Sample records for underlying belief systems

  1. A Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Assess Bronchiolitis Suspicion from Signs and Symptoms Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karim, Rezuan; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin


    be measured with cent percent certainty, resulting in inaccuracy in determining the occurrence of Bronchiolitis. Therefore, this paper presents the development of a Belief Rule-Based Expert System (BRBES) to assess the suspicion of Bronchiolitis by using signs and symptoms under uncertainty. The recently...... developed generic belief rule-based inference methodology by using evidential reasoning (RIMER) acts as the inference engine of this BRBES while belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema. The knowledge base of the system is constructed by using real patient data and expert opinion from...

  2. A Belief Rule Based Expert System to Assess Mental Disorder under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Afif Monrat, Ahmed; Hasan, Mamun


    to ignorance, incompleteness, and randomness. So, a belief rule-based expert system (BRBES) has been designed and developed with the capability of handling the uncertainties mentioned. Evidential reasoning works as the inference engine and the belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema...... in this BRBES. The study shows that the results generated by BRBES are more reliable than that of Fuzzy Rule-based expert system and from a human expert....

  3. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary


    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  4. A Belief Rule Based Expert System to Assess Tuberculosis under Uncertainty. (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Ahmed, Faisal; Fatema-Tuj-Johora; Andersson, Karl


    The primary diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) is usually carried out by looking at the various signs and symptoms of a patient. However, these signs and symptoms cannot be measured with 100 % certainty since they are associated with various types of uncertainties such as vagueness, imprecision, randomness, ignorance and incompleteness. Consequently, traditional primary diagnosis, based on these signs and symptoms, which is carried out by the physicians, cannot deliver reliable results. Therefore, this article presents the design, development and applications of a Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES) with the ability to handle various types of uncertainties to diagnose TB. The knowledge base of this system is constructed by taking experts' suggestions and by analyzing historical data of TB patients. The experiments, carried out, by taking the data of 100 patients demonstrate that the BRBES's generated results are more reliable than that of human expert as well as fuzzy rule based expert system.

  5. Collective Dynamics of Belief Evolution under Cognitive Coherence and Social Conformity. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Bollen, Johan; Ahn, Yong-Yeol


    Human history has been marked by social instability and conflict, often driven by the irreconcilability of opposing sets of beliefs, ideologies, and religious dogmas. The dynamics of belief systems has been studied mainly from two distinct perspectives, namely how cognitive biases lead to individual belief rigidity and how social influence leads to social conformity. Here we propose a unifying framework that connects cognitive and social forces together in order to study the dynamics of societal belief evolution. Each individual is endowed with a network of interacting beliefs that evolves through interaction with other individuals in a social network. The adoption of beliefs is affected by both internal coherence and social conformity. Our framework may offer explanations for how social transitions can arise in otherwise homogeneous populations, how small numbers of zealots with highly coherent beliefs can overturn societal consensus, and how belief rigidity protects fringe groups and cults against invasion from mainstream beliefs, allowing them to persist and even thrive in larger societies. Our results suggest that strong consensus may be insufficient to guarantee social stability, that the cognitive coherence of belief-systems is vital in determining their ability to spread, and that coherent belief-systems may pose a serious problem for resolving social polarization, due to their ability to prevent consensus even under high levels of social exposure. We argue that the inclusion of cognitive factors into a social model could provide a more complete picture of collective human dynamics.

  6. Homogeneity and Heterogeneity in Cultural Belief Systems. (United States)

    Harwood, Robin L.; Scholmerich, Axel; Schulze, Pamela A.


    Examined intergroup and intragroup variations in Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers' beliefs regarding long-term socialization goals and in their organization of feeding, social play, teaching, and free play interactions. Found evidence of heterogeneity in cultural groups. In sub-communities defined by social class, cultural values were transformed in…

  7. Underlying Beliefs Associated With College Student Consumption of Energy Beverages. (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Collins, William B


    College students are heavy consumers of energy beverages, yet further study is needed to better understand determinants of use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study ( N = 283) was to identify beliefs explaining unsafe consumption practices. A principal components analysis revealed three eigenvalues >1 explaining approximately 55% of the variance (health and appearance, performance and fatigue, and recreation and alcohol). Multiple regression analysis explained 75% of the variance for intent to consume. Standardized beta for attitude and subjective norms was p behavioral control was p Students viewed energy beverages as useful for managing health and appearance and performance and fatigue, and as a way to enhance recreation and alcohol consumption.

  8. The belief systems of protesting college students. (United States)

    Blumenthal, M D


    A group of 29 college students who had been arrested or nominated as having participated in a street disturbance aimed at producing social change were interviewed. The interview schedule was highly similar to one which had been used to investigate attitudes toward violence in a random, representative sample of American men. The data collected from the arrestees are compared with data from college students in the national sample. This study shows that the arrestees are more likely to think that violence is necessary to produce social change than are college students generally, and are more likely to believe that existing social institutions are inadequate. As a group, the arrestees are more identified with white student demonstrators and black protestors than are college students generally. The arrestees are also likely to regard the police as untrusworthy, looking for trouble, and apt to dislike people like themselves. In addition to the negative attitudes toward the police held by the student arrestees, they are more likely to regard police actions as violence (and hence provocative) than are other college students. The arrestees are far more likely than other college students to cleave to humanistic values. However, most of the differences between the arrestees and other American college students could be predicted from a general model of the justification of violence, so that it appears that the student activists' beliefs differ not so much in kind from those of other Americans as they do in degree.

  9. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake. (United States)

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel


    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  10. Mapping the criminal mind: idiographic assessment of criminal belief systems. (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D


    An idiographic procedure designed to assess the belief systems of criminal offenders is described, investigated, and clarified. This measure, the Cognitive Map of Major Belief Systems (CMMBS), assesses the five belief systems (self-view, world-view, past-view, present-view, future-view) held to occupy the higher echelons of human cognition. Modest to moderate test-retest reliability was achieved when 19 inmates, enrolled in one of three drug-counseling groups, completed the CMMBS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. It was also ascertained that the drug treatment specialist who served as therapist for all three groups "blindly" matched the 19 CMMBS records to the inmates who produced them. A case study of one of the 19 participants was used to illustrate how the CMMBS is employed with individual offenders and how belief systems interact with major schematic subnetworks such as attributions, outcome expectancies, efficacy expectancies, goals, values, and thinking styles to create crime-supporting lifestyles.

  11. Clarifying students' perceptions of different belief systems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to 1994, the presence of minority belief systems and values in education were largely ignored in South Africa. It could be expected that after ten years of democracy students' understanding of, for instance, the values of inclusivity and diversity in a multicultural society in general and tertiary education in particular should ...

  12. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach (United States)

    Kilinç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan


    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content…

  13. Self-deception in terminal patients: belief system at stake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Echarte


    Full Text Available A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes –deep seated beliefs– intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  14. What Are the Goals of Kindergarten? Teachers' Beliefs and Their Perceptions of the Beliefs of Parents and of Agents of the Education System (United States)

    Sverdlov, Aviva; Aram, Dorit


    Research Findings: The study examined the beliefs of kindergarten teachers (K-teachers) regarding the goals of kindergarten. We asked K-teachers to reflect on their own beliefs, their understanding of parents' beliefs, and their understanding of the beliefs that guide agents of the education system. We further examined differences between…

  15. Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States? (United States)

    Apperly, Ian A.; Butterfill, Stephen A.


    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans' capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years of age (H. Wellman, D. Cross, & J. Watson, 2001; H. Wimmer & J. Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false-belief tasks at 13 or 15…

  16. Model Checking Degrees of Belief in a System of Agents (United States)

    Raimondi, Franco; Primero, Giuseppe; Rungta, Neha


    Reasoning about degrees of belief has been investigated in the past by a number of authors and has a number of practical applications in real life. In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particular, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derived automatically from the possible executions of the system, thereby providing a computationally grounded formalism. We leverage the semantics to (a) construct a model checking algorithm, (b) investigate its complexity, (c) provide a Java implementation of the model checking algorithm, and (d) evaluate our approach using the standard benchmark of the dining cryptographers. Finally, we provide a detailed case study: using our framework and our implementation, we assess and verify the situational awareness of the pilot of Air France 447 flying in off-nominal conditions.

  17. Investigating Coherence among Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Teaching Belief Systems, Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Practice (United States)

    Bahcivan, Eralp; Cobern, William W.


    This study investigated comprehensive science teaching belief systems and their relation to science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practices. Rokeach's (1968) belief system was used as a framework for representing the hierarchy among in-service teachers' teaching beliefs. This study employed a multiple case study design with…

  18. Beliefs Underlying Messages of Anti-Cancer-Screening Websites in Japan: A Qualitative Analysis (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro


    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than in Western countries. Meanwhile, anti-cancer-screening activists take to the internet to spread their messages that cancer screening has little or no efficacy, poses substantial health risks such as side effects from radiation exposure, and that people should forgo cancer screening. We applied a qualitative approach to explore the beliefs underlying the messages of anti-cancer-screening websites, by focusing on perceived value the beliefs provided to those who held them. Methods: We conducted online searches using Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan, targeting websites we classified as “pro,” “anti,” or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach- inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis- to the textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 88 websites analyzed, five themes that correspond to beliefs were identified: destruction of common knowledge, denial of standard cancer control, education about right cancer control, education about hidden truths, and sense of superiority that only I know the truth. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (“safety of people” and “self-esteem”) to their beliefs. Conclusion: The beliefs of authors of anti-cancer-screening websites were supposed to be strong. It would be better to target in cancer screening promotion not outright screening refusers but screening hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward screening. The possible means to persuade them were discussed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Religious magnanimity: reminding people of their religious belief system reduces hostility after threat. (United States)

    Schumann, Karina; McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle A; Ross, Michael


    The present research tested the hypothesis that many people's ambient religious beliefs are non-hostile and magnanimous by assessing whether reminding people of their religious belief systems would reduce hostility after threat. Across religious affiliations, participants reported that their religious belief systems encourage magnanimous behavior. In addition, priming their religious belief systems caused them to act more magnanimously, but only when motivated to adhere to salient ideals (i.e., after threats; see Gailliot, Stillman, Schmeichel, Maner, & Plant, 2008; Jonas et al., 2008). Specifically, in Studies 1-5, we found that a general religious belief system prime ("Which religious belief system do you identify with?") reduced the hostility of people's thoughts, behaviors, and judgments following threat. In Studies 6 and 7, we found that the religious belief system prime only reduced hostile reactions to threat among participants who held religious beliefs that oriented them toward magnanimous ideals (Study 6) and who were dispositionally inclined to adhere to their ideals (Study 7). In Study 8, we found support for the role of magnanimous ideals by demonstrating that directly priming these ideals yielded effects similar to those produced by a religious belief system prime. These studies provide consistent evidence that, by invoking magnanimous ideals, a religious belief system prime promotes less hostile responses to threat. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  20. A Belief Rule-Based (BRB) Decision Support System for Assessing Clinical Asthma Suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Hossain, Emran; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin


    conditions of uncertainty. The Belief Rule-Based Inference Methodology Using the Evidential Reasoning (RIMER) approach was adopted to develop this expert system; which is named the Belief Rule-Based Expert System (BRBES). The system can handle various types of uncertainty in knowledge representation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari


    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  2. Under-vaccinated groups in Europe and their beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination; two systematic reviews. (United States)

    Fournet, N; Mollema, L; Ruijs, W L; Harmsen, I A; Keck, F; Durand, J Y; Cunha, M P; Wamsiedel, M; Reis, R; French, J; Smit, E G; Kitching, A; van Steenbergen, J E


    Despite effective national immunisation programmes in Europe, some groups remain incompletely or un-vaccinated ('under-vaccinated'), with underserved minorities and certain religious/ideological groups repeatedly being involved in outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD). Gaining insight into factors regarding acceptance of vaccination of 'under-vaccinated groups' (UVGs) might give opportunities to communicate with them in a trusty and reliable manner that respects their belief system and that, maybe, increase vaccination uptake. We aimed to identify and describe UVGs in Europe and to describe beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination in the identified UVGs. We defined a UVG as a group of persons who share the same beliefs and/or live in socially close-knit communities in Europe and who have/had historically low vaccination coverage and/or experienced outbreaks of VPDs since 1950. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases using specific search term combinations. For the first systematic review, studies that described a group in Europe with an outbreak or low vaccination coverage for a VPD were selected and for the second systematic review, studies that described possible factors that are associated with non-vaccination in these groups were selected. We selected 48 articles out of 606 and 13 articles out of 406 from the first and second search, respectively. Five UVGs were identified in the literature: Orthodox Protestant communities, Anthroposophists, Roma, Irish Travellers, and Orthodox Jewish communities. The main reported factors regarding vaccination were perceived non-severity of traditional "childhood" diseases, fear of vaccine side-effects, and need for more information about for example risk of vaccination. Within each UVG identified, there are a variety of health beliefs and objections to vaccination. In addition, similar factors are shared by several of these groups. Communication strategies regarding these similar factors such as

  3. Normative Values in Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Belief System Approach (United States)

    Schwieler, Elias; Ekecrantz, Stefan


    The effects of teachers' normative values and emotive reactions on teaching in higher education have received relatively little research attention. The focus is often on descriptive beliefs such as conceptions of teaching and their inter-relations with practice. In this study, which is illustrated by a heuristic model, a belief system approach is…

  4. Salient Beliefs in Majoring in Management Information Systems: An Elicitation Study (United States)

    Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy


    Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…

  5. Latent variables underlying the memory beliefs of Chartered Clinical Psychologists, Hypnotherapists and undergraduate students. (United States)

    Ost, James; Easton, Simon; Hope, Lorraine; French, Christopher C; Wright, Daniel B


    In courts in the United Kingdom, understanding of memory phenomena is often assumed to be a matter of common sense. To test this assumption 337 UK respondents, consisting of 125 Chartered Clinical Psychologists, 88 individuals who advertised their services as Hypnotherapists (HTs) in a classified directory, the Yellow Pages TM , and 124 first year undergraduate psychology students, completed a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of 10 memory phenomena about which there is a broad scientific consensus. HTs' responses were the most inconsistent with the scientific consensus, scoring lowest on six of these ten items. Principal Components Analysis indicated two latent variables - reflecting beliefs about memory quality and malleability - underlying respondents' responses. In addition, respondents were asked to rate their own knowledge of the academic memory literature in general. There was no significant relationship between participants' self reported knowledge and their actual knowledge (as measured by their responses to the 10-item questionnaire). There was evidence of beliefs among the HTs that could give rise to some concern (e.g., that early memories from the first year of life are accurately stored and are retrievable).

  6. Systems of Conditional Beliefs in Dempster-Shafer Theory and Expert Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr


    Roč. 22, č. 2 (1993), s. 113-124 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA130108 Keywords : expert systems * Dempster-Shafer theory * conditioning * belief functions Impact factor: 0.293, year: 1993

  7. Neural mechanisms underlying subsequent memory for personal beliefs:An fMRI study. (United States)

    Wing, Erik A; Iyengar, Vijeth; Hess, Thomas M; LaBar, Kevin S; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto


    Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures. Following the rating phase, participants performed an associative recognition test in which they distinguished identical versus recombined face-statement pairs. The study yielded three main findings: behaviorally, the intensity of agreement ratings was linked to greater subjective emotional arousal as well as enhanced high-confidence subsequent memory. Neurally, statements that elicited strong (vs. weak) agreement or disagreement were associated with greater activation of the amygdala. Finally, a subsequent memory analysis showed that the behavioral memory advantage for statements generating stronger ratings was dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Together, these results both underscore consistencies in neural systems supporting emotional arousal and suggest a modulation of arousal-related encoding mechanisms when emotion is contingent on referencing personal beliefs.

  8. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R


    Full Text Available to logic-based belief change, with a particular emphasis on classical propositional logic as the underlying logic in which beliefs are to be represented. Their intention is to provide the reader with a basic introduction to the work done in this area over...

  9. Approximations in Bayesian Belief Universe for Knowledge Based Systems


    Jensen, Frank; Anderson, S. K.


    When expert systems based on causal probabilistic networks (CPNs) reach a certain size and complexity, the "combinatorial explosion monster" tends to be present. We propose an approximation scheme that identifies rarely occurring cases and excludes these from being processed as ordinary cases in a CPN-based expert system. Depending on the topology and the probability distributions of the CPN, the numbers (representing probabilities of state combinations) in the underlying numerical representa...

  10. Cognitive and contextual factors in the emergence of diverse belief systems: creation versus evolution. (United States)

    Evans, E M


    The emergence and distribution of beliefs about the origins of species is investigated in Christian fundamentalist and nonfundamentalist school communities, with participants matched by age, educational level, and locale. Children (n = 185) and mothers (n = 92) were questioned about animate, inanimate, and artifact origins, and children were asked about their interests and natural-history knowledge. Preadolescents, like their mothers, embraced the dominant beliefs of their community, creationist or evolutionist; 8- to 10-year-olds were exclusively creationist, regardless of community of origin; 5- to 7-year-olds in fundamentalist schools endorsed creationism, whereas nonfundamentalists endorsed mixed creationist and spontaneous generationist beliefs. Children's natural-history knowledge and religious interest predicted their evolutionist and creationist beliefs, respectively, independently of parent beliefs. It is argued that this divergent developmental pattern is optimally explained with a model of constructive interactionism: Children generate intuitive beliefs about origins, both natural and intentional, while communities privilege certain beliefs and inhibit others, thus engendering diverse belief systems. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Critical Beliefs Underlying Young Australian Males’ Intentions to Engage in Drinking and Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Hamilton


    Full Text Available This study examined key targets for interventions aimed at reducing drinking and swimming among young males, an at-risk group for drowning. Two-hundred and eleven Australian males aged 18 to 34 years completed a Theory of Planned Behavior belief-based questionnaire either online or paper based. Behavioral beliefs of “be more relaxed” and “having fun,” normative beliefs of “friends/mates” and “parents,” and the control belief of “presence of other people” were revealed as independent predictors of intentions to drink and swim. These identified beliefs can be used to inform interventions to challenge young males’ alcohol use in, on, and around water.

  12. Logistics systems optimization under competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Tsan Ming; Govindan, Kannan; Ma, Lijun


    Nowadays, optimization on logistics and supply chain systems is a crucial and critical issue in industrial and systems engineering. Important areas of logistics and supply chain systems include transportation control, inventory management, and facility location planning. Under a competitive market...

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy on Depression and Craving Beliefs of Abusers Under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy on depression and craving beliefs of abusers under methadone maintenance treatment, who referred to addiction treatment clinics of Bushehr city. Methods The statistical population of this research included all abusers, who referred to the addiction treatment centers (clinics of Bushehr city. In regards to the research objectives, sampling was purposive and random. By referring to the addiction treatment clinics of Bushehr city, drug abusers were invited to participate in the study. The participants firstly completed the Beck depression inventory and craving questionnaire. Then, drug abusers with scores one standard deviation higher than the mean score of the Beck depression index and one standard deviation higher than the mean score of craving beliefs index, were selected. From this group, 20 qualified individuals were selected and divided randomly to two groups (experiment and control groups and only the experimental group was intervened. After the intervention, both groups took part in the post-test. Data obtained from the research was analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results Results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of depression and temping beliefs (P < 0.0001. In other words, the results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy reduces depression and improves craving beliefs of abusers under methadone maintenance treatment. Conclusions The results emphasize the importance of the use of these interventions in abusers under methadone maintenance treatment and provide new horizons in clinical interventions.

  14. The comparition of Personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in males with with drug abuse disorder under Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samere asadi


    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the difference between personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in men with drug abuse disorder under Treatment. Method: in this casual- comparative research, 80 men ( 40 males with drug abuse under Treatment and 40 of normal males that were selected with available sampling .Groups were matched in terms of demoghraphy characteristics ( age, sexuality, education level and marital status and were valued with means of Eysenk Perceived Stress Inventory, Jonze Irrational Beliefs Scale and Baret Impulsivity Inventory. Results: The result of variance analysis showed that addicts compared to normal people, get more scores on extraversion, neuroticism and psychosis. Addicts group had Higher men scores in irrational beliefs compare of other group. There was significant difference between groups in impulsivity and impulsivity in addicts persons is the most. Conclussion: The traits of Personality, irrational beliefs and Unrealistic and high level impulsivity are factors that propel individuals toward more drug abuse and finally addict and aiming this factors in individuals with abuse disorder under Treatment can lead to prevent of Substance Abuse Relapse.

  15. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan


    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  16. Salient Public Beliefs Underlying Disaster Preparedness Behaviors: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Elmi, Helen


    stakeholder groups is needed to understand their perceptions about DPB in creating the people's social environment. Najafi M , Ardalan A , Akbarisari A , Noorbala AA , Elmi H . Salient public beliefs underlying disaster preparedness behaviors: a theory-based qualitative study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):124-133 .

  17. Factors associated with mothers' beliefs and practices concerning injury prevention in under five-year children, based on health belief model. (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Cheraghi, Parvin; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi; Rezapur-Shahkolai, Forouzan


    Injuries are the first leading but predictable, avoidable and preventable cause of death among under five-year children worldwide. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with mothers' beliefs and practices concerning injury prevention in under five-year children. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2011 in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, enrolling 580 mothers with at least one under five-year child. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire including 85 questions regarding demographic characteristics; knowledge; practices; Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs; and history of injury occurrence among the children. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by a pilot study using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data had been collected through interview with mothers, by trained interviewers. Almost 22.59% of mothers reported at least one injury in their under five-year children. Of 131 injuries occurred, 85 cases were mild, 23 cases were moderate, and 23 cases were severe. About 52.67% of injuries occurred in boys, 37.41% in less than one-year children, 73.28% at home, and 61.07% when the children were playing game. Fall (24.28%), burn (20.61%) and poisoning (14.50%) were the common causes of injuries. There was a positive correlation between mothers' practices and knowledge, perceived benefits, cues to action and self-efficacy and a negative correlation between mothers' practices and perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. Knowledge, perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy of mothers toward the injuries in children were among the most important predictive constructs, which may be used for planning educating programs.

  18. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy


    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  19. Belief system, meaningfulness, and psychopathology associated with suicidality among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional survey (United States)


    Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0%) provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of integration as does

  20. Negative Stress Beliefs Predict Somatic Symptoms in Students Under Academic Stress. (United States)

    Fischer, Susanne; Nater, Urs M; Laferton, Johannes A C


    Medically unexplained symptoms are abundantly present in the general population. Stress may lead to increased symptom reporting because of widespread beliefs that it is dangerous for one's health. This study aimed at clarifying the role of stress beliefs in somatic symptom reporting using a quasi-experimental study design. Two hundred sixteen German university students (60 % of an initial sample of 363) were examined at the beginning of the term (less stressful period) and at the end of the term (stressful period due to exams). Negative beliefs about stress at baseline were expected to predict somatic symptoms at follow-up. Negative beliefs about stress at baseline significantly predicted somatic symptoms at follow-up (β = 0.16, p = .012), even when controlling for general strain, physical and mental health status, neuroticism, optimism, and somatosensory amplification. Being convinced that "stress is bad for you" was prospectively associated with somatic symptoms during a stressful period. Further research in patients with medically unexplained conditions is warranted to corroborate these findings.

  1. Intensive Care Nurses’ Belief Systems Regarding the Health Economics: A Focused Ethnography (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud


    Background: Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses’ beliefs and their effect on nurse’s: practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. Methods: In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Findings: Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse’s practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2. Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3. There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4. Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5. Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6. The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8. Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. Conclusions: ICU nurses’ belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the

  2. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.


    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  3. The Environmental Belief Systems of Organic and Conventional Farmers: Evidence from Central-Southern England (United States)

    Kings, David; Ilbery, Brian


    Little comparative work has been conducted on the environmental belief systems and behaviours of conventional and organic farmers, especially in relation to farming culture, the environment and lowland farmland avifauna. Adopting a modified behavioural approach, this paper analyses the ways in which the environmental attitudes and understandings…

  4. Effects of traditional religious belief system of the Igbo group on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to verify the effects of religious belief system on the effectiveness of leprosy control programmes in Anambra and Ebonyi states of Southeast Nigeria. The complementary objective is to ascertain the dominant mode of disposition to leprosy among residents of the two states and to account for the ...

  5. 81 effects of traditional religious belief system of the igbo group

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ignatius Uche Nwankwo. Abstract. The objective of this study is to ... religious belief system was built around a spiritual supreme being 'Chiukwu' who was responsible for all creations and on ... Bible contain verses that associated leprosy with being 'unclean' that requires spiritual bath or cleansing for those afflicted to be.

  6. A Measure of Systems Engineering Effectiveness in Government Acquisition of Complex Information Systems: A Bayesian Belief Network-Based Approach (United States)

    Doskey, Steven Craig


    This research presents an innovative means of gauging Systems Engineering effectiveness through a Systems Engineering Relative Effectiveness Index (SE REI) model. The SE REI model uses a Bayesian Belief Network to map causal relationships in government acquisitions of Complex Information Systems (CIS), enabling practitioners to identify and…

  7. Deriving belief operators from preferences


    Asheim, Geir B.


    A belief operator derived from preferences is presented. It generalizes ‘belief with probability1’ to incomplete preferences and satisfies minimal requirements for belief operators under weak conditions.

  8. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas. (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth


    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. © The Author(s) 2013.



    Klaus Nehring; Giacomo Bonanno


    We provide an introduction to interactive belief systems from a qualitative and semantic point of view. Properties of belief hierarchies are formulated locally. Among the properties considered are ""Common belief in no error"" (which has been shown to have important game theoretic applications), ""Negative introspection of common belief"" and ""Truth about common belief."" The relationship between these properties is studied.

  10. Engaging students in the study of physics : an investigation of physics teachers’ belief systems about teaching and learning physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo, Neeltje Annigje Hendrika


    This doctoral thesis comprises two questionnaire studies and two small-scale interview studies on the content and structure of physics teachers’ belief systems. The studies focused on teachers’ beliefs about the goals and pedagogy of teaching and learning physics, and the nature of science. The

  11. A belief network approach for development of a nuclear power plant diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, I. K.; Kim, J. T.; Lee, D. Y.; Jung, C. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Ham, C. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Belief network (or Bayesian network) based on Bayes` rule in probabilistic theory can be applied to the reasoning of diagnostic system. This paper describes the basic theory of concept and feasibility of using the network for diagnosis of nuclear power plants. An example shows that the probabilities of root causes of a failure are calculated from the measured or believed evidences. 6 refs., 3 figs. (Author)




    Scholars have long argued that inmate behaviors stem in part from cultural belief systems that they “import” with them into incarcerative settings. Even so, few empirical assessments have tested this argument directly. Drawing on theoretical accounts of one such set of beliefs—the code of the street—and on importation theory, we hypothesize that individuals who adhere more strongly to the street code will be more likely, once incarcerated, to engage in violent behavior and that this effect will be amplified by such incarceration experiences as disciplinary sanctions and gang involvement, as well as the lack of educational programming, religious programming, and family support. We test these hypotheses using unique data that include measures of the street code belief system and incarceration experiences. The results support the argument that the code of the street belief system affects inmate violence and that the effect is more pronounced among inmates who lack family support, experience disciplinary sanctions, and are gang involved. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24068837

  13. False Rumors and True Belief: Memory Processes Underlying Children’s Errant Reports of Rumored Events (United States)

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Haines, Brooke; Adkins, Amber; Guiliano, Stephanie


    Previous research has shown that overhearing an errant rumor—either from an adult or peers—about an earlier experience can lead children to make detailed false reports. This study investigates the extent to which such accounts are driven by changes in children’s memory representations or merely social demands that encourage the reporting of rumored information. This was accomplished by a) using a warning manipulation that eliminated social pressures to report an earlier-heard rumor and b) examining the qualitative characteristics of children’s false narratives of a rumored-but-nonexperienced event. Findings indicated that overheard rumors can induce sensory and contextual characteristics in memory that can lead children to develop genuine false beliefs in seeing rumored-but-nonexperienced occurrences. Such constructive tendencies were especially likely among 3- and 4-year-olds (relative to 5- and 6-year-olds) and when rumors were picked up from peers during natural social interactions than when they were planted by adults. PMID:20630537

  14. False rumors and true belief: memory processes underlying children's errant reports of rumored events. (United States)

    Principe, Gabrielle F; Haines, Brooke; Adkins, Amber; Guiliano, Stephanie


    Previous research has shown that overhearing an errant rumor--either from an adult or from peers--about an earlier experience can lead children to make detailed false reports. This study investigates the extent to which such accounts are driven by changes in children's memory representations or merely social demands that encourage the reporting of rumored information. This was accomplished by (a) using a warning manipulation that eliminated social pressures to report an earlier heard rumor and (b) examining the qualitative characteristics of children's false narratives of a rumored-but-nonexperienced event. Findings indicated that overheard rumors can induce sensory and contextual characteristics in memory that can lead children to develop genuine false beliefs in seeing rumored-but-nonexperienced occurrences. Such constructive tendencies were especially likely among 3- and 4-year-olds (relative to 5- and 6-year-olds) and when rumors were picked up from peers during natural social interactions (relative to when they were planted by an adult). (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Belief-rule-based expert systems for evaluation of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Kamal, Md Sarwar


    , it requires continuous evaluation of the overall e-government system as well as evaluation of its various dimensions such as determinants, characteristics and results. E-government development is often complex, with multiple stakeholders, large user bases and complex goals. Consequently, even experts have...... difficulties in evaluating these systems, especially in an integrated and comprehensive way, as well as on an aggregate level. Expert systems are a candidate solution to evaluate such complex e-government systems. However, it is difficult for expert systems to cope with uncertain evaluation data that are vague......, known as the Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES) and implemented in the local e-government of Bangladesh. The results have been compared with a recently developed method of evaluating e-government, and it is demonstrated that the results of the BRBES are more accurate and reliable. The BRBES can...

  16. Protestantism and Evangelical churches in Colombia: popular religious practice and belief system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absalón Jiménez Becerra


    Full Text Available In this article we tackle the phenomenon of Protestantism in Colombia. In this, we seek to realize the belief system, seen as a relationship of who pretends to the authority, accompanied by an asymmetrical position opposite the believers and practitioners; also, we approached the character of sacred and profane of the belief system, the way hermeneutics and interpretation of various passages of the Bible that, recognized in the Protestant belief system, contributes to the continuous fragmentation of the new religious movements, led by the pentecostal and neopentecostal discourse. Indeed, to understand the phenomenon of popular in Colombia Protestantism, we must realize what happened, from 1991 to date, when constitutional changes provided a number of conditions so that a new religious movement is strengthened. Hence the interest in the present paper, joining a debate that the Academy still not elucidate, and even notes with contempt from our University.    Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald


    -aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest...

  18. Intention and Normative Belief


    Chislenko, Eugene


    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  19. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies


    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line


    Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...

  20. Planning ATES systems under uncertainty (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Kwakkel, Jan; Bloemendal, Martin


    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) can contribute to significant reductions in energy use within the built environment, by providing seasonal energy storage in aquifers for the heating and cooling of buildings. ATES systems have experienced a rapid uptake over the last two decades; however, despite successful experiments at the individual level, the overall performance of ATES systems remains below expectations - largely due to suboptimal practices for the planning and operation of systems in urban areas. The interaction between ATES systems and underground aquifers can be interpreted as a common-pool resource problem, in which thermal imbalances or interference could eventually degrade the storage potential of the subsurface. Current planning approaches for ATES systems thus typically follow the precautionary principle. For instance, the permitting process in the Netherlands is intended to minimize thermal interference between ATES systems. However, as shown in recent studies (Sommer et al., 2015; Bakr et al., 2013), a controlled amount of interference may benefit the collective performance of ATES systems. An overly restrictive approach to permitting is instead likely to create an artificial scarcity of available space, limiting the potential of the technology in urban areas. In response, master plans - which take into account the collective arrangement of multiple systems - have emerged as an increasingly popular alternative. However, permits and master plans both take a static, ex ante view of ATES governance, making it difficult to predict the effect of evolving ATES use or climactic conditions on overall performance. In particular, the adoption of new systems by building operators is likely to be driven by the available subsurface space and by the performance of existing systems; these outcomes are themselves a function of planning parameters. From this perspective, the interactions between planning authorities, ATES operators, and subsurface conditions

  1. Are all beliefs equal? Implicit belief attributions recruiting core brain regions of theory of mind. (United States)

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda; Kühn, Simone; Gergely, György; Csibra, Gergely; Brass, Marcel


    Humans possess efficient mechanisms to behave adaptively in social contexts. They ascribe goals and beliefs to others and use these for behavioural predictions. Researchers argued for two separate mental attribution systems: an implicit and automatic one involved in online interactions, and an explicit one mainly used in offline deliberations. However, the underlying mechanisms of these systems and the types of beliefs represented in the implicit system are still unclear. Using neuroimaging methods, we show that the right temporo-parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, brain regions consistently found to be involved in explicit mental state reasoning, are also recruited by spontaneous belief tracking. While the medial prefrontal cortex was more active when both the participant and another agent believed an object to be at a specific location, the right temporo-parietal junction was selectively activated during tracking the false beliefs of another agent about the presence, but not the absence of objects. While humans can explicitly attribute to a conspecific any possible belief they themselves can entertain, implicit belief tracking seems to be restricted to beliefs with specific contents, a content selectivity that may reflect a crucial functional characteristic and signature property of implicit belief attribution.

  2. Hypothesis Management Framework: a exible design pattern for belief networks in decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosliga, S.P. van; Voorde, I. van de


    This article discusses a design pattern for building belief networks for application domains in which causal models are hard to construct. In this approach we pursue a modular belief network structure that is easily extended by the users themselves, while remaining reliable for decision support. The

  3. Reliability assessment of complex mechatronic systems using a modified nonparametric belief propagation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, X.; Ichchou, M.; Saidi, A.


    Various parametric skewed distributions are widely used to model the time-to-failure (TTF) in the reliability analysis of mechatronic systems, where many items are unobservable due to the high cost of testing. Estimating the parameters of those distributions becomes a challenge. Previous research has failed to consider this problem due to the difficulty of dependency modeling. Recently the methodology of Bayesian networks (BNs) has greatly contributed to the reliability analysis of complex systems. In this paper, the problem of system reliability assessment (SRA) is formulated as a BN considering the parameter uncertainty. As the quantitative specification of BN, a normal distribution representing the stochastic nature of TTF distribution is learned to capture the interactions between the basic items and their output items. The approximation inference of our continuous BN model is performed by a modified version of nonparametric belief propagation (NBP) which can avoid using a junction tree that is inefficient for the mechatronic case because of the large treewidth. After reasoning, we obtain the marginal posterior density of each TTF model parameter. Other information from diverse sources and expert priors can be easily incorporated in this SRA model to achieve more accurate results. Simulation in simple and complex cases of mechatronic systems demonstrates that the posterior of the parameter network fits the data well and the uncertainty passes effectively through our BN based SRA model by using the modified NBP.

