WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying belief systems

  1. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  2. A Belief Rule Based Expert System to Assess Mental Disorder under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Afif Monrat, Ahmed; Hasan, Mamun

    2016-01-01

    to ignorance, incompleteness, and randomness. So, a belief rule-based expert system (BRBES) has been designed and developed with the capability of handling the uncertainties mentioned. Evidential reasoning works as the inference engine and the belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema......Mental disorder is a change of mental or behavioral pattern that causes sufferings and impairs the ability to function in ordinary life. In psychopathology, the assessment methods of mental disorder contain various types of uncertainties associated with signs and symptoms. This study identifies...

  3. A Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Assess Bronchiolitis Suspicion from Signs and Symptoms Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karim, Rezuan; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    developed generic belief rule-based inference methodology by using evidential reasoning (RIMER) acts as the inference engine of this BRBES while belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema. The knowledge base of the system is constructed by using real patient data and expert opinion from...

  4. Beliefs underlying Women's intentions to consume alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Helen M; Obst, Patricia L; Lewis, Ioni

    2016-07-13

    Changing trends demonstrate that women, in a number of economically-developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. Exploring key targets for intervention, this study examined the extent to which underlying beliefs in relation to alcohol consumption predicted intentions to drink in three different ways (i.e. low risk drinking, frequent drinking and binge drinking). Utilizing a prospective design survey, women (N = 1069), aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their beliefs and intentions regarding alcohol consumption. Then, two weeks later, 845 of the original sample, completed a follow-up questionnaire reporting their engagement in the drinking behaviors. A mixed design ANOVA was conducted to examine potential differences between women of different age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55 years and above) and their intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Based upon The Theory of Planned Behavior, critical beliefs analyses were carried out to identify key determinants underlying intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Significant effects of age were found in relation to frequent and binge drinking. The critical beliefs analyses revealed that a number of behavioral, control and normative beliefs were significant predictors of intentions. These beliefs varied according to age group and drinking behavior. Previously unidentified key factors that influence women's decisions to drink in certain ways have been established. Overall, future interventions and public policy may be better tailored so as to address specific age groups and drinking behaviors.

  5. Collective Dynamics of Belief Evolution under Cognitive Coherence and Social Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Bollen, Johan; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Human history has been marked by social instability and conflict, often driven by the irreconcilability of opposing sets of beliefs, ideologies, and religious dogmas. The dynamics of belief systems has been studied mainly from two distinct perspectives, namely how cognitive biases lead to individual belief rigidity and how social influence leads to social conformity. Here we propose a unifying framework that connects cognitive and social forces together in order to study the dynamics of societal belief evolution. Each individual is endowed with a network of interacting beliefs that evolves through interaction with other individuals in a social network. The adoption of beliefs is affected by both internal coherence and social conformity. Our framework may offer explanations for how social transitions can arise in otherwise homogeneous populations, how small numbers of zealots with highly coherent beliefs can overturn societal consensus, and how belief rigidity protects fringe groups and cults against invasion from mainstream beliefs, allowing them to persist and even thrive in larger societies. Our results suggest that strong consensus may be insufficient to guarantee social stability, that the cognitive coherence of belief-systems is vital in determining their ability to spread, and that coherent belief-systems may pose a serious problem for resolving social polarization, due to their ability to prevent consensus even under high levels of social exposure. We argue that the inclusion of cognitive factors into a social model could provide a more complete picture of collective human dynamics.

  6. A Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Diagnose Influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Akter, Shamima

    2014-01-01

    , development and application of an expert system to diagnose influenza under uncertainty. The recently developed generic belief rule-based inference methodology by using the evidential reasoning (RIMER) approach is employed to develop this expert system, termed as Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES......). The RIMER approach can handle different types of uncertainties, both in knowledge representation, and in inference procedures. The knowledge-base of this system was constructed by using records of the real patient data along with in consultation with the Influenza specialists of Bangladesh. Practical case...

  7. Conflicting belief systems: some implications for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. van Niekerk

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the conceptions of knowledge and time within Christianity, secular humanism and traditional African religion are juxtaposed. In order to emphasise the vital role o f belief systems in the field of education, some educational implications are inferred from these different conceptions of knowledge and time. The need to create enough space within the South African education system so that parents will be able to send their children to schools where education is conducted according to their particular belief systems is also foregrounded.

  8. Stalinist ritual and belief system : Reflections on "political religion"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a critical assessment of the Political Religion Theory on the basis of a comparative analysis of the Orthodox and Stalinist belief systems and ritual. The theory works under the assumption that sacralisation of secular objects endows these objects with a transcendental, divine

  9. Beliefs Underlying Messages of Anti-Cancer-Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2018-02-26

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than in Western countries. Meanwhile, anti-cancer-screening activists take to the internet to spread their messages that cancer screening has little or no efficacy, poses substantial health risks such as side effects from radiation exposure, and that people should forgo cancer screening. We applied a qualitative approach to explore the beliefs underlying the messages of anti-cancer-screening websites, by focusing on perceived value the beliefs provided to those who held them. Methods: We conducted online searches using Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan, targeting websites we classified as “pro,” “anti,” or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach- inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis- to the textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 88 websites analyzed, five themes that correspond to beliefs were identified: destruction of common knowledge, denial of standard cancer control, education about right cancer control, education about hidden truths, and sense of superiority that only I know the truth. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (“safety of people” and “self-esteem”) to their beliefs. Conclusion: The beliefs of authors of anti-cancer-screening websites were supposed to be strong. It would be better to target in cancer screening promotion not outright screening refusers but screening hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward screening. The possible means to persuade them were discussed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. Preservice Teachers' Belief Systems toward Curricular Outcomes for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Brusseau, Timothy; Ferry, Matthew; Cothran, Donetta

    2010-01-01

    This study was grounded in the belief systems and physical activity literature and investigated preservice teachers' belief systems toward curricular outcomes for physical education programs. Preservice teachers (N = 486; men = 62%, women = 38%) from 18 U.S. colleges/universities shared their beliefs about curricular outcomes. Preservice teachers…

  11. Topological structures of complex belief systems (II): Textual materialization

    OpenAIRE

    Nescolarde Selva, Josué; Usó i Domènech, Josep Lluís

    2013-01-01

    Mythical and religious belief systems in a social context can be regarded as a conglomeration of sacrosanct rites, which revolve around substantive values that involve an element of faith. Moreover, we can conclude that ideologies, myths and beliefs can all be analyzed in terms of systems within a cultural context. The significance of being able to define ideologies, myths and beliefs as systems is that they can figure in cultural explanations. This, in turn, means that such systems can figur...

  12. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  13. Underlying assumptions and core beliefs in anorexia nervosa and dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M; Turner, H

    2000-06-01

    To investigate assumptions and beliefs in anorexia nervosa and dieting. The Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire (EDBQ), was administered to patients with anorexia nervosa, dieters and female controls. The patients scored more highly than the other two groups on assumptions about weight and shape, assumptions about eating and negative self-beliefs. The dieters scored more highly than the female controls on assumptions about weight and shape. The cognitive content of anorexia nervosa (both assumptions and negative self-beliefs) differs from that found in dieting. Assumptions about weight and shape may also distinguish dieters from female controls.

  14. 116 THE IGALA TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS BELIEF SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    supreme God called Ọjọ, but that it is a function of intercourse between ..... other deities at the same time; implicit monotheism,. i.e. a belief in a supreme deity yet no definite denial of other gods; and lastly, explicit monotheism, a belief in a ...

  15. The separate roles of the reflective mind and involuntary inhibitory control in gatekeeping paranormal beliefs and the underlying intuitive confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm, Annika M; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-08-01

    Intuitive thinking is known to predict paranormal beliefs, but the processes underlying this relationship, and the role of other thinking dispositions, have remained unclear. Study 1 showed that while an intuitive style increased and a reflective disposition counteracted paranormal beliefs, the ontological confusions suggested to underlie paranormal beliefs were predicted by individual differences in involuntary inhibitory processes. When the reasoning system was subjected to cognitive load, the ontological confusions increased, lost their relationship with paranormal beliefs, and their relationship with weaker inhibition was strongly accentuated. These findings support the argument that the confusions are mainly intuitive and that they therefore are most discernible under conditions in which inhibition is impaired, that is, when thinking is dominated by intuitive processing. Study 2 replicated the findings on intuitive and reflective thinking and paranormal beliefs. In Study 2, ontological confusions were also related to the same thinking styles as paranormal beliefs. The results support a model in which both intuitive and non-reflective thinking styles and involuntary inhibitory processes give way to embracing culturally acquired paranormal beliefs. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The Neural Correlates Underlying Belief Reasoning for Self and for Others: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qin; Wang, Qi; Li, Peng; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning is typical mental state reasoning in theory of mind (ToM). Although previous studies have explored the neural bases of belief reasoning, the neural correlates of belief reasoning for self and for others are rarely addressed. The decoupling mechanism of distinguishing the mental state of others from one's own is essential for ToM processing. To address the electrophysiological bases underlying the decoupling mechanism, the present event-related potential study compared the time course of neural activities associated with belief reasoning for self and for others when the belief belonging to self was consistent or inconsistent with others. Results showed that during a 450-600 ms period, belief reasoning for self elicited a larger late positive component (LPC) than for others when beliefs were inconsistent with each other. The LPC divergence is assumed to reflect the categorization of agencies in ToM processes.

  17. Under-vaccinated groups in Europe and their beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination; two systematic reviews.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fournet, N

    2018-01-01

    Despite effective national immunisation programmes in Europe, some groups remain incompletely or un-vaccinated (\\'under-vaccinated\\'), with underserved minorities and certain religious\\/ideological groups repeatedly being involved in outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD). Gaining insight into factors regarding acceptance of vaccination of \\'under-vaccinated groups\\' (UVGs) might give opportunities to communicate with them in a trusty and reliable manner that respects their belief system and that, maybe, increase vaccination uptake. We aimed to identify and describe UVGs in Europe and to describe beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination in the identified UVGs.

  18. The belief systems of protesting college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, M D

    1973-06-01

    A group of 29 college students who had been arrested or nominated as having participated in a street disturbance aimed at producing social change were interviewed. The interview schedule was highly similar to one which had been used to investigate attitudes toward violence in a random, representative sample of American men. The data collected from the arrestees are compared with data from college students in the national sample. This study shows that the arrestees are more likely to think that violence is necessary to produce social change than are college students generally, and are more likely to believe that existing social institutions are inadequate. As a group, the arrestees are more identified with white student demonstrators and black protestors than are college students generally. The arrestees are also likely to regard the police as untrusworthy, looking for trouble, and apt to dislike people like themselves. In addition to the negative attitudes toward the police held by the student arrestees, they are more likely to regard police actions as violence (and hence provocative) than are other college students. The arrestees are far more likely than other college students to cleave to humanistic values. However, most of the differences between the arrestees and other American college students could be predicted from a general model of the justification of violence, so that it appears that the student activists' beliefs differ not so much in kind from those of other Americans as they do in degree.

