plastic behaviour of ultrafine-grained copper prepared by equal channel angular pressing was examined. The stability of microstructure is a characteristic feature for stress-controlled test whereas grain coarsening and development of bimodal structure was observed after plastic strain-controlled tests. An attempt to explain the observed behaviour was made.

  17. Active transportation and bullying in Canadian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, Ioana; Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-02-07

    Bullying is a recognized social problem within child populations. Engagement in childhood bullying often occurs in settings that are away from adult supervision, such as en route to and from school. Bullying episodes may also have a negative impact on school childrens' decisions to engage in active transportation. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed reports from the 2009/10 cycle of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Records from this general health survey were obtained for 3,997 urban students in grades 6-10 who lived in close proximity of their school and were hence ineligible for school bussing. Students who indicated walking or bicycling to school were classified as engaged in active transportation. Victims and perpetrators of bullying were defined using standard measures and a frequency cut-off of at least 2-3 times per month. Analyses focused on relations between bullying and active transportation, as well as barriers to active transportation as perceived by young people. 27% of young people indicated being victimized, and 12% indicated that they engaged in bullying. Girls were more likely to be victimized than boys, and younger students were more likely to be victimized than older students. Engagement in active transportation was reported by 63% of respondents, of these, 68% indicated that worrying about bullying on the way to school was an impediment to such transportation methods. Victimization by bullying (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.59) was reported more frequently by children who used active transportation. Health promotion efforts to promote engagement in active transportation of students to school have obvious value. The potential for modest increases in exposure to bullying should be considered in the planning of such initiatives.

  18. Relationships between individual behaviour and morphometry under different experimental conditions of temperature and feeding in glass eels (Anguilla anguilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bardonnet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After Anguilla anguilla larvae reach the European coast, metamorphosing glass eels exhibit an estuarine migration phase and can potentially colonize the continental area. Associated behaviours to upstream movement in estuary and river basin differ strongly: passive tidal transport in estuary, active swimming beyond the upstream tidal limit. Moreover, the migratory behaviour may shift towards a density-dependent dispersal beyond this limit. A positive relationship has previously been established between glass eels’ body condition and migratory behaviour in estuary and also higher in the river basin. An experiment was settled to test for the density-dependent versus migratory behaviour under controlled conditions. The relationships between some behaviours (swimming, grouping, feeding, and aggressiveness and body condition was investigated at the individual level. Two controlled factors were crossed, leading to four combinations of high and low levels of food and temperature. The high level of food led to a lesser loss in body condition. Swimming activity was positively related to initial body condition and loss in body condition, but these two variables were not related to aggressiveness. We conclude that the density-dependent dispersal hypothesis was not reinforced by these present results.

  19. Relationships between individual behaviour and morphometry under different experimental conditions of temperature and feeding in glass eels (Anguilla anguilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardonnet A.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available After Anguilla anguilla larvae reach the European coast, metamorphosing glass eels exhibit an estuarine migration phase and can potentially colonize the continental area. Associated behaviours to upstream movement in estuary and river basin differ strongly: passive tidal transport in estuary, active swimming beyond the upstream tidal limit. Moreover, the migratory behaviour may shift towards a density-dependent dispersal beyond this limit. A positive relationship has previously been established between glass eels’ body condition and migratory behaviour in estuary and also higher in the river basin. An experiment was settled to test for the density-dependent versus migratory behaviour under controlled conditions. The relationships between some behaviours (swimming, grouping, feeding, and aggressiveness and body condition was investigated at the individual level. Two controlled factors were crossed, leading to four combinations of high and low levels of food and temperature. The high level of food led to a lesser loss in body condition. Swimming activity was positively related to initial body condition and loss in body condition, but these two variables were not related to aggressiveness. We conclude that the density-dependent dispersal hypothesis was not reinforced by these present results.

  20. Melt-Flow Behaviours of Thermoplastic Materials under Fire Conditions: Recent Experimental Studies and Some Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials often exhibit complex combustion behaviours encompassing several stages and involving solid phase, gas phase and interphase. A wide range of qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative testing techniques are currently available, both at the laboratory scale and for commercial purposes, for evaluating the decomposition and combustion behaviours of polymeric materials. They include, but are not limited to, techniques such as: thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA, oxygen bomb calorimetry, limiting oxygen index measurements (LOI, Underwriters Laboratory 94 (UL-94 tests, cone calorimetry, etc. However, none of the above mentioned techniques are capable of quantitatively deciphering the underpinning physiochemical processes leading to the melt flow behaviour of thermoplastics. Melt-flow of polymeric materials can constitute a serious secondary hazard in fire scenarios, for example, if they are present as component parts of a ceiling in an enclosure. In recent years, more quantitative attempts to measure the mass loss and melt-drip behaviour of some commercially important chain- and step-growth polymers have been accomplished. The present article focuses, primarily, on the experimental and some theoretical aspects of melt-flow behaviours of thermoplastics under heat/fire conditions.

  1. Do networking activities outside of the classroom protect students against being bullied? A field study with students in secondary school settings in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A; Schoepe, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that having close relationships with fellow classmates can provide a buffer for students against bullying and the negative outcomes associated with it. But, research has not explicitly examined the potential benefits of social networking behaviors outside of the classroom for those who could be bullied. This study addresses this gap and finds that, although a bullying climate in the classroom increases overall bullying, students high on external networking activities did not experience an increase in the bullying they received when in a classroom with a high bullying climate. However, the same group of students reported the largest degree of received bulling under conditions of a low bullying climate. We discuss the implications of our results and provide directions for future research.

  2. A longitudinal study of the social and emotional predictors and consequences of cyber and traditional bullying victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Lester, Leanne; Barnes, Amy

    2015-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies have investigated how cyberbullying interacts with traditional bullying among young people, who are increasingly using online environments to seek information, entertainment and to socialise. This study aimed to identify the associations between the relative contribution of cyberbullying victimisation and traditional bullying victimisation on social and emotional antecedents and outcomes among adolescents. Participants were a cohort of 1,504 adolescents from 16 Australian schools followed from age 13 to 15 years. Adolescents experiencing social and emotional difficulties were more likely to be cyberbullied and traditionally bullied, than traditionally bullied only. Those targeted in both ways experienced more harm and stayed away from school more often than those traditionally bullied only. These findings suggest a high coexistence of cyber and traditional bullying behaviours and their antecedents, and higher levels of harm from a combination of these behaviours for adolescents over time. Future research should engage students as co-researchers to enhance school and parent strategies to support adolescents experiencing difficulties, and to reduce the likelihood of both cyber and traditional bullying.

  3. Bullying and social media affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Brailas, Alexios

    2016-01-01

    What constitutes a good and sustainabledigital living?Social media literacyCan we talk about social media intelligence?Can we talk about digital intelligence?How bullying is complicated by special social media affordances?

  4. Attacking Bullying; an Examination of Anti-Bullying Legislation and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Tamara Marrella

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a major threat to school safety and appears to be increasing at alarming rates. Leaders throughout the entire school community need to understand the implications and ramifications of bullying on both the student who bullies and students who are bullied. This imperative mission calls for transformational leaders, armed with strong…

  5. Bullying in the Academy: Understanding the Student Bully and the Targeted "Stupid, Fat, Mother Fucker" Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Amy; Tenzek, Kelly E.

    2018-01-01

    Bullying within academia often focuses on peer bullying or the student victim. However, the student bully who targets professors is a neglected area of study yet just as destructive, demeaning, and intimidating. Using a narrative lens analysis, the researchers share how the story of bullying unfolds in the classroom. Distinct triggers, such as…

  6. Educators' Perceptions of Bullying before and after Implementing a Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lorraine Denise

    2014-01-01

    In suburban schools in Western Pennsylvania, students, educators, parents, and community members are experiencing the negative effects caused by school bullying. Some educators cannot identify bullying, do not perceive bullying as problematic, or are not trained to intervene in bullying events. The purpose of this quasi-experimental, single group,…

  7. Bullying in Turkish white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgel, Nazan; Aytac, Serpil; Bayram, Nuran

    2006-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of reported workplace bullying among a group of white-collar workers, to evaluate the association between reported bullying and its effect on health and to assess the effects of support at work for bullied workers. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey among full-time government employees in the health, education and security sectors. Bullying was assessed using a 20-item inventory. The potential effects of reported bullying were assessed using the Job Induced Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale and the Propensity to Leave Scale. The response rate was 79% (944/1,200) and 877 questionnaires were analysed after exclusion of non-complete data. Of respondents, 55% (483) reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year and 47% (416) had witnessed the bullying of others. The bully was most likely to be a superior. Sixty per cent of victims had tried to take action against bullying, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. There were significant differences in anxiety, depression, job-induced stress and support at work scores between those reporting bullying and those not reporting bullying at work. Those who reported bullying with low support at work had the poorest scores on the mental health scales. Bullying is a serious problem in this group of workers and may lead to health consequences. Feeling that the work environment is supportive appears to have a protective effect in terms of the health outcomes.