  4. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc


    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  5. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach (United States)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia


    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B-B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  6. You Are What You Read: The Belief Systems of Cyber-Bystanders on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel N. M. Leung


    Full Text Available The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders’ perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims × 2 condition (offend vs. defend experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants’ involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become “upstanders” in educational programs to combat cyberbullying.

  7. How culture shapes community: bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations. (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel


    Feeling that you belong in a group is an important and powerful need. The ability to foster a sense of belonging can also determine whether groups survive. Organizational features of groups cultivate feelings of belonging, yet prior research fails to investigate the idea that belief systems also play a major role. Using multilevel data, this study finds that church members' traditional beliefs, group-level belief unity, and their interaction associate positively with members' sense of belonging. In fact, belief unity can be thought of as a “sacred canopy” under which the relationship between traditional beliefs and feelings of belonging thrives.

  8. The effect of ice-breaking using stand-up comedy on students’ mathematical belief system (United States)

    Kurniasih, M. D.; Lenaldi, D. H.; Wahidin


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ice breaking by doing stand-up comedy on the result of mathematical belief. This research was conducted at SMPN 37 Jakarta on 2nd grade in the 2nd-semester academic year 2016-2017. The research design used was the treatment by level 2x2 with learning method as a dependent variable which is the ability to understand the mathematics concept as a moderator variable and mathematical belief as an independent variable. The sampling technique used cluster random sampling. The result showed that the learning through icebreaking by doing stand-up comedy is able to increase the mathematics’ belief of students. In addition, the learning method has the effect of mathematics’ belief which depends on the ability to understand the mathematics concept of the student. Scholars who study by ice breaking with stand-up comedy teaching have the mathematics’ belief higher than scholars who study by the conventional method.

  9. Maintaining the system with tokenism: bolstering individual mobility beliefs and identification with a discriminatory organization. (United States)

    Danaher, Kelly; Branscombe, Nyla R


    Two experiments examined the effects of gender-based token hiring practices in organizational settings. In Expt 1, women were exposed to organizational hiring practices that were open, token, or closed. Token practices served to perpetuate inequality by maintaining individual mobility beliefs and organizational identification. In Expt 2, both men and women imagined working for a corporation that planned to implement open, token, or closed hiring practices. Although women reported experiencing negative emotions in the closed and token conditions compared to the open condition, token practices maintained positive perceptions of the organization and individual mobility beliefs compared to the closed condition. Men endorsed more individual mobility beliefs as well as positive emotions in the token and closed conditions compared to the open condition. Token practices distort perceptions of fairness in both women and men. For women, token practices make group boundaries seem more negotiable than they actually are, while for men token practices legitimize their group's dominance.

  10. Embedded System Synthesis under Memory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter


    This paper presents a genetic algorithm to solve the system synthesis problem of mapping a time constrained single-rate system specification onto a given heterogeneous architecture which may contain irregular interconnection structures. The synthesis is performed under memory constraints, that is......, the algorithm takes into account the memory size of processors and the size of interface buffers of communication links, and in particular the complicated interplay of these. The presented algorithm is implemented as part of the LY-COS cosynthesis system....

  11. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt


    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  12. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating. (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L


    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  13. Intelligent wear mode identification system for marine diesel engines based on multi-level belief rule base methodology (United States)

    Yan, Xinping; Xu, Xiaojian; Sheng, Chenxing; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Zhixiong


    Wear faults are among the chief causes of main-engine damage, significantly influencing the secure and economical operation of ships. It is difficult for engineers to utilize multi-source information to identify wear modes, so an intelligent wear mode identification model needs to be developed to assist engineers in diagnosing wear faults in diesel engines. For this purpose, a multi-level belief rule base (BBRB) system is proposed in this paper. The BBRB system consists of two-level belief rule bases, and the 2D and 3D characteristics of wear particles are used as antecedent attributes on each level. Quantitative and qualitative wear information with uncertainties can be processed simultaneously by the BBRB system. In order to enhance the efficiency of the BBRB, the silhouette value is adopted to determine referential points and the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used to transform input wear information into belief degrees. In addition, the initial parameters of the BBRB system are constructed on the basis of expert-domain knowledge and then optimized by the genetic algorithm to ensure the robustness of the system. To verify the validity of the BBRB system, experimental data acquired from real-world diesel engines are analyzed. Five-fold cross-validation is conducted on the experimental data and the BBRB is compared with the other four models in the cross-validation. In addition, a verification dataset containing different wear particles is used to highlight the effectiveness of the BBRB system in wear mode identification. The verification results demonstrate that the proposed BBRB is effective and efficient for wear mode identification with better performance and stability than competing systems.

  14. Relationship between learners’ beliefs system and the choice of language learning strategies: A critical study


    Maftoon, Parviz; Shakouri, Nima


    The study explored the relationship between college EFL students' beliefs and their choice of language learning strategies. The participants were 80 first-year college students (39 males and 41 females) at Roudbar Islamic Azad University. Having calculated the correlations between and among the variables in the study, the authors concluded that since p

  15. Culture and Belief Systems: A Christian Experience in the 21st Century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture, which is manifested in symbols, heroes, rituals, values and practices, refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religions, concepts of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of ...

  16. The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy: A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong System of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Ly Yang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to shed light on the identity of the spirit of fertility called Lady Kaying –Niam Nkauj Kab Yeeb—, its religious origin and the general processes of borrowing her fromother cultures within the Hmong culture. Hmong popular beliefs pertaining to Kaying reveal that Kaying is in fact the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin. She was imported from MahayanaBuddhism by the Hmong people of China who had retained her roles of the “Bestower of Children", the “Guardian Angel” or the "Conductor of the Dead Children". An analysis of the process of borrowing of the Chinese deity into the Hmong pantheon shows that Lady Kaying overlaps with an ancient spirit, the “Ancestor Spirit of Fertility” or Niam Poj Dab Pog. This case study demonstrates that the processes of borrowing are selective, integrative and comprehensive: some traits or fragments were taken from Buddhism and incorporated into the Hmong beliefs through a superimposing of a Hmong pre-existing system of beliefs.

  17. Degrees of Belief


    Levi, Isaac


    A discussion of three kinds of degree of belief: subjective (credal) probability, degree of belief in the maximizing sense (expected epistemic utility) and degree of belief in the satisficing sense (Shackle type degrees of belief). The relations between these concepts and full belief (absolute certainty) and other qualitative assessments of belief (mere belief or plain belief) will be considered.

  18. A New DST-Belief Theoretic Project Selection Model for Multi-Criteria Decision Support System (United States)

    Bakshi, Tuli; Sinharay, Arindam; Sarkar, Bijan; Sanyal, Subir Kumar


    Decision-making problem is co-related to quality and availability of the information. Innovative algorithms are proposed as a mathematical problem-solving technique to work in uncertainty-based decision science domain. Evidence-based theory of Dempster-Shafer (DST) is an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty in the decision-making procedure. The current research exposition on new decision-making method based on DST of evidence, quantification evidence preference from different multiple criteria defined by belief function has been presented. They have developed a new framework that tackles the challenges and borne out of uncertainty both in criteria and in alternative levels. The proposed hybridized MCDM tool developed upon fuzzy domain uses plausibility and theory of belief function to construct decision on uncertain and imprecise information. The proposed method can be well fitted for real-life application. An illustrative example establishes the effectiveness of the aforesaid method.

  19. Neither ideologues nor agnostics: alternative voters' belief system in an age of partisan politics. (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Goldberg, Amir


    How do Americans organize their political beliefs? This article argues that party polarization and the growing prominence of moral issues in recent decades have catalyzed different responses by different groups of Americans. The article investigates systematic heterogeneity in the organization of political attitudes using relational class analysis, a graph-based method for detecting multiple patterns of opinion in survey data. Three subpopulations, each characterized by a distinctive way of organizing its political beliefs, are identified: ideologues, whose political attitudes strongly align with either liberal or conservative categories; alternatives, who are instead morally conservative but economically liberal, or vice versa; and agnostics, who exhibit weak associations between political beliefs. Individuals' sociodemographic profiles, particularly their income, education, and religiosity, lie at the core of the different ways in which they understand politics. Results show that while ideologues have gone through a process of issue alignment, alternatives have grown increasingly apart from the political agendas of both parties. The conflictual presence of conservative and liberal preferences has often been resolved by alternative voters in favor of the Republican Party.

  20. The influence of the pre-scientific and scientific belief system of both counsellor and client on the success of the narrative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Luyt


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate to what extent the belief system of both counsellor and client plays a role in counselling. It is generally accepted that beliefs play a central role in the life of all people. This article applies this notion, as described by, among others, Wright, Watson and Bell (1986, to the field of pastoral care and more specifically to the narrative approach within it. The narrative approach is an important instrument that helps people to understand how their life stories have been shaped by their beliefs about themselves. Throughout the article the researcher attempts to indicate how the counsellor, client and counselling process are influenced by their respective scientific and pre-scientific roots and development, as well as by their system of belief in general.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of the Belief That Electronic Cigarettes are a Lot Less Harmful Than Conventional Cigarettes Under the Different Regulatory Environments of Australia and the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Balmford, James; Hitchman, Sara C; Cummings, K Michael; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary E


    The rapid rise in electronic cigarettes (ECs) globally has stimulated much debate about the relative risk and public health impact of this new emerging product category as compared to conventional cigarettes. The sale and marketing of ECs containing nicotine are banned in many countries (eg, Australia) but are allowed in others (eg, United Kingdom). This study examined prevalence and correlates of the belief that ECs are a lot less harmful than conventional cigarettes under the different regulatory environments in Australia (ie, more restrictive) and the United Kingdom (ie, less restrictive). Australian and UK data from the 2013 survey of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country project were analyzed. More UK than Australian respondents (58.5% vs. 35.2%) believed that ECs are a lot less harmful than conventional cigarettes but more respondents in Australia than in the United Kingdom selected "Don't Know" (36.5% vs. 17.1%). The proportion that responded "A little less, equally or more harmful" did not differ between countries. Correlates of the belief that ECs are "A lot less harmful" differed between countries, while correlates of "Don't Know" response did not differ. Consistent with the less restrictive regulatory environment affecting the sale and marketing of ECs, smokers and recent ex-smokers in the United Kingdom were more likely to believe ECs were less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes compared to those in Australia. What this study adds: Among smokers and ex-smokers, this study found that the belief that ECs are (a lot) less harmful than conventional cigarettes was considerably higher in the United Kingdom than in Australia in 2013. The finding is consistent with the less restrictive regulatory environment for ECs in the United Kingdom, suggesting that the regulatory framework for ECs adopted by a country can affect smokers' perceptions about the relative harmfulness of ECs, the group that stands to gain the most from having an accurate

  2. Quality of life/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs of adult and elderly chronic kidney patients under hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Gabriela Rusa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the quality of life of chronic kidney patients undergoing hemodialysis, using the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB.METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken at a kidney replacement therapy service in the interior of the state of SP. The 110subjects who complied with the inclusion criteria answered the Subject Characterization Instrument, the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB.RESULTS: most of the respondents were male (67.27%, with a mean age of 55.65 years, Catholic (55.45%, with unfinished primary education (33.64% and without formal occupation (79.08%. The WHOQOL-bref domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "psychological" (µ=74.20 and "physical" (µ=61.14. The WHOQOL-SRPB domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "completeness and integration" (µ=4.00 and "faith" (µ=4.40.CONCLUSIONS: the respondents showed high quality of life scores, specifically in the dimensions related to spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Losses were evidenced in the physical domain of quality of life, possibly due to the changes resulting from the chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis treatment.

  3. Quality of life/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs of adult and elderly chronic kidney patients under hemodialysis. (United States)

    Rusa, Suzana Gabriela; Peripato, Gabriele Ibanhes; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost; Inouye, Keika; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza


    to assess the quality of life of chronic kidney patients undergoing hemodialysis, using the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB. a descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken at a kidney replacement therapy service in the interior of the state of SP. The 110 subjects who complied with the inclusion criteria answered the Subject Characterization Instrument, the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB. most of the respondents were male (67.27%), with a mean age of 55.65 years, Catholic (55.45%), with unfinished primary education (33.64%) and without formal occupation (79.08%). The WHOQOL-bref domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "psychological" (µ=74.20) and "physical" (µ=61.14). The WHOQOL-SRPB domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "completeness and integration" (µ=4.00) and "faith" (µ=4.40). the respondents showed high quality of life scores, specifically in the dimensions related to spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Losses were evidenced in the physical domain of quality of life, possibly due to the changes resulting from the chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis treatment.

  4. Quality of life/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs of adult and elderly chronic kidney patients under hemodialysis 1 (United States)

    Rusa, Suzana Gabriela; Peripato, Gabriele Ibanhes; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost; Inouye, Keika; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza


    OBJECTIVE: to assess the quality of life of chronic kidney patients undergoing hemodialysis, using the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB. METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken at a kidney replacement therapy service in the interior of the state of SP. The 110subjects who complied with the inclusion criteria answered the Subject Characterization Instrument, the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB. RESULTS: most of the respondents were male (67.27%), with a mean age of 55.65 years, Catholic (55.45%), with unfinished primary education (33.64%) and without formal occupation (79.08%). The WHOQOL-bref domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "psychological" (µ=74.20) and "physical" (µ=61.14). The WHOQOL-SRPB domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "completeness and integration" (µ=4.00) and "faith" (µ=4.40). CONCLUSIONS: the respondents showed high quality of life scores, specifically in the dimensions related to spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Losses were evidenced in the physical domain of quality of life, possibly due to the changes resulting from the chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis treatment. PMID:25591085

  5. Analyzing Technique of Power Systems Under Deregulation (United States)

    Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ishigame, Atsushi

    Deregulation of the electric utilities has been progressing. Even under the deregulation, the reliability should be the most important problem of power systems. However, according to the deregulation, operation and scheduling of power systems are changing and new techniques to analyze power systems are introducing. To evaluate reliability of power systems, adequacy and security are well employed recently. This paper presents the new analyzing technique which will be realized in near future from the viewpoint of adequacy and security. First, simulation tool to evaluate adequacy is described. As an example of this tool, MARS and other methods are mentioned. Next, to evaluate the security, security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) and security constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) are mentioned. Finally, some topics concerning ancillary service are described.

  6. Location Verification Systems Under Spatially Correlated Shadowing


    Yan, Shihao; Nevat, Ido; Peters, Gareth W.; Malaney, Robert


    The verification of the location information utilized in wireless communication networks is a subject of growing importance. In this work we formally analyze, for the first time, the performance of a wireless Location Verification System (LVS) under the realistic setting of spatially correlated shadowing. Our analysis illustrates that anticipated levels of correlated shadowing can lead to a dramatic performance improvement of a Received Signal Strength (RSS)-based LVS. We also analyze the per...

  7. Religious beliefs and policy under the Franco dictatorship | Creencias religiosas y política en la dictadura franquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moreno Seco


    Full Text Available Specialised historical works on the history of the Church and religious beliefs emanate predominantly from church circles and tend to place greater emphasis on political and structural aspects to the detriment of cultural analysis. During the long post-war period in Spain, ecclesiastical and secular authorities endeavoured to create a symbolic universe which would legitimise the dictatorship, and in which religion played a central role. The nineteen-sixties and seventies witnessed the birth of a new religiosity, headed by dissident priests and laymen, who would ultimately call into question the political regime itself. This article also examines the links between politics and religion by considering protestant minorities and anticlericalism. | La historiografía especializada en la historia de la Iglesia y de las creencias religiosas está marcada por un destacado peso de estudios provenientes de ámbitos eclesiásticos y por una mayor atención a enfoques políticos y estructurales en detrimento de análisis culturales. En la larga posguerra española, las autoridades eclesiásticas y civiles se esforzaron por crear un universo simbólico que legitimara a la dictadura, en el que la religión desempeñó un papel central. En los años sesenta y setenta surge una nueva religiosidad que acaba poniendo en cuestión al propio régimen político, por obra de sacerdotes y laicos contestatarios. En este artículo también se abordan los vínculos entre lo político y lo religioso al tratar las minorías protestantes y el anticlericalismo.

  8. Characterizing Species at Risk II: Using Bayesian Belief Networks as Decision Support Tools to Determine Species Conservation Categories Under the Northwest Forest Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Marcot


    Full Text Available We developed a set of decision-aiding models as Bayesian belief networks (BBNs that represented a complex set of evaluation guidelines used to determine the appropriate conservation of hundreds of potentially rare species on federally-administered lands in the Pacific Northwest United States. The models were used in a structured assessment and paneling procedure as part of an adaptive management process that evaluated new scientific information under the Northwest Forest Plan. The models were not prescriptive but helped resource managers and specialists to evaluate complicated and at times conflicting conservation guidelines and to reduce bias and uncertainty in evaluating the scientific data. We concluded that applying the BBN modeling framework to complex and equivocal evaluation guidelines provided a set of clear, intuitive decision-aiding tools that greatly aided the species evaluation and conservation process.

  9. Under-vaccinated groups in Europe and their beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination; two systematic reviews.


    Fournet, N; Mollema, L; Ruijs, W L; Harmsen, I A; Keck, F; Durand, J Y; Cunha, M P; Wamsiedel, M; Reis, R; French, J; Smit, E G; Kitching, A; van Steenbergen, J E


    Background: Despite effective national immunisation programmes in Europe, some groups remain incompletely or un-vaccinated ('under-vaccinated'), with underserved minorities and certain religious/ideological groups repeatedly being involved in outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD).Gaining insight into factors regarding acceptance of vaccination of 'under-vaccinated groups' (UVGs) might give opportunities to communicate with them in a trusty and reliable manner that respects their bel...

  10. teachers beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    There exists high correlation between teachers' confessed beliefs and their actual classroom practices in applying problem-solving teaching method. It is found out that teachers are employing traditional teaching methods in teaching mathematics at grade nine and ten. The responses from open ended questions indicated.

  11. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs (United States)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva


    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  12. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David


    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reliability of dynamic systems under limited information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr. (.,; .); Grigoriu, Mircea


    A method is developed for reliability analysis of dynamic systems under limited information. The available information includes one or more samples of the system output; any known information on features of the output can be used if available. The method is based on the theory of non-Gaussian translation processes and is shown to be particularly suitable for problems of practical interest. For illustration, we apply the proposed method to a series of simple example problems and compare with results given by traditional statistical estimators in order to establish the accuracy of the method. It is demonstrated that the method delivers accurate results for the case of linear and nonlinear dynamic systems, and can be applied to analyze experimental data and/or mathematical model outputs. Two complex applications of direct interest to Sandia are also considered. First, we apply the proposed method to assess design reliability of a MEMS inertial switch. Second, we consider re-entry body (RB) component vibration response during normal re-entry, where the objective is to estimate the time-dependent probability of component failure. This last application is directly relevant to re-entry random vibration analysis at Sandia, and may provide insights on test-based and/or model-based qualification of weapon components for random vibration environments.

  14. Changes in Psychological Distress among East German Adolescents Facing German Unification: The Role of Commitment to the Old System and of Self-Efficacy Beliefs (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Juang, Linda P.


    Abrupt social change, such as the breakdown of a political system of the former communist states, presents a major adaptive challenge to the individual. The authors analyzed whether commitment to the old political system and high self-efficacy beliefs measured before German unification would predict change in psychological distress in East German…

  15. Belief, hope and faith. (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luis Claudio


    A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.

  16. Isms dimensions: toward a more comprehensive and integrative model of belief-system components. (United States)

    Saucier, Gerard


    Psychological research on beliefs, values, worldview, and ideology has been limited by inadequate structural models to organize the plethora of constructs. The present studies investigate the potential of a dimensional model based on lexical, dictionary-represented -ism concepts to form an organizing structural model. Four isms factors found previously in college samples are shown to replicate in community-sample data with better controls for acquiescent responding. But analyses also reveal a 5th factor involving egalitarianism and inequality-aversion, increasing the comprehensiveness of the structural model. Relations of frequently used constructs (values, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation) to the isms dimensions are detailed, demonstrating both the integrative and value-adding potentials of the model. The possibility of potential additional nonlexical factors (Trust in Government, Ethnocentrism, Xenophobia, and Nativism) is evaluated. Factors identified in these studies are demonstrated to show interesting relations with political-party preference, subjective well-being, and change over time in the Big Five personality dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Examining College Students' Social Environment, Normative Beliefs, and Attitudes in Subsequent Initiation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems. (United States)

    Agarwal, Deepti; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L


    Although use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) is increasingly prevalent among young adults, little is known about predictors of ENDS initiation among this population. We examined the roles of the social environment (i.e., peer ENDS use and household ENDS use), normative beliefs (i.e., social acceptability of ENDS use), and attitudes (i.e., inclination to date someone who uses ENDS) in prospectively predicting initiation of ENDS over a 1-year period among 18- to 29-year-old college students. Participants were 2,110 (18- to 29-year-old) students ( M = 20.27, SD = 2.17) from 24 colleges in Texas who participated in a three-wave online survey, with 6 months between each wave. All participants reported never using ENDS at baseline. A multivariable, multilevel logistic regression model, accounting for clustering of students within colleges, was used to assess if students' social environment, normative beliefs, and attitudes predicted subsequent initiation of ENDS up to 1 year later, adjusting for various sociodemographic factors and number of other tobacco products used. In all, 329 college students (16%) initiated ENDS within 1 year. Results from the logistic regression indicated that college students who were younger (18-24 years old), ever used other tobacco products, indicated a more dense peer network of ENDS users, and had a higher inclination to date someone who uses ENDS had higher odds of initiating ENDS than their peers. Preventing ENDS initiation should be included in college health promotion programs, which should highlight the roles of students' social environment and attitudes regarding ENDS use.

  18. A non-linear dynamical approach to belief revision in cognitive behavioral therapy (United States)

    Kronemyer, David; Bystritsky, Alexander


    Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a non-linear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain's attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three) fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. PMID:24860491

  19. Conflicting policy beliefs and informational complexities in designing a transboundary enforcement monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, R.; Hoppe, Robertus; de Vries, W.T.; Georgiadou, P.Y.


    Recognizing the need for a crowd sourced geospatial decision support system to monitor wildlife crime, in 2005, a team of scientists at the United Nations University (UNU) designed a GIS-based transboundary monitoring system, called Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS). The tool was

  20. Conditional Belief Types (United States)


    using conditional belief operators, examining three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be...unconditionally certain of her beliefs . Second, echo, according to which the unconditional beliefs implied by the condition must be held given the...condition. Third, determination, which says that the conditional beliefs are the unconditional beliefs that are conditionally certain. Echo implies that

  1. Beliefs and expectations of rural hospital practitioners towards a developing trauma system: A qualitative case study. (United States)

    Adams, Ryan D F; Cole, Elaine; Brundage, Susan I; Morrison, Zoe; Jansen, Jan O


    An understanding of stakeholders' views is key to the successful development and operation of a rural trauma system. Scotland, which has large remote and rural areas, is currently implementing a national trauma system. The aim of this study was to identify key barriers and enablers to the development of an effective trauma system from the perspective of rural healthcare professionals. This is a qualitative study, which was conducted in rural general hospitals (RGH) in Scotland, from April to June 2017. We used an opportunistic sampling strategy to include hospital providers of rural trauma care across the region. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify and group participant perspectives on key barriers and enablers to the development of the new trauma system. We conducted 15 interviews with 18 participants in six RGHs. Study participants described barriers and enablers across three themes: 1) quality of care, 2) interfaces within the system and 3) interfaces with the wider healthcare system. For quality of care, enablers included confidence in basic trauma management, whilst a perceived lack of change from current management was seen as a barrier. The theme of interfaces within the system identified good interaction with other services and a single point of contact for referral as enablers. Perceived barriers included challenges in referring to tertiary care. The final theme of interfaces with the wider healthcare system included an improved transport system, increased audit resource and coordinated clinical training as enablers. Perceived barriers included a rural staffing crisis and problematic patient transfer to further care. This study provides insight into rural professionals' perceptions regarding the implementation of a trauma system in rural Scotland. Barriers included practical issues, such as retrieval, transfer and referral processes. Importantly, there is a degree of uncertainty

  2. For Better or Worse? System-Justifying Beliefs in Sixth-Grade Predict Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Behavior Across Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Godfrey, Erin B; Santos, Carlos E; Burson, Esther


    Scholars call for more attention to how marginalization influences the development of low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth and emphasize the importance of youth's subjective perceptions of contexts. This study examines how beliefs about the fairness of the American system (system justification) in sixth grade influence trajectories of self-esteem and behavior among 257 early adolescents (average age 11.4) from a diverse, low-income, middle school in an urban southwestern city. System justification was associated with higher self-esteem, less delinquent behavior, and better classroom behavior in sixth grade but worse trajectories of these outcomes from sixth to eighth grade. These findings provide novel evidence that system-justifying beliefs undermine the well-being of marginalized youth and that early adolescence is a critical developmental period for this process. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Modelling the effects of a CBRN defence system using a Bayesian Belief Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillipson, F.; Bastings, I.C.L.; Vink, N.


    In this paper a Bayes model to quantify the effects of a passive CBRN defence system is presented. The model gives insight in the way of the mutual influence of all the elements of passive CBRN defence, by the use of detailed scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and root cause analysis. This can

  4. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems. (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  5. Cultural influences on causal beliefs about depression among Latino immigrants. (United States)

    Caplan, Susan; Escobar, Javier; Paris, Manuel; Alvidrez, Jennifer; Dixon, Jane K; Desai, Mayur M; Scahill, Lawrence D; Whittemore, Robin


    This study describes causal beliefs about depression among Dominican, Colombian, and Ecuadorian immigrants. The authors describe participants' narratives about how particular supernatural or religious beliefs may contribute to or alleviate depression. Latino primary care patients (n = 177) were interviewed with the Beliefs About Causes of Depression Scale, a list of 35 items rated from not at all important to extremely important. Participants had the option of expanding on responses using an informal conversational approach. Underlying themes of these explanatory comments were derived from narrative and content analysis. Major themes that emerged were Psychosocial and Religious and Supernatural causal beliefs. A third theme emerged that represented the integration of these categories in the context of the immigrant experience. This article adds to the understanding of cross-cultural beliefs about depression. Psychosocial stressors related to the immigrant experience and adverse life events were highly endorsed, but the meaning of these stressors was construed in terms of religious and cultural values. To provide culturally appropriate services, nurses should be aware of and discuss the patient's belief systems, illness interpretations, and expectations of treatment.

  6. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.


    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  7. Investigating the Relationships among PSTs' Teaching Beliefs: Are Epistemological Beliefs Central? (United States)

    Bahçivan, Eralp


    The present case study explored the teaching belief systems of pre-service science teachers (PSTs), including epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs, conceptions of science learning and teaching and pedagogical content knowledge. Based on their epistemological scores, three PSTs who were categorised as exhibiting naïve, moderately…

  8. Classical system underlying a diffracting quantum billiard (United States)

    Jain, Manan


    For a point scatterer placed slightly off the centre of a circular enclosure, rays are found which vividly exhibit the effect of diffraction. The Schrödinger equation was mapped in the complex plane by employing a fractional linear transformation which brings the point scatterer to the centre. But the mass of the particle becomes a function of space coordinates, bearing anisotropy. For the transformed problem, the corresponding classical Hamiltonian is written and solved with Snell's laws on the boundary. The solutions of the Hamilton's equations thus found constitute, in fact, the ray-manifold underlying the diffraction at the level of the wave description.

  9. System development and asset management under restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In many developed countries the electricity infrastructure contains ageing assets. Because of the need of a continuing operation and higher load factors on the network, the opportunities for replacement or refurbishment are limited. These must be regarded as an opportunity to review the structure of the system and to consider the design and development required to meet the new requirements, taking advantage of new available technologies: HVDC, FACTS, cables, etc. The symposium examines assets management issues and assesses strategies for overhauling existing systems, taking into account the impact on market operation, on supply security and environment

  10. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella


    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  11. Simulation of Aircraft Sortie Generation Under an Autonomic Logistics System (United States)


    kind of on-board artificial autonomic nervous system which is vital for AL operations. Through the use of intelligent reasoners, PHM detects, isolates...SIMULATION OF AIRCRAFT SORTIE GENERATION UNDER AN AUTONOMIC LOGISTICS SYSTEM THESIS Gunduz...Government. AFIT-ENS-MS-16-D-052 SIMULATION OF AIRCRAFT SORTIE GENERATION UNDER AN AUTONOMIC LOGISTICS SYSTEM THESIS Presented to

  12. Automated System Organizations Under Spatial Grasp Technology (United States)


    This mode of high-level system vision based on holistic and gestalt principles [6-8] rather than cooperating parts or agents [1] has psychological ...M. Wertheimer, “ Gestalt Theory“, Erlangen. Berlin, 1925. [7] P. Sapaty, “ Gestalt -Based Ideology and Technology for Spatial Control of Distributed...Dynamic Systems”, International Gestalt Theory Congress, 16th Scientific Convention of the GTA, University of Osnabrück, Germany, March 26 - 29

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying nervous system diseases. (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F


    Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing. These mechanisms are intimately involved in executing fundamental genomic programs, including gene transcription, posttranscriptional RNA processing and transport, translation, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, retrotransposon regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. For the nervous system, epigenetics offers a novel and robust framework for explaining how brain development and aging occur, neural cellular diversity is generated, synaptic and neural network connectivity and plasticity are mediated, and complex cognitive and behavioral phenotypes are inherited transgenerationally. Epigenetic factors and processes are, not surprisingly, implicated in nervous system disease pathophysiology through several emerging paradigms - mutations and genetic variation in genes encoding epigenetic factors; impairments in epigenetic factor expression, localization, and function; epigenetic mechanisms modulating disease-associated factors and pathways; and the presence of deregulated epigenetic profiles in central and peripheral tissues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  15. A continuous-time semi-markov bayesian belief network model for availability measure estimation of fault tolerant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio das Chagas Moura


    Full Text Available In this work it is proposed a model for the assessment of availability measure of fault tolerant systems based on the integration of continuous time semi-Markov processes and Bayesian belief networks. This integration results in a hybrid stochastic model that is able to represent the dynamic characteristics of a system as well as to deal with cause-effect relationships among external factors such as environmental and operational conditions. The hybrid model also allows for uncertainty propagation on the system availability. It is also proposed a numerical procedure for the solution of the state probability equations of semi-Markov processes described in terms of transition rates. The numerical procedure is based on the application of Laplace transforms that are inverted by the Gauss quadrature method known as Gauss Legendre. The hybrid model and numerical procedure are illustrated by means of an example of application in the context of fault tolerant systems.Neste trabalho, é proposto um modelo baseado na integração entre processos semi-Markovianos e redes Bayesianas para avaliação da disponibilidade de sistemas tolerantes à falha. Esta integração resulta em um modelo estocástico híbrido o qual é capaz de representar as características dinâmicas de um sistema assim como tratar as relações de causa e efeito entre fatores externos tais como condições ambientais e operacionais. Além disso, o modelo híbrido permite avaliar a propagação de incerteza sobre a disponibilidade do sistema. É também proposto um procedimento numérico para a solução das equações de probabilidade de estado de processos semi-Markovianos descritos por taxas de transição. Tal procedimento numérico é baseado na aplicação de transformadas de Laplace que são invertidas pelo método de quadratura Gaussiana conhecido como Gauss Legendre. O modelo híbrido e procedimento numérico são ilustrados por meio de um exemplo de aplicação no contexto de

  16. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  17. Investigating High School Teachers’ Belief Regarding Teaching Grammar


    Farahian, Majid


    Although there is an ever increasing interest in the issue of teacher belief systems in mainstream education studies, the beliefs of EFL teachers, especially Iranian teachers‟, about grammar and the influence of such beliefs on their instruction remain relatively unexplored. The present study seeks to examine high school teachers‟ belief regarding teaching grammar. To do so a grammar belief questionnaire and an interview were administered. The result showed that although teachers were compell...

  18. Erroneous gambling-related beliefs as illusions of primary and secondary control: a confirmatory factor analysis. (United States)

    Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H; Navarro, Daniel J


    Different classification systems for erroneous beliefs about gambling have been proposed, consistently alluding to 'illusion of control' and 'gambler's fallacy' categories. None of these classification systems have, however, considered the how the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy might be interrelated. In this paper, we report the findings of a confirmatory factor analysis that examines the proposal that most erroneous gambling-related beliefs can be defined in terms of Rothbaum et al.'s (J Pers Soc Psychol, doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.5 , 1982) distinction between 'primary' and 'secondary' illusory control, with the former being driven to a large extent by the well-known gambler's fallacy and the latter being driven by a complex of beliefs about supernatural forces such as God and luck. A survey consisting of 100 items derived from existing instruments was administered to 329 participants. The analysis confirmed the existence of two latent structures (beliefs in primary and secondary control), while also offering support to the idea that gambler's fallacy-style reasoning may underlie both perceived primary control and beliefs about the cyclical nature of luck, a form of perceived secondary control. The results suggest the need for a greater focus on the role of underlying processes or belief structures as factors that foster susceptibility to specific beliefs in gambling situations. Addressing and recognising the importance of these underlying factors may also have implications for cognitive therapy treatments for problem gambling.

  19. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi


    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  20. Verbalizing Silent Screams: The Use of Poetry to Identify the Belief Systems of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Williams, Mary Beth


    Argues that incorporating the use of poetry writing into the clinical treatment of survivors of sexual abuse can be beneficial. Uses examples of such poetry to show how the creative writing of survivors reveals repressed information about their abuses, self-concepts, and about their basic beliefs in the areas of safety, trust, power, intimacy, and…

  1. The Effect of Content Representation Design Principles on Users' Intuitive Beliefs and Use of E-Learning Systems (United States)

    Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Selim, Hassan; Zaqout, Fahed


    A model is proposed to assess the effect of different content representation design principles on learners' intuitive beliefs about using e-learning. We hypothesized that the impact of the representation of course contents is mediated by the design principles of alignment, quantity, clarity, simplicity, and affordance, which influence the…

  2. Children's Performance on a False-belief Task Is Impaired by Activation of an Evolutionarily-Canalized Response System. (United States)

    Keenan, Thomas; Ellis, Bruce J.