  19. Communication prompts donation: exploring the beliefs underlying registration and discussion of the organ donation decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M

    2009-09-01

    To use a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework to explore the beliefs underlying communication of the donation decision for people who had not previously registered their consent on a donor register or discussed their decision with significant others. Initially, a focus group study elicited the common TPB (behavioural, normative, and control) beliefs about registering and discussing the organ donation decision. The main study assessed the important TPB belief predictors of intentions to register and discuss the donation decision. University students and community members from Queensland, Australia (N=123) completed items assessing their intentions and the TPB behavioural, normative, and control beliefs for registering and discussing their donation decision. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses revealed significant paths between people's intentions to register their donation decisions and underlying behavioural (e.g. enabling efficient donation procedures), normative (e.g. friends, doctors/medical professionals), and control (e.g. lack of motivation, knowing details about transplant recipients) beliefs (R2=.30). There were also significant paths between people's intentions to discuss their donation decision and underlying behavioural (e.g. feeling uncomfortable talking about death related topics) and normative (e.g. partner/spouse, family members) beliefs, but not control beliefs (R2=.33). There was a significant path between intentions to register and intentions to discuss one's donation decision. Results highlight the importance of focusing on behavioural and normative beliefs about communicating the donation decision, specifically for people who have not previously communicated their decision, and suggest potential targets for interventions designed to promote decision communication.

  20. Marital Meaning: Exploring Young Adults' Belief Systems about Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…

  1. Mapping the criminal mind: idiographic assessment of criminal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2005-02-01

    An idiographic procedure designed to assess the belief systems of criminal offenders is described, investigated, and clarified. This measure, the Cognitive Map of Major Belief Systems (CMMBS), assesses the five belief systems (self-view, world-view, past-view, present-view, future-view) held to occupy the higher echelons of human cognition. Modest to moderate test-retest reliability was achieved when 19 inmates, enrolled in one of three drug-counseling groups, completed the CMMBS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. It was also ascertained that the drug treatment specialist who served as therapist for all three groups "blindly" matched the 19 CMMBS records to the inmates who produced them. A case study of one of the 19 participants was used to illustrate how the CMMBS is employed with individual offenders and how belief systems interact with major schematic subnetworks such as attributions, outcome expectancies, efficacy expectancies, goals, values, and thinking styles to create crime-supporting lifestyles.

  2. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content…

  3. Self-deception in terminal patients: belief system at stake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Echarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes –deep seated beliefs– intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  4. Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperly, Ian A.; Butterfill, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans' capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years of age (H. Wellman, D. Cross, & J. Watson, 2001; H. Wimmer & J. Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false-belief tasks at 13 or 15…

  5. Neural correlates of belief-bias reasoning under time pressure: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-04-15

    The dual-process theory of reasoning explained the belief-bias effect, the tendency for human reasoning to be erroneously biased when logical conclusions are incongruent with belief about the world, by proposing a belief-based fast heuristic system and a logic-based slow analytic system. Although the claims were supported by behavioral findings that the belief-bias effect was enhanced when subjects were not given sufficient time for reasoning, the neural correlates were still unknown. The present study therefore examined the relationship between the time-pressure effect and activity in the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) during belief-bias reasoning using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Forty-eight subjects performed congruent and incongruent reasoning tasks, involving long-span (20 s) and short-span trials (10 s). Behavioral analysis found that only incongruent reasoning performance was impaired by the time-pressure of short-span trials. NIRS analysis found that the time-pressure decreased right IFC activity during incongruent trials. Correlation analysis showed that subjects with enhanced right IFC activity could perform better in incongruent trials, while subjects for whom the right IFC activity was impaired by the time-pressure could not maintain better reasoning performance. These findings suggest that the right IFC may be responsible for the time-pressure effect in conflicting reasoning processes. When the right IFC activity was impaired in the short-span trials in which subjects were not given sufficient time for reasoning, the subjects may rely on the fast heuristic system, which result in belief-bias responses. We therefore offer the first demonstration of neural correlates of time-pressure effect on the IFC activity in belief-bias reasoning. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating Coherence among Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Teaching Belief Systems, Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcivan, Eralp; Cobern, William W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated comprehensive science teaching belief systems and their relation to science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practices. Rokeach's (1968) belief system was used as a framework for representing the hierarchy among in-service teachers' teaching beliefs. This study employed a multiple case study design with…

  7. A deep belief network with PLSR for nonlinear system modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Junfei; Wang, Gongming; Li, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoli

    2017-10-31

    Nonlinear system modeling plays an important role in practical engineering, and deep learning-based deep belief network (DBN) is now popular in nonlinear system modeling and identification because of the strong learning ability. However, the existing weights optimization for DBN is based on gradient, which always leads to a local optimum and a poor training result. In this paper, a DBN with partial least square regression (PLSR-DBN) is proposed for nonlinear system modeling, which focuses on the problem of weights optimization for DBN using PLSR. Firstly, unsupervised contrastive divergence (CD) algorithm is used in weights initialization. Secondly, initial weights derived from CD algorithm are optimized through layer-by-layer PLSR modeling from top layer to bottom layer. Instead of gradient method, PLSR-DBN can determine the optimal weights using several PLSR models, so that a better performance of PLSR-DBN is achieved. Then, the analysis of convergence is theoretically given to guarantee the effectiveness of the proposed PLSR-DBN model. Finally, the proposed PLSR-DBN is tested on two benchmark nonlinear systems and an actual wastewater treatment system as well as a handwritten digit recognition (nonlinear mapping and modeling) with high-dimension input data. The experiment results show that the proposed PLSR-DBN has better performances of time and accuracy on nonlinear system modeling than that of other methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MODELING INFORMATION SYSTEM AVAILABILITY BY USING BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORK APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Ibrahimović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern information systems are expected to be always-on by providing services to end-users, regardless of time and location. This is particularly important for organizations and industries where information systems support real-time operations and mission-critical applications that need to be available on 24  7  365 basis. Examples of such entities include process industries, telecommunications, healthcare, energy, banking, electronic commerce and a variety of cloud services. This article presents a modified Bayesian Belief Network model for predicting information system availability, introduced initially by Franke, U. and Johnson, P. (in article “Availability of enterprise IT systems – an expert based Bayesian model”. Software Quality Journal 20(2, 369-394, 2012 based on a thorough review of several dimensions of the information system availability, we proposed a modified set of determinants. The model is parameterized by using probability elicitation process with the participation of experts from the financial sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The model validation was performed using Monte Carlo simulation.

  9. The Belief Systems of University Supervisors in an Elementary Student-Teaching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the range of supervisory belief systems that existed among nine university supervisors of elementary education student teachers. In interviews, three distinct belief systems emerged: (1) technical/instrumental; (2) personal growth centered; and (3) critical. (FG)

  10. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  11. Latent variables underlying the memory beliefs of Chartered Clinical Psychologists, Hypnotherapists and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, James; Easton, Simon; Hope, Lorraine; French, Christopher C; Wright, Daniel B

    2017-01-01

    In courts in the United Kingdom, understanding of memory phenomena is often assumed to be a matter of common sense. To test this assumption 337 UK respondents, consisting of 125 Chartered Clinical Psychologists, 88 individuals who advertised their services as Hypnotherapists (HTs) in a classified directory, the Yellow Pages TM , and 124 first year undergraduate psychology students, completed a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of 10 memory phenomena about which there is a broad scientific consensus. HTs' responses were the most inconsistent with the scientific consensus, scoring lowest on six of these ten items. Principal Components Analysis indicated two latent variables - reflecting beliefs about memory quality and malleability - underlying respondents' responses. In addition, respondents were asked to rate their own knowledge of the academic memory literature in general. There was no significant relationship between participants' self reported knowledge and their actual knowledge (as measured by their responses to the 10-item questionnaire). There was evidence of beliefs among the HTs that could give rise to some concern (e.g., that early memories from the first year of life are accurately stored and are retrievable).

  12. Normative Values in Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Elias; Ekecrantz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of teachers' normative values and emotive reactions on teaching in higher education have received relatively little research attention. The focus is often on descriptive beliefs such as conceptions of teaching and their inter-relations with practice. In this study, which is illustrated by a heuristic model, a belief system approach is…

  13. Salient Beliefs in Majoring in Management Information Systems: An Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…

  14. Changing Minds by Reasoning About Belief Revision: A Challenge for Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    this case, his dialog moves could include highlighting unintended relationships suggested by the logo (e.g., that a competitor’s logo is an octopus , a...others, a cognitive system must, at a minimum, be able to entertain beliefs about their beliefs. Any movement at all toward more sophisticated scenarios

  15. Estimating dependability of programmable systems using bayesian belief nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Bjoern Axel; Dahll, Gustav

    2000-05-01

    The research programme at the Halden Project on software safety assessment is augmented through a joint project with Kongsberg Defence and Aerospace AS and Det Norske Veritas. The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility to combine the Bayesian Belief Net (BBN) methodology with a software safety standard. The report discusses software safety standards in general, with respect to how they can be used to measure software safety. The possibility to transfer the requirements of a software safety standard into a BBN is also investigated. The aim is to utilise the BBN methodology and associated tools, by transferring the software safety measurement into a probabilistic quantity. In this way software can be included in a total probabilistic safety analysis. This project was performed by applying the method for an evaluation of a real, safety related programmable system which was developed according to the avionic standard DO-178B. The test case, the standard, and the BBN methodology are shortly described. This is followed by a description of the construction of the BBN used in this project. This includes the topology of the BBN, the elicitation of probabilities and the making of observations. Based on this a variety of computations are made using the SERENE methodology and the HUGIN tool. Observations and conclusions are made on the basis of the findings from this process. This report should be considered as a progress report in a more long-term activity on the use of BBNs as support for safety assessment of programmable systems. (Author). 23 refs., 9 figs., tabs

  16. The Structuring Principle: Political Socialization and Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Donald D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Assesses the significance of data on childhood political learning to political theory by testing the structuring principle,'' considered one of the central assumptions of political socialization research. This principle asserts that basic orientations acquired during childhood structure the later learning of specific issue beliefs.'' The…

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…

  18. Treatment beliefs underlying intended treatment choices in knee and hip osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, E.M.H.; Geenen, R.; Schers, H.J.; van den Hoogen, F.H.J.; van der Meulen-Dilling, R.G.; Van der Laan, W.H.; Nijhof, M.W.; van den Ende, C.H.M.; Vriezekolk, J.E.