  8. Rat behaviour reactions and brain synaptic membrane lipids under the chronical gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, T.P.; Medvinskaya, N.I.; Potekhina, N.I.; Kolomijtseva, I.K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of low level chronical ionising irradiation (12.9 cGy/day on the sensory attention to the stimuli of different modalities (somatosensor, visual, odor) of Wistar rats were studied. Analysis of animals behaviour was made after they had received the different doses of irradiation: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 Gy. It was founded, that the attention and exploratory activity of rats is significantly decreased up to 20-30% after 4-6 Gy. The irradiation doses 8 Gy did not change animal behaviour as compared to control animals, but doses 10, 15 and 20 Gy decreased the exploratory activity as well as sensory attention of rats to 3-5-times as compared to previous dose. Such a wave-like way of behaviour reflects the functioning of an adaptive mechanism. Biochemical data indicated that after 5 months of the irradiation (dose 20 Gy) the level of phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatdylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol were decreased

  9. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  10. Electrochemical behaviour of stainless steel under radiation and exposed to representative chemistry in pressurised water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mi

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation focuses on the behaviour of stainless steel under irradiation and exposed to primary PWR conditions. The electrochemical potential of austenitic 316L stainless steel and the environmental parameters (hydrogen pressure, temperature, etc.,) have been measured continuously at high temperature (HT) and high pressure (HP) under irradiation, using a unique experimental HTHP working cell. Two sources of irradiation, proton and electron beams, have been employed in the study. A high similarity of electrochemical behaviour under both types of irradiations has been observed: (i) an oxidative potential response under irradiation (few tens of milli-volts); (ii) an increase in the hydrogen pressure reduces the oxidative potential response; (iii) a synergetic effect of thermal ageing and fluence leading to a decrease of the oxidative response under irradiation. The observations of the oxide film showed that without irradiation, metallic nickel in the inner and outer oxide films has been observed under a high hydrogen pressure. Under irradiation, um scale cavities (pits) have been observed in the strongly electron irradiated oxide film formed on 316L stainless steel. These defects are induced by the effect of irradiation of the passive film and water radiolysis. It is also shown that water radiolysis influences the PWR water chemistry by making it become a stronger oxidant at the oxide/solution interface. As a result, the release of metallic cations is increased and a-Fe 2 O 3 hematite has been observed on the irradiated outer oxide film where cavities were formed. (author) [fr

  11. Trends in bullying victimization by gender among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Nancy M H; Ayres, Cynthia G; Lewandowski, Carla; Pontes, Manuel C F

    2018-02-27

    This research used four consecutive waves of data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), to estimate linear time trends by gender in the prevalence of school and electronic bullying victimization among US high school students (N = 61,042). Dependent variables were student self-reported school bullying victimization and electronic bullying victimization during the previous 12 months. Independent variables used to estimate multiple logistic regression models by gender were survey year, race/ethnicity, and grade level. Results showed the prevalence of school bullying increased significantly among females from 2009 (21.2%) to 2015 (24.8%), linear trend OR = 1.08 [1.04, 1.12]; and decreased significantly among males from 2009 (18.7%) to 2015 (15.8%), linear trend OR = 0.93 [0.89, 0.98]. Prevalence of electronic bullying was unchanged between 2011 to 2015 among both male and female students. Asian race, relative to White race, was associated with significantly lower rates of both school and electronic bullying victimization among females, but not males. The incidence of school and electronic bullying victimization was significantly lower among Black and Hispanic students, but not among multiple-race students, regardless of student gender. Healthy People 2020 set a goal to reduce school bullying victimization 10% by 2019. As of 2015, school bullying victimization decreased significantly among males (16% decrease); it significantly increased among females (17% increase). Future research should explore underlying factors related to these divergent trends, and develop effective strategies to reverse the alarming rise in female school bullying victimization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Specialists' meeting on LMFBR fuel rod behaviour under operational transients, Kalpakkam, India, 3-6 December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    IWGFR Specialists' Meeting on ''LMFBR Fuel Rod Behaviour Under Operational Transients'' was held in Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 3-6 December 1985. The meeting was attended by the representatives of Belgium, France, FRG, India, Italy, US, USSR, IAEA and observers from India. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the subject of LMFBR Fuel Rod Behaviour Under Operational Transients. The meeting presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Overview of National Programmes (3 papers); In-pile and out-pile experimental facilities and results (5 papers); Modelling and Code work (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  13. Simulation of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a Mediterranean reservoir under different climate change and management scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Prats

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important current issues in the management of lakes and reservoirs is the prediction of global climate change effects to determine appropriate mitigation and adaptation actions. In this paper we analyse whether management actions can limit the effects of climate change on water temperatures in a reservoir. For this, we used the model EOLE to simulate the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of the reservoir of Bimont (Provence region, France in the medium term (2036-2065 and in the long term (2066-2095 using regionalised projections by the model CNRM-CERFACS-CNRM-CM5 under the emission scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Water temperature projections were compared to simulations for the reference period 1993-2013, the longest period for which we had year-long data for both hydrology and meteorology. We calibrated the model using profile measurements for the period 2010-2011 and we carried an extensive validation and assessment of model performance. In fact, we validated the model using profile measurements for 2012-2014, obtaining a root mean square error of 1.08°C and mean bias of -0.11°C, and we assured the consistency of model simulations in the long term by comparing simulated surface temperature to satellite measurements for 1999-2013. We assessed the effect using synthetic input data instead of measured input data by comparing simulations made using both kinds of data for the reference period. Using synthetic data resulted in slightly lower (-0.3°C average and maximum epilimnion temperatures, a somewhat deeper thermocline, and slightly higher evaporation (+7%. To investigate the effect of different management strategies, we considered three management scenarios: i bottom outlet and present water level; ii bottom outlet and elevated water level; and iii surface outlet and elevated water level. According to the simulations, the reservoir of Bimont will have a low rate of warming of the epilimnion of 0.009-0.024 °C·yr-1, but a

  14. Iodide behaviour in hard clay rocks under controlled physico-chemical conditions at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, B.; Savoye, S.; Wittebroodt, C.; Leupin, O.X.; Descostes, M.; Grenut, B.; Meier, P.; Michelot, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. With a half-life of 1.6 10 7 years, its high mobility and its potential to accumulate in the biosphere, iodine-129 is considered, from safety assessment calculations for radioactive waste repositories, to be one of the main radiological dose contributors. Based on the findings of previous studies, iodide, especially at low concentrations, seems to be migrating at a slower rate in clay rock than Cl-36. The cause of this retardation regarding the diffusion of iodide versus chloride is not yet understood but several hypotheses are point towards sorption on natural organic matter (NOM), pyrite or redox reactions. Oxidation of iodide would form IO 3 - which is known to have a higher sorption affinity on several soils and sediment samples than iodide. The present project aims at exploring the effect on the iodide behaviour of two parameters: (i) the initial concentration of iodide and (ii) the amount of NOM contained in the argillite samples. Such an investigation is carried out on Tournemire argillite by means of both batch and through-diffusion experiments. The main challenge is to exclude as much as possible the occurrence of any experimental artefact that could induce iodide uptake (oxygen contamination, dissolution/precipitation of carbonate phases). Regarding redox conditions and rock equilibrium, all the experiments were carried out under physico-chemical conditions as close as possible to those prevailing in field. Using a glove box with an atmosphere of N 2 /CO 2 (respectively 99.6% and 0.4%), we preserved the experiments from oxygen and maintained the calculated in-situ carbonate equilibrium. At first, four through-diffusion experiments with the non-sorbing tracers HTO and Cl-36 were performed to allow the diffusive parameters of each sample to be defined. Afterwards, iodide was injected in the diffusion cells at four different concentrations (10 -6 M to 10 -3 M). Thus, the comparison of the incoming fluxes of

  15. Trends in bullying victimization in Scottish adolescents 1994?2014: changing associations with mental well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma, Alina; Whitehead, Ross; Neville, Fergus; Currie, Dorothy; Inchley, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bullying victimization among schoolchildren is a major public health concern. This paper aims to analyse the changing associations over two decades between bullying victimization and mental well-being in a representative Scottish schoolchildren sample. Methods Data were collected in six rounds of the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study in Scotland, with 42,312 adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15?years). Logistic and linear regressions were used to examine cha...

  16. Social capital and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo

    2017-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.

  17. Childhood bullying and social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohm, Amelia

    2015-03-01

    Children who witness bullying often do not defend victims. Bystanders might be reticent to intervene because they are stuck in "social dilemmas." Social dilemmas are situations in which individuals make decisions based on self-interest due to their lack of confidence that others will join with them in decisions that benefit the collective. In this study, the social dilemmas concept, which comes from game theory and social psychology, was applied to bullying for the first time. A total of 292 middle school students at a private residential school in the United States completed surveys about their bullying-related experiences within their residences of 10 to 12 students of the same gender. Multilevel modeling was employed to assess if and how attitudes, group norms, and social dilemmas predict behavior in bullying situations. The findings suggested that both individual and group factors were associated with behavior in bullying situations and that attitudes, group norms, and social dilemmas each made a unique contribution to predicting behavior in bullying situations. Aggr. Behav. 42:97-108, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of bullying victimisation and perpetration in a nationally representative sample of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J; Connor, Jason P; Lawrence, David M; Hafekost, Jennifer M; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James G

    2017-09-01

    Bullying prevalence studies are limited by varied measurement methods and a lack of representative samples. This study estimated the national prevalence of bullying victimisation, perpetration and combined victim-perpetration experiences in a representative population-based sample of Australian youth. The relationships between the three types of bullying involvement with a range of mental health symptoms and diagnoses were also examined. A randomly selected nationally representative sample aged 11-17 years ( N = 2967, M age = 14.6 years; 51.6% male) completed the youth component of the Second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (Young Minds Matter). Parents or carers also completed a structured face-to-face interview that asked questions about a single randomly selected child in the household. The youth survey comprised self-reported bullying victimisation and perpetration (Olweus Bully-Victim Questionnaire-adapted), psychological distress (K10), emotional and behavioural problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), as well as self-harm, suicide attempts and substance use. Modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV were administered to all youth and parents to assess for mental disorder diagnoses (major depressive disorder, any anxiety disorder and any externalising disorder [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder]). The 12-month prevalence of bullying victimisation was 13.3%, perpetration 1.6% and victim-perpetration 1.9%. Logistic regression models showed all forms of involvement in bullying were associated with increased risk of psychological distress, emotional and behavioural problems, substance use, self-harm and attempted suicide. Victimisation and victim-perpetration were associated with youth-reported major depressive disorder. There were also significant associations between bullying involvement and parent-reported diagnoses of major

  19. [Clarifying the definition of bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafons, C; Jehel, L; Hirigoyen, M-F; Coroller-Béquet, A

    2008-09-01

    Bullying is a much discussed and studied concept and yet there is a huge amount of terms and definitions that describe it. The lack of unity and precision around bullying raises several questions, notably in the judicial field. Indeed, how can judges determine if a given situation comes close to bullying or not if they do not have a precise definition of what bullying consists in? The French law attempts to clarify this concept, but it still remains vague on several points, highlighting the effects of bullying without explaining its causes and nature. This study aims at providing further precisions on the definition and bases itself on the analysis of law cases. These show which criteria the judges use to determine if the victim has been bullied or not. In this study, we used the judgments published on the website of the French ministry of justice in which a situation of bullying had been proven. Seventy-two percent of the victims were women whereas 75% of the perpetrators were men. The great majority (91%) of the persons convicted of bullying had a higher hierarchical position than their victims. No case from a subordinate to a superior could be found. Nine percent of the cases were bullying between colleagues. The average seniority was 15 years. The facts that influence the judges' decisions are always dignity-undermining facts, which are frequently combined with an alteration in the victim's health, an endangering of the victim's career and, less often, with the non-respect of the worker's rights. Dignity-undermining consists in humiliations (in 61% of the cases), insults or discourteous comments (27%), disrepute of the victim's work (24%), unjustified sanctions or reproaches, attacks on private life (15%), isolation (15%) and overload of work (12%). In half of the cases, alteration in health is held as the consequence of bullying. The judges mention some anxiodepressive syndroms or psychological problems without providing any supplementary details. No PTSD

  20. Bullying experience in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aulia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.