    Two studies examined how task content that activates predator-avoidance affects preschool children's performance on a false-belief task. Findings indicated that the proportion of correct answers on the playmate-avoidance task was greater than that for the predator-avoidance task, suggesting that activation of the predator-avoidance system…

  3. Experience feedback system of nuclear power plant under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qun; Lin Ling


    The Experience Feedback System of Hainan Nuclear Power Plant under construction, which is a typical EPC nuclear power project, is introduced in the paper. And the good practice of the system set a good example for those NPPs under construction in China. (authors)

  4. The Impact of High Stakes Accountability Systems and the New Performance Demands on Special Education Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice (United States)

    Zane, Robin Lee


    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) articulates the goal that all children can learn and are expected to achieve grade level academic proficiency by 2014. Based on theories underlying models of extrinsic motivation, the fundamental assumption and theory of action is that a system of rewards and sanctions will motivate teachers to focus on…

  5. Revising incompletely specified convex probabilistic belief bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G


    Full Text Available a version of Lewis Imaging as the revision operation. The correctness of the approach is proved. The expressivity of the belief bases under consideration are rather restricted, but has some applications. We also discuss methods of belief base...

  6. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang


    and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  7. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) and Expert Systems for supporting model based sensor fault detection analysis of smart building systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, J.D.; Taal, A.; Itard, L.C.M.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols


    The Hague University in Delft uses an advanced climate control system. All sensors and actuators are monitored and deviations from the sensor data are reported daily. The building manager will have to combine the information from the sensor data in order to draw the right conclusions. In this paper,

  8. Quantum Graphical Models and Belief Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, M.S.; Poulin, D.


    Belief Propagation algorithms acting on Graphical Models of classical probability distributions, such as Markov Networks, Factor Graphs and Bayesian Networks, are amongst the most powerful known methods for deriving probabilistic inferences amongst large numbers of random variables. This paper presents a generalization of these concepts and methods to the quantum case, based on the idea that quantum theory can be thought of as a noncommutative, operator-valued, generalization of classical probability theory. Some novel characterizations of quantum conditional independence are derived, and definitions of Quantum n-Bifactor Networks, Markov Networks, Factor Graphs and Bayesian Networks are proposed. The structure of Quantum Markov Networks is investigated and some partial characterization results are obtained, along the lines of the Hammersley-Clifford theorem. A Quantum Belief Propagation algorithm is presented and is shown to converge on 1-Bifactor Networks and Markov Networks when the underlying graph is a tree. The use of Quantum Belief Propagation as a heuristic algorithm in cases where it is not known to converge is discussed. Applications to decoding quantum error correcting codes and to the simulation of many-body quantum systems are described

  9. Cultural beliefs and teenage pregnancy. (United States)

    Horn, B


    The influence of cultural variables on teenage pregnancy is not clearly understood. In-depth interviews with 20 Native American Indian, 17 black and 18 white teenage women indicated intercultural differences in beliefs about: (1) prevention of pregnancy, (2) significance of becoming a mother at an early age and (3) kinds of support systems available to them within their social network. The implications of these differences for nursing care include recognition and acceptance of intercultural differences and support of a decision-making model of pregnancy prevention for teenagers that incorporates diverse belief systems.

  10. The Origins of Belief Representation: Monkeys Fail to Automatically Represent Others’ Beliefs (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R.


    Young infants’ successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)’s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species—the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)—is automatically influenced by another agent’s beliefs when tracking an object’s location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple’s movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys’ belief (true or false) and agent’s belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys’ expectations were not influenced by another agent’s beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans. PMID:24374209

  11. The origins of belief representation: monkeys fail to automatically represent others' beliefs. (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R


    Young infants' successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)'s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species--the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)--is automatically influenced by another agent's beliefs when tracking an object's location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple's movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys' belief (true or false) and agent's belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys' expectations were not influenced by another agent's beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching beyond the walls: A mixed method study of prospective elementary teacher's belief systems about science instruction (United States)

    Asim, Sumreen

    This mixed method study investigated K-6 teacher candidates' beliefs about informal science instruction prior to and after their experiences in a 15-week science methods course and in comparison to a non-intervention group. The study is predicated by the literature that supports the extent to which teachers' beliefs influence their instructional practices. The intervention integrated the six strands of learning science in informal science education (NRC, 2009) and exposed candidates to out-of-school-time environments (NRC, 2010). Participants included 17 candidates in the intervention and 75 in the comparison group. All were undergraduate K-6 teacher candidates at one university enrolled in different sections of a required science methods course. All the participants completed the Beliefs about Science Teaching (BAT) survey. Reflective journals, drawings, interviews, and microteaching protocols were collected from participants in the intervention. There was no statistically significant difference in pre or post BAT scores of the two groups; However, there was a statistically significant interaction effect for the intervention group over time. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed that the intervention candidates displayed awareness of each of the six strands of learning science in informal environments and commitment to out-of-school-time learning of science. This study supports current reform efforts favoring integration of informal science instructional strategies in science methods courses of elementary teacher education programs.

  13. Belief and Its Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin


    The role of experience for belief revision is seldom explicitly discussed. This is surprising as it seems obvious that experiences play a major role for most of our belief changes. In this work, the two most plausible views on the role of experience for belief change are investigated: the view that

  14. New Paradigm of Power System Planning under Competitive Environment (United States)

    Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new paradigm of power system planning under competitive environment. As the liberalization of power systems become more competitive, power systems are faced with new aspects that the conventional bundled power company has never encountered. The conventional power system planning methods do not match the requirements of competitive environment. In practice, the power system liberalization brings about new environment that puts emphasis on the profit maximization and the risk minimization. Thus, the problem formulation of power system planning should be reformulated to reflect the new aspects in power systems. As the tasks of power system planning, this paper outlines transmission network expansion planning, distribution network expansion planning, and unit commitment under competitive environment. In addition, new tasks such as very short-term load forecasting, electricity price forecasting, and wind power forecasting are described.

  15. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    fore a need for teachers to be sensitised to the different values embedded in each belief system and all cultureal orientations. The prevalence of values and belief systems in the OBE curricula of C2005 and the NCS will have to be acknowledged, identified, and promoted. Introduction. Value, religious and belief contents ...

  16. Using Bayesian belief networks in adaptive management. (United States)

    J.B. Nyberg; B.G. Marcot; R. Sulyma


    Bayesian belief and decision networks are relatively new modeling methods that are especially well suited to adaptive-management applications, but they appear not to have been widely used in adaptive management to date. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) can serve many purposes for practioners of adaptive management, from illustrating system relations conceptually to...

  17. General family of preferential belief removal operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R


    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  18. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo


    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  19. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  20. PC reporting system for radiologists: practical use under PACS environment. (United States)

    Nakata, N; Yoshihiro, S; Miida, K; Tashima, M; Sunakawa, Y; Harada, J; Tada, S; Fukuda, K


    To evaluate the practical usefulness of several types of the reporting system especially for radiologists, we have developed and employed several reporting systems. We categorized those reporting systems as follows (1) stand alone PC reporting system; (2) linked reporting system with PACS environment; (3) integrated three-dimensional (3D) imaging workstation (WS) with the intranet. We have evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of those three systems, and compared between the reporting system without PACS and network reporting system with PACS. Using linked reporting system with PACS, radiologists could easily reference both previous reports and archived diagnostic images, and also make their teaching files quickly. In conclusion, the reporting system under PACS environment is found to be practical and helpful for Japanese radiologists.

  1. [Belief system regarding Cannabis, its use and consequences: Users versus non-users in colombian university students]. (United States)

    Galván, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Carballo, Álvaro; Gómez-Morales, Ileana; Humánez-Julio, Oscar; Guerrero-Martelo, Manuel; Vásquez De la Hoz, Francisco


    Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria. Furthermore, the non-consumers group was mostly agree about that the marijuana use: damages the memory, deteriorates the cognitive functions, creates dependency, can affect the neurons and mental health. Also, it can lead to legal problems, it is a harmful drug for the health, it affects the academic performance, it creates problems with the family, friends, couple and the like, it reduces the driving ability, and, that the marijuana that is sold in the street is always pure. The consumer group, instead, agreed that smoking tobacco affects the lungs more than smoking marijuana. Marijuana has a positive in?uence on the brain, it increases the creativity, and it is less damaging than alcohol and tobacco. Smart people smoke marijuana and it has medicinal effects. In conclusion, according to the kind of beliefs that they have about this drug, the cannabis consumers would have a decreased perception of risk in relation to the potential risk that the consumption brings from two points of view: a. They minimize the real risks of consuming and, b. They attribute some benefts and virtues to the cannabis. The kind of beliefs that the consumer have are maybe in?uenced, at least, in part, for experiences of family and other consumers and, furthermore, the reinforcement of the same consume.

  2. Strategic and semi-strategic voting under different electoral systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin


    Strategic voting is often associated with plurality systems. This paper argues that strategic considerations also play a role in elections held under other electoral systems. Strategic considerations take various forms, such as which party (or candidate) receives a majority or plurality, which

  3. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.


    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  4. Output synchronization of chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Mancilla, Didier [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara (CULagos-UdeG), Enrique Diaz de Leon s/n, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico)], E-mail:; Cruz-Hernandez, Cesar [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Scientific Research and Advanced Studies of Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail:


    In this paper, an analysis for chaos synchronization under nonvanishing perturbations is presented. In particular, we use model-matching approach from nonlinear control theory for output synchronization of identical and nonidentical chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations in a master-slave configuration. We show that the proposed approach is indeed suitable to synchronize a class of perturbed slaves with a chaotic master system; that is the synchronization error trajectories remain bounded if the perturbations satisfy some conditions. In order to illustrate this robustness synchronization property, we present two cases of study: (i) for identical systems, a pair of coupled Roessler systems, the first like a master and the other like a perturbed slave, and (ii) for nonidentical systems, a Chua's circuit driving a Roessler/slave system with a perturbed control law, in both cases a quantitative analysis on the perturbation is included.

  5. Output synchronization of chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Mancilla, Didier; Cruz-Hernandez, Cesar


    In this paper, an analysis for chaos synchronization under nonvanishing perturbations is presented. In particular, we use model-matching approach from nonlinear control theory for output synchronization of identical and nonidentical chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations in a master-slave configuration. We show that the proposed approach is indeed suitable to synchronize a class of perturbed slaves with a chaotic master system; that is the synchronization error trajectories remain bounded if the perturbations satisfy some conditions. In order to illustrate this robustness synchronization property, we present two cases of study: (i) for identical systems, a pair of coupled Roessler systems, the first like a master and the other like a perturbed slave, and (ii) for nonidentical systems, a Chua's circuit driving a Roessler/slave system with a perturbed control law, in both cases a quantitative analysis on the perturbation is included

  6. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar


    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  7. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural? (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani


    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Development of Counterfactual Reasoning in Belief Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Van Hoeck


    Full Text Available The present study examines how children revise beliefs in the face of a new piece of information that they must accept as true and under what circumstances their belief-revision processes differ from college-aged adults. Results suggest that overall, 7-year-old children (children at Stage 2 reasoning; Moshman, 1990 revise beliefs as do adults, by rejecting particular beliefs in favour of more general ones. However, only adults adjust their revision strategy as a consequence of the logical structure of the initial belief set. Adults, but not children, tend to organise their revised beliefs to be consistent with general statements more often when the set of beliefs create a Modus Tollens logic structure than when they create a Modus Ponens structure. This difference in belief revision by the two age groups reflects their sensitivity to logical structure.

  9. Underlying Factors for Practicality of the Production Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, Emrah; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik


    This paper gives indications to important factors that must be considered for effectiveness of the production control systems under uncertainty. Five key factors have been identified by the literature study. Production schedule generation and execution approach under uncertainty, information...... and communication technology, coordination and feedback, human factors and decision making, and measurement are the identified factors to be taken into account. Industrial interviews with three case companies, that are participating to the research program called The Norwegian Manufacturing Future (SFI NORMAN...

  10. Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Dynamic and Complex Relationship (United States)

    Zheng, Hongying


    Research on teachers' beliefs has provided useful insights into understanding processes of teaching. However, no research has explored teachers' beliefs as a system nor have researchers investigated the substance of interactions between teachers' beliefs, practices and context. Therefore, the author adopts complexity theory to explore the features…

  11. O sistema de crenças do aprendiz brasileiro de inglês: fatores que influenciam na construção de crenças Belief systems of Brazilians learning English: factors that influence in the building of beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Madeira


    Full Text Available As crenças sobre aprendizagem de línguas têm sido tópico de interesse entre autores em pesquisadores na área de ensino de línguas. Este trabalho traz uma discussão sobre os fatores que atuam na formação das crenças de alunos e professores de Língua Inglesa. Inicialmente, comento sobre o interesse pela investigação do sistema de crenças do aprendiz de inglês como língua estrangeira. Mostro a influência que as crenças que compõem o imaginário dos professores e aprendizes exercem na maneira como abordam o processo de ensino/aprendizagem. Passo então para a discussão dos principais fatores responsáveis pela formação das crenças, entre os quais alguns estão intimamente relacionados ao contexto brasileiro de ensino/aprendizagem da língua inglesa.Language learning beliefs has been a frequently discussed topic of Applied Linguistics in the area of language learning and teaching. This paper discusses the beliefs learners and teachers of English as a second language hold about the learning/teaching process. I will start the discussion exposing the reason why more and more researchers are interested in investigating the beliefs system of those involved in the task of learning the English language to show the influence that the beliefs that compose this system have in the way they approach the process of learning a new language. I will next present and discuss some of the main factors that act in the construction of students and teachers´ beliefs and some of the beliefs they hold, not all of which beneficial for the good performance in that process.

  12. The BEL information extraction workflow (BELIEF): evaluation in the BioCreative V BEL and IAT track (United States)

    Madan, Sumit; Hodapp, Sven; Senger, Philipp; Ansari, Sam; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel; Fluck, Juliane


    Network-based approaches have become extremely important in systems biology to achieve a better understanding of biological mechanisms. For network representation, the Biological Expression Language (BEL) is well designed to collate findings from the scientific literature into biological network models. To facilitate encoding and biocuration of such findings in BEL, a BEL Information Extraction Workflow (BELIEF) was developed. BELIEF provides a web-based curation interface, the BELIEF Dashboard, that incorporates text mining techniques to support the biocurator in the generation of BEL networks. The underlying UIMA-based text mining pipeline (BELIEF Pipeline) uses several named entity recognition processes and relationship extraction methods to detect concepts and BEL relationships in literature. The BELIEF Dashboard allows easy curation of the automatically generated BEL statements and their context annotations. Resulting BEL statements and their context annotations can be syntactically and semantically verified to ensure consistency in the BEL network. In summary, the workflow supports experts in different stages of systems biology network building. Based on the BioCreative V BEL track evaluation, we show that the BELIEF Pipeline automatically extracts relationships with an F-score of 36.4% and fully correct statements can be obtained with an F-score of 30.8%. Participation in the BioCreative V Interactive task (IAT) track with BELIEF revealed a systems usability scale (SUS) of 67. Considering the complexity of the task for new users—learning BEL, working with a completely new interface, and performing complex curation—a score so close to the overall SUS average highlights the usability of BELIEF. Database URL: BELIEF is available at PMID:27694210

  13. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERSAL


    Full Text Available The Alevi belief system is one of the important richnesses within Turkish language and culture. Spread over a far and wide geography, the community has also shaped many rituals and belief practices with its own dynamics. Thus, a world of numerous ritualistic terms is brought in Turkish language and culture. Due to the secrecy of the belief system, it has not been possible to ascertain the majority of the ritualistic terms by means of visual methods. In recent years, the overgeneralisation of the terms which have been ascertained seems to be a common mistake as well. However, a term sometimes has manifold meanings even in the same village. For this reason, false meanings might be attributed to a ritualistic term mentioned in a writing or poem. In this article the ritual of muhasip cemi, which is accepted as the secret prayer of the Alevi belief system, will be explained with materials collected from nine cities. The study will also be supported by visual elements that will be presented in an order similar to that of a ritual. Different terminological names attributed to the same belief practice will be given within the explanations as well. Alevi inanç sistemi, Türk dili ve kültürünün önemli zenginliklerindendir. Geniş bir coğrafyaya yayılan inanç zümresi birçok ritüel ve inanç pratiğini de kendi dinamikleri ile şekillendirmiştir. Bu sayede zengin bir ritüelik terim dünyası da Türk diline ve kültürüne kazandırılmıştır. Alevi inanç sistemine dair ritüelik terimlerin büyük bir çoğunluğu özellikle de inanç sisteminden kaynaklanan gizlilik sebebiyle görsel unsurlarla tespit edilememiştir. Son yıllarda tespit edilen terimleri de Aleviliğin geneline şümullandırma gibi bir hataya düşülmektedir. Oysaki bir köy içerisinde bile aynı terim farklı anlamlandırmalarla kullanılmaktadır. Bu sebeple bir yazma veya bir şiirde geçen ritüelik bir terime yanlış anlamlar yüklenebilmektedir. Bu makalede

  15. Control of a perturbed under-actuated mechanical system

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia


    In this work, the trajectory tracking problem for an under-actuated mechanical system in presence of unknown input disturbances is addressed. The studied inertia wheel inverted pendulum falls in the class of non minimum phase systems. The proposed high order sliding mode control architecture including a controller and differentiator allows to track accurately the predefined trajectory and to stabilize the internal dynamics. The robustness of the proposed approach is illustrated through different perturbation and output noise configurations.

  16. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Wang, L.C.; Chou, S.N.; Huang, C.; Jou, G.T.; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10

  17. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.


    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  18. Changes In Soil Properties Under Alley Cropping System Of Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, and Cajanus cajan) was conducted in the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki ...

  19. FSI analysis of piping systems under seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.; Ma, D.C.; Chang, Yao W.; Liu, Wing Kam


    A formulation which accounts for fluid-structure interaction of piping system under seismic excitation is presented. The governing equations of the fluid and the structure to model the pipe are stated. Using the finite element method the discretized equations are obtained. A transformation procedure for proper assembly of matrices is introduced. A solution algorithm is described. 9 refs., 2 figs

  20. Evaluation of forest management systems under risk of wildfire (United States)

    Kari Hyytiainen; Robert G. Haight


    We evaluate the economic efficiency of even- and uneven-aged management systems under risk of wildfire. The management problems are formulated for a mixed-conifer stand and approximations of the optimal solutions are obtained using simulation optimization. The Northern Idaho variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator and its Fire and Fuels Extension is used to predict...

  1. Rainwater use by cotton under different irrigation systems (United States)

    Rainwater Use by Cotton Under Different Irrigation Systems To increase the efficiency by which agronomic crops use water input from both irrigation and rain during the growing season requires quantifying the proportion of rainfall used by the crop for any rain event. The rainfall pattern in the Texa...

  2. An association account of false belief understanding. (United States)

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A


    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. What Happens When a Teacher's Science Belief Structure Is in Disequilibrium? Entangled Nature of Beliefs and Practice (United States)

    Martin, Anita; Park, Soonhye; Hand, Brian


    This qualitative case study examined the process of change in an experienced elementary teacher's belief structure during implementation of an inquiry-based science program. Difficulties generally associated with ascertaining beliefs were minimized by using Leatham's (Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 91-102 (2006) Sensible System Framework, enabling researchers to obtain rich descriptions of the teacher's belief structure by focusing on words (professed beliefs), intentions (intended beliefs), and actions (enacted beliefs). Models were constructed of the teacher's belief structure before and after implementation of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach (Hand et al. International Journal of Science Education, 26(2), 131-149, 2004), an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. Key beliefs for this teacher were related to how students learn, goals for teaching science, focus of instruction, and roles of teacher and student. Ultimately, the teacher shifted her professed, intended, and enacted beliefs resulting in a shift from a teacher-centered to a student-centered classroom. Findings support Thagard's Coherence Theory of Justification (2002), positing that change in one belief creates a state of disequilibrium that must be alleviated by changing/realigning other beliefs in order to re-establish coherence in the overall belief structure. This research focus is distinct from the general trend in teacher beliefs research in important ways. Most significant is that this study was not focused on the traditional two lists—those beliefs that were consistent with practice and those that were inconsistent with practice—but instead focused on the entwined nature of beliefs and practice and have shown that a teacher's practice can be viewed as their enacted beliefs, an integral part of the teacher's overall belief structure.

  4. Reliability analysis of service water system under earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu; Qian Xiaoming; Lu Xuefeng; Wang Shengfei; Niu Fenglei


    Service water system is one of the important safety systems in nuclear power plant, whose failure probability is always gained by system reliability analysis. The probability of equipment failure under the earthquake is the function of the peak acceleration of earthquake motion, while the occurrence of earthquake is of randomicity, thus the traditional fault tree method in current probability safety assessment is not powerful enough to deal with such case of conditional probability problem. An analysis frame was put forward for system reliability evaluation in seismic condition in this paper, in which Monte Carlo simulation was used to deal with conditional probability problem. Annual failure probability of service water system was calculated, and failure probability of 1.46X10 -4 per year was obtained. The analysis result is in accordance with the data which indicate equipment seismic resistance capability, and the rationality of the model is validated. (authors)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal beliefs about infant teething. 1. 2. 3. OG Uti , KO Savage ... Nigeria. 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos. Nigeria. KEY WORDS: Infant teething. Maternal beliefs. Lagos. Nigeria now accurately .... the questions into the appropriate language or Pidgin. English. Analysis.

  6. Scandinavian belief in fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Ström


    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  7. An Appraisal of Religious Art and Symbolic Beliefs in the Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African arts stem from their themes of symbolism, functionalism and utilitarianism, which describe African art as quite multi-functional. This however does not say that some African art does not have its underlying aesthetic import. In Africa, by virtue of their belief system, their spiritual practices have led to the creation of new ...

  8. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivan Murali


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1 the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2 involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3 the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74% were returned and 309 (69% were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Salient results are: (1 Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional characteristic, involvement and belief explains 47% of the variance in the intention to use CDSS. This is significantly higher than the models addressed so far. The results will have a major impact in implementing CDSS in developing

  9. Pulse Equivalent Area Based Orientation of a Class of Under-Actuated System under Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A PEA (Pulse Equivalent Area approach for orientation control of an under actuated pointing device is proposed. The presented work is a sequel to the earlier work done by the authors for the orientation control of the drill machine. The desired orientation is realized through control pulses during specific roll instants. These pulses are generated through single pair of electromagnets mounted on the housing of the pointing device. Due to practical limitation of the system, there is an additional constraint on the actuating signal. The amplitude of the actuating signal is fixed and the Pulse width or duration of the pulse can vary. A discrete equivalent model of pointing device is also developed. A novel approach based on PEA is developed since the exact solution of discrete equivalent model under constraints was not possible. The simulations are included to compare proposed technique with the existing technique developed for similar systems. The performance is also shown under both nominal and parameter variations through Monte Carlo simulations

  10. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Vergnes, J.; Zaetta, A.


    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  11. System dynamics of manpower planning strategies under various demand scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi


    Full Text Available The development of human resources recruitment and training strategies in a dynamic environment poses a challenge to many policy makers in various organisations. The goal of every human resource manager is to recruit, train and deploy the right personnel at the right place and at the right time in order to meet organizational requirements. We develop a system dynamics simulation model that captures the dynamic behaviour of a typical corporate manpower system. Three major strategies are indentified and simulated under different manpower demand scenarios. Based on a set of performance indices, the impact of the strategies is simulated under assumed demand scenarios including steady increasing, fluctuating, and s-shaped demand. Useful managerial insights are derived from the study. The model is a decision support tool for developing reliable dynamic manpower policies in terms of recruitment, training capacity, available skills, and attrition. This approach can assist organizations to design effective manpower strategies.

  12. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger


    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  13. Experimental analysis of chaos in under actuated electromechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Hernandez, H. G. [Universidad la Salle, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez Gallegos, Jaime [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico); Alvarez Gallegos Joaquin [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)


    An under actuated system is a kind of non-autonomous robotic system in which there are more links than actuators. The complexity of the dynamical behavior of these systems allows a wide variety of steady-state responses. The reconstruction of attractors based on time series obtained from measurements of one of the variables of a two-link, planar, under actuated robot called Pendubot, is developed. Time-delay coordinates, average mutual information, and percentage of false nearest neighbors' methods are used to reconstruct the invariant sets. It is shown that, under the action of a periodic torque, the Pendubot can display a variety of steady-state dynamics, including strange attractors. [Spanish] Un sistema electromecanico subactuado es un tipo de sistema robotico no autonomo que cuenta con mas eslabones que actuadores. La complejidad del comportamiento dinamico de estos sistemas permite una gran variedad de respuestas en estado estacionario. En este trabajo se desarrolla la reconstruccion de atractores basada en series de tiempo obtenidas a partir de mediciones de una de las variables de un robot planar de dos grados de libertad subactuado llamado Pendubot. A fin de reconstruir los conjuntos invariantes, se utilizan tecnica como retraso de coordenadas, promedio de informacion mutua y porcentaje de falsos vecinos cercanos. Se muestra que bajo la accion de un torque periodico, el Pendubot puede desplegar una variedad de comportamientos dinamicos en estado estacionario incluyendo atractores extranos.

  14. A Comparative Study of Elementary Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom and Behavior Management in the USA and Korean School Systems (United States)

    Koh, Myung-sook; Shin, Sunwoo


    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate elementary teachers' beliefs and inter-cultural perspectives in classroom management (instructional environment and behavior management) for students in public schools of the U.S. and Korea. The results supported that the two groups of teachers showed similar beliefs in instructional…

  15. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  16. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An


    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  17. Operator adaptation to changes in system reliability under adaptable automation. (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Sauer, Juergen


    This experiment examined how operators coped with a change in system reliability between training and testing. Forty participants were trained for 3 h on a complex process control simulation modelling six levels of automation (LOA). In training, participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (50%). The impact of training experience on operator behaviour was examined during a 2.5 h testing session, in which participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (60%). The results showed that most operators did not often switch between LOA. Most chose an LOA that relieved them of most tasks but maintained their decision authority. Training experience did not have a strong impact on the outcome measures (e.g. performance, complacency). Low system reliability led to decreased performance and self-confidence. Furthermore, complacency was observed under high system reliability. Overall, the findings suggest benefits of adaptable automation because it accommodates different operator preferences for LOA. Practitioner Summary: The present research shows that operators can adapt to changes in system reliability between training and testing sessions. Furthermore, it provides evidence that each operator has his/her preferred automation level. Since this preference varies strongly between operators, adaptable automation seems to be suitable to accommodate these large differences.

  18. A robotic assistant system for cardiac interventions under MRI guidance (United States)

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Wood, Bradford J.; Horvath, Keith A.; Kapoor, Ankur


    In this paper we present a surgical assistant system for implanting prosthetic aortic valve transapically under MRI guidance, in a beating heart. The system integrates an MR imaging system, a robotic system, as well as user interfaces for a surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. A compact robotic delivery module mounted on a robotic arm is used for delivering both balloon-expandable and self-expanding prosthesis. The system provides different user interfaces at different stages of the procedure. A compact fiducial pattern close to the volume of interest is proposed for robot registration. The image processing and the transformation recovery methods using this fiducial in MRI are presented. The registration accuracy obtained by using this compact fiducial is comparable to the larger multi-spherical marker registration method. The registration accuracy using these two methods is less than 0.62+/-0.50 deg (mean +/- std. dev.) and 0.63+/-0.72 deg (mean +/- std. dev.), respectively. We evaluated each of the components and show that they can work together to form a complete system for transapical aortic valve replacement.

  19. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nativ, R.; Hunley, A.E.


    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brito Lisboa


    Full Text Available Soil management, in terms of tillage and cropping systems, strongly influences the biological properties of soil involved in the suppression of plant diseases. Fungistasis mediated by soil microbiota is an important component of disease-suppressive soils. We evaluated the influence of different management systems on fungistasis against Fusarium graminearum, the relationship of fungistasis to the bacterial profile of the soil, and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Samples were taken from a long-term experiment set up in a Paleudult soil under conventional tillage or no-tillage management and three cropping systems: black oat (Avena strigose L. + vetch (Vicia sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. + cowpea (Vigna sinensis L., black oat/maize, and vetch/maize. Soil fungistasis was evaluated in terms of reduction of radial growth of F. graminearum, and bacterial diversity was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA. A total of 120 bacterial isolates were obtained and evaluated for antibiosis, and production of volatile compounds and siderophores. No-tillage soil samples showed the highest level of F. graminearum fungistasis by sharply reducing the development of this pathogen. Of the cropping systems tested, the vetch + black oat/maize + cowpea system showed the highest fungistasis and the oat/maize system showed the lowest. The management system also affected the genetic profile of the bacteria isolated, with the systems from fungistatic soils showing greater similarity. Although there was no clear relationship between soil management and the characteristics of the bacterial isolates, we may conclude that antibiosis and the production of siderophores were the main mechanisms accounting for fungistasis.

  1. [Norfloxacin Solution Degradation Under Ultrasound, Potassium Persulfate Collaborative System]. (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Shi, Jing-zhuan; Li, Jia-lin; Li, Ke-bin; Zhao, Lin; Han, Kai


    High oxidative sulfate radicals can be produced by potassium persulfate (K2S2O8). The integrated effect of ultrasonic and K2S2O8, on norfloxacin degradation was investigated. The experimental parameters such as K2S2O8 concentration, norfloxacin initial concentration, initial pH value, free radicals quenching agents such as methanol and tert-butyl on norfloxacin degradation were discussed. The results indicated that ultrasonic/K2S2O8, system had an obvious degradation and mineralization effect on norfloxacin. Norfloxacin removal efficiencies were 3.2 and 8.9 times in ultrasonic/K2S2O8 system than those in single K252O8 and ultrasonic oxidation system, respectively. And the reaction followed the first-order kinetics. Norfloxacin removal efficiency varied gently with K2S2O8 concentration. Solution initial pH had a significant effect on norfloxacin degradation, which was attributed to the different oxidizing species under different pH values. The radicals were sulfate radicals under acidic and neutral conditions, and was the combination of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals under alkaline conditions. TOC and agar diffusion test with E. coli showed that 49.12% norfloxacin was mineralized and antibacterial activity was completely removed, with the diameter of E. coli inhibition zone decreased from 45 mm to 14 mm (filter paper diameter). The result implied that ultrasound/K2S2O8 showed promising results as a possible application for treatment of norfloxacin antibiotics wastewater.

  2. Bisimulation and expressivity for conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans


    Plausibility models are Kripke models that agents use to reason about knowledge and belief, both of themselves and of each other. Such models are used to interpret the notions of conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief. The logic of conditional belief contains that modality and also...... the knowledge modality, and similarly for the logic of degrees of belief and the logic of safe belief. With respect to these logics, plausibility models may contain too much information. A proper notion of bisimulation is required that characterises them. We define that notion of bisimulation and prove...... be similarly expressed in the logic of conditional belief, or the logic of degrees of belief, or that of safe belief. This, we found a surprising result. Still, that does not mean that the logics are equally expressive: the logics of conditional and degrees of belief are incomparable, the logics of degrees...

  3. Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God. (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M; Trzesniewski, Kali H


    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2-4).

  4. Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.


    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2–4). PMID:22666332

  5. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults. (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G


    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  6. A cognitive account of belief: a tentative road map (United States)

    Connors, Michael H.; Halligan, Peter W.


    Over the past decades, delusions have become the subject of growing and productive research spanning clinical and cognitive neurosciences. Despite this, the nature of belief, which underpins the construct of delusions, has received little formal investigation. No account of delusions, however, would be complete without a cognitive level analysis of belief per se. One reason for this neglect is the assumption that, unlike more established and accessible modular psychological process (e.g., vision, audition, face-recognition, language-processing, and motor-control systems), beliefs comprise more distributed and therefore less accessible central cognitive processes. In this paper, we suggest some defining characteristics and functions of beliefs. Working back from cognitive accounts of delusions, we consider potential candidate cognitive processes that may be involved in normal belief formation. Finally, we advance a multistage account of the belief process that could provide the basis for a more comprehensive model of belief. PMID:25741291

  7. Structural characterization of lipidic systems under nonequilibrium conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmur, Anan; Rappolt, Michael


    manipulation techniques including, for instance, stop-flow mixing or rapid temperature-jump perturbation is given. Second, our recent synchrotron SAXS findings on the dynamic structural response of gold nanoparticle-loaded vesicles upon exposure to an ultraviolet light source, the impact of rapidly mixing...... and the possible formation of intermediate states in the millisecond to second range. The need for investigating self-assembled systems, mainly stimuli-responsive drug nanocarriers, under nonequilibrium conditions is discussed. For pharmaceutically relevant applications, it is essential to combine...

  8. Consensus of Switched Multiagent Systems under Relative State Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Wang


    Full Text Available The consensus problem is presented for the switched multiagent system (MAS, where the MAS is switched between continuous- and discrete-time systems with relative state constraints. With some standard assumptions, we obtain the fact that the switched MAS with relative state constraints can achieve consensus under both fixed undirected graphs and switching undirected graphs. Furthermore, based on the absolute average value of initial states, we propose sufficient conditions for consensus of the switched MAS. The challenge of this study is that relative state constraints are considered, which will make the consensus problem much more complex. One of the main contributions is that, for the switched MAS with relative state constraints, we explore the solvability of the consensus problem. Finally, we present two simulation examples to show the effectiveness of the results.