    Purpose Patients’ beliefs about treatment modalities for knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) will underlie their treatment choices. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, it is hypothesized that patients’ beliefs, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control guide their treatment choices. Also,

  19. Critical Beliefs Underlying Young Australian Males’ Intentions to Engage in Drinking and Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Hamilton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined key targets for interventions aimed at reducing drinking and swimming among young males, an at-risk group for drowning. Two-hundred and eleven Australian males aged 18 to 34 years completed a Theory of Planned Behavior belief-based questionnaire either online or paper based. Behavioral beliefs of “be more relaxed” and “having fun,” normative beliefs of “friends/mates” and “parents,” and the control belief of “presence of other people” were revealed as independent predictors of intentions to drink and swim. These identified beliefs can be used to inform interventions to challenge young males’ alcohol use in, on, and around water.

  20. A Belief Rule-Based (BRB) Decision Support System for Assessing Clinical Asthma Suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Hossain, Emran; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2014-01-01

    conditions of uncertainty. The Belief Rule-Based Inference Methodology Using the Evidential Reasoning (RIMER) approach was adopted to develop this expert system; which is named the Belief Rule-Based Expert System (BRBES). The system can handle various types of uncertainty in knowledge representation...... and inference procedures. The knowledge base of this system was constructed by using real patient data and expert opinion. Practical case studies were used to validate the system. The system-generated results are more effective and reliable in terms of accuracy than the results generated by a manual system....

  1. The comparition of Personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in males with with drug abuse disorder under Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samere asadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the difference between personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in men with drug abuse disorder under Treatment. Method: in this casual- comparative research, 80 men ( 40 males with drug abuse under Treatment and 40 of normal males that were selected with available sampling .Groups were matched in terms of demoghraphy characteristics ( age, sexuality, education level and marital status and were valued with means of Eysenk Perceived Stress Inventory, Jonze Irrational Beliefs Scale and Baret Impulsivity Inventory. Results: The result of variance analysis showed that addicts compared to normal people, get more scores on extraversion, neuroticism and psychosis. Addicts group had Higher men scores in irrational beliefs compare of other group. There was significant difference between groups in impulsivity and impulsivity in addicts persons is the most. Conclussion: The traits of Personality, irrational beliefs and Unrealistic and high level impulsivity are factors that propel individuals toward more drug abuse and finally addict and aiming this factors in individuals with abuse disorder under Treatment can lead to prevent of Substance Abuse Relapse.

  2. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  3. Salient Public Beliefs Underlying Disaster Preparedness Behaviors: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Elmi, Helen

    2017-04-01

    stakeholder groups is needed to understand their perceptions about DPB in creating the people's social environment. Najafi M , Ardalan A , Akbarisari A , Noorbala AA , Elmi H . Salient public beliefs underlying disaster preparedness behaviors: a theory-based qualitative study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):124-133 .

  4. Exploring the belief systems of domestic abuse victims using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Spruin, E.; Alleyne, E.; Baker, R.; Papadaki, I.; Franz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Support service provisions for domestic abuse victims has typically focused on the immediate risk and etiological factors associated with abuse. Consequently, there is limited research exploring more persistent and pervasive factors involved in this cycle of abuse, such as subjective experiences and beliefs held by victims of domestic abuse. The current study is a preliminary exploration of the individual experience of domestic abuse including the belief systems of participants. Incr...

  5. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  6. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald

    2013-01-01

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even...... variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation...... on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change....

  7. Exploration of Scholars’ Attributions of Instructional Barriers in the Context of Pedagogical-Epistemological Belief Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz SOYSAL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two academics’ who have been employed in a private university teaching barriers and accompanied attributional reasoning were examined in the context of their belief systems with regards to learning, teaching and knowledge. This study was conducted with a basic qualitative perspective. By means of qualitative data gathering and analysis, it was aimed at estimating how the relation between teaching barriers and attributional reasoning was influenced by pedagogical-epistemological belief systems of scholars. Qualitative data was collected through two different semi-structured interview protocols and gathered data was analyzed with an inductive and interpretivist manner. The scholars’ beliefs systems’ divergences (teacher-centered vs. learner-centered allowed to explore the presumable relation of barrier-attribution in the context of pedagogical-epistemological belief systems. It was found out that the scholar who has adopted the more learner-centered modes of teaching favors more internally-oriented, controllable and non-stable attributional styles in illustrating her barrier-attribution relation. In contrast, it was also detected that the scholar who has held more teacher-centered teaching beliefs is liable to make attributions to overly external, non-controllable and stable factors in illuminating her barrier-attribution relation. Major outcomes of the study are evaluated by means of psychological (i.e., attribution theory and instructional (pedagogical-epistemological beliefs lenses and suggestions are offered in the context of higher education.

  8. An Education for Peace Model That Centres on Belief Systems: The Theory behind The Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Alison

    2017-01-01

    The education for peace model (EFPM) presented in this paper was developed within a theoretical framework of complexity science and critical theory and was derived from a review of an empirical research project conducted in a conflict affected environment. The model positions belief systems at the centre and is socioecologically systemic in design…

  9. Cohort Differences in the Structure and Outcomes of an African American Belief System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard L.; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the structure of African American belief systems (racial attitudes and self-esteem) and its relationship to wellbeing, other group attachments, and system orientations across different age and generation groups. Interview data from three age-groupings of adults demonstrated substantial similarity across age cohorts in understanding of…

  10. Belief system, meaningfulness, and psychopathology associated with suicidality among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiubo; Yang, Xueling; Xiao, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Aguilera, Diane; Zhao, Jingbo

    2012-08-17

    Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. A total of 1168 respondents (84.0%) provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of integration as does religious affiliation in religious societies

  11. Belief system, meaningfulness, and psychopathology associated with suicidality among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiubo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0% provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of

  12. Belief in School Meritocracy as a System-justifying Tool for Low Status Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eWiederkehr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The belief that, in school, success only depends on will and hard work is widespread in Western societies despite evidence showing that several factors other than merit explain school success, including group belonging (e.g., social class, gender. In the present paper, we argue that because merit is the only track for low status students to reach upward mobility, Belief in School Meritocracy (BSM is a particularly useful system-justifying tool to help them perceive their place in society as being deserved. Consequently, for low status students (but not high status students, this belief should be related to more general system-justifying beliefs (Study 1. Moreover, low status students should be particularly prone to endorsing this belief when their place within a system on which they strongly depend to acquire status is challenged (Study 2. In Study 1, high status (boys and high SES were compared to low status (girls and low SES high school students. Results indicated that BSM was related to system-justifying beliefs only for low SES students and for girls, but not for high SES students or for boys. In Study 2, university students were exposed (or not to information about an important selection process that occurs at the university, depending on the condition. Their subjective status was assessed. Although such a confrontation reduced BSM for high subjective SES students, it tended to enhance it for low subjective SES students. Results are discussed in terms of system-justification motives and the palliative function meritocratic ideology may play for low status students.

  13. Belief in school meritocracy as a system-justifying tool for low status students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Bonnot, Virginie; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia; Darnon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    The belief that, in school, success only depends on will and hard work is widespread in Western societies despite evidence showing that several factors other than merit explain school success, including group belonging (e.g., social class, gender). In the present paper, we argue that because merit is the only track for low status students to reach upward mobility, Belief in School Meritocracy (BSM) is a particularly useful system-justifying tool to help them perceive their place in society as being deserved. Consequently, for low status students (but not high status students), this belief should be related to more general system-justifying beliefs (Study 1). Moreover, low status students should be particularly prone to endorsing this belief when their place within a system on which they strongly depend to acquire status is challenged (Study 2). In Study 1, high status (boys and high SES) were compared to low status (girls and low SES) high school students. Results indicated that BSM was related to system-justifying beliefs only for low SES students and for girls, but not for high SES students or for boys. In Study 2, university students were exposed (or not) to information about an important selection process that occurs at the university, depending on the condition. Their subjective status was assessed. Although such a confrontation reduced BSM for high subjective SES students, it tended to enhance it for low subjective SES students. Results are discussed in terms of system justification motives and the palliative function meritocratic ideology may play for low status students.

  14. Engaging students in the study of physics: an investigation of physics teachers’ belief systems about teaching and learning physics

    OpenAIRE

    Belo, Neeltje Annigje Hendrika

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis comprises two questionnaire studies and two small-scale interview studies on the content and structure of physics teachers’ belief systems. The studies focused on teachers’ beliefs about the goals and pedagogy of teaching and learning physics, and the nature of science. The samples consisted of physics teachers working at secondary schools in the Netherlands (students aged 12-18). The questionnaire studies showed that, on average, teachers’ belief systems about teaching a...

  15. Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-09-01

    We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette' and 'electronic nicotine delivery'. Of the 244 abstracts identified, we excluded articles not published in English, articles unrelated to ENDS, dissertation abstracts and articles without original data on prespecified outcomes. Two reviewers coded each article for ENDS awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. 49 studies met inclusion criteria. ENDS awareness increased from 16% to 58% from 2009 to 2011, and use increased from 1% to 6%. The majority of users were current or former smokers. Many users found ENDS satisfying, and some engaged in dual use of ENDS and other tobacco. No longitudinal studies examined whether ENDS serve as 'gateways' to future tobacco use. Common reasons for using ENDS were quitting smoking and using a product that is healthier than cigarettes. Self-reported survey data and prospective trials suggest that ENDS might help cigarette smokers quit, but no randomised controlled trials with probability samples compared ENDS with other cessation tools. Some individuals used ENDS to avoid smoking restrictions. ENDS use is expanding rapidly despite experts' concerns about safety, dual use and possible 'gateway' effects. More research is needed on effective public health messages, perceived health risks, validity of self-reports of smoking cessation and the use of different kinds of ENDS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Identifying beliefs underlying pre-drivers' intentions to take risks: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Andrews, Elizabeth; Harris, Peter R; Armitage, Christopher J; McKenna, Frank P; Norman, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Novice motorists are at high crash risk during the first few months of driving. Risky behaviours such as speeding and driving while distracted are well-documented contributors to crash risk during this period. To reduce this public health burden, effective road safety interventions need to target the pre-driving period. We use the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the pre-driver beliefs underlying intentions to drive over the speed limit (N=77), and while over the legal alcohol limit (N=72), talking on a hand-held mobile phone (N=77) and feeling very tired (N=68). The TPB explained between 41% and 69% of the variance in intentions to perform these behaviours. Attitudes were strong predictors of intentions for all behaviours. Subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were significant, though weaker, independent predictors of speeding and mobile phone use. Behavioural beliefs underlying these attitudes could be separated into those reflecting perceived disadvantages (e.g., speeding increases my risk of crash) and advantages (e.g., speeding gives me a thrill). Interventions that can make these beliefs safer in pre-drivers may reduce crash risk once independent driving has begun. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intensive Care Nurses’ Belief Systems Regarding the Health Economics: A Focused Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses’ beliefs and their effect on nurse’s: practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. Methods: In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Findings: Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse’s practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2. Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3. There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4. Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5. Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6. The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8. Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. Conclusions: ICU nurses’ belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the

  18. Intensive Care Nurses' Belief Systems Regarding the Health Economics: A Focused Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses' beliefs and their effect on nurse's practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse's practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2.Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3.There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4.Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5.Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6.The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8.Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. ICU nurses' belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the reforms in various aspects, such as the hospital

  19. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  20. Effects of traditional religious belief system of the Igbo group on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to verify the effects of religious belief system on the effectiveness of leprosy control programmes in Anambra and Ebonyi states of Southeast Nigeria. The complementary objective is to ascertain the dominant mode of disposition to leprosy among residents of the two states and to account for the ...