  1. Contrastings views on bullying in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Contrasting views on bullying in schools Which views on bullying influence teachers intervention strategies? This question is discussed  on the basis of the findings of my empirical study of that aspect of bullying that has to do with the position of the teacher (a quantitative survey...... of the teachers' staff room, observations, interviews and analysis of explicit ‘bullying-politics'). I found contradictions in teachers' definitions of the phenomenon of bullying, in how they describe causality and furthermore in how they would attempt to solve a specific and complicated bullying case....... The informants describe ‘bullying' in general terms that include group dynamic signs, when pressed for a causal explanation, or asked how they would handle a specific case. Most commonly, however, their focus is on the individual bully. In this, the teachers' positions seem to follow the commonplace conception...

  2. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  3. Behaviour of freshwater snails (Radix balthica) exposed to the pharmaceutical sertraline under simulated predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgespeth, Melanie Lea; Karasek, Tomasz; Ahlgren, Johan; Berglund, Olof; Brönmark, Christer

    2018-03-01

    Due to their potential for affecting the modulation of behaviour, effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the environment are particularly interesting regarding interspecies interactions and non-consumptive effects (NCEs) induced by predator cues in prey organisms. We evaluated the effects of sertraline (0.4, 40 ng/L, 40 µg/L) over 8 days on activity and habitat choice in the freshwater snail Radix balthica, on snails' boldness in response to mechanical stimulation (simulating predator attack), and their activity/habitat choice in response to chemical cues from predatory fish. We hypothesised that sertraline exposure would detrimentally impact NCEs elicited by predator cues, increasing predation risk. Although there were no effects of sertraline on NCEs, there were observed effects of chemical cue from predatory fish on snail behaviour independent of sertraline exposure. Snails reduced their activity in which the percentage of active snails decreased by almost 50% after exposure to fish cue. Additionally, snails changed their habitat use by moving away from open (exposed) areas. The general lack of effects of sertraline on snails' activity and other behaviours in this study is interesting considering that other SSRIs have been shown to induce changes in gastropod behaviour. This raises questions on the modes of action of various SSRIs in gastropods, as well as the potential for a trophic "mismatch" of effects between fish predators and snail prey in aquatic systems.

  4. On the Behaviour of Porcine Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues under Shock Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    regarding the dynamic tensile behaviour of skeletal muscle, Morrow et al. [6] per- formed low-rate (0.05 % s−1) tensile tests upon extensor digitorum ... longus muscles from New Zealand White rabbits. This study into the ‘passive’ properties of skeletal muscle provided data for the ultimate tensile strength

  5. Moral Development and Behaviour under the Spotlight of the Neurobiological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Vaydich, Jenny L.

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, neuroscience is providing a new perspective on human behaviour. Many areas of psychology have recognised and embraced the new technologies, methodologies and relevant findings. But how do the tools of neuroscience affect the fields of moral development and moral education?…

  6. Stick and Slip Behaviour of Confined Oligomer Melts under Shear. A Molecular-Dynamics Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manias, E.; Hadziioannou, G.; Bitsanis, I.; Brinke, G. ten

    1993-01-01

    The flow behaviour of melts of short chains, confined in molecularly thin Couette flow geometries, is studied with molecular-dynamics simulations. The effect of wall attraction and confinement on the density and velocity profiles is analysed. In these highly inhomogeneous films, a strong correlation

  7. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    EMMA ELISE ROBERTS

    2011-01-01

    Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...

  8. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  9. Failure behaviour of the superalloy MAR-M247 LC under LCF, HCF and combined LCF/HCF loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmedin, Domnin; Lang, Karl-Heinz [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Materialien (IAM-WK)

    2012-01-15

    Materials for turbine blades experience in service a combined loading of low and high cycle fatigue at high temperatures. In order to understand the failure behaviour under these loading conditions, systematic investigations were carried out. Low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue and combined low and high cycle fatigue tests were realised on MAR-M247 LC at 650 C in an air environment under total strain control. Surface damage and fracture surfaces were analysed. Under combined low and high cycle fatigue, the lifetime is reduced if the low cycle fatigue leads to a degradation of the high cycle fatigue strength caused by crack initiation and crack growth. By analysing the fracture surface, the crack growth rate under combined cycle fatigue loading could be determined and it was significantly higher than under pure low cycle fatigue loading. The accelerated crack growth mainly causes the lifetime reduction. (orig.)

  10. Bullying in schools: The role of teachers and classmates

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenburg, Beau

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the role of teachers and classmates in school bullying. The three main findings were: 1. Teachers may not be fully equipped to tackle bullying This dissertation suggests that teachers affect the prevalence of bullying, but that they may not be fully equipped to tackle bullying. The investigated teachers did not exactly know what bullying is, used inefficient methods to detect bullying, and often did not perceive students who claimed to bullied as victims. Teache...

  11. Social Bonds and School Bullying: A Study of Macanese Male Adolescents on Bullying Perpetration and Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background: School bullying research on Macanese adolescents is limited. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of China with over 95 % of the population is of Chinese descent. Yet, Macanese people are under substantial Western influences. Objective: Using a two male-only school sample of 365 participants aged between 10 and 17 years, this study…

  12. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Scott W.; Horner, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying behaviors are a growing concern in U.S. schools. We present here a behavioral approach to bully prevention utilizing a schoolwide intervention. Bully prevention in positive behavior support (BP-PBS) teaches students to withhold the social rewards hypothesized to maintain bullying. A single-subject multiple baseline design across 6 students and three elementary schools was implemented in an empirical evaluation of the intervention's effectiveness. Results indicated that implementation...

  13. Introduction: new approaches to school bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schott, Robin May; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers an introduction to and discussion of the two main paradigms within bullying research: paradigm one with its focus on static personality traits and paradigm two woth an understanding of bullying in terms of the complex relational dynamics and negotiations that occur within social...... Groups and which include a variey of intra-acting forces. The chapter gives a 'road map' to the book's 16 chapters on bullying, situated within the second paradigm. A new definition of bullying concludes the chapter....

  14. Workplace bullying among Nurses in South Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Huang, Su-Hui; Fang, Shu-Hui

    2016-09-01

    This study was to investigate bullying among hospital nurses and its correlates. Chinese people were unlikely to express their opinions or pursue individual rights. Workplace bullying took place more easily among the educated people within Chinese culture. However, studies related to workplace bullying among hospital nurses in Taiwan were still limited. A cross-sectional design. Two hundred and eighty-five nurses who worked in the regional teaching hospital in south Taiwan were recruited. The significant predictors of workplace bullying were identified by using linear regression analysis. The mean of overall bullying was 1·47, showing that the frequency of the nurses having experienced workplace bullying was between 'never' and 'now and then'. The most frequent bullying item was 'being yelled at or being the target of anger', followed by 'being the objects of untruthful criticism' and 'having views ignored'. Hospital nurses working in the Emergency room would gain 10·888 points more in the overall bullying scale compared with those who worked in operation rooms or haemodialysis rooms. They were more likely to be bullied. Hospital nurses with one year increase in nursing experience were 0·207 points less likely to be bullied. Reducing workplace bullying among hospital nurses was an essential method to provide quality assurance to health care. Nurse managers should build up zero tolerance policy to decrease nurses' exposure to workplace bullying. Training programmes related to bullying prevention are suggested to avoid workplace bullying. The contents of the educational training programmes or workshops should incorporate the characteristics and consequences of the workplace bullying, and the strategies to deal with bullying. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Kampanye Pencegahan Bullying di Lingkungan Sekolah

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfani, Muhamad Hanafi; Tirtawidjaja, Indarsjah

    2014-01-01

    Bullying, terutama di lingkungan sekolah di Indonesia seakan tidak ada habisnya. Pelakunya mayoritas adalah teman sekolah. Sayangnya, masyarakat cenderung mendiamkan ketika terjadi bullying. Padahal peran teman sebaya sangat penting untuk mencegah bullying. Untuk mendorong agar masyarakat terutama remaja agar mau berperan dalam mencegah bullying, perlu ada kampanye sosial yang dirancang menggunakan konsep yang jelas dengan pendekatan yang sesuai dengan target yang dituju (remaja). Hasilnya ad...

  16. Modeling Workplace Bullying Behaviors Using Catastrophe Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Ceja, Lucía; Navarro Cid, José; Zapf, D.

    2013-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as negative behaviors directed at organizational members or their work context that occur regularly and repeatedly over a period of time. Employees' perceptions of psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying victimization, and workplace bullying perpetration were assessed within a sample of nearly 5,000 workers. Linear and nonlinear approaches were applied in order to model both continuous and sudden changes in workplace bullying. More specifically, the prese...

  17. Association between bullying and pediatric psychiatric hospitalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Leader, Hadassa; Singh, Jasmine; Ghaffar, Ayesha; de Silva, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Bullying is a serious public health issue. We sought to demonstrate an association between bullying victimization and hospital admissions for acute psychiatric problems. We described the demographics and types of bullying in a sample of hospitalized patients in Staten Island, NY, and compared bullying victimization scores with psychiatric versus medical admissions. Methods: Patients in grades 3–12 were recruited from the Staten Island University Hospital Inpatient Pediatrics unit ...

  18. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bullying victimization: A risk factor of health problems among adolescents with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Bushra; Munawar, Asima

    2016-01-01

    To find bullying victimisation as a predictor of physical and psychological health problems among school-going children with hearing impairment. The co-relational cross-sectional study was conducted in Gujrat district of Pakistan's Punjab province from August 2014 to January 2015, and comprised adolescents with hearing impairment. The subjects were selected through multi-stage stratified proportionate sampling from the local schools. Two standardised instruments were administered to assess the relationship between bullying and health problems. Multidimensional Peer Victimisation Scale was used for measuring bullying behaviour, while the Health Questionnaire was used to assess physical and psychological health problems. Both scales were translated into Urdu using lexicon equivalence method of translation. Of the 286 subjects, 183(64%) were boys. A significant positive relationship was found between the four components of bullying and health problems (p0.05). Children with hearing impairment experienced bullying just like those without such an impairment. Bullying needs to be considered a significant public health issue and should be dealt with effectively.