  9. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Technology as a Global Learning Tool: Information Systems Success and Control Belief Perspectives (United States)

    Chen, Charlie C.; Vannoy, Sandra


    Voice over Internet Protocol- (VoIP) enabled online learning service providers struggling with high attrition rates and low customer loyalty issues despite VoIP's high degree of system fit for online global learning applications. Effective solutions to this prevalent problem rely on the understanding of system quality, information quality, and…

  10. Food beliefs and practices among the Kalenjin pregnant women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Broerse, Jacqueline; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka


    Background: Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural

  11. Modeling dynamic behavior of superconducting maglev systems under external disturbances (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Xue, Cun; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He


    For a maglev system, vertical and lateral displacements of the levitation body may simultaneously occur under external disturbances, which often results in changes in the levitation and guidance forces and even causes some serious malfunctions. To fully understand the effect of external disturbances on the levitation performance, in this work, we build a two-dimensional numerical model on the basis of Newton's second law of motion and a mathematical formulation derived from magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear constitutive relation between the electric field and the current density. By using this model, we present an analysis of dynamic behavior for two typical maglev systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. The results show that during the vertical movement, the levitation force is closely associated with the flux motion and the moving velocity of the superconductor. After being disturbed at the working position, the superconductor has a disturbance-induced initial velocity and then starts to periodically vibrate in both lateral and vertical directions. Meanwhile, the lateral and vertical vibration centers gradually drift along their vibration directions. The larger the initial velocity, the faster their vibration centers drift. However, the vertical drift of the vertical vibration center seems to be independent of the direction of the initial velocity. In addition, due to the lateral and vertical drifts, the equilibrium position of the superconductor in the maglev systems is not a space point but a continuous range.

  12. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea


    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  13. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories. (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin


    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Parallel and interrelated neural systems underlying adaptive navigation. (United States)

    Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Canfield, James G; Yeshenko, Oksana


    The ability to process in parallel multiple forms of sensory information, and link sensory-sensory associations to behavior, presumably allows for the opportunistic use of the most reliable and predictive sensory modalities in diverse behavioral contexts. Evolutionary considerations indicate that such processing may represent a fundamental operating principle underlying complex sensory associations and sensory-motor integration. Here, we suggest that animal navigation is a particularly useful model of such opportunistic use of sensory and motor information because it is possible to study directly the effects of memory on neural system functions. First, comparative evidence for parallel processing across multiple brain structures during navigation is provided from the literatures on fish and rodent navigation. Then, based on neurophysiological evidence of coordinated, multiregional processing, we provide a neurobiological explanation of learning and memory effects on neural circuitry mediating navigation.

  15. Dynamic response of multiple nanobeam system under a moving nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Hosseini Hashemi


    Full Text Available In this article, nonlocal continuum based model of multiple nanobeam system (MNBS under a moving nanoparticle is investigated using Eringen’s nonlocal theory. Beam layers are assumed to be coupled by winkler elastic medium and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to model each layer of beam. The Hamilton’s principle, Eigen function technique and the Laplace transform method are employed to solve the governing equations. Analytical solutions of the transverse displacements for MNBs with simply supported boundary condition are presented for double layered and three layered MNBSs. For higher number of layers, the governing set of equations is solved numerically and the results are presented. This study shows that small-scale parameter has a significant effect on dynamic response of MNBS under a moving nanoparticle. Sensitivity of dynamical deflection to variation of nonlocal parameter, stiffness of Winkler elastic medium and number of nanobeams are presented in nondimensional form for each layer. Keywords: Dynamic response, Analytical solution, Moving particle, Nanobeam, Multi-layered nanobeam

  16. "Think" Pragmatically: Children's Interpretation of Belief Reports (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Hacquard, Valentine; Lidz, Jeffrey


    Children under 4 years of age often evaluate belief reports based on reality instead of beliefs. They tend to reject sentences like, "John thinks that giraffes have stripes" on the grounds that giraffes do not have stripes. Previous accounts have proposed that such judgments reflect immature Theory of Mind or immature syntactic/semantic…

  17. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is therefore a need for teachers to be sensitised to the different values embedded in each belief system and all cultureal orientations. The prevalence of values and belief systems in the OBE curricula of C2005 and the NCS will have to be acknowledged, identified, and promoted. South African Journal of Education ...

  18. Constructs of health belief and disabling distal upper limb pain. (United States)

    Whibley, Daniel; MacDonald, Ross; Macfarlane, Gary J; Jones, Gareth T


    Musculoskeletal pain in the distal upper limb is common and is a cause of disability and healthcare consultation. At the time of presentation individuals reporting similar pain severities may report different levels of related disability. The biopsychosocial model proposes that health beliefs may help explain this difference. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify underlying constructs of health belief in those referred to physiotherapy with pain in the distal upper limb and investigate whether these constructs moderated the relationship between pain severity and extent of disability. Health beliefs were assessed using an instrument included in a questionnaire completed before randomisation to the Arm Pain Trial (ISRCTN79085082). Ordinal responses to statements about health beliefs were used to generate a polychoric correlation matrix. The output from this matrix was then used for Exploratory Factor Analysis to determine underlying constructs. The moderating influence of the identified health belief constructs was then tested using interaction terms in linear regression models. 476 trial participants contributed data, age range 18-85 (mean 48.8, SD 13.7), 54% female. Five health belief constructs were identified: beliefs about hereditary factors, beliefs about movement and pain, beliefs about locus of control, beliefs about the role of lifecourse/lifestyle factors, and beliefs about prognosis. The only health belief construct found to moderate the pain-disability relationship was beliefs about prognosis, with greater pessimism resulting in higher levels of disability at mild-to-moderate levels of pain severity (B -0.17, 95% CI -0.30, -0.036). This exploratory cross-sectional study identified five constructs of health belief from responses to a previously used set of statements investigating fear avoidance and illness beliefs in a clinical population with pain in the distal upper limb. Of these constructs, beliefs about prognosis were found to

  19. The effects of implicit gender role theories on gender system justification: Fixed beliefs strengthen masculinity to preserve the status quo. (United States)

    Kray, Laura J; Howland, Laura; Russell, Alexandra G; Jackman, Lauren M


    Four studies (n = 1199) tested support for the idea that implicit theories about the fixedness versus malleability of gender roles (entity vs. incremental theories) predict differences in the degree of gender system justification, that is, support for the status quo in relations between women and men in society. Relative to an incremental theory, the holding of an entity theory correlated with more system-justifying attitudes and self-perceptions (Study 1) for men and women alike. We also found that strength of identification with one's gender in-group was a stronger predictor of system justification for men than it was for women, suggesting men's defense of the status quo may be motivated by their membership in a high status group in the social hierarchy. In 3 experiments, we then tested whether exposure to a fixed gender role theory would lead men to identify more with masculine characteristics and their male gender group, thus increasing their defense of the gender system as fair and just. We did not expect a fixed gender role theory to trigger these identity-motivated responses in women. Overall, we found that, by increasing the degree of psychological investment in their masculine identity, adopting a fixed gender role theory increased men's rationalization of the gender status quo compared with when gender roles were perceived to be changeable. This suggests that, when men are motivated to align with their masculine identity, they are more likely to endorse the persistence of gender inequality as a way of affirming their status as "real men." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease. (United States)

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun


    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  1. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan


    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  2. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen


    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...... in order to deal with inconsistencies and, particularly, the issue of inconsistencies, and belief revision is examined in relation to the GOAL agent programming language....

  3. Modeling intelligent agent beliefs in a card game scenario (United States)

    Gołuński, Marcel; Tomanek, Roman; WÄ siewicz, Piotr

    In this paper we explore the problem of intelligent agent beliefs. We model agent beliefs using multimodal logics of belief, KD45(m) system implemented as a directed graph depicting Kripke semantics, precisely. We present a card game engine application which allows multiple agents to connect to a given game session and play the card game. As an example simplified version of popular Saboteur card game is used. Implementation was done in Java language using following libraries and applications: Apache Mina, LWJGL.

  4. Human Frontal-Subcortical Circuit and Asymmetric Belief Updating. (United States)

    Moutsiana, Christina; Charpentier, Caroline J; Garrett, Neil; Cohen, Michael X; Sharot, Tali


    How humans integrate information to form beliefs about reality is a question that has engaged scientists for centuries, yet the biological system supporting this process is not well understood. One of the most salient attributes of information is valence. Whether a piece of news is good or bad is critical in determining whether it will alter our beliefs. Here, we reveal a frontal-subcortical circuit in the left hemisphere that is simultaneously associated with enhanced integration of favorable information into beliefs and impaired integration of unfavorable information. Specifically, for favorable information, stronger white matter connectivity within this system, particularly between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left subcortical regions (including the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, and pallidum), as well as insular cortex, is associated with greater change in belief. However, for unfavorable information, stronger connectivity within this system, particularly between the left IFG and left pallidum, putamen, and insular cortex, is associated with reduced change in beliefs. These novel results are consistent with models suggesting that partially separable processes govern learning from favorable and unfavorable information. Beliefs of what may happen in the future are important, because they guide decisions and actions. Here, we illuminate how structural brain connectivity is related to the generation of subjective beliefs. We focus on how the valence of information is related to people's tendency to alter their beliefs. By quantifying the extent to which participants update their beliefs in response to desirable and undesirable information and relating those measures to the strength of white matter connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging, we characterize a left frontal-subcortical system that is associated simultaneously with greater belief updating in response to favorable information and reduced belief updating in response to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Cantu Silva


    Full Text Available Determinations of CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-water content in vertisols were monitored at least twice a week between July 2001 and January 2002. At each sampling date, two daily measurements (at 08:00 and 14:00 h local time, named as morning and afternoon, respectively were carried out. A dynamic closed chamber with a portable system EGM employing a infrared gas analyzer (IRGA and a soil chamber (SRC-1 were used to assess soil CO2 efflux throughout the experimental period from vertisols under different land uses in northeastern Mexico: Pasture (Dichanthium annulatum, Leucaena leucocephala in an alley cropping system, a native and undisturbed shrubland plot, a Eucalyptus microtheca plantation, and a Sorghum bicolor field. Results showed for the Eucalyptus and Pasture plots a highly significant and positive linear relationship between morning and afternoon soil respiration rate and soil temperature, while no significant relationship was found between soil temperature and soil respiration for the Leucaena, Sorghum nor the Shrubland plots. Soil temperature alone explained 68% of the variation in the CO2 efflux rate in Eucalyptus and 33% in Pasture. During the study period, average morning soil respiration rates for all land uses ranged from 0.7 (October to 8.4 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 (August, while afternoon soil respiration rates ranged from 0.6 to 14.4 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Average morning and afternoon soil respiration rates showed the following decreasing CO2 efflux order among the five investigated land uses: Pasture>Shrubland>Leucaena>Eucalyptus>Sorghum; thus, the pasture plot showed the highest average morning and afternoon soil respiration rates; 3.5 and 5.0 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively. In contrast, the Sorghum plot showed the lowest average morning (1.9 and afternoon (2.5 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 soil respiration rates. The Pasture and Shrubland, which are common livestock management practices in this region, contribute to more CO2 emissions

  6. Modeling a Hybrid Microgrid Using Probabilistic Reconfiguration under System Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Moradi


    Full Text Available A novel method for a day-ahead optimal operation of a hybrid microgrid system including fuel cells, photovoltaic arrays, a microturbine, and battery energy storage in order to fulfill the required load demand is presented in this paper. In the proposed system, the microgrid has access to the main utility grid in order to exchange power when required. Available municipal waste is utilized to produce the hydrogen required for running the fuel cells, and natural gas will be used as the backup source. In the proposed method, an energy scheduling is introduced to optimize the generating unit power outputs for the next day, as well as the power flow with the main grid, in order to minimize the operational costs and produced greenhouse gases emissions. The nature of renewable energies and electric power consumption is both intermittent and unpredictable, and the uncertainty related to the PV array power generation and power consumption has been considered in the next-day energy scheduling. In order to model uncertainties, some scenarios are produced according to Monte Carlo (MC simulations, and microgrid optimal energy scheduling is analyzed under the generated scenarios. In addition, various scenarios created by MC simulations are applied in order to solve unit commitment (UC problems. The microgrid’s day-ahead operation and emission costs are considered as the objective functions, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. Overall, the proposed model is capable of minimizing the system costs, as well as the unfavorable influence of uncertainties on the microgrid’s profit, by generating different scenarios.

  7. Gimme that old time religion: the influence of the healthcare belief system of chiropractic's early leaders on the development of x-ray imaging in the profession. (United States)

    Young, Kenneth John


    Chiropractic technique systems have been historically documented to advocate overutilization of radiography. Various rationales for this have been explored in the literature. However, little consideration has been given to the possibility that the healthcare belief system of prominent early chiropractors may have influenced the use of the diagnostic modality through the years. The original rationale was the visualisation of chiropractic subluxations, defined as bones slightly out of place, pressing on nerves, and ultimately causing disease. This paradigm of radiography has survived in parts of the chiropractic profession, despite lacking evidence of clinical validity. The purpose of this paper is to compare the characteristics of the chiropractic technique systems that have utilised radiography for subluxation detection with the characteristics of religion, and to discover potential historical links that may have facilitated the development of those characteristics. Twenty-three currently or previously existing technique systems requiring radiography for subluxation analysis were found using a search of the internet, books and consultation with experts. Evidence of religiosity from the early founders' writings was compared with textbooks, published papers, and websites of subsequently developed systems. Six criteria denoting religious thinking were developed using definitions from various sources. They are: supernatural concepts, claims of supremacy, rules and rituals, sacred artefacts, sacred stories, and special language. All of these were found to a greater or lesser degree in the publicly available documents of all the subluxation-based chiropractic x-ray systems. The founders and early pioneers of chiropractic did not benefit from the current understanding of science and research, and therefore substituted deductive and inductive reasoning to arrive at conclusions about health and disease in the human body. Some of this thinking and rationalisation

  8. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening. (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui


    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P < .001). Of the 33 questionnaire items about screening beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.

  9. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  10. Health Beliefs of Marshallese Regarding Type 2 Diabetes. (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Hallgren, Emily; Henry, L Jean; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; Kohler, Peter


    The Marshallese population suffers from disproportionate rates of type 2 diabetes. This study identifies the underlying beliefs and perceptions that affect diabetes self-management behavior in the US Marshallese population living in Arkansas. The study employs focus groups with a semi-structured interview guide developed using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and the Health Belief Model. Data were collected from 41 participants; bilingual community co-investigators provided translation as needed. The results show high-perceived threat, with most participants describing diabetes as inevitable and a death sentence. Participants are generally unaware of the benefits of diabetes self-management behaviors, and the Marshallese population faces significant policy, environmental, and systems barriers to diabetes self-management. The primary cue to action is a diagnosis of diabetes, and there are varying levels of self-efficacy. The research grounded in the Health Belief Model provides important contributions that can help advance diabetes self-management efforts within Pacific Islander communities.

  11. Probabilistic dynamic belief revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.


    We investigate the discrete (finite) case of the Popper-Renyi theory of conditional probability, introducing discrete conditional probabilistic models for knowledge and conditional belief, and comparing them with the more standard plausibility models. We also consider a related notion, that of safe

  12. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God. (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean


    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  13. Iraqi children's rights: building a system under fire. (United States)

    AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan


    War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.

  14. Determinants of self-medication with antibiotics in Europe: the impact of beliefs, country wealth and the healthcare system. (United States)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Degener, John E; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Monnet, Dominique L; Scicluna, Elizabeth A; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M


    Self-medication with antibiotics occurs among the population in Europe, particularly in southern and eastern countries. We studied the impact of predisposing factors (e.g. attitudes and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication) and enabling factors (country wealth and healthcare system factors) on self-medication with antibiotics in Europe. In this follow-up of a previous European survey, we interviewed a subsample of 1101 respondents. A multilevel analysis with two levels (respondent and country) was performed. Variables that were statistically significantly different between users and non-users of self-medication were considered for inclusion into the multilevel regression analyses. Predisposing factors included individual-level characteristics. High perceived appropriateness of self-medication with antibiotics for bronchitis and an attitude favouring antibiotic use for minor ailments were related to a higher likelihood of self-medication. Enabling factors included individual and country data. At the individual level, perceived availability of antibiotics without a prescription was related to increased probability of self-medication. At the country level, higher gross domestic product (wealth) and exact dispensation of prescribed tablet quantities by pharmacies were independently associated with lower likelihood of self-medication. Interventions aimed at preventing self-medication should include public education, enforcing regulations regarding the sale of antibiotics, and implementing laws for dispensing exact prescribed tablet quantities in pharmacies. With the included determinants, we explained almost all the variance at the country level, but not at the individual level. Future studies to increase our understanding of determinants of self-medication with antibiotics should focus on individual-level factors such as doctor-patient relationships and patient satisfaction.

  15. A Method to Evaluate Groundwater flow system under the Seabed (United States)

    Kohara, N.; Marui, A.


    A rapid increase of population in the world causes growth of water demands, and this may result worldwide water shortage in future. Especially, in the coastal area, water resource development becomes important because the half of the world population is concentrated in this area. Recently, countermeasures to mitigate climate change are discussed. Coastal area is one of the promising places for disposal of high-level nuclear waste or carbon dioxide capture and storage. Lots of development will be conducted in the coastal areas, however there are a lot of uncertainties remaining to understand the hydrogeological environment in there. It has been said that salt water / fresh water interface is formed in the place where meteoric fresh groundwater and salt groundwater from the ocean meet, and there is a large amount of groundwater discharge on the seafloor of the end of this interface so far. Recently, there is a lot of research about this submarine groundwater discharge because of the protection of the coastal ecosystem. In addition, there is a report that fresh water under the seabed was discovered on the continental shelf away from a present coastline by tens of kilometers in many parts of the world, because recently offshore drilling technology has been improving. Classical theory about formulation of salt water / fresh water interface could not explain completely, and consideration of longterm geochemical process (e.g., sea level fluctuations) is needed to understand this mechanism. Fresh (or brackish) groundwater under the seabed have been found on the investigation related to a seabed resources exploration in the field of coal mining, oceanic engineering works such as submarine tunnels, the atomic research, and the collection investigations of the basic data in the earth science field. A lot of fresh water under the seabed is confirmed on the offshore side from a present coastline as for these cases, and it is suggested that the end position of the salt water

  16. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  17. Modeling of thermal explosion under pressure in metal ceramic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.; Dudko, V.; Skachek, B.; Matvienko, A.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E.Y.


    The process of reactive in situ synthesis of dense ceramic matrix composites in Ti-B-C, Ti-B-N, Ti-Si-N systems is modeled. These ceramics are fabricated on the basis of compacted blends of ceramic powders, namely Ti-B 4 C and/or Ti-BN. The objectives of the project are to identify and investigate the optimal thermal conditions preferable for production of fully dense ceramic matrix composites. Towards this goal heat transfer and combustion in dense and porous ceramic blends are investigated during monotonous heating at a constant rate. This process is modeled using a heat transfer-combustion model with kinetic parameters determined from the differential thermal analysis of the experimental data. The kinetic burning parameters and the model developed are further used to describe the thermal explosion synthesis in a restrained die under pressure. It is shown that heat removal from the reaction zone affects the combustion process and the final phase composition

  18. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists? (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil


    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  19. Computation of thermodynamic equilibrium in systems under stress (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.


    pressure. To compute a case of high and low pressure around a stressed inclusion we first did a Finite Element Method calculation of a rigid inclusion in a viscous matrix under simple shear. From the computed stress distribution we took the local pressure (mean stress) in each grid point of the FEM calculation. This was used as input thermodynamic pressure in the Gibbs minimization and the result showed it is possible to have an equilibrium situation in which chlorite-amphibole is stable in the low pressure domain and kyanite in the high pressure domain of the stress field around the inclusion. Interestingly, the calculation predicts the redistribution of fluid from an average content of fluid in the system. The fluid in equilibrium tends to accumulate in the low pressure areas whereas it leaves the high pressure areas dry. Transport of fluid components occurs not necessarily by fluid flow, but may happen for example by diffusion. We conclude that an apparent disequilibrium texture may be explained by equilibrium under pressure variations, and apparent fluid addition by redistribution of fluid controlled by the local stress distribution. [1] Mukai et al. (2014), Journal of Petrology, 55 (8), p. 1457-1477. [2] Holland and Powell (1998), Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16, p. 309-343 [3] Johnson et al. (1992), Computers & Geosciences, 18 (7), p. 899-947 [4] Connolly (2005), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 236, p. 524-541

  20. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen


    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  1. Poor Metacognitive Awareness of Belief Change. (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael B; Williams, Todd J


    When people change beliefs as a result of reading a text, are they aware of these changes? This question was examined for beliefs about spanking as an effective means of discipline. In two experiments, subjects reported beliefs about spanking effectiveness during a prescreening session. In a subsequent experimental session, subjects read a one-sided text that advocated a belief consistent or inconsistent position on the topic. After reading, subjects reported their current beliefs and attempted to recollect their initial beliefs. Subjects reading a belief inconsistent text were more likely to change their beliefs than those who read a belief consistent text. Recollections of initial beliefs tended to be biased in the direction of subjects' current beliefs. In addition, the relationship between the belief consistency of the text read and accuracy of belief recollections was mediated by belief change. This belief memory bias was independent of on-line text processing and comprehension measures, and indicates poor metacognitive awareness of belief change.

  2. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems. (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan


    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple systemic embolism in infective endocarditis underlying in Barlow's disease. (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Fan, Bing; Wu, Hongyi; Wang, Xiangfei; Li, Chenguang; Xu, Rende; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo


    Systemic embolism, especially septic embolism, is a severe complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, concurrent embolism to the brain, coronary arteries, and spleen is very rare. Because of the risk of hemorrhage or visceral rupture, anticoagulants are recommended only if an indication is present, e.g. prosthetic valve. Antiplatelet therapy in IE is controversial, but theoretically, this therapy has the potential to prevent and treat thrombosis and embolism in IE. Unfortunately, clinical trial results have been inconclusive. We describe a previously healthy 50-year-old man who presented with dysarthria secondary to bacterial endocarditis with multiple cerebral, coronary, splenic, and peripheral emboli; antibiotic therapy contributed to the multiple emboli. Emergency splenectomy was performed, with subsequent mitral valve repair. Pathological examination confirmed mucoid degeneration and mitral valve prolapse (Barlow's disease) as the underlying etiology of the endocardial lesion. Continuous antibiotics were prescribed, postoperatively. Transthoracic echocardiography at 1.5, 3, and 6 months after the onset of his illness showed no severe regurgitation, and there was no respiratory distress, fever, or lethargy during follow-up. Although antibiotic use in IE carries a risk of septic embolism, these drugs have bactericidal and antithrombotic benefits. It is important to consider that negative blood culture and symptom resolution do not confirm complete elimination of bacteria. However, vegetation size and Staphylococcus aureus infection accurately predict embolization. It is also important to consider that bacteria can be segregated from the microbicide when embedded in platelets and fibrin. Therefore, antimicrobial therapy with concurrent antiplatelet therapy should be considered carefully.

  4. Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    This article presents an analysis of a research project entitled Facilitating strategies of belief and value orientations in a multicultural education ... research modify their own strategies relating to teaching and learning about religions, beliefs and value systems in South Africa. .... Thereafter, all posters, worksheets, information.

  5. Generational Discontinuity in Beliefs: An Exploration of the Generation Gap (United States)

    Thomas, L. Eugene


    In an effort to seek theoretical clarification, a modified version of Rokeach's typology of belief systems is used to examine the evidence for a gap between generations on different levels of beliefs. It appears that writers who have argued that a counterculture is emergin among the younger generation are concentrating on the value orientation…

  6. Investigating students’ beliefs about language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boakye, Naomi


    Full Text Available There is widespread current interest in language learning studies regarding the extent to which student beliefs can influence the language learning process. Whilst institutions may set up frameworks to enable students to learn languages successfully, many researchers contend that ultimately it is the belief systems of the students themselves which will contribute most to the final outcome of the teaching process. This article explores the idea that the language learning process among students is substantially influenced by their beliefs about this process. A questionnaire based on Horwitz’s (1987 BALLI instrument was used to assess students’ beliefs in terms of language learning, and the issues are discussed within the categories of aptitude, motivation, learning and communication strategies, the nature of learning, and the difficulty of language learning. The results indicate that the beliefs of the students can have a negative influence on their learning strategies which, in turn, affect the success or otherwise of the language learning process. This article thus concludes with suggestions on how to address the negative mindsets of the students concerned in order to create environments that would be more conducive to achieving positive results.

  7. Lay beliefs about smoking in Kelantan, Malaysia. (United States)

    Jackson, Alison A; Manan, Wan A; Gani, Abdullah S; Carter, Yvonne H


    Studies have shown that smokers rationalize smoking by self-exempting beliefs. This study explored lay beliefs about smoking in Kelantan, Malaysia, using focus groups among outpatients, medical students and staff, and a questionnaire survey of 193 male smokers. In focus groups, patients said they could do something to make smoking safe. When asked, 'Do you think there are any safe ways to smoke?' 132/193 (68%) male smokers described at least one way. The commonest were 'drink water' (69/193, 36%), 'use a filter' (60/193, 31%), 'smoke after food' (27/193, 14%), and 'take sour fruit' (21/193, 11%). At three- or six-month follow-up, numbers agreeing with these beliefs were: for 'drink water' 67/115 (58%), for 'take sour fruit' 61/115 (53%), and for 'smoke after food' 38/115 (33%), with 88/115 (77%) supporting at least one. The main explanations for water were that it cleaned or moistened the lungs or throat. Sour fruit was described as cleaning, and sometimes as 'sharp', able to scrape out the essence of cigarettes. The conclusion is that self-exempting false beliefs about smoking are widespread, and here they probably represent an extension of the traditional humoral system. Anti-smoking campaigns and health workers in smoking cessation services should address these beliefs.

  8. Thermal performance of marketed SDHW systems under laboratory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua

    A test facility for solar domestic hot water systems, SDHW systems was established at the Technical University of Denmark in 1992. During the period 1992-2012 21 marketed SDHW systems, 16 systems from Danish manufacturers and 5 systems from manufacturers from abroad, have been tested in the test...... comfort, avoiding simple errors, using the low flow principle and heat stores with a high degree of thermal stratification and by using components with good thermal characteristics....

  9. Patient Belief in Miracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Niels Christian


    Faith and hope in divine healing figure in most religious traditions. This chapter looks at faith in healing miracles and explores how following that faith may involve both risks and advantages. On the one hand, it may imply a risk by camouflaging a deferring attitude as when patients decline...... medical treatment on the basis of their belief in Divine intervention. On the other hand, faith in miracles forms an important part of a well-integrated religiosity by inspiring hope and so helping patients to find meaning and initiative in situations in which they might otherwise be tempted to give up....... Against the backdrop of such considerations, the chapter provides recommendations for health professionals and relatives as how to handle patient belief in miracles in practice....

  10. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.


    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  11. Hardware control system using modular software under RSX-11D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittell, R.S.; Helland, J.A.


    A modular software system used to control extensive hardware is described. The development, operation, and experience with this software are discussed. Included are the methods employed to implement this system while taking advantage of the Real-Time features of RSX-11D. Comparisons are made between this system and an earlier nonmodular system. The controlled hardware includes magnet power supplies, stepping motors, DVM's, and multiplexors, and is interfaced through CAMAC. 4 figures

  12. Beliefs of grade six learners’ regarding adolescent pregnancy and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grobler


    Full Text Available Escalating adolescent pregnancy and risky sexual behaviour is becoming more common amongst young adolescents and especially amongst black adolescents in South Africa. Statistics confirm that South African adolescents as young as fourteen are already sexually active and become pregnant. The decision to become sexually active with resulting adolescent pregnancy whether planned or not, are directly influenced by the teenager’s beliefs. A person’s beliefs consist of a person’ own individual beliefs or attitude as well as what the individual subjective norm which the individual perceive as other people’s beliefs regarding the same object of reason. The aim of the study was to describe the attitude of black grade six learners under the age of fourteen, towards adolescent pregnancy and sex. A quantitative descriptive research design was used. Results were clustered according to demographic variables as well as beliefs that consist of attitude and subjective norm.

  13. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose. (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari


    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytic descriptions of stochastic bistable systems under force ramp. (United States)

    Friddle, Raymond W


    Solving the two-state master equation with time-dependent rates, the ubiquitous driven bistable system, is a long-standing problem that does not permit a complete solution for all driving rates. Here we show an accurate approximation to this problem by considering the system in the control parameter regime. The results are immediately applicable to a diverse range of bistable systems including single-molecule mechanics.

  15. Robust observability for regular linear systems under nonlinear perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Jiang


    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the admissibility and exact observability of a class of semilinear systems obtained by nonlinear perturbation for regular linear systems. We obtain the well-posedness of the semilinear system and the admissibility of the observation operator for the nonlinear semigroup, the solution semigroup of the semilinear system. Further, we obtain the robustness of the exact observability with respect to nonlinear perturbations when the Lipschitz constant is small enough. Finally, we give two examples to illustrate the obtained results.

  16. Investment Analysis of Alternative Dairy Systems under MILC


    Eberle, Phillip R.; Moody, Darren E.; Rendleman, C. Matthew; Peterson, William C.


    Three dairy systems, 120-cow grazing, 120-cow conventional, and 600-cow concentrated, were evaluated by internal rate of return (IRR) accounting for the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC). With MILC, the grazing and conventional systems had higher IRRs. Without MILC, the 600-cow dairy had the highest IRR. Results were sensitive to assumptions.

  17. Spoken language identification system adaptation in under-resourced environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N


    Full Text Available Speech Recognition (ASR) systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. Given that few task-specific corpora exist and speech technology systems perform poorly when deployed in a new environment, we investigate the use of acoustic model adaptation...

  18. Order picking in carousel systems under the nearest item heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.


    A carousel is a computer controlled warehousing system, which is widely used to store small and medium sized goods. One of the most important performance characteristics of such systems is the pick time of an order, which mostly depends on the travel time of the carousel. In this paper we consider

  19. Do people automatically track others' beliefs? Evidence from a continuous measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, R.P.R.D. van der; Sebanz, N.; Knoblich, G.K.


    Recent findings suggest that tracking others' beliefs is not always effortful and slow, but may rely on a fast and implicit system. An untested prediction of the automatic belief tracking account is that own and others' beliefs should be activated in parallel. We tested this prediction measuring

  20. Psychometric Testing of a Religious Belief Scale. (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chien; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Han, Chin-Yen; Hsiao, Ya-Chu


    Nurses account for a significant percentage of staff in the healthcare system. The religious beliefs of nurses may affect their competence to provide spiritual care to patients. No reliable and valid instruments are currently available to measure the religious beliefs of nurses in Taiwan. The aims of this study were to develop a religious belief scale (RBS) for Taiwanese nurses and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale. A cross-sectional study design was used, and 24 RBS items were generated from in-depth interviews, a literature review, and expert recommendations. The RBS self-administered questionnaire was provided to 619 clinical nurses, who were recruited from two medical centers and one local hospital in Taiwan during 2011-2012. A calibration sample was used to explore the factor structure, whereas a validation sample was used to validate the factor structure that was constructed by the calibration sample. Known-group validity and criterion-related validity were also assessed. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in an 18-item RBS with four factors, including "religious effects," "divine," "religious query," and "religious stress." A confirmatory factor analysis recommended the deletion of one item, resulting in a final RBS of 17 items. The convergent validity and discriminate validity of the RBS were acceptable. The RBS correlated positively with spiritual health and supported concurrent validity. The known-group validity was supported by showing that the mean RBS between nurses with or without religious affiliation was significant. The 17-item RBS developed in this study is a reliable, valid, and useful scale for measuring the religious beliefs of nurses in Taiwan. This scale may help measure the religious beliefs of nurses and elicit the relationship between these beliefs and spirituality.

  1. Medical Student Beliefs about Disclosure of Mental Health Issues: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Winter, Peter; Rix, Andrew; Grant, Andrew

    In 2012 the United Kingdom's General Medical Council (GMC) commissioned research to develop guidance for medical schools on how best to support students with mental illness. One of the key findings from medical student focus groups in the study was students' strong belief that medical schools excluded students on mental health grounds. Students believed mental illness was a fitness to practice matter that led to eventual dismissal, although neither personal experience nor empirical evidence supported this belief. The objective of the present study was a deeper exploration of this belief and its underlying social mechanisms. This included any other beliefs that influenced medical students' reluctance to disclose a mental health problem, the factors that reinforced these beliefs, and the feared consequences of revealing a mental illness. The study involved a secondary analysis of qualitative data from seven focus groups involving 40 student participants across five UK medical schools in England, Scotland, and Wales. Student beliefs clustered around (1) the unacceptability of mental illness in medicine, (2) punitive medical school support systems, and (3) the view that becoming a doctor is the only successful career outcome. Reinforcing mechanisms included pressure from senior clinicians, a culture of "presenteeism," distrust of medical school staff, and expectations about conduct. Feared consequences centered on regulatory "fitness to practice" proceedings that would lead to expulsion, reputational damage, and failure to meet parents' expectations. The study's findings provide useful information for veterinary medical educators interested in creating a culture that encourages the disclosure of mental illness and contributes to the debate about mental illness within the veterinary profession.

  2. Beliefs about Meditating among University Students, Faculty, and Staff: A Theory-Based Salient Belief Elicitation (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; Middlestadt, Susan E.


    Objective: Stress impacts college students, faculty, and staff alike. Although meditation has been found to decrease stress, it is an underutilized strategy. This study used the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to identify beliefs underlying university constituents' decision to meditate. Participants: N = 96 students, faculty, and staff at a large…

  3. Development of measurement systems for studies of flow - structure interactions in pipe systems under LWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschewski, Mario; Laurien, Eckart


    The Institute for Nuclear Power Studies and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart is setting up new test rigs for studies of cyclic thermal load phenomena within the 'Studies of Flow-Structure Interactions in Light Water Reactors' joint project. The project is part of a total of three individual projects within an overarching BMBF joint project on reactor safety research, 'Basic Principles of Systems, Discharge and Materials Behavior of Pipes Under Cyclic Thermal Loads.' The article covers the aspect of experimental studies for fluid mechanics modeling of flow-structure interactions. Detailed points under study are thermal mixing processes or laminar flows in a typical tee-shaped pipe branch. The interaction between a fluid and a pipe structure exerts considerable influence on the loads and stresses acting on a component and on the resultant fatigue of a material. In this connection, modeling the mixing process, including effects of buoyancy, thermal conduction and head transfer between the fluid and the wall, is of decisive importance. The experimental data so far accumulated in studies of non-isothermal mixtures cover but a very narrow range of temperatures. The focus of this work is on the development of technical measurement systems for studies of cyclic thermal loads and stresses to be applied to pipe elements specific to LWRs under realistic thermal and flow conditions. On the basis of reliable experimental data, the processes referred to above and their underlying mechanisms can then be examined in the further course of work, and models can be studied for applicability and extended where necessary. (orig.)