  1. Belief-rule-based expert systems for evaluation of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Kamal, Md Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    , known as the Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES) and implemented in the local e-government of Bangladesh. The results have been compared with a recently developed method of evaluating e-government, and it is demonstrated that the results of the BRBES are more accurate and reliable. The BRBES can...

  2. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Engaging students in the study of physics : an investigation of physics teachers’ belief systems about teaching and learning physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo, Neeltje Annigje Hendrika

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis comprises two questionnaire studies and two small-scale interview studies on the content and structure of physics teachers’ belief systems. The studies focused on teachers’ beliefs about the goals and pedagogy of teaching and learning physics, and the nature of science. The

  4. A belief network approach for development of a nuclear power plant diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, I K; Kim, J T; Lee, D Y; Jung, C H; Kim, J Y; Lee, J S; Ham, C S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    Belief network (or Bayesian network) based on Bayes` rule in probabilistic theory can be applied to the reasoning of diagnostic system. This paper describes the basic theory of concept and feasibility of using the network for diagnosis of nuclear power plants. An example shows that the probabilities of root causes of a failure are calculated from the measured or believed evidences. 6 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  5. A belief network approach for development of a nuclear power plant diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, I. K.; Kim, J. T.; Lee, D. Y.; Jung, C. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Ham, C. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Belief network (or Bayesian network) based on Bayes` rule in probabilistic theory can be applied to the reasoning of diagnostic system. This paper describes the basic theory of concept and feasibility of using the network for diagnosis of nuclear power plants. An example shows that the probabilities of root causes of a failure are calculated from the measured or believed evidences. 6 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  6. THE CODE OF THE STREET AND INMATE VIOLENCE: INVESTIGATING THE SALIENCE OF IMPORTED BELIEF SYSTEMS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEARS, DANIEL P.; STEWART, ERIC A.; SIENNICK, SONJA E.; SIMONS, RONALD L.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have long argued that inmate behaviors stem in part from cultural belief systems that they “import” with them into incarcerative settings. Even so, few empirical assessments have tested this argument directly. Drawing on theoretical accounts of one such set of beliefs—the code of the street—and on importation theory, we hypothesize that individuals who adhere more strongly to the street code will be more likely, once incarcerated, to engage in violent behavior and that this effect will be amplified by such incarceration experiences as disciplinary sanctions and gang involvement, as well as the lack of educational programming, religious programming, and family support. We test these hypotheses using unique data that include measures of the street code belief system and incarceration experiences. The results support the argument that the code of the street belief system affects inmate violence and that the effect is more pronounced among inmates who lack family support, experience disciplinary sanctions, and are gang involved. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24068837

  7. False rumors and true belief: memory processes underlying children's errant reports of rumored events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Gabrielle F; Haines, Brooke; Adkins, Amber; Guiliano, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Previous research has shown that overhearing an errant rumor--either from an adult or from peers--about an earlier experience can lead children to make detailed false reports. This study investigates the extent to which such accounts are driven by changes in children's memory representations or merely social demands that encourage the reporting of rumored information. This was accomplished by (a) using a warning manipulation that eliminated social pressures to report an earlier heard rumor and (b) examining the qualitative characteristics of children's false narratives of a rumored-but-nonexperienced event. Findings indicated that overheard rumors can induce sensory and contextual characteristics in memory that can lead children to develop genuine false beliefs in seeing rumored-but-nonexperienced occurrences. Such constructive tendencies were especially likely among 3- and 4-year-olds (relative to 5- and 6-year-olds) and when rumors were picked up from peers during natural social interactions (relative to when they were planted by an adult). (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Science Faculty Belief Systems in a Professional Development Program: Inquiry in College Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Kristen L.; Friedrichsen, Patricia J.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how science faculty members' belief systems about inquiry-based teaching changed through their experience in a professional development program. The program was designed to support early career science faculty in learning about inquiry and incorporating an inquiry-based approach to teaching laboratories. Data sources for this qualitative study included three semi-structured interviews, observations during the program and during faculty members' implementation in their courses, and a researcher's journal. In the first phase of data analysis, we created profiles for each of the four participants. Next, we developed assertions, and tested for confirming and disconfirming evidence across the profiles. The assertions indicated that, through the professional development program, participants' knowledge and beliefs about inquiry-based teaching shifted, placing more value on student-directed learning and classroom inquiry. Participants who were internally motivated to participate and held incoming positive attitudes toward the mini-journal inquiry-based approach were more likely to incorporate the approach in their future practice. Students' responses played a critical role in participants' belief systems and their decision to continue using the inquiry-based format. The findings from this study have implications for professional development design.

  9. Pharmaceutical industry gifts to physicians: patient beliefs and trust in physicians and the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Shea, Judy A; Armstrong, Katrina

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical industry gifts to physicians are common and influence physician behavior. Little is known about patient beliefs about the prevalence of these gifts and how these beliefs may influence trust in physicians and the health care system. To measure patient perceptions about the prevalence of industry gifts and their relationship to trust in doctors and the health care system. Cross sectional random digit dial telephone survey. African-American and White adults in 40 large metropolitan areas. Respondents' beliefs about whether their physician and physicians in general receive industry gifts, physician trust, and health care system distrust. Overall, 55% of respondents believe their physician receives gifts, and 34% believe almost all doctors receive gifts. Respondents of higher socioeconomic status (income, education) and younger age were more likely to believe their physician receives gifts. In multivariate analyses, those that believe their personal physician receives gifts were more likely to report low physician trust (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.56-3.30) and high health care system distrust (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.49-2.77). Similarly, those that believe almost all doctors accept gifts were more likely to report low physician trust (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.25-2.29) and high health care system distrust (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.82-3.62). Patients perceive physician-industry gift relationships as common. Patients that believe gift relationships exist report lower levels of physician trust and higher rates of health care system distrust. Greater efforts to limit industry-physician gifts could have positive effects beyond reducing influences on physician behavior.

  10. Identifying Underlying Beliefs About Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Older Adults: An Elicitation Study Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Eun; Shin, Yeon Ho; Kim, Sunyoung; Hermann, Janice; Bice, Crystal

    2017-10-01

    Identify underlying salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among limited-income older adults. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the framework for conducting semistructured individual interviews in 2016. Two congregate meal sites in the city of Tuscaloosa, AL. A total of 25 low-income older adults aged ≥60 years. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about F&V intake. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a hybrid inductive and deductive content analysis approach. The elicitation interviews identified salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about F&V intake among low-income older adults. These results can be used to develop nutrition education programs aimed at improving economically vulnerable older adults' F&V intake. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  12. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational

  13. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...

  14. Planning ATES systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Kwakkel, Jan; Bloemendal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) can contribute to significant reductions in energy use within the built environment, by providing seasonal energy storage in aquifers for the heating and cooling of buildings. ATES systems have experienced a rapid uptake over the last two decades; however, despite successful experiments at the individual level, the overall performance of ATES systems remains below expectations - largely due to suboptimal practices for the planning and operation of systems in urban areas. The interaction between ATES systems and underground aquifers can be interpreted as a common-pool resource problem, in which thermal imbalances or interference could eventually degrade the storage potential of the subsurface. Current planning approaches for ATES systems thus typically follow the precautionary principle. For instance, the permitting process in the Netherlands is intended to minimize thermal interference between ATES systems. However, as shown in recent studies (Sommer et al., 2015; Bakr et al., 2013), a controlled amount of interference may benefit the collective performance of ATES systems. An overly restrictive approach to permitting is instead likely to create an artificial scarcity of available space, limiting the potential of the technology in urban areas. In response, master plans - which take into account the collective arrangement of multiple systems - have emerged as an increasingly popular alternative. However, permits and master plans both take a static, ex ante view of ATES governance, making it difficult to predict the effect of evolving ATES use or climactic conditions on overall performance. In particular, the adoption of new systems by building operators is likely to be driven by the available subsurface space and by the performance of existing systems; these outcomes are themselves a function of planning parameters. From this perspective, the interactions between planning authorities, ATES operators, and subsurface conditions

  15. Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data sources We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases ‘electronic cigarette’, ‘e-cigarette’ and ‘electronic nicotine delivery’. Study selection Of the 244 abstracts identified, we excluded articles not published in English, articles unrelated to ENDS, dissertation abstracts and articles without original data on prespecified outcomes. Data extraction Two reviewers coded each article for ENDS awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data synthesis 49 studies met inclusion criteria. ENDS awareness increased from 16% to 58% from 2009 to 2011, and use increased from 1% to 6%. The majority of users were current or former smokers. Many users found ENDS satisfying, and some engaged in dual use of ENDS and other tobacco. No longitudinal studies examined whether ENDS serve as ‘gateways’ to future tobacco use. Common reasons for using ENDS were quitting smoking and using a product that is healthier than cigarettes. Self-reported survey data and prospective trials suggest that ENDS might help cigarette smokers quit, but no randomised controlled trials with probability samples compared ENDS with other cessation tools. Some individuals used ENDS to avoid smoking restrictions. Conclusions ENDS use is expanding rapidly despite experts’ concerns about safety, dual use and possible ‘gateway’ effects. More research is needed on effective public health messages, perceived health risks, validity of self-reports of smoking cessation and the use of different kinds of ENDS. PMID:24259045

  16. Hypothesis Management Framework: a exible design pattern for belief networks in decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosliga, S.P. van; Voorde, I. van de

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a design pattern for building belief networks for application domains in which causal models are hard to construct. In this approach we pursue a modular belief network structure that is easily extended by the users themselves, while remaining reliable for decision support. The

  17. The Impact of a Technology Coordinator's Belief System upon Using Technology to Create a Community's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    As it has been shown that teachers of social studies content are less likely than teachers of other content areas to utilize technology in their classroom, this study focuses on one instructional technology coordinators' beliefs towards technology, instruction, and students and how these beliefs impacted how technology was utilized during a…

  18. Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservation in the Indian Himalayan of Kumaon region, and to this, systematic field surveys were conducted during 2007-2010 covering all four seasons viz., summer, rainy, winter and spring. A total of 64 species in 58 genera under 47 families were identified, of which 35 species are flowering plants and 29 species are non-flowering plants. The dominant family was Parmeliaceae of lichen which recorded the maximum 6 species. 35 plant species under 32 genera and 23 families are used as an ethno-medicinal and the information about the ethno-medicinal plants was gathered from knowledgeable elderly local peoples of the area. Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Origanum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, etc. are highly exploited species and need to be conserved.