  20. Poor nutrition and bullying behaviors: A comparison of deviant and non-deviant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2017-06-01

    Research on the topic of bullying has revealed that a substantial number of youth are bullied each year. Even so, a complete understanding of the origins of bullying behaviors remains elusive. In the current study, we propose that poor nutrition may constitute an important modifiable risk factor for bullying behaviors during adolescence, and that behavioral sensitivity to nutrition may vary across deviant and non-deviant youth. We employ data from the US sample of youth (52% male) ages 10-17 from the 2009-2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study to examine our hypothesis (N = 8753). The results reveal that poor nutrition significantly increases the odds of persistent bullying among youth, and that this relationship is particularly pronounced for non-deviant youth. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the nutrition of non-deviant youth may have the added benefit of reducing their likelihood of engaging in persistent bullying behaviors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bullying and the Twice-Exceptional Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin-Rohr, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Bullying has been an ongoing problem for students, but the issue is becoming more critical with changes in the society and the school systems. A bully is no longer "a person who hurts, frightens, threatens, or tyrannizes over those who are smaller or weaker". According to Tracy Cross, the definition of a bully now is evolving to include any person…

  2. Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ian; Duncan, Neil; Besag, Valerie E.

    2009-01-01

    "Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents" offers a comprehensive exploration of the bullying within public schools, drawing upon research conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and Canada. It offers insights into the immediate and long-term impact bullying can have upon the lives of students, their families,…

  3. Children's Voices on Bullying in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, Anne; Lund, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that bullying does occur in kindergarten. The extent of bullying in Norway and other Scandinavian countries is estimated to be about 12%. The purpose of this study is to investigate children's understanding and experiences of bullying. We use a qualitative approach and have conducted individual interviews and focus group…

  4. Workplace Bullying in Radiology and Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Jay R; Harolds, Jay A; Bluth, Edward I

    2017-08-01

    Workplace bullying is common in health care and has recently been reported in both radiology and radiation oncology. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of bullying and its potential consequences in radiology and radiation oncology. Bullying behavior may involve abuse, humiliation, intimidation, or insults; is usually repetitive; and causes distress in victims. Workplace bullying is more common in health care than in other industries. Surveys of radiation therapists in the United States, student radiographers in England, and physicians-in-training showed that substantial proportions of respondents had been subjected to workplace bullying. No studies were found that addressed workplace bullying specifically in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology residents. Potential consequences of workplace bullying in health care include anxiety, depression, and health problems in victims; harm to patients as a result of victims' reduced ability to concentrate; and reduced morale and high turnover in the workplace. The Joint Commission has established leadership standards addressing inappropriate behavior, including bullying, in the workplace. The ACR Commission on Human Resources recommends that organizations take steps to prevent bullying. Those steps include education, including education to ensure that the line between the Socratic method and bullying is not crossed, and the establishment of policies to facilitate reporting of bullying and support victims of bullying. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Bullying through the Eyes of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pister, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    As reports of bullying continue to make headlines, the push to understand the processes behind bullying behaviors continues to rise. While a great deal of research has been conducted to better understand the processes behind and the outcomes of bullying, the majority of these studies are quantitative in nature and very few involve qualitative…

  6. Professional Cultures and Rates of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.; Roland, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Preventing and reducing bullying requires long-term and systematic school-wide actions. Researchers on bullying have given little attention to the school organization and its influence on the ability to implement the necessary actions to prevent and stop bullying. This study examines the relationship between aspects of a school's professional…

  7. Stigma Is the Origin of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in schools has escalated far beyond childhood teasing. In recent years, torture, murder, and suicide have been associated with bullying (van der Kolk, Weisaeth, & McFarlane, 2007). While bullying is unacceptable behavior in any school, it is particularly problematic in Catholic schools, which must embody Gospel values. Catholic…

  8. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  9. Approaches to reduce bullying in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Fisker, Tine Basse

    2015-01-01

    processes) to embrace the different understandings of bullying and to discuss these critically. The purpose is to present important knowledge to reduce bullying and to engage in a discussion of different perspectives on bullying. This article contributes to the existing knowledge of the field by discussing...... and developing the original concepts of first- and second-order interventions....

  10. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating 'non-western' research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I and II, and discusses 1 hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2 group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students' way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.

  11. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  12. Why is bullying difficult to change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hymel, S.; Swearer, S.; Gillette, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are problematic behaviors with negative consequences for everyone: the victims, the bullies, the other students in the classroom and school, the teachers, the parents of the bullies and the victims, and perhaps even the neighborhood in which the school is located. Thus,

  13. Educators' Perceptions on Bullying Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2017-01-01

    I report on an investigation into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reactions to incidences of bullying, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of a number of bullying prevention strategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions based on findings from previous…

  14. Bullying and Social Exclusion Anxiety in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics to the social processes that may lead to bullying.…

  15. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  16. Cyberbullying: The New Era of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ann; Beran, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Bullying involves a powerful person intentionally harming a less powerful person repeatedly. With advances in technology, students are finding new methods of bullying, including sending harassing emails, instant messages, text messages, and personal pictures to others. Although school bullying has been studied since the 1970s, relatively little is…

  17. Time Trends in Bullying Behavior in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Lenzi, Michela; Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Cavallo, Franco; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the severity of outcomes associated with involvement in bullying and the resources spent in an effort to reduce its prevalence, it is important to investigate trends in the bullying's occurrence. The main aim of this study was to identify trends from 2002 to 2010 in prevalence of bullying and victimization among Italian…

  18. Review of the expected behaviour of alpha titanium alloys under Yucca Mountain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W

    2000-03-01

    The use of titanium alloys in two different waste package designs has been reviewed under the, conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In the first design. they are considered as one of three barrier materials incorporated into the waste package design and potentially in galvanic contact with the other two waste package materials, 316L stainless steel and Alloy-22. In the second design the Ti alloy is considered as a drip shield placed over, and not in contact with, a dual wall waste package fabricated from the other two materials. The possible failure processes, crevice corrosion, pitting and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) have been reviewed for the candidate titanium alloys (Ti-12, Ti-16 and Ti-7). Both pitting and crevice corrosion are very remote possibilities under these conditions. For Ti-12, a limited amount of crevice corrosion is possible but repassivation will occur before substantial damage is sustained. When Ti is considered as part of the triple wall waste package, hydrogen absorption leading to HIC, within an acidified but passive crevice, is the most likely failure mechanism. When the Ti alloy is utilized in the form of a drip shield then hydrogen absorption under potentially alkaline conditions is the major fear. Both Ti-12 and Ti-16 have been shown capable of tolerating substantial amounts of hydrogen ({approx}400 {mu} g{center_dot}g{sup -1} for Ti-12, and > 1000 {mu}g.g{sup -1} for Ti-16) before any effect on the materials fracture toughness is observed. The rate of absorption to a hydrogen content which exceeds these values will be the key feature determining if, or when, the material becomes susceptible to cracking. Once this condition is achieved, whether or not failure occurs will depend on the strength and location of stresses within the structure. For Ti to absorb hydrogen it is inevitably necessary to subject the material to cathodic polarization, either by coupling to a more active material or by the

  19. Review of the expected behaviour of alpha titanium alloys under Yucca Mountain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    2000-03-01

    The use of titanium alloys in two different waste package designs has been reviewed under the, conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In the first design. they are considered as one of three barrier materials incorporated into the waste package design and potentially in galvanic contact with the other two waste package materials, 316L stainless steel and Alloy-22. In the second design the Ti alloy is considered as a drip shield placed over, and not in contact with, a dual wall waste package fabricated from the other two materials. The possible failure processes, crevice corrosion, pitting and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) have been reviewed for the candidate titanium alloys (Ti-12, Ti-16 and Ti-7). Both pitting and crevice corrosion are very remote possibilities under these conditions. For Ti-12, a limited amount of crevice corrosion is possible but repassivation will occur before substantial damage is sustained. When Ti is considered as part of the triple wall waste package, hydrogen absorption leading to HIC, within an acidified but passive crevice, is the most likely failure mechanism. When the Ti alloy is utilized in the form of a drip shield then hydrogen absorption under potentially alkaline conditions is the major fear. Both Ti-12 and Ti-16 have been shown capable of tolerating substantial amounts of hydrogen (∼400 μ g·g -1 for Ti-12, and > 1000 μg.g -1 for Ti-16) before any effect on the materials fracture toughness is observed. The rate of absorption to a hydrogen content which exceeds these values will be the key feature determining if, or when, the material becomes susceptible to cracking. Once this condition is achieved, whether or not failure occurs will depend on the strength and location of stresses within the structure. For Ti to absorb hydrogen it is inevitably necessary to subject the material to cathodic polarization, either by coupling to a more active material or by the application of galvanic protection

  20. Stress Analysis and Fatigue Behaviour of PTFE-Bronze Layered Journal Bearing under Real-Time Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, M. S.; Kaplan, E.; Cuvalcı, O.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper is based on experimental studies and numerical simulations on the surface fatigue failure of the PTFE-bronze layered journal bearings under real-time loading. ‘Permaglide Plain Bearings P10’ type journal bearings were experimentally tested under different real time dynamic loadings by using real time journal bearing test system in our laboratory. The journal bearing consists of a PTFE-bronze layer approximately 0.32 mm thick on the steel support layer with 2.18 mm thick. Two different approaches have been considered with in experiments: (i) under real- time constant loading with varying bearing widths, (ii) under different real-time loadings at constant bearing widths. Fatigue regions, micro-crack dispersion and stress distributions occurred at the journal bearing were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The relation between fatigue region and pressure distributions were investigated by determining the circumferential pressure distribution under real-time dynamic loadings for the position of every 10° crank angles. In the theoretical part; stress and deformation distributions at the surface of the journal bearing analysed by using finite element methods to determine the relationship between stress and fatigue behaviour. As a result of this study, the maximum oil pressure and fatigue cracks were observed in the most heavily loaded regions of the bearing surface. Experimental results show that PTFE-Bronze layered journal bearings fatigue behaviour is better than the bearings include white metal alloy.