  4. Cumulative and Averaging Fission of Beliefs


    Josang, Audun


    Belief fusion is the principle of combining separate beliefs or bodies of evidence originating from different sources. Depending on the situation to be modelled, different belief fusion methods can be applied. Cumulative and averaging belief fusion is defined for fusing opinions in subjective logic, and for fusing belief functions in general. The principle of fission is the opposite of fusion, namely to eliminate the contribution of a specific belief from an already fused belief, with the pur...

  5. The filtered venting system under construction at barseback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.H.


    A filter venting containment system, bearing the acronym FILTRA will be installed at the Swedish nuclear power plant Barseback. The Barseback Power Plant is owned by the Southern Sweden Power Supply (Sydkraft AB) and has two 1700-MW boiling water reactors. The reactors are of ASEA-ATOM design with pressure suppression containments (Mark IItype). The installation of the filter venting system is a condition set by the Swedish government for a continued operating license after September 1, 1986. The construction work for the FILTRA plant, the first of its kind ever planned, will be completed at the end of 1985. The FILTRA is designed so that 99.9% of the core inventory of radioactivity, excluding inert gases, is retained in the reactor containment and filter system in the event of containment venting. Another design guideline is to achieve passive functioning of the FILTRA plant during the first 24 h of an accident. The FILTRA plant is common to the two reactors on the site and consists mainly of two systems, a venting system (pressure relief system) and a filtering system. The total cost is approximately U.S. $15 million

  6. Integrated Arctic Observation System Development Under Horizon 2020 (United States)

    Sandven, S.


    The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the in situ observing network. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism, fishing), in order to strengthen the societal and economic role of the Arctic region and support the EU strategy for the Arctic and related maritime and environmental policies.

  7. Fault tolerance improvement for queuing systems under stress load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, Eh.G.; Florko, A.B.


    Various kinds of queuing information systems (exchange auctions systems, web servers, SCADA) are faced to unpredictable situations during operation, when information flow that requires being analyzed and processed rises extremely. Such stress load situations often require human (dispatcher's or administrator's) intervention that is the reason why the time of the first denial of service is extremely important. Common queuing systems architecture is described. Existing approaches to computing resource management are considered. A new late-first-denial-of-service resource management approach is proposed

  8. Traffic signal control enhancements under vehicle infrastructure integration systems. (United States)


    Most current traffic signal systems are operated using a very archaic traffic-detection simple binary : logic (vehicle presence/non presence information). The logic was originally developed to provide input for old : electro-mechanical controllers th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MERKISZ


    Full Text Available The instrument landing system (ILS is the most popular landing aid in the world. It is a distance-angled support system for landing in reduced visibility, while its task is the safe conduct of the aircraft from the prescribed course landing on the approach path. The aim of this study is to analyse the correctness of the ILS in simulated conditions. The study was conducted using a CKAS MotionSim5 flight simulator in the Simulation Research Laboratory of the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. With the advancement of technical equipment, it was possible to check the operation of the system in various weather conditions. Studies have shown that the impact of fog, rain and snow on the correct operation of the system is marginal. Significant influence has been observed, however, during landing in strong winds.

  10. RSX system development under VAX/VMS compatibility mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuka, M.A.


    The Control System for the Proton Storage Ring now being built at Los Alamos will use a VAX-11/750 as its main control computer with several LSI-11/23 microprocessors reading and controlling the hardware. The VMS Compatibility Mode makes it possible to use the VAX as a development system for the LSI-11/23 microprocessors running the RSX-11S (stand-alone) operating system. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)-supplied software is used to generate the RSX-11S operating system and DECNET-11S network software. We use the VMS editors to create source files, the Macro-11 assembler and the PDP-11 Fortran-77 compiler to generate object code, and the RSX Task Builder to link the executable RSX task image. The RSX task then can be tested to some extent on the VAX before it is down-line loaded to the LSI-11/23 for further testing

  11. Sustainable design of complex industrial and energy systems under uncertainty (United States)

    Liu, Zheng

    Depletion of natural resources, environmental pressure, economic globalization, etc., demand seriously industrial organizations to ensure that their manufacturing be sustainable. On the other hand, the efforts of pursing sustainability also give raise to potential opportunities for improvements and collaborations among various types of industries. Owing to inherent complexity and uncertainty, however, sustainability problems of industrial and energy systems are always very difficult to deal with, which has made industrial practice mostly experience based. For existing research efforts on the study of industrial sustainability, although systems approaches have been applied in dealing with the challenge of system complexity, most of them are still lack in the ability of handling inherent uncertainty. To overcome this limit, there is a research need to develop a new generation of systems approaches by integrating techniques and methods for handling various types of uncertainties. To achieve this objective, this research introduced series of holistic methodologies for sustainable design and decision-making of industrial and energy systems. The introduced methodologies are developed in a systems point of view with the functional components involved in, namely, modeling, assessment, analysis, and decision-making. For different methodologies, the interval-parameter-based, fuzzy-logic-based, and Monte Carlo based methods are selected and applied respectively for handling various types of uncertainties involved, and the optimality of solutions is guaranteed by thorough search or system optimization. The proposed methods are generally applicable for any types of industrial systems, and their efficacy had been successfully demonstrated by the given case studies. Beyond that, a computational tool was designed, which provides functions on the industrial sustainability assessment and decision-making through several convenient and interactive steps of computer operation. This





    During the last decade, information system (IS) outsourcing has emerged as a major issue for organizations. As outsourcing decisions are often based on multicriteria approaches and group decisions, this paper proposes a structured methodology based on Fuzzy group decision making approach to evaluate and select the appropriate information system project (ISP) in an actual case. To achieve our purpose, we argue that seven criteria consisting of risk, management, economics, technology, resource,...

  13. Home Price Beliefs in Australia


    Callan Windsor; Gianni La Cava; James Hansen


    We document some new stylised facts about how Australian homeowners value their homes using household panel data and unit-record data on home sale prices. We find that homeowners' price beliefs are unbiased at the postcode level, on average, although there is considerable dispersion in the difference between beliefs and prices across postcodes. Household characteristics, such as age and tenure, and the regional unemployment rate are correlated with differences between beliefs and prices. We a...

  14. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Romeike


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Results Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one’s body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as

  15. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study. (United States)

    Romeike, Kristina; Abidi, Latifa; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke


    Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA) are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one's body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as an insult. Finally, men and women usually cannot exercise

  16. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition. (United States)

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M


    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Beliefs about God, psychiatric symptoms, and evolutionary psychiatry. (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G; Koenig, Harold G


    The present study analyzed the association between specific beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms among a representative sample of 1,306 U.S. adults. Three pairs of beliefs about God served as the independent variables: Close and Loving, Approving and Forgiving, and Creating and Judging. The dependent variables were measures of General Anxiety, Depression, Obsessive-Compulsion, Paranoid Ideation, Social Anxiety, and Somatization. As hypothesized, the strength of participants' belief in a Close and Loving God had a significant salutary association with overall psychiatric symptomology, and the strength of this association was significantly stronger than that of the other beliefs, which had little association with the psychiatric symptomology. The authors discuss the findings in the context of evolutionary psychiatry, and the relevance of Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory in research on religious beliefs.

  18. Chinese preschoolers' implicit and explicit false-belief understanding. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Low, Jason; Jing, Zhang; Qinghua, Qu


    Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in Mainland China (3- to 4-year-olds; N= 192) were tested for dissociations between anticipatory looking (AL) and verbal judgments on false-belief tasks. The dissociation between the two kinds of understanding was robust despite direct false-belief test questions using a Mandarin specific think-falsely verb and despite participants living in a culture that promotes early self-control. Children showed coherent AL across different belief-formation scenarios. Manipulation of inhibitory demand in the false-belief task did not affect preschoolers' verbal judgments any more than their AL, and yet separate measures executive function correlated only with direct judgments and not looking responses. The findings are discussed in terms of an implicit-explicit cognitive systems account of false-belief understanding. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  20. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust. (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang


    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  1. Dynamic simulation of variable capacity refrigeration systems under abnormal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Nan; Shao Shuangquan; Tian Changqing; Yan Yuying


    There are often abnormal working conditions at evaporator outlet of a refrigeration system, such as two-phase state in transient process, and it is essential to investigate such transient behaviours for system design and control strategy. In this paper, a dynamic lumped parameter model is developed to simulate the transient behaviours of refrigeration system with variable capacity in both normal and abnormal working conditions. The appropriate discriminant method is adopted to switch the normal and abnormal conditions smoothly and to eliminate the simulated data oscillation. In order to verify the dynamic model, we built a test system with variable frequency compressor, water-cooling condenser, evaporator and electronic expansion valve. Calculated values from the mathematical model show reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that the transient behaviours of the variable capacity refrigeration system in the abnormal working conditions can be calculated reliably with the dynamic model when the compressor rotary speed or the opening of electronic expansion valve changes abruptly.

  2. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclot, Sylvain


    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author) [fr

  3. Defense strategies for asymmetric networked systems under composite utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Hang Seng Management College, Hon Kong; Hausken, Kjell [University of Stavanger, Norway; He, Fei [Texas A& M University, Kingsville, TX, USA; Yau, David K. Y. [Singapore University of Technology and Design; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY)


    We consider an infrastructure of networked systems with discrete components that can be reinforced at certain costs to guard against attacks. The communications network plays a critical, asymmetric role of providing the vital connectivity between the systems. We characterize the correlations within this infrastructure at two levels using (a) aggregate failure correlation function that specifies the infrastructure failure probability giventhe failure of an individual system or network, and (b) first order differential conditions on system survival probabilities that characterize component-level correlations. We formulate an infrastructure survival game between an attacker and a provider, who attacks and reinforces individual components, respectively. They use the composite utility functions composed of a survival probability term and a cost term, and the previously studiedsum-form and product-form utility functions are their special cases. At Nash Equilibrium, we derive expressions for individual system survival probabilities and the expected total number of operational components. We apply and discuss these estimates for a simplified model of distributed cloud computing infrastructure

  4. A comparison of nitrate level in spinach grown both under different densities in aquaponic system and under natural growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai PETREA


    Full Text Available As bio-integrated systems that link both plants and fish culture, inside aquaponic systems, the processes of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrification in nitrite and nitrate are essential for growth and development of both fish and plants culture biomass. Plants with nearly the same nutritional requirements during their life cycle, like spinach in our case, are recommended to be grown under aquaponic conditions. Although nitrates concentrations up to 200 – 250mg/l are reported to be acceptable for fish growth, in the last years the toxic effect of long term exposure to high nitrate levels on fish and plants cultured biomass were highlighted. The main goal of the present study is to compare the nitrate level of spinach, grown in an aquaponic system, under three plant densities (V1 - 59 plants/m2, V2 - 48plants/m2 and V3 – 39 plants/m2. The second objective is to compare the results obtained, in term of nitrate content, for spinach grown in the integrated rainbow trout – spinach aquaponic system with those of marketable spinach, grown under conventional condition, in the field. The experimental design consists in a recirculating aquaculture system with 12 growing units, mechanical and biological water treatment units and four aquaponic units. Fish were fed with two types of feed with 41% and 50% protein, using 3 different feeding regimes. The results show a higher nitrate level on spinach grown in aquaponic system, compared to the one derived from field culture. Differences were observed also among the three variants grown in aquaponic conditions, under different plant densities. As a conclusion, it can be said that considering the nitrate level, spinach grown in aquaponic system is marketable.

  5. Cascading failures in interdependent systems under a flow redistribution model (United States)

    Zhang, Yingrui; Arenas, Alex; Yaǧan, Osman


    Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines. Here, we consider a model consisting of systems A and B with initial line loads and capacities given by {LA,i,CA ,i} i =1 n and {LB,i,CB ,i} i =1 n, respectively. When a line fails in system A , a fraction of its load is redistributed to alive lines in B , while remaining (1 -a ) fraction is redistributed equally among all functional lines in A ; a line failure in B is treated similarly with b giving the fraction to be redistributed to A . We give a thorough analysis of cascading failures of this model initiated by a random attack targeting p1 fraction of lines in A and p2 fraction in B . We show that (i) the model captures the real-world phenomenon of unexpected large scale cascades and exhibits interesting transition behavior: the final collapse is always first order, but it can be preceded by a sequence of first- and second-order transitions; (ii) network robustness tightly depends on the coupling coefficients a and b , and robustness is maximized at non-trivial a ,b values in general; (iii) unlike most existing models, interdependence has a multifaceted impact on system robustness in that interdependency can lead to an improved robustness for each individual network.

  6. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) System under Uncertainty from Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Flynn, Damian


    An automatic voltage control (AVC) system maintains the voltage profile of a power system in an acceptable range and minimizes the operational cost by coordinating the regulation of controllable components. Typically, all of the parameters in the optimization problem are assumed to be certain....... The proposed method improves the performance and the robustness of a scenario based approach by estimating the potential voltage variations due to fluctuating wind power production, and introduces a voltage margin to protect the decision against uncertainty for each scenario. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  7. Assessing climate change beliefs: Response effects of question wording and response alternatives. (United States)

    Greenhill, Murni; Leviston, Zoe; Leonard, Rosemary; Walker, Iain


    To date, there is no 'gold standard' on how to best measure public climate change beliefs. We report a study (N = 897) testing four measures of climate change causation beliefs, drawn from four sources: the CSIRO, Griffith University, the Gallup poll, and the Newspoll. We found that question wording influences the outcome of beliefs reported. Questions that did not allow respondents to choose the option of believing in an equal mix of natural and anthropogenic climate change obtained different results to those that included the option. Age and belief groups were found to be important predictors of how consistent people were in reporting their beliefs. Response consistency gave some support to past findings suggesting climate change beliefs reflect something deeper in the individual belief system. Each belief question was assessed against five criterion variables commonly used in climate change literature. Implications for future studies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Individual difference factors and beliefs in medical and political conspiracy theories. (United States)

    Galliford, Natasha; Furnham, Adrian


    This study examined the relationship between a series of individual difference measures and belief in political and medical conspiracy theories. Participants (N = 323) rated 20 conspiracy theories (10 medical, 10 political) and completed a set of questionnaires. Belief in political conspiracies was strongly positively correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. Belief in both conspiracy types was correlated with low self-esteem, low Conscientiousness, more right-wing political views, younger age, and greater belief in the benefits of Alternative Medicine. It was also correlated with religiousness and gender. Low Emotional Stability and Agreeableness were also correlated with belief in political conspiracies, and higher education level was correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. The findings generally demonstrated support for a monological belief system. Implications and limitations are discussed. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessment of sorghum–cowpea intercrop system under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercropping can improve crop productivity through increased water use efficiency (WUE). However, limited information exists to support its adoption and subsequent management. In such instances, crop models can be used as decision support tools to complement data from field trials. The Agricultural Production Systems ...

  10. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility (CGMS) resulting from nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction has been commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrid seed in rice. The. CGMS system involves three lines, namely a cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line, a maintainer line and a restorer line where restorer line (R line) ...

  11. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.


    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time,

  12. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda


    Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend to accumul...

  13. Reconfigurable Control of Input Affine Nonlinear Systems under Actuator Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Galeazzi, Roberto


    This paper proposes a fault tolerant control method for input-affine nonlinear systems using a nonlinear reconfiguration block (RB). The basic idea of the method is to insert the RB between the plant and the nominal controller such that fault tolerance is achieved without re-designing the nominal...

  14. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina


    The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does it in...

  15. The big chill puts the electric system under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre


    Written at the occasion of a cold wave in France in February 2012 with a new peak in electricity consumption, the article first analyses the specific meteorological conditions associated with this event, and then outlines that the massive use of electric heating makes the French system particularly sensitive to temperatures, but also that the peak is also due to the massive use of electric domestic appliances at about 7 p.m. He describes how this peak is faced in terms of energy sources and outlines that there was no risk for grid security. He comments the availability of nuclear and hydroelectric energy, and of other energies (oil, coal, gas), and the margin levels. He finally states that costs of a cold wave are predictable and could be mitigated by supporting the installation of energy-saving or non-electric heating systems

  16. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua


    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  17. Distributed Secure Coordinated Control for Multiagent Systems Under Strategic Attacks. (United States)

    Feng, Zhi; Wen, Guanghui; Hu, Guoqiang


    This paper studies a distributed secure consensus tracking control problem for multiagent systems subject to strategic cyber attacks modeled by a random Markov process. A hybrid stochastic secure control framework is established for designing a distributed secure control law such that mean-square exponential consensus tracking is achieved. A connectivity restoration mechanism is considered and the properties on attack frequency and attack length rate are investigated, respectively. Based on the solutions of an algebraic Riccati equation and an algebraic Riccati inequality, a procedure to select the control gains is provided and stability analysis is studied by using Lyapunov's method.. The effect of strategic attacks on discrete-time systems is also investigated. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.

  18. Frequency domain analysis of piping systems under short duration loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, K.; Sand, H.; Lockau, J.


    In piping analysis two procedures are used almost exclusively: the modal superposition method for relatively long input time histories (e.g., earthquake) and direct integration of the equations of motion for short input time histories. A third possibility, frequency domain analysis, has only rarely been applied to piping systems to date. This paper suggests the use of frequency domain analysis for specific piping problems for which only direct integration could be used in the past. Direct integration and frequency domain analysis are compared, and it is shown that the frequency domain method is less costly if more than four or five load cases are considered. In addition, this method offers technical advantages, such as more accurate representation of modal damping and greater insight into the structural behavior of the system. (orig.)

  19. Quantum thermostatted disordered systems and sensitivity under compression (United States)

    Vanzan, Tommaso; Rondoni, Lamberto


    A one-dimensional quantum system with off diagonal disorder, consisting of a sample of conducting regions randomly interspersed within potential barriers is considered. Results mainly concerning the large N limit are presented. In particular, the effect of compression on the transmission coefficient is investigated. A numerical method to simulate such a system, for a physically relevant number of barriers, is proposed. It is shown that the disordered model converges to the periodic case as N increases, with a rate of convergence which depends on the disorder degree. Compression always leads to a decrease of the transmission coefficient which may be exploited to design nano-technological sensors. Effective choices for the physical parameters to improve the sensitivity are provided. Eventually large fluctuations and rate functions are analysed.

  20. Development of distance measurement system using Ar laser under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakawa, Shinichi; Shibaike, Kunio; Shimizu, Sumiya; Yoshimura, Koji; Aoyama, Tomio


    For positioning measurement of an underwater vehicle robot in a reactor pressure vessel for ultrasonic inspection of the vessel, we developed distance measurement system using pan/tilt mechanisms to control directions of an argon gas laser and outgoing/incoming lights. This can automatically measure three-dimensional position and follow of the underwater vehicle robot up to 0.5 ppm water turbidity, this is the first of its kind in the world. This system can measure up to maximum length measuring distance of 8.5 m underwater, within a ±3.6 mm error. We adopted the power 75 mW output for argon gas laser modulated at 80 MHz, and a detector with resolution of 0.004 degree for the pan/tilt mechanisms. (author)

  1. Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems under Uncertain Forecasts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler


    The paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources and energy storage devices, and develops an optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize the system operation in spite of forecasting errors. The proposed method builds on a chance-constrained multi-period AC OPF formulation, where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with a prescribed probability. To enable a computationally affordable solution approach, a convex reformulation of the OPF task is obtained by resorting to i) pertinent linear approximations of the power flow equations, and ii) convex approximations of the chance constraints. Particularly, the approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive optimization strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed OPF task into a model predictive control framework.

  2. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.


    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data.

  5. Dynamics underlying Box-office: Movie Competition on Recommender Systems


    Yeung, C. H.; Cimini, G.; Jin, C. -H.


    We introduce a simple model to study movie competition in the recommender systems. Movies of heterogeneous quality compete against each other through viewers' reviews and generate interesting dynamics of box-office. By assuming mean-field interactions between the competing movies, we show that run-away effect of popularity spreading is triggered by defeating the average review score, leading to hits in box-office. The average review score thus characterizes the critical movie quality necessar...

  6. Structural studies of lamellar surfactant systems under shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.


    Recent experimental studies on concentrated surfactant systems are reviewed. Particular attention is focused on the transformation from planar lamellar sheets to multilamellar vesicles. It is discussed whether both of these states are thermodynamic stable, or if the MLV is an artifact of shear...... induced factors. Recent studies includes the dependence on shear, and dependence on salt and cosurfactants, and thereby related lamellar defects. The review include moreover the demonstration that polymeric amphiphiles dramatically enhance the quality of classical surfactants. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science...

  7. Memory under stress: from single systems to network changes. (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars


    Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory toward more reflexive, 'habitual' processes. Stress-related alterations in amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus, dorsal striatum, and prefrontal cortex seem to play a key role in this shift. The bias toward systems proficient in threat processing and the implementation of well-established routines may facilitate coping with an acute stressor. Overreliance on these reflexive systems or the inability to shift flexibly between them, however, may represent a risk factor for psychopathology in the long-run. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dynamic modeling of vaccinating behavior as a function of individual beliefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Codeço Coelho


    Full Text Available Individual perception of vaccine safety is an important factor in determining a person's adherence to a vaccination program and its consequences for disease control. This perception, or belief, about the safety of a given vaccine is not a static parameter but a variable subject to environmental influence. To complicate matters, perception of risk (or safety does not correspond to actual risk. In this paper we propose a way to include the dynamics of such beliefs into a realistic epidemiological model, yielding a more complete depiction of the mechanisms underlying the unraveling of vaccination campaigns. The methodology proposed is based on Bayesian inference and can be extended to model more complex belief systems associated with decision models. We found the method is able to produce behaviors which approximate what has been observed in real vaccine and disease scare situations. The framework presented comprises a set of useful tools for an adequate quantitative representation of a common yet complex public-health issue. These tools include representation of beliefs as Bayesian probabilities, usage of logarithmic pooling to combine probability distributions representing opinions, and usage of natural conjugate priors to efficiently compute the Bayesian posterior. This approach allowed a comprehensive treatment of the uncertainty regarding vaccination behavior in a realistic epidemiological model.

  9. Shearographic System for Dynamic Analysis of Materials under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Correa-Rojas


    Full Text Available Shearography is a tool for monitoring and inspecting of structural flaws and imperfections in different types of industrial, automotive and aeronautics applications. It is based on digital correlation of two speckle patterns in two states of interest: with and without load. The technique has the special quality of being very robust against environmental disturbances. We present a shearographic system to analyze the dynamic behavior of the strain that suffers a material in response to changes in temperature throughout the thermal load process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet AÇA


    Full Text Available This is a study of fruit as it features in passagerites, folk medicine, spell, charm, evil eye, good and badluck, dream interpretation and beliefs relating to evilspirits. Also it’s place in creation myths, epics andfolktales was given. Fruit trees and fruits are importantfor all period’s of human life. In addition apple and fig asa symbol of fertility, curative pear and also the beliefsthat provide to have male child, providing fruit for treeand cure for infertility were mentioned.

  11. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.


    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  12. Soil Tillage Systems and Wheat Yield under Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Servadio


    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of three different main preparatory tillage operations: ploughing at 0.4 m (P40 and 0.20 m (P20 depth and harrowing at 0.20 m depth (MT were investigated. The tillage operations were carried out at two different times, as the soil water content increased over time from rainfall: (low, 58% (LH and high, 80% (HH of field capacity. Results obtained from the soil monitoring carried out before and after tillage showed high values of soil strength in terms of Penetration resistance and shear strength particularly in deeper soil layers at lower water content. During tillage, fossil-fuel energy requirements for P40 LH and P20 LH were 25% and 35% higher, respectively, with respect to the HH treatments and tractor slip was very high (P40 LH = 32.4% with respect to the P40 HH treatment (16%. Soil water content significantly influenced tractor performance during soil ploughing at 0.40 m depth but no effect was observed for the MT treatment. The highly significant linear relations between grain yield and soil penetration resistance highlight how soil strength may be good indicator of soil productivity. We conclude that ploughing soil to a 0.20 m depth or harrowing soil to a 0.20 m depth is suitable for this type of soil under climate change scenarios.

  13. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan


    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  14. Free will and paranormal beliefs (United States)

    Mogi, Ken


    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  15. Dynamic Logics of Belief Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Smets, S.; van Ditmarsch, H.; Halpern, J.; van der Hoek, W.; Kooi, B.


    This chapter gives an overview of current dynamic logics that describe belief update and revision, both for single agents and in multi-agent settings. We employ a mixture of ideas from AGM belief revision theory and dynamic-epistemic logics of information-driven agency. After describing the basic

  16. Politics of climate change belief (United States)


    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  17. Playing with knowledge and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiutek, V.


    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  18. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form. (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.


    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  19. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi


    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  20. Free will and paranormal beliefs. (United States)

    Mogi, Ken


    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  1. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.


    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  2. Under-ascertainment, under-reporting and timeliness of Iranian communicable disease surveillance system for zoonotic diseases. (United States)

    Kazerooni, P A; Fararouei, M; Nejat, M; Akbarpoor, M; Sedaghat, Z


    The important steps in controlling infectious diseases are fast detection, proper treatment and on-time reporting of cases to the appropriate authorities. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of Iranian communicable diseases surveillance system (CDSS) for zoonotic diseases in rural areas of Fars province (Iran's third largest province). The three most important evaluation indices of CDSS, namely under-ascertainment, under-reporting and timeliness, for the three most common zoonotic diseases were measured using independent data source obtained from door-to-door interviews and patients' medical records. Interviews were conducted with 48,771 households in rural areas of Fars province from April 2014 to March 2015. The medical and registration data were obtained from the CDSS and medical or health centres. Under-ascertainment, total under-reporting and timeliness (delay from the time of onset of symptoms to the time of visiting a medical or health centre, to the time of reporting visited cases to the highest level of CDSS) for leishmaniasis were 19.6%, 42.5% and 81.61 days (48.95 due to system delay), respectively. The corresponding indices for brucellosis were 0%, 41.8% and 56.5 days (22 due to system delay), respectively. For animal bite, the corresponding indices were 7.83%, 13.07% and less than 72 h, respectively (no system delay). Although the status of case reporting and timeliness of surveillance system in public sectors providing medical services are clearly better than those of the private sectors, the indices are far from the level needed by CDSS to be able to detect and handle epidemics on time. Training health personnel, especially physicians, from public and private sectors to secure their cooperation along with routine and indebt evaluation are necessary to improve CDSS in Iran. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia. (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik


    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  4. Maintenance cost models in deregulated power systems under opportunity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, K.; Dahal, K.; Azaiez, M.N.


    In a centralized power system, the operator is responsible for scheduling maintenance. There are different types of maintenance, including corrective maintenance; predictive maintenance; preventive maintenance; and reliability-centred maintenance. The main cause of power failures is poor maintenance. As such, maintenance costs play a significant role in deregulated power systems. They include direct costs associated with material and labor costs as well as indirect costs associated with spare parts inventory, shipment, test equipment, indirect labor, opportunity costs and cost of failure. In maintenance scheduling and planning, the cost function is the only component of the objective function. This paper presented the results of a study in which different components of maintenance costs were modeled. The maintenance models were formulated as an optimization problem with single and multiple objectives and a set of constraints. The maintenance costs models could be used to schedule the maintenance activities of power generators more accurately and to identify the best maintenance strategies over a period of time as they consider failure and opportunity costs in a deregulated environment. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Subjective Beliefs, Memory and Functional Health: Change and Associations over 12 Years in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. (United States)

    Luszcz, Mary A; Anstey, Kaarin J; Ghisletta, Paolo


    change in lifestyle control beliefs. This is the first examination of individual differences in changes in, and relationships among, psychological domains of subjective beliefs about memory, health, and lifestyle, and objective remembering and functional health in very late life. Findings point to a system of coupled changes in memory and health in late life that is related to underlying beliefs about control over lifestyle. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Delusions and belief flexibility in psychosis. (United States)

    Colbert, S M; Peters, E R; Garety, P A


    A defining characteristic of delusions is inflexibility. However, it is not known if this is specific to the deluded individual's thinking about delusional beliefs, or whether this might apply more generally to the thinking style of people with delusions. A cross-sectional design was employed comparing belief flexibility, belief dimensions, and extreme responding (ER) across three groups. Belief flexibility and dimensions were assessed for two types of beliefs, personally meaningful beliefs (delusional or idiosyncratic beliefs) and standard beliefs. The number of extreme responses endorsed on a questionnaire was also measured. Participants consisted of a currently deluded group (N=17), a remitted delusions group (N=17), both recruited from an early psychosis service, and a non-clinical control group (N=35). Personally meaningful beliefs, whether delusions or other idiosyncratic beliefs, were held with equal conviction and belief flexibility in the three groups. However, on the standard belief, the clinical groups showed less belief flexibility than the control group (with only the remitted group significantly so) and greater ER. Individuals who showed belief flexibility about both types of beliefs displayed less ER than those who were inflexible, and belief flexibility was related to less delusional conviction in the clinical groups. These results suggest that belief inflexibility and ER may be characteristics of the thinking styles of individuals with delusions, rather than being specific to the delusional beliefs themselves. This has implications for cognitive behavioural therapy, which might usefully focus on generally thinking style as a preparation for working more directly with delusional beliefs.

  7. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas


    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  8. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  9. Nonlinear relaxation field in charged systems under high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.


    The influence of an external electric field on the current in charged systems is investigated. The results from the classical hierarchy of density matrices are compared with the results from the quantum kinetic theory. The kinetic theory yields a systematic treatment of the nonlinear current beyond linear response. To this end the dynamically screened and field-dependent Lenard-Balescu equation is integrated analytically and the nonlinear relaxation field is calculated. The classical linear response result known as Debye - On-Sager relaxation effect is only obtained if asymmetric screening is assumed. Considering the kinetic equation of one specie the other species have to be screened dynamically while the screening with the same specie itself has to be performed statically. Different other approximations are discussed and compared. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh O.S.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems related to the reform of land management from the beginning of the land reform ill the presentine. This need has arisen due to making another attempt to reorganize the structure of the land structures. With the launch of the land reform established the State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources in 1992. To speed up land reform and land privatization in 2001 formed the administrative bodies of the State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine. In order to improve the system of state land management in 2011 created the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine, which was reorganized in 2014 into the State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre. Over the years, in order to "optimize" the system of central executive body, content of this body has not been changed and constantly was changing its name and subordination, namely: the State Committee for Land Resources - Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine - Ministry of Agrarian policy and Food of Ukraine, State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre - Ministry of regional development, construction and housing. On the basis of analysis concerning the powers of the central executive authorities, local authorities found that the newly farmed Service State Land Cadastre das not contribute to the effectiveness of the administration, especially at the national level, as these features ave not provided by "Regulations on State Land Cadastre " and other regulations. In addition, the local level detected removal of local government in matters of land relations. In conclusion, proposed system based redistribution of powers on the level of central executive bodies and local authorities to reform the system of land management with regard to decentralized processes in Ukraine. It is advisable to restore central authority for land reform and regulation of land relations to the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  12. Robust cropping systems to tackle pests under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Barzman, Marco; Booij, Kees


    Agriculture in the twenty-first century faces the challenge of meeting food demands while satisfying sustainability goals. The challenge is further complicated by climate change which affects the distribution of crop pests (intended as insects, plants, and pathogenic agents injurious to crops......) and the severity of their outbreaks. Increasing concerns over health and the environment as well as new legislation on pesticide use, particularly in the European Union, urge us to find sustainable alternatives to pesticide-based pest management. Here, we review the effect of climate change on crop protection......, cropping systems, and pests; (2) the unpredictable adaptation of pests to a changing environment primarily creates uncertainty and projected changes do not automatically translate into doom and gloom scenarios; (3) faced with uncertainty, policy, research, and extension should prepare for worst...

  13. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner


    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  14. Performance based investigations of structural systems under fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Crosti, Chiara; Giuliani, Luisa


    Prescriptive measures and procedures developed over the past here are mostly aimed at preventing structural failures of single elements for the time required for the evacuation. The response to fire and fire effects of the structural system as a whole remains often unknown and the survival of the...... structures are presented and discussed, with particular attention to methodological aspects. The effects of different assumptions in the modeling and in the definition of the collapse are highlighted, as critical aspects of a performance-based investigation....... these kinds of events, the mitigation of possible collapse induced by fire should be achieved. In this respect, a performance-based investigation of the structure aimed at highlight fire effects and fire-induced collapse mechanisms becomes of interest. In the paper collapse mechanisms of some simple...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez Villanueva


    Full Text Available Soil compaction is regarded as the most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. Few studies are concerned with the assessment of soil compaction using infiltration speed, specifically in the Vertisol soil characteristic of the main maize producing area of the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley in central Mexico. The aim of this research was to examine the effect on infiltration speed and penetration resistance of a Vertisol soil when compacted by wheeled agricultural traffic in three different types of tillage systems: zero, minimal and conventional. Penetration resistance was measured on the wheel track with a portable digital penetrometer, and the mean infiltration speed was determined according to the double cylinder infiltrometer method. The pressure exerted by the number of wheeled traffic passes increased Vertisol soil compaction at 30 cm depth. Even though the benefits of zero tillage were similar to those showed by minimum tillage during the experimental period, minimum tillage reported the highest infiltration speed.

  16. 15 N separation in the Nitrox system under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.; Baldea, A.; Teaca, C.; Horga, R.; Abrudean, M.