  19. Reliability assessment of complex mechatronic systems using a modified nonparametric belief propagation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, X.; Ichchou, M.; Saidi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Various parametric skewed distributions are widely used to model the time-to-failure (TTF) in the reliability analysis of mechatronic systems, where many items are unobservable due to the high cost of testing. Estimating the parameters of those distributions becomes a challenge. Previous research has failed to consider this problem due to the difficulty of dependency modeling. Recently the methodology of Bayesian networks (BNs) has greatly contributed to the reliability analysis of complex systems. In this paper, the problem of system reliability assessment (SRA) is formulated as a BN considering the parameter uncertainty. As the quantitative specification of BN, a normal distribution representing the stochastic nature of TTF distribution is learned to capture the interactions between the basic items and their output items. The approximation inference of our continuous BN model is performed by a modified version of nonparametric belief propagation (NBP) which can avoid using a junction tree that is inefficient for the mechatronic case because of the large treewidth. After reasoning, we obtain the marginal posterior density of each TTF model parameter. Other information from diverse sources and expert priors can be easily incorporated in this SRA model to achieve more accurate results. Simulation in simple and complex cases of mechatronic systems demonstrates that the posterior of the parameter network fits the data well and the uncertainty passes effectively through our BN based SRA model by using the modified NBP.

  20. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  1. Teacher Beliefs and Intentions regarding the Instruction of English Grammar under National Curriculum Reforms: A Theory of Planned Behaviour Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    While numerous studies in mainstream education have drawn on the Theory of Planned Behaviour to investigate curriculum impact, in English Language Teaching contexts such research is scant. This study applies the theory to anticipate the impact of the Japanese national curriculum for English, by exploring the beliefs of senior high school teachers…

  2. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B-B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  3. You Are What You Read: The Belief Systems of Cyber-Bystanders on Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angel N M; Wong, Natalie; Farver, JoAnn M

    2018-01-01

    The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders' perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims) × 2 condition (offend vs. defend) experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants' involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments) was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become "upstanders" in educational programs to combat cyberbullying.

  4. You Are What You Read: The Belief Systems of Cyber-Bystanders on Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angel N. M.; Wong, Natalie; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2018-01-01

    The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders’ perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims) × 2 condition (offend vs. defend) experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants’ involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments) was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become “upstanders” in educational programs to combat cyberbullying. PMID:29740362

  5. You Are What You Read: The Belief Systems of Cyber-Bystanders on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel N. M. Leung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders’ perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims × 2 condition (offend vs. defend experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants’ involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become “upstanders” in educational programs to combat cyberbullying.

  6. Bayesian Belief Networks for predicting drinking water distribution system pipe breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, Royce A.; Guikema, Seth D.; Henneman, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to construct a knowledge model for pipe breaks in a water zone. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to model drinking water distribution system pipe breaks using BBNs. Development of expert systems such as BBNs for analyzing drinking water distribution system data is not only important for pipe break prediction, but is also a first step in preventing water loss and water quality deterioration through the application of machine learning techniques to facilitate data-based distribution system monitoring and asset management. Due to the difficulties in collecting, preparing, and managing drinking water distribution system data, most pipe break models can be classified as “statistical–physical” or “hypothesis-generating.” We develop the BBN with the hope of contributing to the “hypothesis-generating” class of models, while demonstrating the possibility that BBNs might also be used as “statistical–physical” models. Our model is learned from pipe breaks and covariate data from a mid-Atlantic United States (U.S.) drinking water distribution system network. BBN models are learned using a constraint-based method, a score-based method, and a hybrid method. Model evaluation is based on log-likelihood scoring. Sensitivity analysis using mutual information criterion is also reported. While our results indicate general agreement with prior results reported in pipe break modeling studies, they also suggest that it may be difficult to select among model alternatives. This model uncertainty may mean that more research is needed for understanding whether additional pipe break risk factors beyond age, break history, pipe material, and pipe diameter might be important for asset management planning. - Highlights: • We show Bayesian Networks for predictive and diagnostic management of water distribution systems. • Our model may enable system operators and managers to prioritize system

  7. A Hispanic mother's beliefs about stuttering aetiology: A systemic functional linguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Angela M

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the linguistic resources a Hispanic mother used to convey her beliefs about the aetiology of her adult son's stuttering. A qualitative research paradigm was adopted for data collection and analysis. An Ecuadorian mother and her adult son who stutters recorded a conversation in Spanish about the son's stuttering. Tools derived from systemic functional linguistic (SFL) theory were used to analyse conversation transcripts and to describe the word choices and sentence structures the mother used to talk about her son's stuttering. The mother deflected community-assigned blame for causing her son's stuttering by configuring her 'strong' temperament as a separate, uncontrollable entity. She structured the pervasiveness of stigma, lack of resources and misinformation within the community as causes for her inability to identify and seek help for her son's stuttering, which also served as a means for deflecting blame. SFL-based analyses were appropriate tools for the investigation of how a Hispanic mother construes her views, attitudes and experiences relative to her son's stuttering. Clinical implications of findings regarding parent education and the utility of SFL-based tools in the speech-language therapy setting are discussed.

  8. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs underlying low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors for adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A

    2007-08-01

    Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs.

  9. Exploring the beliefs underlying attitudes to active voluntary euthanasia in a sample of Australian medical practitioners and nurses: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Wise, Susi E; Young, Ross McD; Hyde, Melissa K

    A qualitative study explored beliefs about active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) in a sample (N = 18) of medical practitioners and nurses from Australia, where AVE is not currently legal. Four behaviors relating to AVE emerged during the interviews: requesting euthanasia for oneself, legalizing AVE, administering AVE to patients if it were legalized, and discussing AVE with patients if they request it. Using thematic analysis, interviews were analyzed for beliefs related to advantages and disadvantages of performing these AVE behaviors. Medical practitioners and nurses identified a number of similar benefits for performing the AVE-related behaviors, both for themselves personally and as health professionals. Benefits also included a consideration of the positive impact for patients, their families, and the health care system. Disadvantages across behaviors focused on the potential conflict between those parties involved in the decision making process, as well as conflict between one's own personal and professional values.

  10. How culture shapes community: bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that you belong in a group is an important and powerful need. The ability to foster a sense of belonging can also determine whether groups survive. Organizational features of groups cultivate feelings of belonging, yet prior research fails to investigate the idea that belief systems also play a major role. Using multilevel data, this study finds that church members' traditional beliefs, group-level belief unity, and their interaction associate positively with members' sense of belonging. In fact, belief unity can be thought of as a “sacred canopy” under which the relationship between traditional beliefs and feelings of belonging thrives.

  11. Embedded System Synthesis under Memory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm to solve the system synthesis problem of mapping a time constrained single-rate system specification onto a given heterogeneous architecture which may contain irregular interconnection structures. The synthesis is performed under memory constraints, that is......, the algorithm takes into account the memory size of processors and the size of interface buffers of communication links, and in particular the complicated interplay of these. The presented algorithm is implemented as part of the LY-COS cosynthesis system....

  12. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  13. Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems in patients scheduled for elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadimpati, Sandeep; Nolan, Margaret; Warner, David O

    2015-01-01

    Smokers are at increased risk of postoperative complications. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; or electronic cigarettes) could be a useful tool to reduce harm in the perioperative period. This pilot study examined the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of smokers scheduled for elective surgery regarding ENDS. This was a cross-sectional survey of current cigarette smokers who were evaluated in a preoperative clinic before elective surgery at Mayo Clinic. Measures included demographic characteristics, smoking history, 2 indices assessing the perception of how smoking affected health risks, ENDS use history, and 3 indices assessing interest in, perceived benefits of, and barriers to using ENDS in the perioperative period. Of the 112 smokers who completed the survey, 62 (55%) had tried ENDS and 24 (21%) reported current use. The most commonly stated reason for using ENDS was to quit smoking. Approximately 2 in 3 participants would be willing to use ENDS to help them reduce or eliminate perioperative cigarette use, and similar proportions perceived health benefits of doing so. Of the factors studied, only attempted to quit within the last year was significantly associated with increased interest in the perioperative use of ENDS (P=.03). Compared with participants who had tried ENDS (n=62), those who had never tried ENDS (n=50) had a significantly increased interest in the perioperative use of ENDS. A substantial proportion of patients scheduled for elective surgery had tried ENDS and would consider using ENDS to reduce perioperative use of cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  15. Intelligent wear mode identification system for marine diesel engines based on multi-level belief rule base methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinping; Xu, Xiaojian; Sheng, Chenxing; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Zhixiong

    2018-01-01

    Wear faults are among the chief causes of main-engine damage, significantly influencing the secure and economical operation of ships. It is difficult for engineers to utilize multi-source information to identify wear modes, so an intelligent wear mode identification model needs to be developed to assist engineers in diagnosing wear faults in diesel engines. For this purpose, a multi-level belief rule base (BBRB) system is proposed in this paper. The BBRB system consists of two-level belief rule bases, and the 2D and 3D characteristics of wear particles are used as antecedent attributes on each level. Quantitative and qualitative wear information with uncertainties can be processed simultaneously by the BBRB system. In order to enhance the efficiency of the BBRB, the silhouette value is adopted to determine referential points and the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used to transform input wear information into belief degrees. In addition, the initial parameters of the BBRB system are constructed on the basis of expert-domain knowledge and then optimized by the genetic algorithm to ensure the robustness of the system. To verify the validity of the BBRB system, experimental data acquired from real-world diesel engines are analyzed. Five-fold cross-validation is conducted on the experimental data and the BBRB is compared with the other four models in the cross-validation. In addition, a verification dataset containing different wear particles is used to highlight the effectiveness of the BBRB system in wear mode identification. The verification results demonstrate that the proposed BBRB is effective and efficient for wear mode identification with better performance and stability than competing systems.

  16. Culture and Belief Systems: A Christian Experience in the 21st Century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture, which is manifested in symbols, heroes, rituals, values and practices, refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religions, concepts of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of ...