  1. Gender differences in the relationship between workplace bullying and subjective back and neck pain: A two-wave study in a Norwegian probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glambek, Mats; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Gjerstad, Johannes; Einarsen, Ståle

    2018-03-01

    The association between exposure to bullying at work and subsequent pain reports is relatively well-established, but few studies have examined possible moderators of this relationship. As gender is a known risk factor for pain, with women reporting pain levels of higher intensity and longer duration, a possible gender difference in the relationship between bullying and pain has been suggested, but not sufficiently tested. The objective of the present study was therefore to examine whether gender moderates the prospective relationship between exposure to workplace bullying behaviours and subsequent subjective back and neck pain. A national probability sample of Norwegian workers (N=1003) was collected at two time points with a six-month time-lag. Assumptions were tested using regression and moderation analyses. Exposure to bullying behaviours was associated with increased reports of subjective back and neck pain over time, and this relationship was moderated by gender. However, the interaction took a different form than expected, with back and neck pain increasing in response to bullying among men only, to a degree that nullified the baseline gender difference. The assumption that being female is a vulnerability factor for the development of pain in the aftermath of psychosocial stressors such as bullying was contradicted in the present study. Instead, women's relatively high baseline pain levels remain stable over time even after exposure to workplace bullying, while men's relatively low baseline pain levels increase in response to bullying, ultimately becoming tangent to the pain reported by women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors for patient knowledge and reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines: a multi-country survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Reports on the state of knowledge about medicines and driving showed an increased concern about the role that the use of medicines might play in car crashes. Much of patient knowledge regarding medicines comes from communications with healthcare professionals. This study, part of the DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, alcohol and medicines) project, was carried out in four European countries and attempts to define predictors for knowledge of patients who use driving-impairing medicines. The influence of socio-demographic variables on patient knowledge was investigated as well as the influence of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes on patients' reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines. Methods Pharmacists handed out questionnaires to patients who met the inclusion criteria: 1) prevalent user of benzodiazepines, antidepressants or first generation antihistamines for systemic use; 2) age between 18 and 75 years old and 3) actual driver of a motorised vehicle. Factors affecting knowledge and reported behaviour towards driving-impairing medicines were analysed by means of multiple linear regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, respectively. Results A total of 633 questionnaires (out of 3.607 that were distributed to patients) were analysed. Patient knowledge regarding driving under the influence of medicines is better in younger and higher educated patients. Information provided to or accessed by patients does not influence knowledge. Patients who experienced side effects and who have a negative attitude towards driving under the influence of impairing medicines are more prone to change their driving frequency behaviour than those who use their motorised vehicles on a daily basis or those who use anti-allergic medicines. Conclusions Changes in driving behaviour can be predicted by negative attitudes towards driving under the influence of medicines but not by patients' knowledge

  3. Compas project stress analysis of HLW containers: behaviour under realistic disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ove Arup and Partners, London

    1990-01-01

    The Compas project is concerned with the structural performance of metal overpacks which may be used to encapsulate vitrified high-level waste (HLW) forms before disposal in deep geological repositories. In this final stage of the project, analysis of an HLW overpack of realistic design is performed to predict its behaviour when subjected to likely repository loads. This analysis work is undertaken with the benefit of experience gained in previous phases of the project in which the ability to accurately predict overpack behaviour, when subjected to a uniform external pressure, was demonstrated. Burial in clay, granite and salt environments has been considered and two distinct loading arrangements identified, in an attempt to represent the worst conditions that could be imposed by such media. The analysis successfully demonstrates the ability of the containers to withstand extreme, yet credible, repository loads

  4. Characterization of the deformation behaviour of PCBs under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, P F; Major, Z; Lang, R W, E-mail: fuchs@pccl.a [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Leoben (Austria)

    2009-08-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are frequently exposed to a complex combination of external and internal thermo-mechanical loads (static, cyclic and impact loads superimposed by local and global temperature effects). In this study, instrumented impact tests of the PCBs were performed and characterized. In addition to the acceleration measurement of the impact, the deformation behaviour was analyzed using a high speed camera and strain gauges. To reduce the testing effort for future PCB design the oscillation behavior of the PCB after impact was simulated using a finite element (FE)-software. Dynamic mechanical analysis experiments were performed and a linear viscoelastic material model was defined. Furthermore, the results of the simulation were compared to the measured values. In spite of the difference in the measured and simulated frequency values over the time, the viscoelastic effects including the damping behaviour were reflected accurately in the simulation.

  5. Analysis of behaviour of raft foundations under seismic and impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, S.; Chakrabarti, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at analyzing behaviour of reactors' raft foundations during earthquake ground motion considering plate-foundation interaction. The foundation parameters characterize the compressive strain and shearing strain in the foundation. In the study two formulations have been investigated for studying dynamic behaviour of moderately thick plates. The first formulation is based on the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, considering the first order shear deformation effect and including the plate-foundation interaction and thermal effects. The formulations have been extended to the case of large deflections of Reissner-Mindlin plates. The second formulation assumes Mindlin plate theory; the governing equations of dynamic equilibrium have been derived using Hamilton's principle and Euler - Lagrange equation of calculus of variation. Using these two formulations, programs have been prepared and validated

  6. Influence of gas law on ultrasonic behaviour of porous media under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S; Ayrault, C

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the influence of gas law on ultrasonic behaviour of porous media when the saturating fluid is high pressured. Previous works have demonstrated that ultrasonic transmission through a porous sample with variations of the static pressure (up to 18 bars) of the saturating fluid allows the characterization of high damping materials. In these studies, the perfect gas law was used to link static pressure and density, which is disputable for high pressures. This paper compares the effects of real and perfect gas laws on modeled transmission coefficient for porous foams at these pressures. Direct simulations and a mechanical parameters estimation from minimization show that results are very similar in both cases. The real gas law is thus not necessary to describe the acoustic behaviour of porous media at low ultrasonic frequencies (100 kHz) up to 20 bars. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU cores under severe accident conditions - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    This volume of appendices presents listings and sample runs of the computer codes used in the study of the thermalhydraulic behaviour of CANDU reactor cores during severe loss of coolant accidents. The codes, written in standard FORTRAN, are MODBOIL, to calculate moderator temperatures, pressures and water levels; DEBRIS, to calculate the transient temperature distribution in the debris of calandria and pressure tubes and fuel pellets; MOLTENPOOL, to calculate the temperature history in a pool of molten debris; CONFILM, to calculate the behaviour of a condensing film of vaporized core debris on the calandria wall, and BLDG, to calculate the pressurization of the containment during the expulsion of moderator through pressure relief ducts. In addition there are discussions of the average condensation heat transfer coefficient for vaporized core material on the calandria wall, and of vapor explosions

  8. Bullying and Social Anxiety in Chinese Children: Moderating Roles of Trait Resilience and Psychological Suzhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lili; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang; Hu, Tianqiang

    2018-02-01

    Research examining the relationship between bullying victimization and social anxiety has mainly been conducted in Western countries, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study explores the correlation between bullying victimization and social anxiety in a Chinese context and determines the moderating roles of psychological suzhi (a mental quality characterized by being steady, essential and implicit that affects adaptive, developmental, and creative behavior) and trait resilience among victims of bullying. Data were obtained from a stratified sample of 1903 children in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. All participants completed measures of bullying victimization, social anxiety, trait resilience, and psychological suzhi. The results indicated that, after controlling for grade, residential area, and parental marital status, bullying victimization positively predicted children's social anxiety. In addition, multi-group analysis suggested that the association in girls was stronger relative to that observed in boys. Regarding underlying processes, trait resilience moderated the effect of bullying victimization on social anxiety only in girls. Further assessment of the latent interaction effects indicated that the protective effect of trait resilience was stronger for girls experiencing high, relative to low, levels of bullying victimization, and psychological suzhi buffered against the detrimental effects of bullying on children's social anxiety. Most notably, unlike the moderating effect of resilience, the buffering effect of psychological suzhi against social anxiety was most prominent when bullying victimization was low. Findings underscore the importance of enhancing trait resilience and psychological suzhi in interventions designed to reduce children's social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A framework for modelling the behaviour of a process control operator under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C-C.F.; Roberts, P.D.; Smith, I.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes the basis for a framework for modelling effects of stress on the behaviour of a process control plant operator. The qualitative effects of stress on the cognitive processing ability of the operator are discussed. Stress is thought to mainly decrease the reasoning ability of the operator. The operator will experience increased rigidity in problem solving and the narrowing of his attention and perceptual field. At the same time, the operator will be increasingly reluctant in admitting that wrong decisions have been committed. Furthermore, he will revert to skill-based behaviours. The direct consequence of stress on the decision making mechanism of the operator is the selection of inappropriate choice of action. A formal representation of decision errors is proposed and various techniques are suggested for representing various mechanisms for decision error making. The degree of experience possessed by the operator is also an important factor to the operator's tolerance of stress. The framework also allows the experience of the operator to be integrated into the model. Such an operator model can be linked to a plant simulator and the complete behaviour of the plant then be simulated

  10. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the School Bullying Scales: A Rasch Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Kun-Shia; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to develop three school bullying scales--the Bully Scale, the Victim Scale, and the Witness Scale--to assess secondary school students' bullying behaviors, including physical bullying, verbal bullying, relational bullying, and cyber bullying. The items of the three scales were developed from viewpoints of bullies, victims, and…

  11. Rod behaviour under base load, load follow and frequency control operation: CYRANO 2 code predictions versus experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, B.; Raybaud, A.

    1984-01-01

    The French PWR reactors are now currently operating under load follow and frequency control. In order to demonstrate that these operating conditions were not able to increase the fuel failure rate, fuel rod behaviour calculations have been performed by E.D.F. with CYRANO 2 code. In parallel with these theoretical calculations, code predictions have been compared to experimental results. The paper presents some of the comparisons performed on 17x17 fuel irradiated in FESSENHEIM 2 up to 30 GWd/tU under base load operation and in the CAP reactor under load follow and frequency control conditions. It is shown that experimental results can be predicted with a reasonable accuracy by CYRANO 2 code. The experimental work was carried out under joint R and D programs by EDF, FRAGEMA, CEA, and WESTINGHOUSE (CAP program by French partners only). (author)

  12. Oestrous behaviour and ovarian activity in D'man and Sardi breeds of Moroccan sheep under normal and experimental photoperiods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahlou-Kassi, A.; Boukhliq, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  13. Experimental analysis of energy absorption behaviour of Al-tube filled with pumice lightweight concrete under axial loading condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, D. K.; Deshpande, P. G.; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.