    The basic isotope exchange reaction responsible for the separation of 15 N in Nitrox system is that between gaseous nitrogen oxides and aqueous nitric acid with single stage separation factor α = 1.055 for M.l -1 nitric acid, at 25 deg. C and atmospheric pressure. The rate of nitrogen isotope exchange between NO and HNO 3 has been measured as a function of nitric oxide pressure 0.1 - 0.4 MPa for 1 and 2 M.l -1 . It is concluded that 15 N/ 14 N exchange rate in NO-HNO 3 system has a linear dependence on NO pressure as indicated by rate measurements at different NO partial pressure and constant overall pressure, by adding helium in reactor. Using the rate law: R = [HNO 3 ] 2 [N 2 O 3 ] the 15 N/ 14 N exchange rates for nitric acid concentrations 1.5 - 10 M.l -1 were calculated. In order to know what happens in 15 N separation at higher pressure, when the isotopic transport between two phases is improved, a stainless steel laboratory experimental setup with 1000 mm long x 18 mm i,d. column, packed with triangular wire springs 1.8 x 1.8 x 0.2 mm was utilised. At 0.15 MPA and 2.36 -2 . min -1 flow rate HETP was 7% smaller than at atmospheric pressure and 1.5 times smaller flow rate. HETP at 3.14 ml . cm -2 . min -1 flow rate and 0.18 MPa is practically equal with that obtained at atmospheric pressure and 2 times smaller flow rate. The operation of the 15 N separation setup at 0.18 MPa, instead of atmospheric pressure, will permit to double the 10 M.l -1 nitric acid flow rate and of 15 N production of the given column. (authors)

  17. Root system size of alfalfa varieties under different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Al-Mosanif


    Full Text Available The field experiment was established from pre-grown alfalfa sprouts in 2008. In 2009 and 2010, the harvest was carried out. The yield and the root size system (RSS were evaluated in the total of five cuts. Two localities of diverse soil and weather conditions were selected. Žabčice is a dry location with a highly permeable sandy soil layer, but at the same time, with a considerable fluctuation of the underground water level; Troubsko, on the other hand, represented a location with a higher content of clay in soil suitable for growing alfalfa. The trial was established in two types of plant spacing – 25 × 25 cm (16 plants per m2 and 50 × 50 cm (4 plants per m2. Two alfalfa varieties were used – Hodonínka (an old variety and Oslava (a new variety. The following factors were evaluated by statistical means: location, variety, plant spacing, and cut number. The effect of location on the above ground phytomass and the RSS value proved highly statistically decisive. The higher average values of above ground phytomass as well as RSS were achieved on the Troubsko location where the above ground phytomass was 19.57 t.ha−1 and RSS was 2.71 nanofarad (nF. The impact of the variety was highly statistically significant only in respect to RSS. The effect of variety on the alfalfa above ground phytomass was not proven. The higher average RSS values were reached by the Hodonínka variety (2.59 nF. The effect of the plant spacing on both the above ground phytomass and the RSS values was highly statistically significant. The higher average above ground phytomass was achieved when the 25 × 25 cm plant spacing was employed (18.64 t.ha−1. As for the RSS value, the case was exactly opposite – the higher average value was reached when the plant spacing was 50 × 50 cm (2.99 nF. The impact of the cut number on both the above ground phytomass and the RSS was highly statistically significant. The highest average above ground phytomass and root

  18. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira


    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  19. Aggregates morphometry of a Inceptisol under conservationist system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Andressa da Silva


    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of the soil aggregates are important tools to analyzing and monitoring the structural quality. The present study aimed to characterize morphometrically aggregates of a Inceptisol, originated from pelitic rocks, after 1.5 years of the implementation of a management system that adopts conservation tillage practices in the coffee cultivation. The aggregates were collected at the depths of 0.0-0.05; 0.05-0.20; 0.20-0.40; 0.40-0.80 m, both at row and interrow position in a coffee field, and also a natural environment of native vegetation that was used as a reference for the study. The analyzes of the aggregates were carried through 2D images obtained by scanning at 300 dpi spatial resolution. Each image contained 60 households and were processed using the software QUANTPORO. The morphometric variables were obtained: area, perimeter, compactness, roughness, appearance and Ferret diameter. For validation, the correlations among morphometric variables determined by image analysis and pattern aggregation indices (GMD, MWD and aggregates retained in the class > 2.00 mm obtained by wet sieving were studied. After 1.5 years of implantation increased the dimensions of the aggregates on the natural environment have been detected, as well as better structural quality Inceptisol.

  20. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose. (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara


    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.


    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  2. Antioxidant system of ginseng under stress by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques


    Full Text Available Toxic levels of Cd can cause protein denaturation and oxidative stress, which result in membrane damage, enzimatic activity changes and other metabolic damage. Some plants may show alteration in the activity of their antioxidant enzymes as a heavy metal tolerance mechanism. This study aims at evaluating the role of enzymes of the antioxidant system in adaptive responses of the accumulator P. glomerata species to levels of cadmium (Cd. Plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing concentrations of Cd in the form of CdSO4 (0, 45 and 90 µmol L-1, for 20 d. Cd concentrations and yields of root and shoot dry matter were determined at the end of the experiment. Malondialdehyde (MDA production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined after days 1, 12 and 20. Higher Cd concentrations in tissues of P. glomerata were found to reduce biomass production in both roots and shoots. The lipid peroxidation rates in leaves and roots were smaller at the start of the experiment for all Cd levels. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity increased in leaves on day 1 and in roots on day 20 as Cd levels increased. Cd stress induced an increase in the activity of APX in leaves, whereas in roots ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity was reduced at high concentration of Cd. At the end of the experiment, catalase (CAT activity in leaves was reduced as Cd concentration increased. Nevertheless, the glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased. In roots, GR activity was reduced on days 1 and 20.

  3. Lenses; systems; sensitive; leadership; models; integral; spiritual; images; evolve; states; stages; consciousness; power; force; determinants; mind; genius; belief systems; evolution; spiritual growth; rationality; attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus C. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available Lenses on spirituality and being church; the road ahead for the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA. At this point of time the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA is facing the seemingly unsolvable dilemma of not being able to handle diversity in a positive manner. By applying three lenses to the current impasse with regards to the church’s struggle with diversity, this article aims at providing an answer to the question of how to proceed. The first lens addresses the challenge to maintain spiritual health and harmony in the midst of differences and tension in the church. The theory behind systems sensitive leadership as lens serves as the guideline to achieve the necessary spiritual health that the church needs in such challenging times. The second lens explores the inner Christian spiritual path in a both developmental and comprehensive way. Drawing on the work of Paul Smith this lens sets forth the developmental framework by which Christians grow inwardly in their understanding of Jesus and his teachings. The third lens is a view on a practice whereby the validity of intellectual positions, statements, or ideologies could be appraised as an innate quality in any subject. This lens opens a unique perspective which provides not only a new understanding of humanity’s journey in the universe, but also serves as a guide to were we and the whole cosmos are on our personal journeys to become who we could be. The vision that is provided by these three lenses has the capacity not only to serve as guidelines, but also to provide the tools to handle the challenges the church has to face on the road a head.

  4. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  5. The Ghost in the Machine: Why and How the Belief in Magic Survives in the Rational Mind (United States)

    Subbotsky, Eugene


    Since the time of Galileo (1564-1642), Western civilization has increasingly fallen under the spell of science. Despite this fact, anthropological and psychological research has shown that magical beliefs are present in both children and adults in modern industrial cultures. How can a belief in magic coexist with a belief in science in the mind of…

  6. Interaction Effects of Gender and Motivational Beliefs on Self-Regulated Learning: A Study at ICT- Integrated Schools (United States)

    Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen


    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the interaction effects of gender and motivational beliefs on students' self-regulated learning. Specifically, three types of motivational beliefs under the Expectancy-Value Model were examined, namely self-efficacy, control beliefs and anxiety. Methodology: A quantitative correlational research design was used…

  7. Multilingualism, Perceived Positive Language Interaction (PPLI), and Learner Beliefs: What Do Turkish Students Believe? (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Aslan, Erhan


    This study explores the interface between learner beliefs and multilingualism in the under-researched English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context of Turkey. The study investigates the underlying constructs of a modified Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) completed by 168 EFL learners in Turkey using an exploratory factor analysis…

  8. Homeopathic and high dilution preparations for pest management to tomato crop under organic production system


    Modolon,Tatiani A; Boff,Pedro; Boff,Mari Inês C; Miquelluti,David José


    Tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum) under conventional production system are constantly treated against pest and diseases, with organic synthetic pesticides that are used may cause serious disturbance to environment and human health. This research was carried out in order to study the effect of homeopathic and high dilution preparations on pests and diseases management of tomato crop under organic production system. Two experiments were conducted under field conditions and one in greenhouse. ...

  9. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become "Normalized". (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir


    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  10. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    to better understand how different cultural, personal and contextual issues influence teacher belief and teaching practices. Encountering new cultures in a new country and adjusting to a new teaching context, CFL teachers taught and learned and in the process many of them developed and changed their beliefs...... of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...... culture in which the teacher has been educated affects how they interpret students, teaching and their teacher role. The study of CFL teachers teaching in intercultural contexts makes a connection between context, cultural issues, individual experience, teacher belief and teaching concerns, and it helps...

  11. Dissociation, Paranormal Belief, and Quality of Life in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tungshan Chou


    Full Text Available The measurement of religiosity in current health-related literature is mostly based on the traditional Christian belief system. It has been argued that such a measurement approach may misrepresent the true degree of religiosity in Taiwanese people. In this study, religiosity was measured in two ways: self-reported religion type and a qualitatively derived index of religious piety based on principles as suggested by Gries, Su, and Schak to be used in the Taiwanese context. Their effects on dissociation, paranormal belief, and quality of life were juxtaposed for comparison. In addition, the beneficial effect of religious piety was examined in the framework of McClenon’s ritual healing theory. A total of 266 healthy older adults across Taiwan were interviewed by four trained assistants over a 4-month period. Factor scores were used to represent the dissociative tendencies (depersonalization/derealization, forgetfulness, amnesia, and psychological absorption and paranormal belief facets (precognition, psi power, other forms of life, traditional religious belief, superstition, and telepathy. The results showed that older people of high religious piety display better quality of life profiles than their counterparts in the low religious piety group. The effects of self-reported religion type were mainly seen with paranormal beliefs compatible with their religious beliefs, whereas the effects of religious piety were more pronounced in relation to quality of life than dissociation and paranormal belief. The beneficial advantage of dissociation hypothesized by ritual healing theory did not receive empirical support in the nonclinical sample of this study.

  12. Belief polarization is not always irrational. (United States)

    Jern, Alan; Chang, Kai-min K; Kemp, Charles


    Belief polarization occurs when 2 people with opposing prior beliefs both strengthen their beliefs after observing the same data. Many authors have cited belief polarization as evidence of irrational behavior. We show, however, that some instances of polarization are consistent with a normative account of belief revision. Our analysis uses Bayesian networks to characterize different kinds of relationships between hypotheses and data, and distinguishes between cases in which normative reasoners with opposing beliefs should both strengthen their beliefs, cases in which both should weaken their beliefs, and cases in which one should strengthen and the other should weaken his or her belief. We apply our analysis to several previous studies of belief polarization and present a new experiment that suggests that people tend to update their beliefs in the directions predicted by our normative account.

  13. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva


    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  14. Further tests of belief-importance theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Petrides

    Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  15. Further tests of belief-importance theory. (United States)

    Petrides, K V; Furnham, Adrian


    Belief-importance (belimp) theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence) and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy) according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  16. Traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Ross


    Full Text Available The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this hypothesis are presented. Other traditional beliefs such as remote sensing of game and the importance of connection to the Earth Mother may also contain a kernel of truth. A series of testable scientific hypotheses concerning traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields is presented. At this stage, the theory does not have sufficient evidence to be accepted as proven; its purpose is to stimulate thought and research

  17. Beliefs about meditating among university students, faculty, and staff: a theory-based salient belief elicitation. (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; Middlestadt, Susan E


    Stress impacts college students, faculty, and staff alike. Although meditation has been found to decrease stress, it is an underutilized strategy. This study used the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to identify beliefs underlying university constituents' decision to meditate. N=96 students, faculty, and staff at a large midwestern university during spring 2012. A survey measured the RAA global constructs and elicited the beliefs underlying intention to meditate. Thematic and frequency analyses and multiple regression were performed. Quantitative analyses showed that intention to meditate was significantly predicted (R2=.632) by attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control. Qualitative analyses revealed advantages (eg, reduced stress; feeling calmer), disadvantages (eg, takes time; will not work), and facilitating circumstances (eg, having more time; having quiet space) of meditating. Results of this theory-based research suggest how college health professionals can encourage meditation practice through individual, interpersonal, and environmental interventions.

  18. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  19. 76 FR 78673 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS) (United States)


    ... Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS) AGENCY: Transportation Security... burden for the TSA Exercise Information System (EXIS). EXIS is a web portal designed to serve... Requirement Title: Exercise Information System (EXIS). Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number...

  20. The influence of initial beliefs on judgments of probability. (United States)

    Yu, Erica C; Lagnado, David A


    This study aims to investigate whether experimentally induced prior beliefs affect processing of evidence including the updating of beliefs under uncertainty about the unknown probabilities of outcomes and the structural, outcome-generating nature of the environment. Participants played a gambling task in the form of computer-simulated slot machines and were given information about the slot machines' possible outcomes without their associated probabilities. One group was induced with a prior belief about the outcome space that matched the space of actual outcomes to be sampled; the other group was induced with a skewed prior belief that included the actual outcomes and also fictional higher outcomes. In reality, however, all participants sampled evidence from the same underlying outcome distribution, regardless of priors given. Before and during sampling, participants expressed their beliefs about the outcome distribution (values and probabilities). Evaluation of those subjective probability distributions suggests that all participants' judgments converged toward the observed outcome distribution. However, despite observing no supporting evidence for fictional outcomes, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed priors condition expected them in the future. A probe of the participants' understanding of the underlying outcome-generating processes indicated that participants' judgments were based on the information given in the induced priors and consequently, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed condition believed the slot machines were not games of chance while participants in the control condition believed the machines generated outcomes at random. Beyond Bayesian or heuristic belief updating, priors not only contribute to belief revision but also affect one's deeper understanding of the environment.

  1. The influence of initial beliefs on judgments of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Catherine Yu


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether experimentally-induced prior beliefs affect processing of evidence including the updating of beliefs under uncertainty about the unknown probabilities of outcomes and the structural, outcome-generating nature of the environment. Participants played a gambling task in the form of computer-simulated slot machines and were given information about the slot machines' possible outcomes without their associated probabilities. One group was induced with a prior belief about the outcome space that matched the space of actual outcomes to be sampled; the other group was induced with a skewed prior belief that included the actual outcomes and also fictional higher outcomes. In reality, however, all participants sampled evidence from the same underlying outcome distribution, regardless of priors given. Before and during sampling, participants expressed their beliefs about the outcome distribution (values and probabilities. Evaluation of those subjective probability distributions suggests that all participants' judgments converged toward the observed outcome distribution. However, despite observing no supporting evidence for fictional outcomes, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed priors condition expected them in the future. A probe of the participants' understanding of the underlying outcome-generating processes indicated that participants’ judgments were based on the information given in the induced priors and consequently, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed condition believed the slot machines were not games of chance while participants in the control condition believed the machines generated outcomes at random. Beyond Bayesian or heuristic belief updating, priors not only contribute to belief revision but also affect one's deeper understanding of the environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti K. Karekatti


    Full Text Available This paper is a part of an ongoing doctoral research on ‘Teacher Talk in ESL Classrooms’. The idea for this was gained through the hypothesis that teachers’ beliefs about English teaching may also mould their talk. The researcher intends here to analyse and comment on teachers’ English teaching beliefs. It is generally accepted that teaching is greatly affected by the belief systems of its practitioners-teachers. Teachers’ beliefs influence their consciousness, teaching attitude, teaching methods and teaching policies, and finally, learners’ development. Horwitz (1987 also states rightly that the formation of teachers’ educational beliefs in language teaching/ learning process will influence, though indirectly, on forming effective teaching methods and will bring about the improvement of learners’ language learning abilities. In Indian context, there is dearth of research evaluating teachers’ beliefs about English teaching. This study explores teachers’ beliefs regarding teaching English to children and tries to explore whether medium of instruction makes any difference in their beliefs. It also intends to determine what similar and different beliefs might be held by in-service teachers from two different mediums. A total of 100 pre-service teachers are the subjects of this study. In order to recognize these teachers’ specific beliefs in a more systematic way, a research instrument, The Questionnaire of Primary School Pre-service English Teachers’ Teaching Beliefs was developed. Almost all of these pre-service teachers expected to have training regarding how to make their talk effective and relevant in classrooms.

  3. Using co-occurrence to evaluate belief coherence in a large non clinical sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pechey

    Full Text Available Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow "cohere" with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs. The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural. Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian's coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance.

  4. Using Co-Occurrence to Evaluate Belief Coherence in a Large Non Clinical Sample (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter


    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow “cohere” with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian’s coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance. PMID:23155383

  5. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra


    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  6. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, K.; Bouwman, J.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.L.; Postmus, J.; Canelas, A.; Mensonides, F.I.C.; Orij, R.; Tuzun, I.; van der Brink, J.; Smits, G.J.; van Gulik, W.M.; Brul, S.; Heijnen, J.J.; de Winde, J.H.; Teixeira de Mattos, M.J.; Kettner, C.; Nielsen, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.


    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  7. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Bouwman, Jildau; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Postmus, Jarne; Canelas, Andre B.; Mensonides, Femke I. C.; Orij, Rick; Tuzun, Isil; van den Brink, Joost; Smits, Gertien J.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Brul, Stanley; de Winde, Johannes H.; de Mattos, M. J. Teixeira; Kettner, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  8. Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs scale (GCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBrotherton


    Full Text Available The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation – individuals’ general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3 and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world.

  9. The contribution of self-efficacy beliefs to dispositional shyness: on social-cognitive systems and the development of personality dispositions. (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Steca, Patrizia; Cervone, Daniel; Artistico, Danielle


    This longitudinal research explored the impact of self-efficacy beliefs on self-reported tendencies to experience shyness in interpersonal encounters among a population of adolescents studied over a two-year period. Self-efficacy measures, taken at the initial measurement period, included indices of perceived self-efficacy for forming and maintaining social relationships, dealing effectively with parents, managing negative emotions, and expressing positive emotions towards others. Levels of self-reported shyness as well as emotional stability were assessed also at time 1, with shyness measured again at the follow-up assessment two years later. Structural equation modeling indicated that two of the four self-efficacy measures uniquely contributed to levels of shyness reported at time 1, and that perceptions of social self-efficacy uniquely contributed to shyness at time 2 even when considering the effects of time 1 shyness levels. Emotional stability did not uniquely contributed to time 2 shyness after considering the relation between shyness at the first and second measurement points. The broad implications of social-cognitive analyses for the study of personality development are discussed.

  10. Results on stabilization of nonlinear systems under finite data-rate constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De


    We discuss in this paper a result concerning the stabilization problem of nonlinear systems under data-rate constraints using output feedback. To put the result in a broader context, we shall first review a number of recent contributions on the stabilization problem under data-rate constraints when

  11. 75 FR 38905 - To Modify Duty-Free Treatment Under the Generalized System of Preferences (United States)


    ... eligible for preferential tariff treatment under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). 2. Pursuant... subject to competitive need limitations on the preferential treatment afforded under the GSP to eligible... eligible articles for purposes of the GSP, general note 4(d) to the HTS is modified as set forth in section...

  12. 42 CFR 412.632 - Method of payment under the inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system. (United States)


    ... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR... rehabilitation facility receives payment under this subpart for inpatient operating costs and capital-related... under the PIP method without undue risk of its resulting in an overpayment to the provider. (2...

  13. Synchronization in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems under grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede


    under grid faults. The focus of this paper is put on the benchmarking of synchronization techniques, mainly about phase locked loop (PLL) based methods, in single-phase PV power systems operating under grid faults. Some faulty mode cases are studied at the end of this paper in order to compare...

  14. Yoruba customs and beliefs pertaining to twins. (United States)

    Leroy, Fernand; Olaleye-Oruene, Taiwo; Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Bryan, Elizabeth


    The Yoruba are an important ethnic group mainly occupying Southwestern Nigeria. Mainly for genetic reasons, this very large tribe happens to present the highest dizygotic twinning rate in the world (4.4 % of all maternities). The high perinatal mortality rate associated with such pregnancies has contributed to the integration of a special twin belief system within the African traditional religion of this tribe. The latter is based on the concept of a supreme deity called Olodumare or Olorun, assisted by a series of secondary gods (Orisha) while Yoruba religion also involves immortality and reincarnation of the soul based on the animistic cult of ancestors. Twins are therefore given special names and believed to detain special preternatural powers. In keeping with their refined artistic tradition, the Yoruba have produced numerous wooden statuettes called Ibejis that represent the souls of deceased newborn twins and are involved in elaborate rituals. Among Yoruba traditional beliefs and lore some twin-related themes are represented which are also found in other parts of the world. Basic features of the original Yoruba beliefs have found their way into the religious traditions of descendants of African slaves imported in the West Indies and in South America.

  15. Optimal Control Strategies in a Two Dimensional Differential Game Using Linear Equation under a Perturbed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Danjuma SHEHU


    Full Text Available This paper lays emphasis on formulation of two dimensional differential games via optimal control theory and consideration of control systems whose dynamics is described by a system of Ordinary Differential equation in the form of linear equation under the influence of two controls U(. and V(.. Base on this, strategies were constructed. Hence we determine the optimal strategy for a control say U(. under a perturbation generated by the second control V(. within a given manifold M.

  16. Performance Analysis of an Island Power System Including Wind Turbines Operating under Random Wind Speed


    Meng-Jen Chen; Yu-Chi Wu; Guo-Tsai Liu; Sen-Feng Lin


    With continuous rise of oil price, how to develop alternative energy source has become a hot topic around the world. This study discussed the dynamic characteristics of an island power system operating under random wind speed lower than nominal wind speeds of wind turbines. The system primarily consists of three diesel engine power generation systems, three constant-speed variable-pitch wind turbines, a small hydraulic induction generation system, and lumped static loads. Detailed models b...

  17. Challenging pseudoscientific and paranormal beliefs held by some pre-service primary teachers (United States)

    Happs, John C.


    The widespread public acceptance of many paranormal and pseudoscientific claims should be of some concern to science educators who are striving to produce a scientifically literate community. There is ample evidence to show that students at all levels of our education system believe in aspects of pseudoscience based on claims and assumptions that are in conflict with accumulated scientific knowledge and a rigorous methodology. A survey was designed to assess primary and secondary science teacher-trainees' views. Afterwards 60 students were introduced to the notion of a ‘fair test’ and what constitutes ‘evidence’. Demonstrations of psychic powers were provided and a video shown of professional water-diviners repeatedly failing to locate water under controlled conditions. A re-survey, 3 months later, indicated a rejection of many prior beliefs. However, almost half of the group retained their beliefs in miracles and E.S.P. whilst more than 40% retained their belief in visitors from outer space and that the solar system was created by a supernatural force.

  18. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings


    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  19. Confidence in one's social beliefs: implications for belief justification. (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri


    Philosophers commonly define knowledge as justified true beliefs. A heated debate exists, however, about what makes a belief justified. In this article, we examine the question of belief justification from a psychological perspective, focusing on the subjective confidence in a belief that the person has just formed. Participants decided whether to accept or reject a proposition depicting a social belief, and indicated their confidence in their choice. The task was repeated six times, and choice latency was measured. The results were analyzed within a Self-Consistency Model (SCM) of subjective confidence. According to SCM, the decision to accept or reject a proposition is based on the on-line sampling of representations from a pool of representations associated with the proposition. Respondents behave like intuitive statisticians who infer the central tendency of a population based on a small sample. Confidence depends on the consistency with which the belief was supported across the sampled representations, and reflects the likelihood that a new sample will yield the same decision. The results supported the assumption of a commonly shared population of representations associated with each proposition. Based on this assumption, analyses of within-person consistency and cross-person consensus provided support for the model. As expected, choices that deviated from the person's own modal judgment or from the consensually held judgment took relatively longer to form and were associated with relatively lower confidence, presumably because they were based on non-representative samples. The results were discussed in relation to major epistemological theories--foundationalism, coherentism and reliabilism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outdoor performance of a reflective type 3D LCPV system under different climatic conditions (United States)

    Baig, Hasan; Siviter, Jonathan; Maria, Elena Ana; Montecucco, Andrea; Li, Wenguang; Paul, Manosh; Sweet, Tracy; Gao, Min; Mullen, Paul A.; Knox, Andrew R.; Mallick, Tapas


    Concentrating sunlight and focusing on smaller solar cells increases the power output per unit solar cell area. In the present study, we highlight the design of a low concentrating photovoltaic (LCPV) system and its performance in different test conditions. The system essentially consists of a reflective type 3.6× cross compound parabolic concentrator (CCPC) designed for an acceptance angle of ± 30°, coupled with square shaped laser grooved buried contact (LGBC) silicon solar cells. A heat exchanger is also integrated with the PV system which extracts the thermal energy rejected by the solar cells whilst maintaining its temperature. Indoor characterization is carried out to evaluate the system performance under standard conditions. Results showed a power ratio of 3.12 and an optical efficiency of 73%. The system is placed under outdoor environment on a south facing roof at Penryn, UK with a fixed angular tilt of 50°. The high angular acceptance of the system allows collection of sunlight over a wider range. Results under different climatic conditions are presented and compared with a non-concentrating system under similar conditions. On an average, the LCPV system was found to collect an average of 2.54 times more solar energy than a system without the concentrator.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM


    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  2. The ecology of religious beliefs. (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D


    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species.

  3. The ecology of religious beliefs (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.


    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  4. Belief Propagation for Probabilistic Slow Feature Analysis (United States)

    Omori, Toshiaki; Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Okada, Masato


    Slow feature analysis (SFA) is a time-series analysis method for extracting slowly-varying latent features from multi-dimensional data. A recent study proposed a probabilistic framework of SFA using the Bayesian statistical framework. However, the conventional probabilistic framework of SFA can not accurately extract the slow feature in noisy environments since its marginal likelihood function was approximately derived under the assumption that there exists no observation noise. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic framework of SFA with rigorously derived marginal likelihood function. Here, we rigorously derive the marginal likelihood function of the probabilistic framework of SFA by using belief propagation. We show using numerical data that the proposed probabilistic framework of SFA can accurately extract the slow feature and underlying parameters for the latent dynamics simultaneously even under noisy environments.

  5. Construção e validação de escala de crenças sobre o sistema treinamento Development and validation of a training system beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Aparecida de Freitas


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a construção e validação da escala de crenças sobre o sistema de treinamento. Os itens foram formulados a partir do Modelo MAIS (Borges-Andrade, 1982 aplicado à avaliação de treinamento, das escalas de cinismo organizacional (Tesluk, Farr, Mathieu, & Vance, 1995 e das crenças que as pessoas possuem sobre treinamento descritas na revisão de Rousseau (1997. Crenças são vistas como os aspectos cognitivos relacionados a um objeto (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Foram criados 35 itens, que passaram por processo de validação semântica e estatística no Banco do Brasil. Na validação estatística, realizada com 327 casos, utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e análise fatorial (PAF, rotação oblíqua. Os resultados dessas análises indicaram a existência de três fatores, com índices psicométricos adequados e conteúdos consistentes com o modelo teórico adotado, o que sugere a validade interna do instrumento. Possibilidades de intervenção nas organizações com o uso dessa escala também são discutidas.This paper focuses on the development and validation of a scale for measuring beliefs on the training system. The MAIS Model (Borges-Andrade, 1982 applied to training evaluation, the Organizational Cynicism Scales (Tesluk, Farr, Mathieu, & Vance, 1995 and the beliefs people hold on training, described in Rousseau's (1997 review, have been used as a basis for formulating the scale items. Beliefs are viewed as cognitive aspects related to an object (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Thirty-five items have been formulated and semantically and statistically validated in Banco do Brasil. For statistical validation, 327 cases have been collected and principal components analysis and factor analysis (PAF, oblimin rotation have been used. The results have indicated the existence of three factors, with adequate psychometric indexes. Their content has been found to be consistent with the adopted theoretical model. These results

  6. Distribution of mycorrhizal fungal spores in soils under agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Boddington, C.L.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Kuyper, T.W.


    Deep-rooting trees in agroforestry systems may promote distribution of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at deeper soil levels. We investigated the vertical distribution of AMF spores in Oxisols under agroforestry and monocultural (unshaded) coffee systems in on-farm experiments (

  7. Soil microbial communities under cacao agroforestry and cover crop systems in Peru (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) trees are grown in tropical regions worldwide for chocolate production. We studied the effects of agroforestry management systems and cover cropping on soil microbial communities under cacao in two different replicated field experiments in Peru. Two agroforestry systems, Imp...

  8. Performance of HSPA Vertical Sectorization System under Semi-Deterministic Propagation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Makinen, Jarmo; Stoermer, Wolfgang


    The performance of the Vertical Sectorization (VS) system has been evaluated previously using an empirical propagation model and a regular network layout. In this paper, our aim is to investigate the gain of the VS system under a more realistic scenario. A semi-deterministic path loss model run o...

  9. Comparison of Polygonum aviculare L. seedling survival under different tillage systems in Mediterranean dryland agroecosystems (United States)

    Verdú, Antoni M. C.; Teresa Mas, M.


    Weed community shifts in agroecosystems are influenced by multiple factors. Among them, tillage and crop rotation are very important. Polygonum aviculare survival at early plant stages and biomass and density at harvest time were compared under three tillage systems (conventional, CT; minimum, MT; and no tillage, NT). Field studies were conducted from 1997-1998 to 2000-2001, during a crop rotation (pea-wheat-wheat-barley). The layout of the tillage systems was not randomized, which led to confusion between the tillage effect and the site effect, although all three tillage systems were implemented as of 1993-1994 and the same agricultural practices had been employed in the entire field between 1981-1982 and 1992-1993. Seedling mortality was analysed in two monitored cohorts (2000 and 2001) using a generalized linear model of binomial probability distribution with a complementary log-log link function. Analyses of variance considering tillage system (or site) and block were performed on: (1) aboveground biomass at the harvest time of the four crops; (2) density and mean plant biomass at the end of the first two crops; (3) seedling density registered twice during the 1998-1999 campaign. The expected changes to estimated mortality showed that seedlings under NT had greater probabilities of failure than those growing under the other two tillage systems. These differences were found considering the tillage system apart from the crop and the accumulated precipitation effects, which also strongly affects seedling survival. Density, 1999-2000 biomass and 2000-2001 biomass were different under different tillage systems ( P density occurring under NT and the lowest values of biomass under MT. Mean seedling densities were similar between CT and MT, but both were higher than densities under NT.

  10. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty (United States)

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng


    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  11. Reflection on Quality Assurance System of Higher Vocational Education under Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinlan


    Full Text Available Big data has the features like Volume, Variety, Value and Velocity. Here come the new opportunities and challenges for construction of Chinese quality assurance system of higher vocational education under big data era. There are problems in current quality assurance system of higher vocational education, such as imperfect main body, non-formation of internally and externally incorporated quality assurance system, non-scientific security standard and insufficiency in security investment. The construction of higher vocational education under big data era requires a change in the idea of quality assurance system construction to realize the multiple main bodies and multiple layers development trend for educational quality assurance system, and strengthen the construction of information platform for quality assurance system.

  12. Passivity-Based Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator System under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Huang


    Full Text Available According to the theory of passivity-based control (PBC, this paper establishes a port-controlled Hamiltonian system with dissipation (PCHD model for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG system under unbalanced grid voltage conditions and proposes a method of interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC of the system under such conditions. By using this method, the rotor-side converter and grid-side converter can be controlled simultaneously in order to improve fault ride-through capability of the DFIG system. Simulation results indicate that this IDA-PBC strategy effectively suppresses fluctuations of output current and power in the DFIG system during unbalanced grid voltage sag/swell, enhances dynamic performance, and improves the robustness of the system.

  13. Belief Bisimulation for Hidden Markov Models Logical Characterisation and Decision Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming; Zhang, Lijun


    This paper establishes connections between logical equivalences and bisimulation relations for hidden Markov models (HMM). Both standard and belief state bisimulations are considered. We also present decision algorithms for the bisimilarities. For standard bisimilarity, an extension of the usual...... partition refinement algorithm is enough. Belief bisimilarity, being a relation on the continuous space of belief states, cannot be described directly. Instead, we show how to generate a linear equation system in time cubic in the number of states....

  14. Reflection on Quality Assurance System of Higher Vocational Education under Big Data Era


    Jiang Xinlan


    Big data has the features like Volume, Variety, Value and Velocity. Here come the new opportunities and challenges for construction of Chinese quality assurance system of higher vocational education under big data era. There are problems in current quality assurance system of higher vocational education, such as imperfect main body, non-formation of internally and externally incorporated quality assurance system, non-scientific security standard and insufficiency in security investment. The c...

  15. The Effects of Belief Change on Prior and Consequent Beliefs. (United States)

    Donahue, Michael J.; Jaccard, James

    The effect of certain methodological changes on the fit of the Wyer subjective probability model and the effect of belief change on cognitive structure were investigated. Using syllogistically-related proposition sets of the form "A,""If A then B,""If not A then B,""B," it was found that certain…

  16. EAST-AIA deployment under vacuum: Calibration of laser diagnostic system using computer vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng; Wu, Zhenwei; Li, Yingying; Sun, Yongjun; Zheng, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Bruno, Vincent; Eric, Villedieu [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    Highlights: • The first deployment of the EAST articulated inspection arm robot under vacuum is presented. • A computer vision based approach to measure the laser spot displacement is proposed. • An experiment on the real EAST tokamak is performed to validate the proposed measure approach, and the results shows that the measurement accuracy satisfies the requirement. - Abstract: For the operation of EAST tokamak, it is crucial to ensure that all the diagnostic systems are in the good condition in order to reflect the plasma status properly. However, most of the diagnostic systems are mounted inside the tokamak vacuum vessel, which makes them extremely difficult to maintain under high vacuum condition during the tokamak operation. Thanks to a system called EAST articulated inspection arm robot (EAST-AIA), the examination of these in-vessel diagnostic systems can be performed by an embedded camera carried by the robot. In this paper, a computer vision algorithm has been developed to calibrate a laser diagnostic system with the help of a monocular camera at the robot end. In order to estimate the displacement of the laser diagnostic system with respect to the vacuum vessel, several visual markers were attached to the inner wall. This experiment was conducted both on the EAST vacuum vessel mock-up and the real EAST tokamak under vacuum condition. As a result, the accuracy of the displacement measurement was within 3 mm under the current camera resolution, which satisfied the laser diagnostic system calibration.