  17. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  18. Beliefs in Context: Understanding Language Policy Implementation at a Systems Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory, this study describes how cognitive, normative, and regulative mechanisms shape bilingual teachers' language policy implementation in both English-only and bilingual contexts. Aligned with prior educational language policy research, findings indicate the important role that teachers' beliefs play in the policy…

  19. Survivability of systems under multiple factor impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, Edward; Levitin, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers vulnerable multi-state series-parallel systems operating under influence of external impacts. Both the external impacts and internal failures affect system survivability, which is determined as the probability of meeting a given demand. The external impacts are characterized by several destructive factors affecting the system or its parts simultaneously. In order to increase the system's survivability a multilevel protection against the destructive factors can be applied to its subsystems. In such systems, the protected subsystems can be destroyed only if all of the levels of their protection are destroyed. The paper presents an algorithm for evaluating the survivability of series-parallel systems with arbitrary configuration of multilevel protection against multiple destructive factor impacts. The algorithm is based on a composition of Boolean and the Universal Generating Function techniques. Illustrative examples are presented

  20. The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy: A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong System of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Ly Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to shed light on the identity of the spirit of fertility called Lady Kaying –Niam Nkauj Kab Yeeb—, its religious origin and the general processes of borrowing her fromother cultures within the Hmong culture. Hmong popular beliefs pertaining to Kaying reveal that Kaying is in fact the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin. She was imported from MahayanaBuddhism by the Hmong people of China who had retained her roles of the “Bestower of Children", the “Guardian Angel” or the "Conductor of the Dead Children". An analysis of the process of borrowing of the Chinese deity into the Hmong pantheon shows that Lady Kaying overlaps with an ancient spirit, the “Ancestor Spirit of Fertility” or Niam Poj Dab Pog. This case study demonstrates that the processes of borrowing are selective, integrative and comprehensive: some traits or fragments were taken from Buddhism and incorporated into the Hmong beliefs through a superimposing of a Hmong pre-existing system of beliefs.

  1. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  2. Quality of life/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs of adult and elderly chronic kidney patients under hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Gabriela Rusa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the quality of life of chronic kidney patients undergoing hemodialysis, using the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB.METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken at a kidney replacement therapy service in the interior of the state of SP. The 110subjects who complied with the inclusion criteria answered the Subject Characterization Instrument, the WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-SRPB.RESULTS: most of the respondents were male (67.27%, with a mean age of 55.65 years, Catholic (55.45%, with unfinished primary education (33.64% and without formal occupation (79.08%. The WHOQOL-bref domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "psychological" (µ=74.20 and "physical" (µ=61.14. The WHOQOL-SRPB domains with the highest and lowest mean score were, respectively, "completeness and integration" (µ=4.00 and "faith" (µ=4.40.CONCLUSIONS: the respondents showed high quality of life scores, specifically in the dimensions related to spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Losses were evidenced in the physical domain of quality of life, possibly due to the changes resulting from the chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis treatment.

  3. The influence of the pre-scientific and scientific belief system of both counsellor and client on the success of the narrative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Luyt

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate to what extent the belief system of both counsellor and client plays a role in counselling. It is generally accepted that beliefs play a central role in the life of all people. This article applies this notion, as described by, among others, Wright, Watson and Bell (1986, to the field of pastoral care and more specifically to the narrative approach within it. The narrative approach is an important instrument that helps people to understand how their life stories have been shaped by their beliefs about themselves. Throughout the article the researcher attempts to indicate how the counsellor, client and counselling process are influenced by their respective scientific and pre-scientific roots and development, as well as by their system of belief in general.

  4. Religious beliefs and policy under the Franco dictatorship | Creencias religiosas y política en la dictadura franquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moreno Seco

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialised historical works on the history of the Church and religious beliefs emanate predominantly from church circles and tend to place greater emphasis on political and structural aspects to the detriment of cultural analysis. During the long post-war period in Spain, ecclesiastical and secular authorities endeavoured to create a symbolic universe which would legitimise the dictatorship, and in which religion played a central role. The nineteen-sixties and seventies witnessed the birth of a new religiosity, headed by dissident priests and laymen, who would ultimately call into question the political regime itself. This article also examines the links between politics and religion by considering protestant minorities and anticlericalism. | La historiografía especializada en la historia de la Iglesia y de las creencias religiosas está marcada por un destacado peso de estudios provenientes de ámbitos eclesiásticos y por una mayor atención a enfoques políticos y estructurales en detrimento de análisis culturales. En la larga posguerra española, las autoridades eclesiásticas y civiles se esforzaron por crear un universo simbólico que legitimara a la dictadura, en el que la religión desempeñó un papel central. En los años sesenta y setenta surge una nueva religiosidad que acaba poniendo en cuestión al propio régimen político, por obra de sacerdotes y laicos contestatarios. En este artículo también se abordan los vínculos entre lo político y lo religioso al tratar las minorías protestantes y el anticlericalismo.

  5. Characterizing Species at Risk II: Using Bayesian Belief Networks as Decision Support Tools to Determine Species Conservation Categories Under the Northwest Forest Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a set of decision-aiding models as Bayesian belief networks (BBNs that represented a complex set of evaluation guidelines used to determine the appropriate conservation of hundreds of potentially rare species on federally-administered lands in the Pacific Northwest United States. The models were used in a structured assessment and paneling procedure as part of an adaptive management process that evaluated new scientific information under the Northwest Forest Plan. The models were not prescriptive but helped resource managers and specialists to evaluate complicated and at times conflicting conservation guidelines and to reduce bias and uncertainty in evaluating the scientific data. We concluded that applying the BBN modeling framework to complex and equivocal evaluation guidelines provided a set of clear, intuitive decision-aiding tools that greatly aided the species evaluation and conservation process.

  6. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...

  7. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-09-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  8. Emotion and decision-making: affect-driven belief systems in anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P; Yu, Angela J

    2012-09-01

    Emotion processing and decision-making are integral aspects of daily life. However, our understanding of the interaction between these constructs is limited. In this review, we summarize theoretical approaches that link emotion and decision-making, and focus on research with anxious or depressed individuals to show how emotions can interfere with decision-making. We integrate the emotional framework based on valence and arousal with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. We discuss how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions provide evidence that alterations of decision-making can be viewed in terms of altered probability and value computation. We argue that the probabilistic representation of belief states in the context of partially observable Markov decision processes provides a useful approach to examine alterations in probability and value representation in individuals with anxiety and depression, and outline the broader implications of this approach. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Emotion and decision-making: affect-driven belief systems in anxiety and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P.; Yu, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion processing and decision-making are integral aspects of daily life. However, our understanding of the interaction between these constructs is limited. In this review, we summarize theoretical approaches to the link between emotion and decision-making, and focus on research with anxious or depressed individuals that reveals how emotions can interfere with decision-making. We integrate the emotional framework based on valence and arousal with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. We then discuss how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions provide evidence that alterations of decision-making can be viewed in terms of altered probability and value computation. We argue that the probabilistic representation of belief states in the context of partially observable Markov decision processes provides a useful approach to examine alterations in probability and value representation in individuals with anxiety and depression and outline the broader implications of this approach. PMID:22898207

  10. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reliability of dynamic systems under limited information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr. (.,; .); Grigoriu, Mircea

    2006-09-01

    A method is developed for reliability analysis of dynamic systems under limited information. The available information includes one or more samples of the system output; any known information on features of the output can be used if available. The method is based on the theory of non-Gaussian translation processes and is shown to be particularly suitable for problems of practical interest. For illustration, we apply the proposed method to a series of simple example problems and compare with results given by traditional statistical estimators in order to establish the accuracy of the method. It is demonstrated that the method delivers accurate results for the case of linear and nonlinear dynamic systems, and can be applied to analyze experimental data and/or mathematical model outputs. Two complex applications of direct interest to Sandia are also considered. First, we apply the proposed method to assess design reliability of a MEMS inertial switch. Second, we consider re-entry body (RB) component vibration response during normal re-entry, where the objective is to estimate the time-dependent probability of component failure. This last application is directly relevant to re-entry random vibration analysis at Sandia, and may provide insights on test-based and/or model-based qualification of weapon components for random vibration environments.

  12. New heavy-lift system under construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Heavy-lift availability is at a premium, and the market is eager for alternatives to meet the demand. An alternative heavy-lift solution from SeaMetric - which has two multi-purpose heavy-lift vessels under construction in China - will be available in the first quarter of 2011. The TML system is based on buoyancy and ballast tanks, with four lifting arms mounted on two identical vessels, each vessel measuring 140 x 40 x 10.75 metres. To perform a lift, one TML with lifting arms is positioned on each side of the object. Using seawater pumps, lift force is created by de ballasting the buoyancy tanks and at the same time ballasting the ballast tanks. (AG). tab., ills

  13. Belief, hope and faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luis Claudio

    2004-12-01

    A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.

  14. Ecological and biological systems under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, V S; Nenishkiene, V B

    1989-01-01

    The behaviour of biological and ecological systems under extreme conditions (high and low temperatures, electromagnetic fields of different frequencies, ultraviolet. X-ray and gamma radiation) is analyzed. The ecosystems of macro- and microalgae living in salt, brackinsh and fresh waters are considered in the evolutional aspect basing on their chemical and biochemical composition taking into account the mechanism of radionuclide uptake by water plant cells, osmotic regulation, water and ice structures, combined water in a living organism. The problems of life-support in cosmic flights and of mastering the planets of the Solar system, for instance Mars and Venus, utilizing some microalgae and bacteria with high adaptive properties are discussed. Abnormal water points and their role in the metabolism of a water plant cell are estimated. The 'life niches' are determined at the temperatures exceeding 100 deg C and the possibility of existence for living organisms in high pressure and temperature is grounded. Attempts are made to change the metabolism of the plant and animal cell by subjecting it to the action of electromagnetic and thermal fields, heavy water, chemical and pharmocological substances changing the structure of bound water. 333 refs.; 79 tabs.

  15. Social Cognition and Democracy: The Relationship Between System Justification, Just World Beliefs, Authoritarianism, Need for Closure, and Need for Cognition in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Kelemen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at examining just-world beliefs, system justification, authoritarianism, and cognitive style in a nationally representative sample (N = 1000 in Hungary, and at relating these phenomena to various demographic and political variables to find out whether the findings in Hungary would differ from its Western counterparts. According to system justification theory, there is a psychological motive to defend and justify the status quo. This theory has been tested several times in North American and Western European samples. The core finding of our study was that Hungarian people, unlike people in Western democracies, did not justify the existing establishment. There was strong pessimism with regard to the idea that the system serves the interests of the people. Members of disadvantaged groups (people with low economic income and/or far right political preference strongly rejected the system. System justification beliefs were moderately related to just world beliefs, and there was a significant relationship between some aspects of need for closure (need for order, discomfort with ambiguity, and closed-mindedness and authoritarian beliefs. Need for cognition was only related to one aspect of need for closure: closed-mindedness. The voters of right-wing parties did not display higher levels of authoritarianism than the voters of the left social-democrat party. The role of demographic and political variables, limitations, and possible developments of this research are discussed.