    2017-08-01

    This Paper aimed at experimental investigation of compressive behaviour of square tube filled with pumice lightweight concrete (PLC). Square section of 20×20×30 mm is investigated, which is the backbone structure. The compression deformation result shows the better folding mechanism, displacement value, and energy absorption. PLC concrete filled with aluminium thin-wall tubes has been revealed superior energy absorption capacity (EAC) under low strain rate at room temperature. Superior EAC resulted as a result of mutual deformation benefit between aluminium section and PLC is also analysed. PLC was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX) analysis for better understanding of material behaviour. Individual and comparative load bearing graphs is logged for better prospective of analysing. Novel approach aimed at validation of porous lightweight concrete for better lightweight EA filler material.

  14. Bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, J M; van Stockum, S; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in possible causal linkages between exposure to bullying victimization and later psychotic symptomatology. Prior research in this area has had several limitations which make it difficult to ascertain causality, and to determine the extent to which these effects extend beyond adolescence. Data were obtained from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 35-year study of a longitudinal birth cohort. This investigation used generalized estimating equation modelling to estimate the associations between bullying victimization (ages 13-16 years) and psychotic symptoms (ages 18-35 years), before and after controlling for possible confounding factors, including: gender; childhood socio-economic status; child intelligence quotient; exposure to sexual abuse in childhood; anxious/withdrawn behaviour and attention problems (ages 7-9 years); and adolescent psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation (ages 15-16 years). There was a significant (p bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood. Successive models controlling for covariation reduced this association to statistical non-significance. After controlling for covariates, those with the highest level of bullying victimization had rates of psychotic symptoms that were 1.21 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.99) times higher than those who were not victimized. The association between bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood could be largely explained by childhood behavioural problems, and exposure to sexual abuse in childhood. The results suggest that bullying victimization was unlikely to have been a cause of adult psychotic symptoms, but bullying victimization remained a risk marker for these symptoms.

  15. Phase behaviour of methane clathrate under conditions relevant to Titan's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, G.; Wood, I. G.; Tucker, M. G.; Crawford, I. A.; Fortes, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    Microporous gas hydrates - known as clathrates - are common on the Earth and are also thought to be abundant in the outer Solar System [1]. The conditions for the existence of clathrates prevail throughout the Solar System and they are considered to be abundant from the Martian permafrost to the surfaces and interiors of many icy satellites [7]. These materials have been extensively studied in the range 0 - 5 GPa at ambient temperatures [2-5]; however, their behaviour in the range close to the dissociation (or melting) point is not well known at all, with some suggesting the occurrence of a facecentred cubic (sII) phase, and others that the clathrate becomes unstable with respect to mixtures of solid methane and ice. The high-pressure behaviour underpins planetary modelling; for example, the behaviour of methane hydrate in the ranges 0-6 GPa and 100-400 K is crucial to accurate modelling of Saturn's largest moon, Titan where clathrates are hypothesised to be the source of CH4 in Titan's atmosphere [6]. In order to address these problems we are carrying out a program of investigation using neutron diffraction to investigate the phase behaviour of methane clathrate close to its dissociation temperature in the 0.6-2.5 GPa region. Our goals were to obtain data to provide the first in-situ diffraction-based evidence for the phase behaviour of methane clathrate near to its high-pressure dissociation temperature (along with a control measurement at room temperature for comparison with other workers), to obtain P-V curves along two isotherms for each of the phases observed, and to complete structure refinements of all three clathrate polymorphs, thereby allowing us to carry out a full audit of the methane concentration in each phase as a function of pressure (including cage occupancies). Thus far we have successfully completed our RT measurements and will make the higher temperature observations in July 2013; we anticipate being able to report our findings from this second

  16. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  17. Psychiatric Distress and Symptoms of PTSD among Victims of Bullying at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Einarsen, Stale

    2004-01-01

    Distress and symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were investigated among targets of experienced bullying at work, that is, the exposure to persistent or recurrent oppressive, offensive, abusive behaviour where the aggressor may be a superior or a colleague. The participants in the present study were all recruited from two…

  18. Rotten Apple or Rotten Barrel? Social Identity and Children's Responses to Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sian E.; Haslam, S. Alexander; York, Lucy; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that bullying behaviour may be understood as a group process, where those involved act in ways predicted by social identity theory (Ojala & Nesdale, 2004). One relevant phenomenon is the black sheep effect, whereby individuals evaluate deviant members of their in-group more negatively than that of an out-group. To…

  19. A Study of Bullying Against Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hulya; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat

    2017-06-01

    Many institutions have conducted research on the subject of bullying. The literature includes many studies of the effects of widespread bullying among primary and secondary school students. Bullying against hospital nurses and also bullying against university students are well-known and frequently discussed research topics. Yet, the exposure of nursing students to bullying has not been sufficiently explored, and few studies have focused on the issue of bullying against nursing students. The aim of this study is to examine bullying against nursing students, including the rate of bullying, types of bullying, and responses to the negative effects of bullying. This study was conducted on 202 nursing students (including sophomores, juniors, and seniors) during the 2013-2014 academic year. The participation rate was 88.5%. The Negative Attitudes Scale was used to collect data, and descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Participants were evenly distributed between women (49.5%) and men (50.5%). The median age of participants was 21.58 ± 2.28 years; the frequency of bullying was 78.1%. The types of bullying were pejorative statements about the nursing profession (11.3%); low grades used as a form of punishment (9.9%); work, homework, and job rotation used as punishment in lieu of training (9.4%); impossible workloads (9.0%); and the spreading of rumors and gossip (7%). This study indicates that the participants were exposed to high levels of bullying. As exposure to bullying negatively affects the job attitudes of nursing students, further studies are necessary to develop strategies to prevent horizontal bullying.

  20. Bullying and the detrimental role of un-forgiveness in adolescents' wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaccia, Barbara; Howard Schneider, Barry; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Many studies have shown that victimisation by bullies is linked with psychopathology. Research has also demonstrated that forgiveness is associated with the mental health of victims of bullying. Our objective was to explore the multiple components of forgiveness (i.e., benevolence, decreased avoidance of the perpetrator and diminished desire for revenge) as mediators of the negative mental health effects of bullying in Italian adolescents. Our hypothesis was that those who forgive their bullies would show lower levels of depression, state anger, and behaviour problems than those who did not forgive. Participants were 319 students ages 14 to 22 from two schools in Southern Italy who completed five self-report questionnaires measuring levels of victimisation, forgiveness, depression, anger, and total behaviour problems. The results varied according to the components of forgiveness: although benevolence toward the victim was not a significant correlate of outcome, harbouring a desire for revenge and avoiding the perpetrator emerged as very maladaptive. Our study indicates that is it important for those working with adolescents to help victims of bullying overcome the negative mental health effects of the victimisation by letting go of un-forgiveness.

  1. Influence of Workplace Bullying on Turkish Nurses' Psychological Distress and Nurses' Reactions to Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçı, Ezgi; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to determine the influence of bullying on nurses' psychological distress. A descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 284 nurses of a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey. The Workplace Bullying Behavior Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used. After the study was completed, it was determined that nurses with a master's degree were exposed to bullying more and that nurses exposed to bullying suffered higher levels of psychological distress and preferred to keep silent about it. Perpetrators of bullying were mainly head nurses. Bullying is a common workplace phenomenon, and in most cases, nurses bully each other. Bullied nurses suffer more psychological distress. Managers of health care institutions should always remember that nurses have a higher risk of exposure to bullying and that measures should be taken to support nurses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. [Gender differences in workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.

  3. Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics...... to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults...... during a comprehensive five-year study of bullying....

  4. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact: Experimental Investigation .

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel amlOW- plate has been investigated at different obliquity when impacted by an ogive-shaped steel projectile. The ballistic experiments have been conducted in the velocity range 300-800 m/s. Both the thickness of the target plate and the diameter of the projectile were 20 Inm. At 30 and 45. obliquity 20 mm plate provides full protection at 800 m/s, whereas at 0 and 15. obliquity, the plate provides protection up to 600 m/s. At 15 and 30° obliquity, the pl...

  5. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact : Experimental Investigation II

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1999-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel armour plate at different obliquities has been investigated. Ballistic experiments were conducted in the velocity range 300-800 mls at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° obliquity .A steel, conical projectile or 6.1 mm diameter was impacted on a 10 mm thick steel armour plate. At 30° and 45° obliquity, the plate offers protection up to a striking velocity of 800 mls. At zero obliquity, the plate provides protection below 6~ m/s. The depth of penetration decreases with...

  6. Poincaré series for curve singularities and its behaviour under projections

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano Fernández, Julio José

    2015-01-01

    Let O be an equicharacteristic reduced complete noetherian local ring of Krull dimension one, and let S be the value semigroup associated with O. The aim of the paper is to investigate the behaviour of the multi-variable Poincaré series associated to S with respect to the property of “forgetting variables”. We prove that, for O Gorenstein, the Poincaré series with one less variable can be explicitly computed in terms of the original series; this provides also a shorter and pure arithmetic...

  7. Behaviour under fatigue of AISI 304-L stainless steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scal, M.W.; Joia, C.J.B.M.; Sousa e Silva, A.S. de

    1979-01-01

    The fatigue behaviour at room temperature of AISI-304-L stainless steel welded joints obtained by two distinct welding methods was studied. The results obtained were compared to those characteristic of the base metal. The welded joint fatigue samples were rectified in order to eliminate the effect of the welded seam geometry. It was concluded that the mechanisms of fatigue crack start in this case is commanded by the austenitic matrix, there being no influence of the delta ferrite rate and distribution present at the melted zone. (Author) [pt

  8. Childhood bullying and healthcare adherence in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Bohinc, R Jordan; Wiederman, Michael W

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between childhood bullying and healthcare adherence in adulthood has been rarely studied, but one published study suggests that being bullied in childhood is related to lower healthcare adherence among adolescents. This previous study examined few adherence variables and was limited to youths. In this study, we assessed five variables for childhood bullying as related to seven measures of healthcare adherence among a cohort of adult primary care outpatients. Using a cross-sectional, self-report survey methodology in a sample of 263 consecutive internal medicine outpatients, we examined five aspects of bullying and seven aspects of adherence with general healthcare. Being a victim of bullying, type of bullying (emotional, physical), number of years bullied and number of bullies each evidenced no statistical relationships with healthcare adherence. However, being a bully demonstrated several statistical relationships with healthcare adherence, indicating less adherence to instructions provided by healthcare professionals. Despite all of the deleterious psychological and physical effects of being bullied in childhood, there was no evidence that non-adherence with healthcare in adulthood is one of them. In contrast, bullies evidenced several areas of reduced healthcare adherence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  10. Moral Disengagement Among Bystanders to School Bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obermann, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of moral disengagement among children indirectly involved in bullying (bystanders). A sample of Danish adolescents (N = 660, M age 12.6 years) were divided into four groups depending on their bystander status: (a) outsiders, who did not experience bullying among...... their peers; (b) defenders, who were likely to help the victims in bullying episodes; (c) guilty bystanders, who did nothing to help bullied peers but felt guilty about it; and (d) unconcerned bystanders, who witnessed peers being bullied, without feeling responsible. Results indicated that, besides from...... active personal involvement in bullying others, being an unconcerned bystander to bullying also associates with moral disengagement. Unconcerned bystanders had significantly higher moral disengagement than guilty bystanders and defenders. Outsiders also showed significant higher disengagement than...