  17. EAST-AIA deployment under vacuum: Calibration of laser diagnostic system using computer vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng; Wu, Zhenwei; Li, Yingying; Sun, Yongjun; Zheng, Lei; Bruno, Vincent; Eric, Villedieu


    Highlights: • The first deployment of the EAST articulated inspection arm robot under vacuum is presented. • A computer vision based approach to measure the laser spot displacement is proposed. • An experiment on the real EAST tokamak is performed to validate the proposed measure approach, and the results shows that the measurement accuracy satisfies the requirement. - Abstract: For the operation of EAST tokamak, it is crucial to ensure that all the diagnostic systems are in the good condition in order to reflect the plasma status properly. However, most of the diagnostic systems are mounted inside the tokamak vacuum vessel, which makes them extremely difficult to maintain under high vacuum condition during the tokamak operation. Thanks to a system called EAST articulated inspection arm robot (EAST-AIA), the examination of these in-vessel diagnostic systems can be performed by an embedded camera carried by the robot. In this paper, a computer vision algorithm has been developed to calibrate a laser diagnostic system with the help of a monocular camera at the robot end. In order to estimate the displacement of the laser diagnostic system with respect to the vacuum vessel, several visual markers were attached to the inner wall. This experiment was conducted both on the EAST vacuum vessel mock-up and the real EAST tokamak under vacuum condition. As a result, the accuracy of the displacement measurement was within 3 mm under the current camera resolution, which satisfied the laser diagnostic system calibration.

  18. Nurses' beliefs and self-reported practices related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients. (United States)

    Wysong, Peggy Rupp


    This study explored the beliefs and self-reported practices of nurses related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients. A convenience sample of 74 nurses from one Midwestern community hospital responded to a researcher-developed questionnaire based on established pain standards and clinical practice recommendations. Areas of nonverbal pain assessment beliefs and practices with low scores were identified. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests showed a significant difference in belief scores based on unit worked. No significant differences in beliefs or practices were found based on age, years of experience, or degree. Paired t tests showed significant differences between general pain beliefs and nonverbal pain beliefs, between general pain beliefs and practices, and between nonverbal pain beliefs and practices. Additional testing using Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated that only three out of seven questions relating to beliefs were significantly correlated with similar questions related to practices. Good reliability of the instrument was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha coefficient α = 0.82. Recommendations include further education for hospital nurses related to pain assessment standards in nonverbal patients, as well as utilization of techniques to integrate this knowledge into nurses' belief systems and practice environment. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Peoples' Belief, Attitude, and Practice in the Use of Insecticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effort made to control malaria seems somewhat under the control of those people living in the malarious areas. Moreover, the tendency seems to shift from cure to prevention as malaria doesn't have effective vaccine or effective drug for mass chemoprophylaxis. Thus, this study was designed to assess the belief, attitude ...

  20. GUARANTEED LOAN SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: Checklist for Reviewing Systems Under the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...), in Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-127, Financial Management Systems, and in OMB s Revised Implementation Guidance for the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act (FFMIA...

  1. Inclusive education: a case of beliefs competing for implementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by Lewin's theory of planned change, the study identified four belief systems which influenced the way inclusive education was both understood ... systems in the implementation of inclusion in South Africa. ... light of this, the expectation would be that all children of a particular religion would be welcomed with open arms.

  2. Rational Irrationality: Modeling Climate Change Belief Polarization Using Bayesian Networks. (United States)

    Cook, John; Lewandowsky, Stephan


    Belief polarization is said to occur when two people respond to the same evidence by updating their beliefs in opposite directions. This response is considered to be "irrational" because it involves contrary updating, a form of belief updating that appears to violate normatively optimal responding, as for example dictated by Bayes' theorem. In light of much evidence that people are capable of normatively optimal behavior, belief polarization presents a puzzling exception. We show that Bayesian networks, or Bayes nets, can simulate rational belief updating. When fit to experimental data, Bayes nets can help identify the factors that contribute to polarization. We present a study into belief updating concerning the reality of climate change in response to information about the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW). The study used representative samples of Australian and U.S. Among Australians, consensus information partially neutralized the influence of worldview, with free-market supporters showing a greater increase in acceptance of human-caused global warming relative to free-market opponents. In contrast, while consensus information overall had a positive effect on perceived consensus among U.S. participants, there was a reduction in perceived consensus and acceptance of human-caused global warming for strong supporters of unregulated free markets. Fitting a Bayes net model to the data indicated that under a Bayesian framework, free-market support is a significant driver of beliefs about climate change and trust in climate scientists. Further, active distrust of climate scientists among a small number of U.S. conservatives drives contrary updating in response to consensus information among this particular group. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems networks of plausible inference

    CERN Document Server

    Pearl, Judea


    Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertainty--and offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provid

  4. Neural Correlates of Belief and Emotion Attribution in Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F


    Impaired mental state attribution is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined the extent to which the core neural system of mental state attribution is involved in mental state attribution, focusing on belief attribution and emotion attribution. Fifteen schizophrenia outpatients and 14 healthy controls performed two mental state attribution tasks in the scanner. In a Belief Attribution Task, after reading a short vignette, participants were asked infer either the belief of a character (a false belief condition) or a physical state of an affair (a false photograph condition). In an Emotion Attribution Task, participants were asked either to judge whether character(s) in pictures felt unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral emotion (other condition) or to look at pictures that did not have any human characters (view condition). fMRI data were analyzing focusing on a priori regions of interest (ROIs) of the core neural systems of mental state attribution: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and precuneus. An exploratory whole brain analysis was also performed. Both patients and controls showed greater activation in all four ROIs during the Belief Attribution Task than the Emotion Attribution Task. Patients also showed less activation in the precuneus and left TPJ compared to controls during the Belief Attribution Task. No significant group difference was found during the Emotion Attribution Task in any of ROIs. An exploratory whole brain analysis showed a similar pattern of neural activations. These findings suggest that while schizophrenia patients rely on the same neural network as controls do when attributing beliefs of others, patients did not show reduced activation in the key regions such as the TPJ. Further, this study did not find evidence for aberrant neural activation during emotion attribution or recruitment of compensatory brain regions in schizophrenia.

  5. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze


    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  6. The psychology of participation and interest in smart energy systems : Comparing the value-belief-norm theory and the value-identity-personal norm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda


    Environmental problems can be reduced if people would participate in smart energy systems. Little is known about which factors motivate people to actually participate in smart energy systems. We tested the factors that influence individuals’ interest and actual participation in smart energy systems.

  7. Generator Rescheduling under Congested Power System with Wind Integrated Competitive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhan Gope


    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy like wind or solar energy creates a huge pressure to the system operator (SO to ensure the congestion free transmission network under deregulated power market. Congestion Management (CM with integration of wind farm in double auction electricity market are described in this work to minimize fuel cost, system losses and locational marginal price (LMP of the system. Location of Wind Farm (WF is identified based by using Bus sensitivity factor (BSF, which is also used for selection of load bus for double auction bidding (DAB. The impacts of wind farm in congested power system under deregulated environment have been investigated in this work. Modified 39-bus New England test system is used for demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP.

  8. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda. (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira


    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  9. Electric-power systems planning and greenhouse-gas emission management under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.


    Highlight: ►A multistage stochastic integer programming model is developed for planning electric-power systems. ►Uncertain and dynamic information can be incorporated within a multilayer scenario tree. ►This can help minimize system cost under random energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement goal. ►Results can support decisions of facility expansion, electricity supply and GHG mitigation. - Abstract: In this study, a multistage interval-stochastic integer programming model is formulated for managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and planning electric-power systems under uncertainty. The developed model can reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of energy systems. Besides, the model can be used for answering questions related to types, times, demands and mitigations of energy systems planning practices, with the objective of minimizing system cost over a long-time planning horizon. The solutions can help generate electricity-generation schemes and capacity-expansion plans under different GHG-mitigation options and electricity-demand levels. Tradeoffs among system cost, energy security, and emission management can also be tackled. A high system cost will increase renewable energy supply and reduce GHG emission, while a desire for a low cost will run into risks of a high energy deficiency and a high GHG emission.

  10. Irrigation, Planting Date And Intra-Row Spacing Effects On Soybean Grown Under Dry Farming Systems


    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل; Khalifa, F. M.


    Two soybean cultivars (Glycine maxima (L) Merr.) differing in maturity period, leaf size and stem height were sown five times at fortnight intervals during the rainy season at four intra—row spacings under supplementary irrigation at one site and under rainfed conditions at another site in the central rainlands of Sudan. Cultivars responded differently to the system of production. Sowing date and moisture availability were the main factors controlling soybean production. The late maturing cul...

  11. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien


    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  12. A Duopoly Manufacturers’ Game Model Considering Green Technology Investment under a Cap-and-Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng


    Full Text Available This research studied the duopoly manufacturers’ decision-making considering green technology investment and under a cap-and-trade system. It was assumed there were two manufacturers producing products which were substitutable for one another. On the basis of this assumption, the optimal production capacity, price, and green technology investment of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system were obtained. The increase or decrease of the optimal production quantity of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system was decided by their green technology level. The increase of the optimal price as well as the increase or decrease of the maximum expected profits were decided by the initial carbon emission quota granted by the government. Our research indicates that the carbon emission of unit product is inversely proportional to the market share of an enterprise and becomes an important index to measure the core competitiveness of an enterprise.

  13. Response analysis of curved bridge with unseating failure control system under near-fault ground motions (United States)

    Zuo, Ye; Sun, Guangjun; Li, Hongjing


    Under the action of near-fault ground motions, curved bridges are prone to pounding, local damage of bridge components and even unseating. A multi-scale fine finite element model of a typical three-span curved bridge is established by considering the elastic-plastic behavior of piers and pounding effect of adjacent girders. The nonlinear time-history method is used to study the seismic response of the curved bridge equipped with unseating failure control system under the action of near-fault ground motion. An in-depth analysis is carried to evaluate the control effect of the proposed unseating failure control system. The research results indicate that under the near-fault ground motion, the seismic response of the curved bridge is strong. The unseating failure control system perform effectively to reduce the pounding force of the adjacent girders and the probability of deck unseating.

  14. Intuition, affect, and peculiar beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, M.T.; Berenbaum, H.; Topper, M.


    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of

  15. Consensus Theory and Religious Belief. (United States)

    Bineham, Jeffery L.


    Refutes David Tukey's argument that the consensus theory of epistemic rhetoric reduces spiritual experience to a social construct which denies the possibility of a divine reality. Examines Walter Rauschenbusch's "A Theology for the Social Gospel" to prove that consensus theory accounts for religious beliefs, providing a useful framework…

  16. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.


    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  17. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie


    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  18. Children's Beliefs Concerning School Transition (United States)

    Eskelä-Haapanen, Sirpa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija


    This study examines preschoolers' beliefs concerning their transfer into primary education. Data from 1386 Finnish preschoolers were obtained using interviews with parents at the end of the children's preschool year. The qualitative content analysis revealed categories, which encompassed peer relationships, relationship with teacher, learning,…

  19. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun


    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: e.g. 2013 The Author(s).

  20. Soil macrofauna communities under plant cover in a no-till system in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phakphoom Tantachasatid


    Full Text Available The impact of no-till cropping systems with plant cover on soil macrofauna communities was assessed according to their abundance and biomass. The study was carried out in northeastern Thailand under a conventional cropping system (plow-based tillage, no-till cropping systems with plant cover (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Stylosanthes guianensis, S. guianensis associated with B. ruziziensis, rice straw and under a natural dipterocarp forest. Soil macrofauna populations were sampled in 2007 (June and October during the rainy season and at a beginning of the dry season, respectively. The results revealed that in the short term, the biological compartment responded quickly to the presence of plant cover, as shown by a significant increase in soil macrofauna abundance and total biomass. The highest mean total abundance (MTA of 4224 individuals/m2 at the end of planting period (October 2007 was observed under S. guianensis cover and also the highest mean total soil macrofauna biomass (MTB of 14.63 g/m2 was observed in the forest system in the same period. However, in the system of cultivation, the highest MTB of 11.33 g/m2 was observed under S. guianensis cover. Moreover, the change rate of soil macrofauna MTA was the highest under S. guianensis cover (+751.61% and the change rate of soil macrofauna MTB revealed that this change rate was highest in forest (+430.07%. However, in the other systems of cultivation, the highest change rate of MTB was under S. guianensis cover (+12.96%.

  1. Beliefs and expectancies in legal decision making: an introduction to the Special Issue. (United States)

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Bornstein, Brian H


    This introduction describes what the co-editors believe readers can expect in this Special Issue. After beliefs and expectancies are defined, examples of how these constructs influence human thought, feeling, and behavior in legal settings are considered. Brief synopses are provided for the Special Issue papers on beliefs and expectancies regarding alibis, children's testimony behavior, eyewitness testimony, confessions, sexual assault victims, judges' decisions in child protection cases, and attorneys' beliefs about jurors' perceptions of juvenile offender culpability. Areas for future research are identified, and readers are encouraged to discover new ways that beliefs and expectancies operate in the legal system.

  2. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants. (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can


    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  3. Delusionality of body image beliefs in eating disorders. (United States)

    Konstantakopoulos, George; Varsou, Eleytheria; Dikeos, Dimitris; Ioannidi, Nikoleta; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Papadimitriou, George; Oulis, Panagiotis


    Preoccupation with body shape and weight is characteristic of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Despite their diagnostic and clinical significance, evidence on the nature of the underlying beliefs is relatively scarce. We used the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) to assess the degree of delusionality of body image beliefs in seventy-two participants: 39 with anorexia and 33 with bulimia nervosa. We also investigated the relationship between body image delusionality and other clinical characteristics in eating disorders. Only patients with anorexia nervosa (28.8%) had delusional body image beliefs, whereas overvalued ideas appeared to be frequent in both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Body image delusionality in anorexia nervosa was associated with restrictive eating pathology, early onset of the disorder and body dissatisfaction, whereas in the bulimia group it was linked to shorter duration of the illness, more intense dieting behaviors and specific psychological factors: ineffectiveness and maturity fears. Results suggest that a delusional variant of anorexia nervosa represents the one end of a continuum of insight among patients with eating disorders. Categorization of patients with eating disorders based on the level of delusionality of body image beliefs could facilitate further research on the role of insight deficits in these disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation. (United States)

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota


    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.

  5. Latino mothers' beliefs about child weight and family health. (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung E; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri


    There is a need to address cultural beliefs and parenting practices regarding childhood obesity to design effective weight-control programmes for overweight/obese US Latino children. The purpose of the current study was to explore cultural beliefs about children's weight, understand parent perceptions on feeding their children, and explore barriers that interfere with a healthy lifestyle. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish with forty-one Latino mothers of elementary school-age children from San Diego County, California between April and May 2011. Cultural viewpoints about overweight status among children and barriers to leading a healthy lifestyle were explored. Focus group discussions were analysed based on a priori and emergent themes. Three themes were identified: (i) mothers' cultural beliefs about health that are barriers to family health; (ii) mothers as primary caretakers of their family's health; and (iii) attitudes about targeting children's weight. Mothers acknowledged the idea that 'chubby is better' is a misperception, yet having a 'chubby' child was preferred and even accepted. Mothers described fatalistic beliefs that contradicted existing knowledge of chronic disease and daily demands of Western culture as barriers to practising healthy behaviours in the home as the family caretaker. These findings may be used to inform more culturally appropriate research to address US Latino health. Increasing awareness of cultural beliefs and daily circumstance could help to address obesity more directly and thereby overcome some of the potential underlying barriers that might exist when involving the Latino immigrant families in obesity treatment and prevention.

  6. Using forced choice to test belief bias in syllogistic reasoning. (United States)

    Trippas, Dries; Verde, Michael F; Handley, Simon J


    In deductive reasoning, believable conclusions are more likely to be accepted regardless of their validity. Although many theories argue that this belief bias reflects a change in the quality of reasoning, distinguishing qualitative changes from simple response biases can be difficult (Dube, Rotello, & Heit, 2010). We introduced a novel procedure that controls for response bias. In Experiments 1 and 2, the task required judging which of two simultaneously presented syllogisms was valid. Surprisingly, there was no evidence for belief bias with this forced choice procedure. In Experiment 3, the procedure was modified so that only one set of premises was viewable at a time. An effect of beliefs emerged: unbelievable conclusions were judged more accurately, supporting the claim that beliefs affect the quality of reasoning. Experiments 4 and 5 replicated and extended this finding, showing that the effect was mediated by individual differences in cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. Although the positive findings of Experiments 3-5 are most relevant to the debate about the mechanisms underlying belief bias, the null findings of Experiments 1 and 2 offer insight into how the presentation of an argument influences the manner in which people reason. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Mixed Methods Approach to Code Stakeholder Beliefs in Urban Water Governance (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Henry, A.; Pivo, G.


    What is a reliable way to code policies to represent belief systems? The Advocacy Coalition Framework posits that public policy may be viewed as manifestations of belief systems. Belief systems include both ontological beliefs about cause-and-effect relationships and policy effectiveness, as well as normative beliefs about appropriate policy instruments and the relative value of different outcomes. The idea that belief systems are embodied in public policy is important for urban water governance because it trains our focus on belief conflict; this can help us understand why many water-scarce cities do not adopt innovative technology despite available scientific information. To date, there has been very little research on systematic, rigorous methods to measure the belief system content of public policies. We address this by testing the relationship between beliefs and policy participation to develop an innovative coding framework. With a focus on urban water governance in Tucson, Arizona, we analyze grey literature on local water management. Mentioned policies are coded into a typology of common approaches identified in urban water governance literature, which include regulation, education, price and non-price incentives, green infrastructure and other types of technology. We then survey local water stakeholders about their perceptions of these policies. Urban water governance requires coordination of organizations from multiple sectors, and we cannot assume that belief development and policy participation occur in a vacuum. Thus, we use a generalized exponential random graph model to test the relationship between perceptions and policy participation in the Tucson water governance network. We measure policy perceptions for organizations by averaging across their respective, affiliated respondents and generating a belief distance matrix of coordinating network participants. Similarly, we generate a distance matrix of these actors based on the frequency of their

  8. Immune Organs and Haemopoietic System Under Modelling of the Mission Factors (United States)

    Sapin, M. R.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Erofeeva, L. M.; Grigorenko, D. E.; Fedorenko, B. S.


    Literary and experimental data on the character of changes in immune organs and lymphoid tissue of respiratory system and digestive system in laboratory animals during the mission factors model are given. Inhibition of reproductive function in bone marrow, thymus and spleen under irradiation of gamma-rays and accelerated carbon ions, tensity of immune response in the lymphoid structures of larynx, trachea and bronchi under the influence of acetaldehyde vapors and decrease of lymphoid tissue square on histological series in spleen and small intestine with an increase of concentration of microbial bodies in the drinking water were estimated.

  9. Application of growing nested Petri nets for modeling robotic systems operating under risk (United States)

    Sorokin, E. V.; Senkov, A. V.


    The paper studies the peculiarities of modeling robotic systems engaged in mining. Existing modeling mechanisms are considered, which are based on nested Petri nets, and a new formalism of growing Petri nets is presented that allows modeling robotic systems operating under risk. Modeling is provided both for the regular operation mode and for non-standard modes in which individual elements of the system can perform uncharacteristic functions. The example shows growing Petri nets that are used for modeling extraction of flat coal seams by a robotic system consisting of several different-type autonomous robots.

  10. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Correlates of Belief Updating (United States)

    Murawski, Carsten; Bode, Stefan


    Abstract Belief updating—the process by which an agent alters an internal model of its environment—is a core function of the CNS. Recent theory has proposed broad principles by which belief updating might operate, but more precise details of its implementation in the human brain remain unclear. In order to address this question, we studied how two components of the human event-related potential encoded different aspects of belief updating. Participants completed a novel perceptual learning task while electroencephalography was recorded. Participants learned the mapping between the contrast of a dynamic visual stimulus and a monetary reward and updated their beliefs about a target contrast on each trial. A Bayesian computational model was formulated to estimate belief states at each trial and was used to quantify the following two variables: belief update size and belief uncertainty. Robust single-trial regression was used to assess how these model-derived variables were related to the amplitudes of the P3 and the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), respectively. Results showed a positive relationship between belief update size and P3 amplitude at one fronto-central electrode, and a negative relationship between SPN amplitude and belief uncertainty at a left central and a right parietal electrode. These results provide evidence that belief update size and belief uncertainty have distinct neural signatures that can be tracked in single trials in specific ERP components. This, in turn, provides evidence that the cognitive mechanisms underlying belief updating in humans can be described well within a Bayesian framework. PMID:26473170

  11. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology. (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel


    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  12. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; van Burg, J.C.


    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviours. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs

  13. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow


    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy concept...

  14. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie


    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  15. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN


    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  16. Loneliness and Irrational Beliefs among College Students. (United States)

    Hoglund, Collette L.; Collison, Brooke B.


    Investigated relationship between loneliness and irrational beliefs among 236 college students who completed the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and the Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). Results revealed three specific irrational beliefs (Dependency, Anxious Overconcern, and Frustration Reactivity) to be predictive of…

  17. Forward induction reasoning and correct beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perea y Monsuwé, Andrés


    All equilibrium concepts implicitly make a correct beliefs assumption, stating that a player believes that his opponents are correct about his first-order beliefs. In this paper we show that in many dynamic games of interest, this correct beliefs assumption may be incompatible with a very basic form

  18. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando


    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  19. Thinking about the thoughts of others; temporal and spatial neural activation during false belief reasoning. (United States)

    Mossad, Sarah I; AuCoin-Power, Michelle; Urbain, Charline; Smith, Mary Lou; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J


    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to understand the perspectives, mental states and beliefs of others in order to anticipate their behaviour and is therefore crucial to social interactions. Although fMRI has been widely used to establish the neural networks implicated in ToM, little is known about the timing of ToM-related brain activity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the neural processes underlying ToM, as MEG provides very accurate timing and excellent spatial localization of brain processes. We recorded MEG activity during a false belief task, a reliable measure of ToM, in twenty young adults (10 females). MEG data were recorded in a 151 sensor CTF system (MISL, Coquitlam, BC) and data were co-registered to each participant's MRI (Siemens 3T) for source reconstruction. We found stronger right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) activations in the false belief condition from 150ms to 225ms, in the right precuneus from 275ms to 375ms, in the right inferior frontal gyrus from 200ms to 300ms and the superior frontal gyrus from 300ms to 400ms. Our findings extend the literature by demonstrating the timing and duration of neural activity in the main regions involved in the "mentalizing" network, showing that activations related to false belief in adults are predominantly right lateralized and onset around 100ms. The sensitivity of MEG will allow us to determine spatial and temporal differences in the brain processes in ToM in younger populations or those who demonstrate deficits in this ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.


    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  1. Field assessment of a snap bean ozone bioindicator system under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free air system (United States)

    Ozone-sensitive (S156) and -tolerant (R123 and R331) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tested as a plant bioindicator system for detecting O3 effects at current and future levels of tropospheric O3 and atmospheric CO2 under field conditions. Plants were exposed to reciprocal combi...

  2. Adaptive Fuzzy Logic based MPPT Control for PV System Under Partial Shading Condition


    Choudhury, Subhashree; Rout, Pravat Kumar


    Partial shading causes power loss, hotspots and threatens the reliability of the Photovoltaic generation system. Moreover characteristic curves exhibit multiple peaks. Conventional MPPT techniques under this condition often fail to give optimum MPP. Focusing on the afore mentioned problem an attempt has been made to design an Adaptive Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System based Fuzzy Logic Control MPPT.The mathematical model of PV array is simulated using in MATLAB/Simulink environment.Various...

  3. Evolution of nitrate level in green lettuce conventional grown under natural conditions and aquaponic system


    Flavius Blidariu; Drasovean Alexandru; Grozea Adrian; Radulov Isidora; Lalescu Dacian


    Aquaponics integrates growing plants without soil technology with aquaculture, having an important role in recovery of nutrients from effluents. The research aimed to evaluate nitrates level in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) conventional grown under natural conditions and in integrated aquaponic system with a recirculated aquaculture system designed for pikeperch growth (Sander lucioperca). Conventional production (54 plants) has been obtained in the field without fertilizer or pesticide management...

  4. The Minitron system for growth of small plants under controlled environment conditions (United States)

    Akers, Carolyn P.; Akers, Stuart W.; Mitchell, Cary A.


    The design and operation of a system is described in which small plants can be grown under controlled environment conditions. Important features of this 'Minitron' system include precise control of temperature and CO2 concentration in a flowing atmosphere. Plants can be grown either hydroponically or in solid root support medium. For either culture method, nutrient solution or water is added from an external reservoir, altering neither atmospheric composition nor temperature equilibrium within a closed Minitron chamber.

  5. Existence of Generalized Homoclinic Solutions of Lotka-Volterra System under a Small Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Mi


    Full Text Available This paper investigates Lotka-Volterra system under a small perturbation vxx=-μ(1-a2u-vv+ϵf(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux, uxx=-(1-u-a1vu+ϵg(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux. By the Fourier series expansion technique method, the fixed point theorem, the perturbation theorem, and the reversibility, we prove that near μ=0 the system has a generalized homoclinic solution exponentially approaching a periodic solution.

  6. Optimization of Solar Water Heating System under Time and Spatial Partition Heating in Rural Dwellings


    Yanfeng Liu; Tao Li; Yaowen Chen; Dengjia Wang


    This paper proposes the application of time and spatial partition heating to a solar water heating system. The heating effect and system performance were analyzed under the continuous and whole space heating and time and spatial partition heating using TRNSYS. The results were validated by comparing with the test results of the demonstration building. Compared to continuous and whole space heating, the use of time and spatial partition heating increases the solar fraction by 16.5%, reduces th...

  7. A model system to give an insight into the behaviour of gold nanoparticles under ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjauny, Y.


    Nano-composites fabricated with ion-based techniques have a number of attractive characteristics. However, the main and most crucial difficulty in obtaining commercial NPs-based devices is the inability to produce a suitable narrow size and spatial NP distributions. The objective of this thesis is twofold: i) to go further in the description of the behavior of the ion-driven NPs and ii) to overcome the limitations related to the ion-beam techniques providing a guideline methodology to rationalize the synthesis of NPs when ion-beams are used. Thus, a model system is fabricated. It consists of chemically synthesized metallic nanoparticles sandwiched between two silica layers. We show how the ion irradiation and the temperature can be used to tune the size distribution of the embedded NPs. Moreover, we show that when an initially large NPs size distribution is considered, the study of the growth kinetic of the NPs under irradiation can be problematic. Our model system is than used to investigate in detail the behavior of the NPs under irradiation. We show that the evolution of the precipitate phase under irradiation is successfully described by an Ostwald ripening mechanism in an open system limited by the diffusion. Moreover, the concentration threshold for nucleation as well as the surface tension and the gold diffusivity in silica under irradiation is estimated. Finally, direct and inverse Ostwald ripening processes under irradiation are systematically investigated and the existing theoretical models experimentally checked. (author)

  8. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S; Dairaku, A; Komine, H; Saito, O; Sakai, N; Isizawa, T; Maruyama, I


    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  9. Efficacy of systemic bisphosphonate delivery on osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions: lessons from animal studies. (United States)

    Vohra, Fahim; Al-Rifaiy, Mohammad Qasim; Almas, Khalid; Javed, Fawad


    The aim was to systematically review the role of systemic bisphosphonate (BP) delivery on osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions. The addressed focused question was "Does systemic BP delivery enhance osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions?" PubMed/MEDLINE and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1994 up to and including December 2013 using different combinations of the following keywords: "bone to implant contact", "implant", "bisphosphonate", "osseointegration" and "osteoporosis". Review articles, case-reports, commentaries, letters to the Editor, unpublished articles and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Fifteen animal studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Osteoporotic conditions were induced via bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). BPs used in the studies were ibandronate, zoledronic acid and alendronate. Results from 12 studies showed that systemic BP delivery significantly increased bone volume and bone-to-implant contact under osteoporotic conditions. Two studies reported no significant difference in osseointegration among OVX animals with and without systemic BP delivery. In one study, systemic BP delivery negatively influenced implant osseointegration. Rough-surfaced and polished implants were used in 11 and one study respectively. In 3 studies implant surface characteristics remained unclear. Within the limits of the present study, it is concluded that systemic BP delivery enhances implant osseointegration in animals with induced osteoporotic conditions. However, in a clinical scenario, the potential risk of BP related ONJ in osteoporotic patients undergoing dental implant therapy cannot be disregarded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical properties of a rhodic haplustox under two sugarcane harvesting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walquíria Machado


    Full Text Available This study had the purpose of evaluating the effects of two management types of sugarcane: harvesting of burnt cane (BCH and mechanized harvesting of unburnt green cane (MCH, on some soil physical properties of a dystrophic Rhodic Haplustox. The data were then compared with results for the same soil type under native forest. A completely randomized design was used, with three treatments and 20 replications. The following characteristics were determined: organic matter, aggregate stability, soil bulk density, and porosity at depths of 0-0.20 m and soil penetration resistance. After 15 years of cultivation, there were some alterations in the soil under cane burnt before harvesting, evidenced by a drop in the weighted average diameter of stable aggregates in water and increased soil bulk density. Significant changes were also detected in total porosity and pore distribution under both harvesting systems. Critical values for penetration resistance were observed in the area under mechanized sugar cane harvesting, with a value of 4.5 MPa in the 40-55 cm layer. This value is considered high and could indicate compaction and restriction of root growth. Soil properties under the green cane (unburned management system were closest to those of the soil under native forest.

  11. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief. (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco


    People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Sensory-integration system rather than approximate number system underlies numerosity processing: A critical review. (United States)

    Gebuis, Titia; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Gevers, Wim


    It is widely accepted that human and nonhuman species possess a specialized system to process large approximate numerosities. The theory of an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) has received converging support from developmental studies, comparative experiments, neuroimaging, and computational modelling, and it is one of the most dominant and influential theories in numerical cognition. The existence of an ANS system is significant, as it is believed to be the building block of numerical development in general. The acuity of the ANS is related to future arithmetic achievements, and intervention strategies therefore aim to improve the ANS. Here we critically review current evidence supporting the existence of an ANS. We show that important shortcomings and confounds exist in the empirical studies on human and non-human animals as well as the logic used to build computational models that support the ANS theory. We conclude that rather than taking the ANS theory for granted, a more comprehensive explanation might be provided by a sensory-integration system that compares or estimates large approximate numerosities by integrating the different sensory cues comprising number stimuli. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Ethics of Belief, Cognition, and Climate Change Pseudoskepticism: Implications for Public Discourse. (United States)

    Torcello, Lawrence


    The relationship between knowledge, belief, and ethics is an inaugural theme in philosophy; more recently, under the title "ethics of belief" philosophers have worked to develop the appropriate methodology for studying the nexus of epistemology, ethics, and psychology. The title "ethics of belief" comes from a 19th-century paper written by British philosopher and mathematician W.K. Clifford. Clifford argues that we are morally responsible for our beliefs because (a) each belief that we form creates the cognitive circumstances for related beliefs to follow, and (b) we inevitably influence each other through those beliefs. This study argues that recent cognitive research supports Cliffordian insights regarding patterns of belief formation and social influence. From the confirmation offered by such research, it follows that informational accuracy holds serious ethical significance in public discourse. Although scientific and epistemological matters are not always thought to be linked to normative morality, this study builds on Clifford's initial insights to show their linkage is fundamental to inquiry itself. In turn, Clifford's ethical and epistemic outline can inform a framework grounded in "public reason" under which seemingly opposed science communication strategies (e.g., "information deficit" and "cultural cognition" models) are philosophically united. With public discourse on climate change as the key example, empirically informed and grounded strategies for science communication in the public sphere are considered. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. 60 changes in soil properties under alley cropping system of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2009 ... A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena ... This exploits the biological .... chemical properties were observed in the last two years of study (2004-2005) over the pre-planting soil result. The pH values in the C. cajan alley.

  15. [Correlation between Haemostatic and Vegetate Nervous System Parameters under Examination Stress]. (United States)

    Zhdanov, R I; Doinikova, A N; Zhdanova, S I; Chernokhvostov, Yu V; Gadzhieva, E S; Dvoenosov, V G


    The work is aimed to an assessment of the correlation between of autonomic nervous system tone and the level of reactivity of the students' cardiovascular system and hemostasis system under examination stress. It was found that the students under exam stress are characterized with high values of respiration rate and with lower ones of tidal volume. The value of respiratory minute volume decreases in male students due to the bronchoconstrictor effects of stress at the tracheobronchial tree. This finding confirms a statistically significant reduction in the flow of small, medium and large bronchi, indicating an increased parasympathetic nervous system tone. A statistically significant increase in the power of fast waves as a result of determining heart rate variability in students of both hender during the exam also testifies the activation of the vagus nerve and can be used as a marker of exam stress. While exam stress, trombocrite value decreases and only femail students show a statistically significant reduction in the platelet number and increase of their volume. The tendency to increased thrombotic events under exam stress is demonstarated, being reached statistically significant differences in the case of female students--an increase in the initial thrombosis rate. In the case of mail students, an increase of prothrombin time value is testified under exam stress.

  16. Application of a seam weld tracking system for robot welding under hyperbar conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, J.; Santos, J.F. dos; Thomas-Jeromin, J.; Szelagowski, P.; Schultheiss, G.; Seeger, G.


    It is reported about first experiences with an optical weld seam tracking system under hyperbar conditions. Thus it was possible in two compression phases of 6 and 31 bar abs to safely weld, for the first time sensor-aided, root passes (weave-bead technique) which would pass the final inspection. (MM) [de

  17. 76 FR 4651 - Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-58-000] Venice... on January 7, 2011, Venice Gathering System, L.L.C. (Venice), 1000 Louisiana, Suite 4300, Houston...) of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon in place an...

  18. 75 FR 57017 - Venice Gathering System, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-497-000] Venice... September 3, 2010, Venice Gathering System, LLC (VGS), 1000 Louisiana, Suite 4300, Houston, Texas 77002... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and VGS's blanket certificate issued in Docket No...

  19. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.


    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  20. Jaffrey, N.H. Facility to Upgrade its Wastewater Treatment Systems Under Clean Water Act Settlement (United States)

    Under the terms of a Consent Decree lodged in federal court, EMD Millipore Corp. of Jaffrey, N.H., will upgrade its on-site wastewater treatment system to comply with the terms of the company’s industrial wastewater discharge permit & prevent...

  1. Soil microbial response to glucose and phosphorus addition under agricultural systems in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT management systems alter soil nutrient availability and consequently modify soil microbial response to nutrient additions such as carbon (C and phosphorus (P. The objective of this study is to evaluate microbial response to the addition of C (glucose and P (Na2HPO4.7H2O under CT and NT in the brazilian Cerrado. In response to glucose addition, the NT system yielded higher microbial respiration rates and glucose consumption than the CT system. The best microbial response to C addition was after 0 - 12 h incubation in NT and 0 - 24 h in CT. The addition of P produced higher demand under CT than NT. After incubation, biochemical indicators such as microbial respiration, glucose consumption, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic yield confirmed the higher glucose demands under NT and higher phosphorus demands under CT. These results demonstrate that C and P addition alter significantly the microbial response, suggesting that soil microorganisms present nutrient differential demands between CT and NT management systems.