  16. Social norms and cultural services - community belief system and use of wildlife products in the Northern periphery of the Korup National Park, South-West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoufo R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In many traditional societies, beliefs and taboos influence human behaviour towards the natural environment. Such beliefs and taboos are informal institutions where norms rather than official laws determine land use and nature protection in general and wildlife in particular. The present study on beliefs and taboos of the people of the northern periphery of the Korup National Park is an attempt to reveal how norms influence their relation to the environment. A total of 195 households were sampled through a household survey conducted in four villages. The results revealed that before the application of “modern” approaches for wildlife protection and management, the people relied on norms to establish a relationship with wildlife and nature. The enactment of the 1994 legislation on forest, wildlife and fisheries resulted in stiff resistance as it contradicts traditional norms. It was found that 57.4 % of the respondents still perceive wildlife as a resource that can never get extinct. Traditional norms had a differentiated impact especially on game protection. The study recommends that a wildlife benefiting code of beliefs and taboos is developed to provide a basis for establishing a synergy between park management laws and traditional belief/taboo systems that drive the management of wildlife.

  17. Examining College Students' Social Environment, Normative Beliefs, and Attitudes in Subsequent Initiation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Deepti; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    Although use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) is increasingly prevalent among young adults, little is known about predictors of ENDS initiation among this population. We examined the roles of the social environment (i.e., peer ENDS use and household ENDS use), normative beliefs (i.e., social acceptability of ENDS use), and attitudes (i.e., inclination to date someone who uses ENDS) in prospectively predicting initiation of ENDS over a 1-year period among 18- to 29-year-old college students. Participants were 2,110 (18- to 29-year-old) students ( M = 20.27, SD = 2.17) from 24 colleges in Texas who participated in a three-wave online survey, with 6 months between each wave. All participants reported never using ENDS at baseline. A multivariable, multilevel logistic regression model, accounting for clustering of students within colleges, was used to assess if students' social environment, normative beliefs, and attitudes predicted subsequent initiation of ENDS up to 1 year later, adjusting for various sociodemographic factors and number of other tobacco products used. In all, 329 college students (16%) initiated ENDS within 1 year. Results from the logistic regression indicated that college students who were younger (18-24 years old), ever used other tobacco products, indicated a more dense peer network of ENDS users, and had a higher inclination to date someone who uses ENDS had higher odds of initiating ENDS than their peers. Preventing ENDS initiation should be included in college health promotion programs, which should highlight the roles of students' social environment and attitudes regarding ENDS use.

  18. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available in the presence of Vacuity. 3.2 Partial meet theory contraction The preceding construction works equally well when B is taken to be a theory K. But in this case, since the input to contraction is a theory, we should expect the output to be a theory too... that is analogous to that of a belief set K in theory change. Intuitively, E is the ?current? set of expectations of the agent, and the plausible consequences of a sentence ? are those sentences ? for which ? |?? holds. The set of expectations E is not explicitly...

  19. A non-linear dynamical approach to belief revision in cognitive behavioral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronemyer, David; Bystritsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a non-linear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain's attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three) fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. PMID:24860491

  20. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  1. A Study on Quantitative Assessment of Design Specification of Reactor Protection System Software Using Bayesian Belief Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Chang, S. C.; Park, G. Y.; Kwon, K. C.

    2007-02-01

    This report propose a method that can produce quantitative reliability of safety-critical software for PSA by making use of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). BBN has generally been used to model the uncertain system in many research fields. The proposed method was constructed by utilizing BBN that can combine the qualitative and the quantitative evidence relevant to the reliability of safety-critical software, and then can infer a conclusion in a formal and a quantitative way. A case study was also carried out with the proposed method to assess the quality of software design specification of safety-critical software that will be embedded in reactor protection system. The V and V results of the software were used as inputs for the BBN model. The calculation results of the BBN model showed that its conclusion is mostly equivalent to those of the V and V expert for a given input data set. The method and the results of the case study will be utilized in PSA of NPP. The method also can support the V and V expert's decision making process in controlling further V and V activities

  2. Beliefs and expectations of rural hospital practitioners towards a developing trauma system: A qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan D F; Cole, Elaine; Brundage, Susan I; Morrison, Zoe; Jansen, Jan O

    2018-03-22

    An understanding of stakeholders' views is key to the successful development and operation of a rural trauma system. Scotland, which has large remote and rural areas, is currently implementing a national trauma system. The aim of this study was to identify key barriers and enablers to the development of an effective trauma system from the perspective of rural healthcare professionals. This is a qualitative study, which was conducted in rural general hospitals (RGH) in Scotland, from April to June 2017. We used an opportunistic sampling strategy to include hospital providers of rural trauma care across the region. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify and group participant perspectives on key barriers and enablers to the development of the new trauma system. We conducted 15 interviews with 18 participants in six RGHs. Study participants described barriers and enablers across three themes: 1) quality of care, 2) interfaces within the system and 3) interfaces with the wider healthcare system. For quality of care, enablers included confidence in basic trauma management, whilst a perceived lack of change from current management was seen as a barrier. The theme of interfaces within the system identified good interaction with other services and a single point of contact for referral as enablers. Perceived barriers included challenges in referring to tertiary care. The final theme of interfaces with the wider healthcare system included an improved transport system, increased audit resource and coordinated clinical training as enablers. Perceived barriers included a rural staffing crisis and problematic patient transfer to further care. This study provides insight into rural professionals' perceptions regarding the implementation of a trauma system in rural Scotland. Barriers included practical issues, such as retrieval, transfer and referral processes. Importantly, there is a degree of uncertainty

  3. For Better or Worse? System-Justifying Beliefs in Sixth-Grade Predict Trajectories of Self-Esteem and Behavior Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Erin B; Santos, Carlos E; Burson, Esther

    2017-06-19

    Scholars call for more attention to how marginalization influences the development of low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth and emphasize the importance of youth's subjective perceptions of contexts. This study examines how beliefs about the fairness of the American system (system justification) in sixth grade influence trajectories of self-esteem and behavior among 257 early adolescents (average age 11.4) from a diverse, low-income, middle school in an urban southwestern city. System justification was associated with higher self-esteem, less delinquent behavior, and better classroom behavior in sixth grade but worse trajectories of these outcomes from sixth to eighth grade. These findings provide novel evidence that system-justifying beliefs undermine the well-being of marginalized youth and that early adolescence is a critical developmental period for this process. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  5. Validity and reliability of the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS) to assess health beliefs related to early childhood caries prevention among primary caregivers of children under 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Shaw, Bret R; Tanasukarn, Chanuantong; Vatanasomboon, Paranee

    2012-09-01

    Primary caregivers' child oral health care beliefs and practices are major factors in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). This study assessed the validity and reliability of a newly-developed scale--the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS)--used to measure beliefs regarding ECC preventive practices among primary caregivers of young children. The ECCPS was developed based on the Health Belief Model. The construct validity and reliability of the ECCPS were examined among 254 low-socioeconomic status primary caregivers with children under five years old, recruifed from 4 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Health Centers and a kindergarten school. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a four-factor structure. The four factors were labeled as Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers. Internal consistency measured by the Cronbach's coefficient alpha for those four factors were 0.897, 0.971, 0.975 and 0.789, respectively. The ECCPS demonstrated satisfactory levels of reliability and validity for assessing the health beliefs related to ECC prevention among low-socioeconomic primary caregivers.

  6. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  7. Modelling the effects of a CBRN defence system using a Bayesian Belief Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillipson, F.; Bastings, I.C.L.; Vink, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a Bayes model to quantify the effects of a passive CBRN defence system is presented. The model gives insight in the way of the mutual influence of all the elements of passive CBRN defence, by the use of detailed scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and root cause analysis. This can

  8. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  9. Cultural influences on causal beliefs about depression among Latino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Susan; Escobar, Javier; Paris, Manuel; Alvidrez, Jennifer; Dixon, Jane K; Desai, Mayur M; Scahill, Lawrence D; Whittemore, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes causal beliefs about depression among Dominican, Colombian, and Ecuadorian immigrants. The authors describe participants' narratives about how particular supernatural or religious beliefs may contribute to or alleviate depression. Latino primary care patients (n = 177) were interviewed with the Beliefs About Causes of Depression Scale, a list of 35 items rated from not at all important to extremely important. Participants had the option of expanding on responses using an informal conversational approach. Underlying themes of these explanatory comments were derived from narrative and content analysis. Major themes that emerged were Psychosocial and Religious and Supernatural causal beliefs. A third theme emerged that represented the integration of these categories in the context of the immigrant experience. This article adds to the understanding of cross-cultural beliefs about depression. Psychosocial stressors related to the immigrant experience and adverse life events were highly endorsed, but the meaning of these stressors was construed in terms of religious and cultural values. To provide culturally appropriate services, nurses should be aware of and discuss the patient's belief systems, illness interpretations, and expectations of treatment.

  10. System development and asset management under restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In many developed countries the electricity infrastructure contains ageing assets. Because of the need of a continuing operation and higher load factors on the network, the opportunities for replacement or refurbishment are limited. These must be regarded as an opportunity to review the structure of the system and to consider the design and development required to meet the new requirements, taking advantage of new available technologies: HVDC, FACTS, cables, etc. The symposium examines assets management issues and assesses strategies for overhauling existing systems, taking into account the impact on market operation, on supply security and environment

  11. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  12. Classical system underlying a diffracting quantum billiard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manan Jain

    2018-01-05

    Jan 5, 2018 ... Wave equation; rays; quantum chaos. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 05.45.Mt; 42.25.Fx. 1. Introduction. Diffraction [1] is a complex wave phenomenon which manifests classically and quantum mechanically. Among a wide range of systems where diffraction becomes important, there is an interesting situation of.

  13. Designing cellular manufacturing system under risk conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper develops a mathematical modeling to design a cellular manufacturing system. In addition some of the total or portion of the demand of the part types can be subcontracted.. In order to designing the optimal CMS, we needs to detrmined a plan to produce and subcontract parts at a minimum cost and to mitigate the ...