  11. Bullying within the forestry organizations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations.

  12. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devlet Toksoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N=835. Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations.

  13. Psychological Outcomes of Bullying Among Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Onur Celik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying may lead to multiple consequences including academic, social and psychological problems. Bullying, like with in many other branches, has been a major problem in sports. Every form of bullying is described in sports. The competitive nature of sports might unconsciously support bullying. The studies showed that victimization caused by bullying may lead to psychological and physical medical problems as well as unplesant results such as drug abuse and predisposition to crime. In this review we explained the differences between the terms bullying and mobbing and then tried to draw attention to psychological consequences of being exposed to bullying among athletes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 152-162

  14. Trends in bullying victimization in Scottish adolescents 1994-2014: changing associations with mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Alina; Whitehead, Ross; Neville, Fergus; Currie, Dorothy; Inchley, Jo

    2017-07-01

    Bullying victimization among schoolchildren is a major public health concern. This paper aims to analyse the changing associations over two decades between bullying victimization and mental well-being in a representative Scottish schoolchildren sample. Data were collected in six rounds of the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study in Scotland, with 42,312 adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15 years). Logistic and linear regressions were used to examine changes in the association between bullying victimization and mental well-being. The prevalence of bullying victimization rates in Scotland increased between 1994 and 2014 for most age-gender groups, apart from 13-year-old boys and 15-year-old girls. Over time, female victims reported less confidence and happiness and more psychological complaints than their non-bullied counterparts. This worsening effect over time was not observed in boys. Overall, our evidence indicates that the associations between bullying victimization and poor mental well-being strengthened overtime for bullied girls. This finding might partly explain the observed deterioration in mental health indicators among Scottish adolescent girls.

  15. Exposure to bullying among students with autism spectrum conditions: a multi-informant analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil

    2014-08-01

    Research has consistently shown that children and young people with autism spectrum conditions are more likely to be bullied than those with other or no special educational needs. The aim of this study was to examine risk and protective factors that could help to explain variation in exposure to bullying within this group. A sample of 722 teachers and 119 parents reported on their child's experience of being bullied. This response variable was regressed onto a range of explanatory variables representing individual and contextual factors. The teacher- and parent-rated regression models were statistically significant, explaining large proportions of variance in exposure to bullying. Behaviour difficulties and increased age were associated with bullying in both models. Positive relationships and attending a special school were associated with a decrease in bullying in the teacher model, with use of public/school transport predicting an increase. In the parent model, special educational needs provision at School Action Plus (as opposed to having a Statement of Special Educational Needs) was a significant risk factor, and higher levels of parental engagement and confidence were associated with reductions in bullying. These findings are discussed in relation to the autism spectrum conditions literature, and opportunities for intervention are considered. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Civilians under fire: evacuation behaviour in north Israel during the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidron, David; Peleg, Kobi; Jaffe, Dena; Shenhar, Gili

    2010-10-01

    This paper seeks to understand evacuation behaviour in a case of spontaneous evacuation. During the Second Lebanon War of 2006, more than one-third of residents in north Israel spontaneously evacuated--the remainder stayed in situ. Using a telephone survey of 665 respondents residing in north Israel, we were able to characterise the behaviour of evacuees and non-evacuees. The main reasons cited for evacuating were fear of injury to self or family, the effect on children, inability to remain in a protective space, and family pressure. The main reasons cited for remaining at home were no suitable alternative, did not perceive a high level of danger, had to go to work, and there is no place like home. There were no significant differences with regard to most socio-demographic characteristics of the population. These findings should aid emergency managers in preparing the population for a future emergency and in engaging in effective dialogue with the population during an emergency on the evacuation option. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  17. Leaching behaviour of hazardous waste under the impact of different ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Bacchi, Donata; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    The overall objective of this study is to provide an improved basis for the assessment of the leaching behaviour of waste marked as hazardous partly stabilised (European waste catalogue code 19 03 04 ∗ ). Four samples of hazardous partly stabilised waste were subjected to two leaching tests: up-flow column tests and batch equilibrium tests. The research was carried out in two directions: the first aims at comparing the results of the two experimental setups while the second aims at assessing the impact of different ambient conditions on the leaching behaviour of waste. Concerning this latter objective the effect of mesophilic temperature, mechanical constraints and acid environment were tested through column percolation tests. Results showed no significant differences between batch and column leaching test outcomes when comparing average concentrations calculated at a liquid to solid ratio of 10:1 l kg -1  TS. Among the tested ambient conditions, the presence of an acid environment (pH=4.5) accelerated the leaching process resulting in a higher cumulative released quantity measured on the majority of the investigated polluting substances. On the contrary, the effect of temperature and mechanical constraints seemed to not affect the process showing final contents even lower than values found for the standard test. This result was furthermore confirmed by the application of the principal component analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Woo; Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Lee, Kang Yong

    2009-01-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at ±25 μm displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 ± 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  19. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Woo [Stainless Steel Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K. [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Yong, E-mail: kyl2813@yonsei.ac.kr [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at {+-}25 {mu}m displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 {+-} 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  20. Geomechanical behaviour of boom clay under ambient and elevated temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Beaufays, R.; Buyens, M.; Bruyn, D. de; Voet, M.

    1992-01-01

    This research is focused upon in-situ investigations related to the (thermo-) mechanical behaviour of clay. Three main items are covered in this research area: Stress measurements around the underground research facility for radioactive waste disposal using hydraulical stress monitoring stations; detection of micro-fractures in the clay host, mainly using geophysical seismic techniques; long term mechanical behaviour of clay (this last item, studied by ANDRA at Mol, is not described in this paper). The stress monitoring stations appear to be more reliable in getting relative pressure variations with time rather than absolute values of stress, even after studying and improving the characteristics of the surrounding grout. The seismic techniques used to appear to be sensitive and accurate enough for detecting induced fracturation in the clay host, even for the low temperature. This is also in agreement with bench-scale experiments on clay samples intended to quantify the influence of both temperature and consolidation on the velocity. 10 refs., 80 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Tyre friction behaviour under abrupt wheel torque transients on slippery road surfaces: experimental analysis and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanović, Vladimir; Deur, Joško; Kostelac, Milan; Pentek, Tibor; Hrovat, Davor

    2011-10-01

    The paper shows that, during abrupt wheel torque transients for ice surface and low vehicle speeds, the tyre can develop significantly larger longitudinal force than the peak value of the tyre static curve. This so-called dynamic tyre friction potential (DTFP) effect has many influencing factors such as the rate of change of the wheel torque, the vehicle speed, and the tyre dwell time. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the DTFP behaviour based on the experimental data collected by using an in-wheel motor-based tyre test vehicle. The analysis results and an insight into the brush structure of a tyre model lead to the hypothesis that the different influencing factors may be predominantly explained by the bristle dwell time (BDT) effect. Following this hypothesis, the LuGre model of the tyre friction dynamics is extended with a physical BDT sub-model. The experimental validation results show that the proposed model can accurately capture the low-speed tyre-ice friction behaviour during abrupt wheel torque transients.

  2. Investigation into the behaviour of bentonite in contact with magnetite and iron under the conditions of a final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Vonmoos, M.; Kahr, G.; Bucher, F.; Madsen, F.; Mayor, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    This report presents the results of investigations into how magnetite and iron affect the swelling behaviour of the Na-bentonite MX-80 and the Ca-bentonite Montigel. The experiments were conducted under conditions similar to those expected in a repository and covered cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations and the swelling behaviour of the Na-bentonite MX-80 and the Ca-bentonite Montigel. Waste disposal is assumed to occur at a temperature of 80 o C under an anoxic atmosphere. In addition to this, the behaviour of trivalent iron in the interlayer space of montmorillonite was investigated. The investigations confirmed that contact between iron and bentonite under such conditions leads mainly to formation of magnetite and hydrogen. Montmorillonite does not take up iron by cation-exchange, either on contact with magnetite or with iron itself. The trivalent iron is unstable in the interlayer space of the montmorillonite and is exchanged mainly for aluminium; no change in the interlayer charge can be determined in such a case. It is therefore to be assumed that the aluminium is taken up from the edges of the clay particles into the interlayer space, but that no chlorite formation can be observed during this process. At 80 o C and 150 o C, the swelling pressures of the highly compacted bentonite-iron samples, related to the dry density of the bentonites, corresponded more or less to the swelling pressures of the untreated bentonites. The swelling pressure of the Fe(III)-bentonites was around 50% higher. It is assumed that this is mainly due to the high hydration energy of the iron and aluminium ions. 6 figs., 6 tabs., 13 refs

  3. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  4. SSYST: A code-system for analyzing transient LWR fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Gulden, W.

    1983-01-01

    SSYST is a code-system for analyzing transient fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions, developed conjointly by the Institut fur Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Stuttgart, and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) under contract of Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS) at KfK. The main differences between SSYST and similar codes are an open-ended modular code organization, and a preference for simple models, wherever possible. While the first feature makes SSYST a very flexible tool, easily adapted to changing requirements, the second feature leads to short execution times. The analysis of transient rod behaviour under LOCA boundary conditions takes 2 min cpu-time (IBM-3033), so that extensive parametric studies become possible. This paper gives an outline of the overall code organisation and a general overview of the physical models implemented. Besides explaining the routine application of SSYST in the analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents, examples are given of special applications which have led to a satisfactory understanding of the decisive influence of deviations from rotational symmetry on the fuel rod perimeter

  5. SSYST: A code-system for analysing transient LWR fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Gulden, W.

    1983-01-01

    SSYST is a code-system for analysing transient fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions, developed conjointly by the Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Stuttgart, and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) under contract of Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS) at KfK. The main differences versus codes with similar applications are: (1) an open-ended modular code organisation, and (2) a preference for simple models, wherever possible. While the first feature makes SSYST a very flexible tool, easily adapted to changing requirements, the second feature leads to short execution times. The analysis of transient rod behaviour under LOCA boundary conditions takes 2 mins cpu-time (IBM-3033), so that extensive parametric studies become possible. The paper gives an outline of the overall code organisation and a general overview of the physical models implemented. Besides explaining the routine application of SSYST in the analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents, examples are given of special applications, which have led to a satisfactory understanding of the decisive influence of deviations from rotational symmetry on the fuel rod perimeter. (author)

  6. Workplace bullying: an emergent issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj

    2014-09-01

    All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications.