  2. Testing the robustness of two water distribution system layouts under changing drinking water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia; Blokker, M; Vreeburg, J; Vogelaar, H.; Hillegers, S; van der Hoek, J.P.


    A drinking water distribution system (DWDS) is a critical and a costly asset with a long lifetime. Drinking water demand is likely to change in the coming decades. Quantifying these changes involves large uncertainties. This paper proposes a stress test on the robustness of existing DWDS under

  3. Creating and Using a Computer Networking and Systems Administration Laboratory Built under Relaxed Financial Constraints (United States)

    Conlon, Michael P.; Mullins, Paul


    The Computer Science Department at Slippery Rock University created a laboratory for its Computer Networks and System Administration and Security courses under relaxed financial constraints. This paper describes the department's experience designing and using this laboratory, including lessons learned and descriptions of some student projects…

  4. 42 CFR 412.432 - Method of payment under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. (United States)


    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR... inpatient psychiatric facility receives payment under this subpart for inpatient operating cost and capital... without undue risk of resulting in an overpayment to the provider. (2) Frequency of payment. For...

  5. Design of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions (United States)

    Wang, H.; Lu, Q.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Zheng, Y.; Shi, L.; Shi, X.


    Supercritical CO2 has the characteristics of low viscosity, high diffusion and zero surface tension, and it is considered as a new fluid for non-polluting and non-aqueous fracturing which can be used for shale gas development. Fracturing refers to a method of utilizing the high-pressure fluid to generate fractures in the rock formation so as to improve the oil and gas flow conditions and increase the oil and gas production. In this article, a new type of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions is designed, which is based on characteristics of supercritical CO2, shale reservoir and down-hole environment. The experimental system consists of three sub-systems, including supercritical CO2 generation system, supercritical CO2 fracturing system and data analysis system. It can be used to simulate supercritical CO2 fracturing under geo-stress conditions, thus to study the rock initiation pressure, the formation of the rock fractures, fractured surface morphology and so on. The experimental system has successfully carried out a series of supercritical CO2 fracturing experiments. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the experimental system and the high efficiency of supercritical CO2 in fracturing tight rocks.

  6. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  7. Robust dynamic output feedback control for switched polytopic systems under asynchronous switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tingting


    Full Text Available The robust controller design problem for switched polytopic systems under asynchronous switching is addressed. These systems exist in many aviation applications, such as dynamical systems involving rapid variations. A switched polytopic system is established to describe the highly maneuverable technology vehicle within the full flight envelope and a robust dynamic output feedback control method is designed for the switched polytopic system. Combining the Lyapunov-like function method and the average dwell time method, a sufficient condition is derived for the switched polytopic system with asynchronous switching and data dropout to be globally, uniformly and asymptotically stable in terms of linear matrix inequality. The robust dynamic output feedback controller is then applied to the highly maneuverable technology vehicle to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the angle of attack tracking performance is acceptable over the time history and the control surface responses are all satisfying along the full flight trajectory.

  8. Power System Stabilizer Design Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Multiobjective Function Implemented Under Graphical Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouraf Djamel Eddine


    Full Text Available Power system stability considered a necessary condition for normal functioning of an electrical network. The role of regulation and control systems is to ensure that stability by determining the essential elements that influence it. This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based multiobjective function to tuning optimal parameters of Power System Stabilizer (PSS; this later is used as auxiliary to generator excitation system in order to damp electro mechanicals oscillations of the rotor and consequently improve Power system stability. The computer simulation results obtained by developed graphical user interface (GUI have proved the efficiency of PSS optimized by a Particle Swarm Optimization, in comparison with a conventional PSS, showing stable   system   responses   almost   insensitive   to   large parameter variations.Our present study was performed using a GUI realized under MATLAB in our work.

  9. A psychological perspective on god-belief as a source of well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concept), experience of their relationship with God (God-image) and understanding of life as coloured by their belief systems. The contribution of their God-belief to their sense of meaning and psychological well-being frames the tapestry of this ...

  10. A Survey Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Confidence about Teaching Early Math (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; McCray, Jennifer; Adams, Margaret; Leow, Christine


    This study reports on results from the Early Mathematics Beliefs and Confidence Survey, administered to 346 preschool teachers in a large public school system in the Midwest. Survey results depict a much more positive view of teachers' beliefs and confidence in early math teaching than previously reported. Results also suggest that teacher…

  11. "The Teacher Is an Octopus": Uncovering Preservice English Language Teachers' Prior Beliefs through Metaphor Analysis (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.


    Preservice teachers come to any teacher education course with prior experiences, knowledge and beliefs about learning and teaching. Additionally, the belief systems of preservice teachers often serve as a lens through which they view the content of the teacher education program. Consequently, it is essential that teacher educators take these prior…

  12. Soil aggregation and organic carbon of Oxisols under coffee in agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pinto Guimarães


    Full Text Available Intensive land use can lead to a loss of soil physical quality with negative impacts on soil aggregates, resistance to root penetration, porosity, and bulk density. Organic and agroforestry management systems can represent sustainable, well-balanced alternatives in the agroecosystem for promoting a greater input of organic matter than the conventional system. Based on the hypothesis that an increased input of organic matter improves soil physical quality, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of coffee production systems on soil physical properties in two Red-Yellow Oxisols (Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos in the region of Caparaó, Espirito Santo, Brazil. On Farm 1, we evaluated the following systems: primary forest (Pf1, organic coffee (Org1 and conventional coffee (Con1. On Farm 2, we evaluated: secondary forest (Sf2, organic coffee intercropped with inga (Org/In2, organic coffee intercropped with leucaena and inga (Org/In/Le2, organic coffee intercropped with cedar (Org/Ced2 and unshaded conventional coffee (Con2. Soil samples were collected under the tree canopy from the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers. Under organic and agroforestry coffee management, soil aggregation was higher than under conventional coffee. In the agroforestry system, the degree of soil flocculation was 24 % higher, soil moisture was 80 % higher, and soil resistance to penetration was lower than in soil under conventional coffee management. The macroaggregates in the organic systems, Org/In2, Org/In/Le2, and Org/Ced2 contained, on average, 29.1, 40.1 and 34.7 g kg-1 organic carbon, respectively. These levels are higher than those found in the unshaded conventional system (Con2, with 20.2 g kg-1.

  13. Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimizer based MPPT Algorithm of PV system under Partial Shaded Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhan Kumar Cherukuri


    Full Text Available Partial shading condition is one of the adverse phenomena which effects the power output of photovoltaic (PV systems due to inaccurate tracking of global maximum power point. Conventional Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT techniques like Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance and Hill Climbing can track the maximum power point effectively under uniform shaded condition, but fails under partial shaded condition. An attractive solution under partial shaded condition is application of meta-heuristic algorithms to operate at global maximum power point. Hence in this paper, an Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimizer (EGWO based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed to track the global maximum power point of PV system under partial shading condition. A Mathematical model of PV system is developed under partial shaded condition using single diode model and EGWO is applied to track global maximum power point. The proposed method is programmed in MATLAB environment and simulations are carried out on 4S and 2S2P PV configurations for dynamically changing shading patterns. The results of the proposed method are analyzed and compared with GWO and PSO algorithms. It is observed that proposed method is effective in tracking global maximum power point with more accuracy in less computation time compared to other methods. Article History: Received June 12nd 2017; Received in revised form August 13rd 2017; Accepted August 15th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Kumar, C.H.S and Rao, R.S. (2017 Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimizer Based MPPT Algorithm of PV System Under Partial Shaded Condition. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3, 203-212.

  14. General family of preferential belief removal operators - [Workshop on LORI-II

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R


    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  15. Psychosocial factors of migration: adaptation and application of the health belief model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Bruijn, B.J.; Bilsborrow, R.


    Psychosocial factors influencing behaviour play a central role in health research but seem under-explored in migration research. This is unfortunate because these factors, which include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, intentions and personality traits, provide essential and potentially effective

  16. Epistemological tensions in prospective history teachers’ beliefs about the objectives of secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.G.J.; Akkerman, S.F.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Vermunt, Jan; Wubbels, T.


    In recent decades we witnessed ongoing debates about the objectives of history education, with different underlying epistemological perspectives. This qualitative study explored prospective history teachers’ beliefs about these objectives of history education. Prospective history teachers of six

  17. Mission reliability of semi-Markov systems under generalized operational time requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyue; Hillston, Jane


    Mission reliability of a system depends on specific criteria for mission success. To evaluate the mission reliability of some mission systems that do not need to work normally for the whole mission time, two types of mission reliability for such systems are studied. The first type corresponds to the mission requirement that the system must remain operational continuously for a minimum time within the given mission time interval, while the second corresponds to the mission requirement that the total operational time of the system within the mission time window must be greater than a given value. Based on Markov renewal properties, matrix integral equations are derived for semi-Markov systems. Numerical algorithms and a simulation procedure are provided for both types of mission reliability. Two examples are used for illustration purposes. One is a one-unit repairable Markov system, and the other is a cold standby semi-Markov system consisting of two components. By the proposed approaches, the mission reliability of systems with time redundancy can be more precisely estimated to avoid possible unnecessary redundancy of system resources. - Highlights: • Two types of mission reliability under generalized requirements are defined. • Equations for both types of reliability are derived for semi-Markov systems. • Numerical methods are given for solving both types of reliability. • Simulation procedure is given for estimating both types of reliability. • Verification of the numerical methods is given by the results of simulation

  18. Method and apparatus for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina


    An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.

  19. Research on the reliability of friction system under combined additive and multiplicative random excitations (United States)

    Sun, Jiaojiao; Xu, Wei; Lin, Zifei


    In this paper, the reliability of a non-linearly damped friction oscillator under combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise excitations is investigated. The stochastic averaging method, which is usually applied to the research of smooth system, has been extended to the study of the reliability of non-smooth friction system. The results indicate that the reliability of friction system can be improved by Coulomb friction and reduced by random excitations. In particular, the effect of the external random excitation on the reliability is larger than the effect of the parametric random excitation. The validity of the analytical results is verified by the numerical results.

  20. Exploring Relationships Among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.


    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.

  1. Stability of Exponential Euler Method for Stochastic Systems under Poisson White Noise Excitations (United States)

    Li, Longsuo; Zhang, Yu


    The stability of stochastic systems under Poisson white noise excitations which based on the quantum theory is investigated in this paper. In general, the exact solution of the most of the stochastic systems with jumps is not easy to get. So it is very necessary to investigate the numerical solution of equations. On the one hand, exponential Euler method is applied to study stochastic delay differential equations, we can find the sufficient conditions for keeping mean square stability by investigating numerical method of systems. Through the comparison, we get the step-size of this method which is longer than the Euler-Maruyama method. On the other hand, mean square exponential stability of exponential Euler method for semi-linear stochastic delay differential equations under Poisson white noise excitations is confirmed.

  2. Sector-condition-based results for adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems under input saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman


    This paper addresses the design of adaptive feedback controllers for two problems (namely, stabilization and synchronization) of chaotic systems with unknown parameters by considering input saturation constraints. A novel generalized sector condition is developed to deal with the saturation nonlinearities for synthesizing the nonlinear and the adaptive controllers for the stabilization and synchronization control objectives. By application of the proposed sector condition and rigorous regional stability analysis, control and adaptation laws are formulated to guarantee local stabilization of a nonlinear system under actuator saturation. Further, simple control and adaptation laws are developed to synchronize two chaotic systems under uncertain parameters and input saturation nonlinearity. Numerical simulation results for Rössler and FitzHugh–Nagumo models are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive stabilization and synchronization control methodologies

  3. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers. (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M; Montague, P Read


    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in cigarette") strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers' choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems.

  4. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence. (United States)

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V


    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations.

  5. Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin


    Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

  6. Algebraic Structures Related to the Combination of Belief Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, Milan


    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2004), s. 245-255 ISSN 1346-0862 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 274.001 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 274 TARSKI Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * combination of belief functions * Dempster's semigroup * uncertainty processing * decision making * expert systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics scm /contents/Vol-10-5/10-50.pdf

  7. Chemical Discovery as Belief Revision. (United States)


    plausible historically. At the time Lavoisier and his followers rejected the phlogiston theory, many of the chemical community’s beliefs were linked to...though STAHLp shows how Lavoisier might have generated his basic hypothesis, it provides no convincing model of the decision to follow this lead. Our...occur. For instance, Lavoisier proposed generic patterns for combustion and calcination: combustible + oxygen-gas - oxide + caloric metal + oxygen-gas

  8. Do religious or spiritual beliefs influence bereavement? A systematic review. (United States)

    Becker, Gerhild; Xander, Carola J; Blum, Hubert E; Lutterbach, Johannes; Momm, Felix; Gysels, Marjolein; Higginson, Irene J


    Responses to bereavement may be influenced by characteristics such as age or gender, but also by factors like culture and religion. A systematic review was undertaken to assess whether spiritual or religious beliefs alter the process of grief and/or bereavement. Fifteen computerized databases were searched. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence was graded according to the standard grading system of the Clinical Outcomes Group and by the SIGNAL score. In total, 5715 persons were examined: 69% women, 87% white, 83% protestant. Ninety-four percent of studies show some positive effects of religious/spiritual beliefs on bereavement, but there was a great heterogeneity regarding included populations and outcome measurements. Available data do not allow for a definite answer on whether religious/spiritual beliefs effectively influence bereavement as most studies suffer from weaknesses in design and methodological flaws. Further research is needed. Recommendations for further research are given.

  9. Sexual Abuse Histories of Young Women in the U.S. Child Welfare System: A Focus on Trauma-Related Beliefs and Resilience (United States)

    Breno, Angela L.; Galupo, M. Paz


    This research provides descriptive data regarding sexual abuse histories of high-functioning women (N = 84; 18-25 years old) previously in the child welfare system. Placement histories of foster youth who were sexually abused were distinct. Girls with a history of sexual abuse were more likely to have been in restrictive housing and changed…

  10. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu


    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  11. Self-esteem and evaluative beliefs in paranoia. (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Cantero, Dolores; Sánchez, Alvaro; Provencio, María; Wickham, Sophie


    Psychological models have implicated negative self-esteem as an important factor underlying paranoia. However, research investigating the role of self-esteem in paranoia suffers from poor conceptual and methodological understanding, resulting in conflicting findings. Central to this problem is the use of measures investigating global self-esteem and self-evaluative beliefs interchangeably. In the present study we aimed to analyze differences in self-esteem domains and self-evaluation. The present study used interviews and questionnaires to compare a clinical sample of participants who were currently paranoid (n = 55) with healthy controls (n = 57) on global self-esteem domains and negative evaluative beliefs, in order to investigate the multi-faceted role of "the self". There was no significant difference in self-esteem domains between groups, highlighting that self-esteem is preserved in currently paranoid individuals. However, the paranoid group had significantly more negative evaluative beliefs. Interestingly, our global measures of self-esteem and measures of negative evaluative beliefs were uncorrelated, highlighting the importance of understanding the differences underlying these concepts. This study does not address dynamic aspects of self-esteem and self-evaluation. The present study provides undeniable evidence to investigate self-concept dimensions separately. These findings must be considered by researchers interested in the role of the self in the onset and maintenance of paranoia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of the Human - Operator in a Complex System Functioning Under Extreme Conditions (United States)

    Getzov, Peter; Hubenova, Zoia; Yordanov, Dimitar; Popov, Wiliam


    Problems, related to the explication of sophisticated control systems of objects, operating under extreme conditions, have been examined and the impact of the effectiveness of the operator's activity on the systems as a whole. The necessity of creation of complex simulation models, reflecting operator's activity, is discussed. Organizational and technical system of an unmanned aviation complex is described as a sophisticated ergatic system. Computer realization of main subsystems of algorithmic system of the man as a controlling system is implemented and specialized software for data processing and analysis is developed. An original computer model of a Man as a tracking system has been implemented. Model of unmanned complex for operators training and formation of a mental model in emergency situation, implemented in "matlab-simulink" environment, has been synthesized. As a unit of the control loop, the pilot (operator) is simplified viewed as an autocontrol system consisting of three main interconnected subsystems: sensitive organs (perception sensors); central nervous system; executive organs (muscles of the arms, legs, back). Theoretical-data model of prediction the level of operator's information load in ergatic systems is proposed. It allows the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of a real working operator. Simulation model of operator's activity in takeoff based on the Petri nets has been synthesized.

  13. Designing a new cropping system for high productivity and sustainable water usage under climate change (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongfei; Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Lu, Dianjun; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping


    The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L.) cropping system that replaced the traditional winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) -summer maize system. The M-M system improved yield by 14-31% compared with the conventionally managed wheat-maize system, and achieved similar yield compared with the incrementally adapted wheat-maize system with the optimized cultivars, planting dates, planting density and water management. More importantly, water usage was lower in the M-M system than in the wheat-maize system, and the rate of water usage was sustainable (net groundwater usage was ≤150 mm yr-1). Our study indicated that systematic assessment of adaptation and cropping system scale have great potential to address the multiple food supply challenges under changing climatic conditions.

  14. Vibration Control of Nuclear Power Plant Piping System Using Stockbridge Damper under Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyu Chang


    Full Text Available Generally the piping system of a nuclear power plant (NPP has to be designed for normal loads such as dead weight, internal pressure, temperature, and accidental loads such as earthquake. In the proposed paper, effect of Stockbridge damper to mitigate the response of piping system of NPP subjected to earthquake is studied. Finite element analysis of piping system with and without Stockbridge damper using commercial software SAP2000 is performed. Vertical and horizontal components of earthquakes such as El Centro, California, and Northridge are used in the piping analysis. A sine sweep wave is also used to investigate the control effects on the piping system under wide frequency range. It is found that the proposed Stockbridge damper can reduce the seismic response of piping system subjected to earthquake loading.

  15. Distributed Consensus of Stochastic Delayed Multi-agent Systems Under Asynchronous Switching. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaotai; Tang, Yang; Cao, Jinde; Zhang, Wenbing


    In this paper, the distributed exponential consensus of stochastic delayed multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics is investigated under asynchronous switching. The asynchronous switching considered here is to account for the time of identifying the active modes of multi-agent systems. After receipt of confirmation of mode's switching, the matched controller can be applied, which means that the switching time of the matched controller in each node usually lags behind that of system switching. In order to handle the coexistence of switched signals and stochastic disturbances, a comparison principle of stochastic switched delayed systems is first proved. By means of this extended comparison principle, several easy to verified conditions for the existence of an asynchronously switched distributed controller are derived such that stochastic delayed multi-agent systems with asynchronous switching and nonlinear dynamics can achieve global exponential consensus. Two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Under Pressure: Interactions between Commensal Microbiota and the Teleost Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecelia Kelly


    Full Text Available Commensal microorganisms inhabit every mucosal surface of teleost fish. At these surfaces, microorganisms directly and indirectly shape the teleost immune system. This review provides a comprehensive overview of how the microbiota and microbiota-derived products influence both the mucosal and systemic immune system of fish. The cross talk between the microbiota and the teleost immune system shifts significantly under stress or disease scenarios rendering commensals into opportunists or pathogens. Lessons learnt from germ-free fish models as well as from oral administration of live probiotics to fish highlight the vast impact that microbiota have on immune development, antibody production, mucosal homeostasis, and resistance to stress. Future studies should dissect the specific mechanisms by which different members of the fish microbiota and the metabolites they produce interact with pathogens, with other commensals, and with the teleost immune system.

  17. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe


    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  18. Bayesian belief networks: applications in ecology and natural resource management. (United States)

    R.K. McCann; B.G. Marcot; R. Ellis


    We review the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) in natural resource management and ecology. We suggest that BBNs are useful tools for representing expert knowledge of a system, evaluating potential effects of alternative management decisions, and communicating to nonexperts about resource decision issues. BBNs can be used effectively to represent uncertainty in...

  19. Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: South Africa is a multicultural, multiracial and multilingual nation with many different values, traditions and cultural practices. Different belief systems may give rise to different attitudes and practices relating to disability, which may impact on rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ...

  20. Traditional Values, Beliefs and Reliance on Indigenous Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, people from the southwest Nigeria believe and place high premium on the use of indigenous resources for warfare like some other groups in Nigeria. The sustenance of the belief in these values has largely been promoted by the inadequacy of modern policing system and the rising crime rate in our society.

  1. Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an analysis of a research project entitled Facilitating strategies of belief and value orientations in a multicultural education system. The main objective of the research project was to ascertain whether teachers could by means of participatory action research modify their own strategies relating to teaching ...

  2. Changes in the nervous system state and peripheral blood parameters under benzene intoxication during an experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Orujov


    Full Text Available Benzene is a widely spread chemical health risk factor. Our research goal was to examine the nervous system state and the blood system state under benzene intoxication during an experiment. An acute experiment was performed on 45 white mice with 5-fold poisoning with benzene; a chronic one was performed on 72 rabbits being under inhalation exposure to benzene during 4 months, its concentrations increasing and fluctuating. We determined the following blood parameters: number of reticulocytes, eosinophils, basocytes, and erythrocytes; erythrocytes sedimentation rate; blood clotting period; blood clot retraction; plasma re-calcification period; plasma tolerance to heparin; prothrombin time; prothrombin index; fibrinogen concentration; blood fibrinolytic activity; acetylcholine and choline esterase contents. We also determined adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine contents in urine. Acute experiments results revealed that one-time exposure to benzene exerted a narcotic effect on the central nervous system which had an excitation phase and inhibition phase. Under a repeat exposure to benzene animals' drug intoxication was shorter. And here neutrophils / leucocytes gradient first increased to 139.5 % from its standards value and then when down under consequent intoxications. We detected relevant changes in morphological picture of animals' peripheral blood and their central and vegetative nervous system under chronic exposure to intermittent and increasing benzene concentrations. So, our research revealed that effects exerted by benzene in small concentrations led to apparent shifts in white blood and catecholamines (adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine. We also detected certain signs that cate-cholamines endogenous reserves (dihydroxyphenylalanine were depleted and, and also signs of eosinophils-basocytes disso-ciation; such prognostic signs were considered to be unfavorable as it was exactly at that

  3. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci


    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  4. Comparison of personality beliefs between depressed patients and healthy controls. (United States)

    Yucens, Bengu; Kuru, Erkan; Safak, Yasir; Karadere, Mehmet Emrah; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan


    According to the cognitive model, the common mechanism underlying all psychological disorders is distorted or dysfunctional thoughts that affect mood and behaviors. Dysfunctional thoughts predispose an individual to depression and are among the processes that form the basis of personality traits. Elucidating the personality beliefs associated with depression and dysfunctional thoughts is important to understanding and treating depression. The aim of the present study is to determine whether depressed patients exhibited pathological personality beliefs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated which personality beliefs were more common among such depressed patients. A total of 70 patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) and diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, 70 healthy controls matched for age, marital status, and education were included in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Form and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short form (PBQ-SF) were administered to the participants. A comparison of the depression group with the healthy controls revealed higher scores in dependent, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, histrionic, paranoid, borderline, and avoidant personality subscales in the depressive group. These results suggest that personality beliefs at the pathological level are more common in depressive patients and that the detection of these beliefs would be useful for predicting the prognosis of the disease and determining appropriate treatment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei A. Bobtsov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of adaptive control for multi-channel linear stationary plants under parametric uncertainty with arbitrary relative degree of each local subsystem. The synthesized regulator provides stabilization of control plant on condition that for each local subsystem only output variables are measured with known relative degrees, but the order of linear differential equations is unknown. We consider the synthesis of control system for two-channel system for simplification of the synthesis method. The "serial compensator" algorithm is chosen as basic approach with A.L. Fradkov's passification theorem and additional filters containing high gain constants in their structure. Durability of the closed system in the group of pointed types of regulators is analyzed and the necessary and sufficient conditions for exponential convergence properties are considered. We suggest adaptive version of the "serial compensator" method from the practical point of view, where customization of the gain constant is based on the integral type algorithm. We show the results of computer simulation for the third and second order subsystems under parametric uncertainty to illustrate the proposed approach workability. It is shown that the proposed technique makes it possible to synthesize control algorithms for multichannel systems under parametric uncertainty with minimal dynamical order as compared to known foreign and domestic counterparts.

  7. A Security Level Classification Method for Power Systems under N-1 Contingency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Lu


    Full Text Available Security assessment is crucial for the reliable and secure operation of power systems. This paper proposes a security level classification (SLC method to analyze the security level of power systems both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this SLC method, security levels are graded according to a comprehensive safety index (CSI, which is defined by integrating the system margin index (SMI and load entropy. The SMI depends on the operating load and the total supply capacity (TSC under N-1 contingency, and the load entropy reflects the heterogeneity of load distribution calculated from entropy theory. In order to calculate the TSC under N-1 contingency considering both of the computational accuracy and speed, the TSC is converted into an extended conic quadratic programming (ECQP model. In addition, the load boundary vector (LBV model is established to obtain the capacity limit of each load bus, and thus detect potential risks of power systems. Finally, two modified practical power systems and the IEEE 118-bus test system are studied to validate the feasibility of the proposed SLC method.

  8. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Sameeullah


    Full Text Available The photovoltaic system is one of the renewable energy device, which directly converts solar radiation into electricity. The I-V characteristics of PV system are nonlinear in nature and under variable Irradiance and temperature, PV system has a single operating point where the power output is maximum, known as Maximum Power Point (MPP and the point varies on changes in atmospheric conditions and electrical load. Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT is used to track MPP of solar PV system for maximum efficiency operation. The various MPPT techniques together with implementation are reported in literature. In order to choose the best technique based upon the requirements, comprehensive and comparative study should be available. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various MPPT techniques for uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. Furthermore, the comparison of practically accepted and widely used techniques has been made based on features, such as control strategy, type of circuitry, number of control variables and cost. This review work provides a quick analysis and design help for PV systems. Article History: Received March 14, 2016; Received in revised form June 26th 2016; Accepted July 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Sameeullah, M. and Swarup, A. (2016. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 79-94. 

  9. Integrated assessment of water-power grid systems under changing climate (United States)

    Yan, E.; Zhou, Z.; Betrie, G.


    Energy and water systems are intrinsically interconnected. Due to an increase in climate variability and extreme weather events, interdependency between these two systems has been recently intensified resulting significant impacts on both systems and energy output. To address this challenge, an Integrated Water-Energy Systems Assessment Framework (IWESAF) is being developed to integrate multiple existing or developed models from various sectors. In this presentation, we are focusing on recent improvement in model development of thermoelectric power plant water use simulator, power grid operation and cost optimization model, and model integration that facilitate interaction among water and electricity generation under extreme climate events. A process based thermoelectric power water use simulator includes heat-balance, climate, and cooling system modules that account for power plant characteristics, fuel types, and cooling technology. The model is validated with more than 800 power plants of fossil-fired, nuclear and gas-turbine power plants with different cooling systems. The power grid operation and cost optimization model was implemented for a selected regional in the Midwest. The case study will be demonstrated to evaluate the sensitivity and resilience of thermoelectricity generation and power grid under various climate and hydrologic extremes and potential economic consequences.

  10. Gendered Pathways: How Mathematics Ability Beliefs Shape Secondary and Postsecondary Course and Degree Field Choices. (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; Nix, Samantha; Thomas, Kirby


    Do mathematics ability beliefs explain gender gaps in the physical science, engineering, mathematics, and computer science fields (PEMC) and other science fields? We leverage U.S. nationally representative longitudinal data to estimate gendered differences in girls' and boys' perceptions of mathematics ability with the most difficult or challenging material. Our analyses examine the potentially interacting effects of gender and these ability beliefs on students' pathways to scientific careers. Specifically, we study how beliefs about ability with challenging mathematics influence girls' and boys' choices to pursue PEMC degrees, evaluating educational milestones over a 6-year period: advanced science course completion in secondary school and postsecondary major retention and selection. Our findings indicate even at the same levels of observed ability, girls' mathematics ability beliefs under challenge are markedly lower than those of boys. These beliefs matter over time, potentially tripling girls' chances of majoring in PEMC sciences, over and above biological science fields, all else being equal. Implications and potential interventions are discussed.

  11. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J. [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [and others


    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  12. Characterization of a thermoelectric cooler based thermal management system under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, M.K.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C.Y.


    The performance of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) based thermal management system for an electronic packaging design that operates under a range of ambient conditions and system loads is examined using a standard model for the TEC and a thermal resistance network for the other components. Experiments were performed and it was found that the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An operating envelope is developed to characterize the TEC based thermal management system for peak and off peak operating conditions. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the number of TEC module(s) in the system, geometric factor of the thermo-elements and the cold to hot side thermal resistances on the system performance. The results showed that there is a tradeoff between the extent of off peak heat fluxes and ambient temperatures when the system can be operated at a low power penalty region and the maximum capacity of the system. - Highlights: ► A model was developed for thermal management systems using thermoelectric coolers. ► Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental results. ► An operating envelope was developed for peak and off peak conditions. ► The effect of the number of thermoelectric coolers on the system was determined.

  13. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  14. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems. (United States)

    Bu, Rongyan; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan


    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM) and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN) contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR)/cotton-rapeseed (CR) rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile), intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles), and high (90th percentile) levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C) and N (POM-N) contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN) contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively) than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively). Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials) in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  15. A coupled human-natural systems analysis of irrigated agriculture under changing climate (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.


    Exponentially growing water demands and increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes due to changes in climate and land use are challenging the sustainability of agricultural water systems. Farmers must adapt their management strategies in order to secure food production and avoid crop failures. Investigating the potential for adaptation policies in agricultural systems requires accounting for their natural and human components, along with their reciprocal interactions. Yet this feedback is generally overlooked in the water resources systems literature. In this work, we contribute a novel modeling approach to study the coevolution of irrigated agriculture under changing climate, advancing the representation of the human component within agricultural systems by using normative meta-models to describe the behaviors of groups of farmers or institutional decisions. These behavioral models, validated against observational data, are then integrated into a coupled human-natural system simulation model to better represent both systems and their coevolution under future changing climate conditions, assuming the adoption of different policy adaptation options, such as cultivating less water demanding crops. The application to the pilot study of the Adda River basin in northern Italy shows that the dynamic coadaptation of water supply and demand allows farmers to avoid estimated potential losses of more than 10 M€/yr under projected climate changes, while unilateral adaptation of either the water supply or the demand are both demonstrated to be less effective. Results also show that the impact of the different policy options varies as function of drought intensity, with water demand adaptation outperforming water supply adaptation when drought conditions become more severe.

  16. Scenario-based fitted Q-iteration for adaptive control of water reservoir systems under uncertainty (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea


    Over recent years, mathematical models have largely been used to support planning and management of water resources systems. Yet, the increasing uncertainties in their inputs - due to increased variability in the hydrological regimes - are a major challenge to the optimal operations of these systems. Such uncertainty, boosted by projected changing climate, violates the stationarity principle generally used for describing hydro-meteorological processes, which assumes time persisting statistical characteristics of a given variable as inferred by historical data. As this principle is unlikely to be valid in the future, the probability density function used for modeling stochastic disturbances (e.g., inflows) becomes an additional uncertain parameter of the problem, which can be described in a deterministic and set-membership based fashion. This study contributes a novel method for designing optimal, adaptive policies for controlling water reservoir systems under climate-related uncertainty. The proposed method, called scenario-based Fitted Q-Iteration (sFQI), extends the original Fitted Q-Iteration algorithm by enlarging the state space to include the space of the uncertain system's parameters (i.e., the uncertain climate scenarios). As a result, sFQI embeds the set-membership uncertainty of the future inflow scenarios in the action-value function and is able to approximate, with a single learning process, the optimal control policy associated to any scenario included in the uncertainty set. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic water system, consisting of a regulated lake operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. Numerical results show that the sFQI algorithm successfully identifies adaptive solutions to operate the system under different inflow scenarios, which outperform the control policy designed under historical conditions. Moreover, the sFQI policy generalizes over inflow scenarios not directly experienced during the policy design

  17. Evaluation of a Sensor System for Detecting Humans Trapped under Rubble: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang


    Full Text Available Rapid localization of injured survivors by rescue teams to prevent death is a major issue. In this paper, a sensor system for human rescue including three different types of sensors, a CO2 sensor, a thermal camera, and a microphone, is proposed. The performance of this system in detecting living victims under the rubble has been tested in a high-fidelity simulated disaster area. Results show that the CO2 sensor is useful to effectively reduce the possible concerned area, while the thermal camera can confirm the correct position of the victim. Moreover, it is believed that the use of microphones in connection with other sensors would be of great benefit for the detection of casualties. In this work, an algorithm to recognize voices or suspected human noise under rubble has also been developed and tested.

  18. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency. (United States)

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E


    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Globally COnstrained Local Function Approximation via Hierarchical Modelling, a Framework for System Modelling under Partial Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman


    be obtained. This paper presents a new approach for system modelling under partial (global) information (or the so called Gray-box modelling) that seeks to perserve the benefits of the global as well as local methodologies sithin a unified framework. While the proposed technique relies on local approximations......Local function approximations concern fitting low order models to weighted data in neighbourhoods of the points where the approximations are desired. Despite their generality and convenience of use, local models typically suffer, among others, from difficulties arising in physical interpretation...... simultaneously with the (local estimates of) function values. The approach is applied to modelling of a linear time variant dynamic system under prior linear time invariant structure where local regression fails as a result of high dimensionality....

  20. Experimental evaluation of a system for human life detection under debris (United States)

    Joju, Reshma; Konica, Pimplapure Ramya T.; Alex, Zachariah C.


    It is difficult to for the human beings to be found under debris or behind the walls in case of military applications. Due to which several rescue techniques such as robotic systems, optical devices, and acoustic devices were used. But if victim was unconscious then these rescue system failed. We conducted an experimental analysis on whether the microwaves could detect heart beat and breathing signals of human beings trapped under collapsed debris. For our analysis we used RADAR based on by Doppler shift effect. We calculated the minimum speed that the RADAR could detect. We checked the frequency variation by placing the RADAR at a fixed position and placing the object in motion at different distances. We checked the frequency variation by using objects of different materials as debris behind which the motion was made. The graphs of different analysis were plotted.