  7. Breakfast skipping is associated with cyberbullying and school bullying victimization. A school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Farrow, Claire V; Shi, Yuanfeng F

    2014-08-01

    Breakfast skipping is a health concern that has well-known negative consequences physically and psychologically. It is therefore important to understand why children skip breakfast. The purpose of this study was to establish whether the experience of bullying and cyberbullying impacts upon breakfast skipping and to further evaluate whether the inability for youths to cope with bullying victimization affects their mental health (depression), and in turn predicts breakfast skipping. Data were obtained from the Eastern Ontario 2011 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, a cross-sectional regional school-based survey of middle and high school students (11-20 years old) across the five counties of Eastern Ontario, Canada (N = 3035). Self-reported data about children's experiences of bullying victimization, breakfast eating habits, socio-economical status, depression, and other risk behaviours were analysed. Approximately half of the participants (50.4%) reported not eating breakfast on a regular basis: 26.3% and 24.1% reported often (usually eat breakfast three times or more per week) and frequent (usually eat breakfast twice a week or less) breakfast skipping behaviour, respectively. Victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying presented greater likelihood of often (adjusted relative risk ratio (RR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.06) and frequent (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.28-3.03) breakfast skipping. Mediation analysis further showed that depression fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and frequent breakfast skipping. Moreover, depression partially mediated the associations between both cyberbullying and school bullying with frequent breakfast skipping. These findings highlight the potential interrelationships between cyberbullying, school bullying and depression in predicting unhealthy breakfast skipping behaviour in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced Bully Algorithm for Leader Node Election in Synchronous Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Murshed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In distributed computing systems, if an elected leader node fails, the other nodes of the system need to elect another leader. The bully algorithm is a classical approach for electing a leader in a synchronous distributed computing system. This paper presents an enhancement of the bully algorithm, requiring less time complexity and minimum message passing. This significant gain has been achieved by introducing node sets and tie breaker time. The latter provides a possible solution to simultaneous elections initiated by different nodes. In comparison with the classical algorithm and its existing modifications, this proposal generates minimum messages, stops redundant elections, and maintains fault-tolerant behaviour of the system.

  9. Fuel pin behaviour under conditions of control rod withdrawal accident in CABRI-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Joelle; Lemoine, Francette; Sato, Ikken; Struwe, Dankward; Pfrang, Werner

    1994-01-01

    Simulation of the control rod withdrawal accident has been performed in the international CABRI-2 experimental programme. The tests realized with industrial pins led to clarification of the influence of the pellet design and have shown the important role of fission products on the solid fuel swelling which promotes early pin failure with solid fuel pellet. With annular pellet design, large fuel swelling combined to low smear density leads to degradation of fuel thermal conductivity and thus reduces power to melt. However, the high margin to deterministic failure is confirmed with hollow pellets. Improvements of the modelling were necessary to describe such behaviours in computer codes as SAS-4A, PAPAS-2S and PHYSURAC. (author)

  10. Recent results from CEC cost sharing research programme on LWR fuel behaviour under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present structure and intentions of the CEC sponsored cost sharing programme for LWR safety research are outlined. Detailed results are reported for two projects from this programme. The first project concerns experimental data on the thermohydraulic effects of flow diversion around ballooned fuel rods. Data are presented on single and two phase heat transfer in an electrically heated rod bundle. Detailed photographic data on droplet behaviour are also given. The second project is an investigation of the effects of zircaloy oxidation on rewetting during reflood. It is shown that as oxide thickness increases from 1μm to 76μm that rewet rates can increase by up to 40%. A systematic effect of oxidation on rewet temperatures is also noted. (author)

  11. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, I.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Haameem, J. M.A.; Haslan, M.; Helmi, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  12. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my; Haameem, J. M.A., E-mail: mhaameem@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau (Malaysia); Haslan, M., E-mail: haslan@sirim.my; Helmi, E. A., E-mail: hilmi@sirim.my [Advanced Material Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Kulim (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  13. Behaviour of MZFR-type Zircaloy-4 cans under tensile stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoni, R.A.; Casario, J.A.; Coroli, Graciela; Povolo, Francisco

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the experimental procedure and results from the tensile tests of Zircaloy-4 fuel cans of the MZFR-type, performed at temperatures ranging from 250 to 450 deg C and for a relative deformation velocity of about 0.5%/min. In the representation of the results by a curve of the type sigma = K epsilon/sup n/, two different stages are observed. By statistically fitting the experimental curves, the values for the K and n parameters were obtained for each stage as a function of temperature. The results are discussed and compared with similar data found in current literature. It is concluded that new tests on tubes of different characteristics are necessary in order to obtain a clearer idea about the mechanical behaviour of these materials. (C.A.K.) [es

  14. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying. First-order and second-order factor models were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the first-order factor model had superior fit. Results of reliability testing indicate that the BullyHARM scale and subscales have very good internal consistency reliability. Findings indicate that the BullyHARM has good properties regarding content validation and respondent-related validation and is a promising instrument for measuring bullying victimization in school. PMID:28194041

  15. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying. First-order and second-order factor models were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the first-order factor model had superior fit. Results of reliability testing indicate that the BullyHARM scale and subscales have very good internal consistency reliability. Findings indicate that the BullyHARM has good properties regarding content validation and respondent-related validation and is a promising instrument for measuring bullying victimization in school.

  16. Adult Psychiatric and Suicide Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Context Both bullies and victims of bullying are at risk for psychiatric problems in childhood, but it is unclear if this elevated risk extends into early adulthood. Objective To test whether bullying and being bullied in childhood predicts psychiatric and suicidality in young adulthood after accounting for childhood psychiatric problems and family hardships. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 subjects with being bullied and bullying assessed four to six times between ages 9 and 16. Subjects were categorized as bullies only, victims only, bullies and victims (bully-victims), or neither. Setting and population Community sample Main Outcome Measure Psychiatric outcomes included depression, anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, substance disorders, and suicidality (including recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or a suicide attempt) were assessed in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24/25/26) by structured diagnostic interviews. Results Victims and bully-victims had elevated rates of young adult psychiatric disorder, but also elevated rates of childhood psychiatric disorders and family hardships. After controlling for childhood psychiatric problems or family hardship, victims continued to have higher prevalence of agoraphobia (odds ratio (OR), 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7–12.5, p Bullies were at risk for antisocial personality disorder only (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.1–15.8, p bullied are direct, pleiotropic and long- lasting with the worst effects for those who are both victims and bullies. PMID:23426798

  17. Workplace Bullying among Managers: A Multifactorial Perspective and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, J. Antonio; Muniz R., Noel M.; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L.; Leal-Millán, Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study certain factors that may be determinant in the emergence of workplace bullying among managers—employees with a recognized and privileged position to exercise power—adopting the individual perspective of the subject, the bullied manager. Individual, organizational, and contextual factors integrate the developed global model, and the methodology utilized to accomplish our research objectives is based on the binary logistic regression model. A sample population of 661 managers was obtained from the micro data file of the 5th European Working Conditions Survey-2010 (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions) and utilized to conduct the present research. The results indicate that the chance for a manager to refer to him/herself as bullied increases among women that hold managerial positions and live with children under 15 at home, and among subjects that work at night, on a shift system, suffering from work stress, enjoying little satisfaction from their working conditions, and not perceiving opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes, within the usual course of events, that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist directors/general directors in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among managers. PMID:24599041

  18. Antisocial behavior: Connection with bullying/cyberbullying and conflict resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to explore the relations among antisocial behavior, engagement in bullying/cyberbullying, and conflict resolution skills. The sample comprised 3,026 Spanish participants, aged between 12 and 18years (48.5% males, 51.5% females, enrolled in various public (45.6% and private (54.4% schools of the Basque Country. Using a descriptive and correlational design, 4 assessment instruments were administered to measure the variables under study (antisocial behavior, bullying/cyberbullying, and conflict resolution skills. The correlational analyses and analyses of variance confirmed that adolescents and youth of both sexes with high scores in antisocial behavior were significantly more involved in all the roles of bullies and cyberbullies (victims, bullies, and bystanders and they used significantly more aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict resolution technique. The study identifies relevant variables for the design of intervention programs. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing psychoeducational prevention and intervention programs targeting antisocial behavior, as well as the role of the family and society.

  19. Workplace Bullying among Managers: A Multifactorial Perspective and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Ariza-Montes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study certain factors that may be determinant in the emergence of workplace bullying among managers—employees with a recognized and privileged position to exercise power—adopting the individual perspective of the subject, the bullied manager. Individual, organizational, and contextual factors integrate the developed global model, and the methodology utilized to accomplish our research objectives is based on the binary logistic regression model. A sample population of 661 managers was obtained from the micro data file of the 5th European Working Conditions Survey-2010 (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions and utilized to conduct the present research. The results indicate that the chance for a manager to refer to him/herself as bullied increases among women that hold managerial positions and live with children under 15 at home, and among subjects that work at night, on a shift system, suffering from work stress, enjoying little satisfaction from their working conditions, and not perceiving opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes, within the usual course of events, that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist directors/general directors in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among managers.

  20. Autoethnography and cognitive adaptation: two powerful buffers against the negative consequences of workplace bullying and academic mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheko, Mpho M

    2018-12-01

    Work is undoubtedly fundamental to human life, social development and the economic development of individuals, organizations and nations. However, the experience of working is not always pleasant as there are many instances where relationships between workers could deteriorate, leading to practices and behaviours that could be characterized as workplace bullying and/or mobbing. The current study is an exploratory study which used autoethnography to investigate experiences of academic bullying and mobbing, and relates the practices to power structures in academic institutions. Specifically, the author shares personal experiences and explores the physical and emotional pain of being bullied and mobbed. The author also outlines how both autoethnography and meaning in life strategies were used to cope with the physical and emotional distresses associated with the negative experiences. By outlining the success of the meaning in life strategies, the author hopes to inspire other "victims" to move from victims to being survivors of bullying and mobbing.