  14. AGROFOREST SYSTEM INVESTMENT ANALYSIS UNDER RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry System is the ecological and economical interaction of the use of the land, with the combination ofagriculture, livestock and forest production, in temporary sequence and in a simultaneous way. The studies of investments in projectsassume the existence of risks and uncertainties. An alternative to reduce the risk in the forest investment is the association with theagricultural. This work analyzed the situations of risk of a system agroflorestal. Monte Carlo s method comes from the theory ofsimulations and stands out as a powerful and useful tool to provide a distribution of probabilities for the analysis of decision. A totalof 10,000 interactions of the Net Present Value (VPL, of Internal Rate of Return (TIR and of the Equivalent Periodic Benefit (BPEwere made in order to establish the probability distribution. The results presented 78.65% of chance of VPL being US$ 1,410.00;77.56% of chance of TIR being 36.36%, and; 75.39% of chance of BPE being US$ 309.70; the agroforestry system presented lowinvestment risk; and the livestock is the main product of the agrossilvopastoril system, followed by charcoal.

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  16. Control of a perturbed under-actuated mechanical system

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Chemori, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the trajectory tracking problem for an under-actuated mechanical system in presence of unknown input disturbances is addressed. The studied inertia wheel inverted pendulum falls in the class of non minimum phase systems. The proposed

  17. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  18. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  19. The Effect of Content Representation Design Principles on Users' Intuitive Beliefs and Use of E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Selim, Hassan; Zaqout, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to assess the effect of different content representation design principles on learners' intuitive beliefs about using e-learning. We hypothesized that the impact of the representation of course contents is mediated by the design principles of alignment, quantity, clarity, simplicity, and affordance, which influence the…

  20. The Impact of High Stakes Accountability Systems and the New Performance Demands on Special Education Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Robin Lee

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) articulates the goal that all children can learn and are expected to achieve grade level academic proficiency by 2014. Based on theories underlying models of extrinsic motivation, the fundamental assumption and theory of action is that a system of rewards and sanctions will motivate teachers to focus on…

  1. Discourse versus practice: are traditional practices and beliefs in pregnancy and childbirth included or excluded in the Ecuadorian health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Waters, William F; Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert

    2017-03-01

    Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents. We found different levels of integration, coexistence, tolerance, and intolerance of traditional health beliefs and practices in health facilities. One parish has undergone dramatic social and cultural transformation, and the role of traditional birth attendants is limited. In the other parish, traditional indigenous norms and values persist, and traditional birth attendants are sought during pregnancy and childbirth. The degree to which traditional birth attendants, indigenous women and their families are included or excluded from public health services depends largely on decisions taken by local health professionals. Formal policies in Ecuador stipulate that health care should be intercultural, but the role of traditional birth attendants is not necessarily incorporated in practice. The integration of culturally-informed beliefs and practices is critical for providing appropriate health services to members of vulnerable populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 'It's like taking poison to kill poison but I have to get better': a qualitative study of beliefs about medicines in Rheumatoid arthritis and Systemic lupus erythematosus patients of South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Gordon, C; Barry, R; Shaw, K; Horne, R; Raza, K

    2011-07-01

    To investigate factors that influence beliefs about medicines in patients of South Asian origin with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Qualitative methodology was used to explore the health beliefs of South Asian patients and in particular the factors that influenced their beliefs about medicines and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Thirty two patients with RA and SLE took part in focus group discussions. Patients who chose to participate in focus groups conducted in English were compared with those who chose to participate groups conducted in Punjabi or Urdu. Three main themes emerged to explain patients beliefs about medicines: (1) Beliefs about the necessity of DMARDs; (2) Concerns about DMARDs and other prescribed medicines including: (a) long-term side-effects; (b) the apparent lack of efficacy of some therapies; (c) concerns about changing from one drug to another and the large numbers of different medicines being taken; (3) Contextual factors which informed the patient's view on the necessity for particular medicines and concerns about them including: (a) beliefs about the causes of disease and the influence of religious beliefs on this; (b) barriers to communication with health care professionals about the medications being prescribed in clinic. In addition, our data revealed that these beliefs about DMARDs had important consequences for patient behaviour, including the use of traditional dietary and other non-pharmacological approaches. There were differences in views expressed between those who chose to speak in English and those who did not. This study has identified themes that explain previous findings of negative beliefs about medicines in patients of South Asian origin. Beliefs about the causes of disease had an important impact on the way some patients viewed medicines for RA and SLE. This will have implications for educational programmes designed to promote patient involvement in disease management.

  3. Soil characterization in contrasting cropping systems under the fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contrasting production systems under study were communal area, A2 (large scale resettlement) and A1 (small scale resettlement).All these systems are in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe. The A1 and A2 production systems were brought about during the 2000 land reform programme. The soil samples were collected ...

  4. Quantum Graphical Models and Belief Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, M.S.; Poulin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Belief Propagation algorithms acting on Graphical Models of classical probability distributions, such as Markov Networks, Factor Graphs and Bayesian Networks, are amongst the most powerful known methods for deriving probabilistic inferences amongst large numbers of random variables. This paper presents a generalization of these concepts and methods to the quantum case, based on the idea that quantum theory can be thought of as a noncommutative, operator-valued, generalization of classical probability theory. Some novel characterizations of quantum conditional independence are derived, and definitions of Quantum n-Bifactor Networks, Markov Networks, Factor Graphs and Bayesian Networks are proposed. The structure of Quantum Markov Networks is investigated and some partial characterization results are obtained, along the lines of the Hammersley-Clifford theorem. A Quantum Belief Propagation algorithm is presented and is shown to converge on 1-Bifactor Networks and Markov Networks when the underlying graph is a tree. The use of Quantum Belief Propagation as a heuristic algorithm in cases where it is not known to converge is discussed. Applications to decoding quantum error correcting codes and to the simulation of many-body quantum systems are described

  5. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) and Expert Systems for supporting model based sensor fault detection analysis of smart building systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, J.D.; Taal, A.; Itard, L.C.M.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    The Hague University in Delft uses an advanced climate control system. All sensors and actuators are monitored and deviations from the sensor data are reported daily. The building manager will have to combine the information from the sensor data in order to draw the right conclusions. In this paper,

  6. The Origins of Belief Representation: Monkeys Fail to Automatically Represent Others’ Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Young infants’ successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)’s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species—the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)—is automatically influenced by another agent’s beliefs when tracking an object’s location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple’s movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys’ belief (true or false) and agent’s belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys’ expectations were not influenced by another agent’s beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans. PMID:24374209

  7. Costs of Tractor Ownership under Different Management Systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs of Tractor Ownership under Different Management Systems in Nigeria. ... It requires high initial capital investment. ... making management plans and decisions especially in comparing different tractor types and models thereby assisting ...

  8. Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life orientation programmes: ... strategies of belief and value orientations in a multicultural education system. ... and religious backgrounds of learners represented in participating schools.

  9. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  10. Using Bayesian belief networks in adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Nyberg; B.G. Marcot; R. Sulyma

    2006-01-01

    Bayesian belief and decision networks are relatively new modeling methods that are especially well suited to adaptive-management applications, but they appear not to have been widely used in adaptive management to date. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) can serve many purposes for practioners of adaptive management, from illustrating system relations conceptually to...

  11. General family of preferential belief removal operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  12. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  13. A Dual System Model of Preferences under Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a dual system model (DSM) of decision making under risk and uncertainty according to which the value of a gamble is a combination of the values assigned to it independently by the affective and deliberative systems. On the basis of research on dual process theories and empirical research in Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) and…

  14. Swinging control of two-pendulum system under energy constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananyevskiy, M.S.; Fradkov, A.L.; Nijmeijer, H.; Leonov, G.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromsky, A.; Fradkov, A.

    2009-01-01

    A method for control of mechanical systems under phase constraints, applicable to energy control of Hamiltonian systems is proposed. The constrained energy control problem for two pendulums by a single control action is studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that for a proper choice

  15. [Belief system regarding Cannabis, its use and consequences: Users versus non-users in colombian university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Carballo, Álvaro; Gómez-Morales, Ileana; Humánez-Julio, Oscar; Guerrero-Martelo, Manuel; Vásquez De la Hoz, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria. Furthermore, the non-consumers group was mostly agree about that the marijuana use: damages the memory, deteriorates the cognitive functions, creates dependency, can affect the neurons and mental health. Also, it can lead to legal problems, it is a harmful drug for the health, it affects the academic performance, it creates problems with the family, friends, couple and the like, it reduces the driving ability, and, that the marijuana that is sold in the street is always pure. The consumer group, instead, agreed that smoking tobacco affects the lungs more than smoking marijuana. Marijuana has a positive in?uence on the brain, it increases the creativity, and it is less damaging than alcohol and tobacco. Smart people smoke marijuana and it has medicinal effects. In conclusion, according to the kind of beliefs that they have about this drug, the cannabis consumers would have a decreased perception of risk in relation to the potential risk that the consumption brings from two points of view: a. They minimize the real risks of consuming and, b. They attribute some benefts and virtues to the cannabis. The kind of beliefs that the consumer have are maybe in?uenced, at least, in part, for experiences of family and other consumers and, furthermore, the reinforcement of the same consume.

  16. Output synchronization of chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Mancilla, Didier [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara (CULagos-UdeG), Enrique Diaz de Leon s/n, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico)], E-mail: didier@uabc.mx; Cruz-Hernandez, Cesar [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Scientific Research and Advanced Studies of Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: ccruz@cicese.mx

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, an analysis for chaos synchronization under nonvanishing perturbations is presented. In particular, we use model-matching approach from nonlinear control theory for output synchronization of identical and nonidentical chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations in a master-slave configuration. We show that the proposed approach is indeed suitable to synchronize a class of perturbed slaves with a chaotic master system; that is the synchronization error trajectories remain bounded if the perturbations satisfy some conditions. In order to illustrate this robustness synchronization property, we present two cases of study: (i) for identical systems, a pair of coupled Roessler systems, the first like a master and the other like a perturbed slave, and (ii) for nonidentical systems, a Chua's circuit driving a Roessler/slave system with a perturbed control law, in both cases a quantitative analysis on the perturbation is included.

  17. Output synchronization of chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Mancilla, Didier; Cruz-Hernandez, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis for chaos synchronization under nonvanishing perturbations is presented. In particular, we use model-matching approach from nonlinear control theory for output synchronization of identical and nonidentical chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations in a master-slave configuration. We show that the proposed approach is indeed suitable to synchronize a class of perturbed slaves with a chaotic master system; that is the synchronization error trajectories remain bounded if the perturbations satisfy some conditions. In order to illustrate this robustness synchronization property, we present two cases of study: (i) for identical systems, a pair of coupled Roessler systems, the first like a master and the other like a perturbed slave, and (ii) for nonidentical systems, a Chua's circuit driving a Roessler/slave system with a perturbed control law, in both cases a quantitative analysis on the perturbation is included

  18. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  19. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  20. Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.

  1. Underlying Factors for Practicality of the Production Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, Emrah; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and communication technology, coordination and feedback, human factors and decision making, and measurement are the identified factors to be taken into account. Industrial interviews with three case companies, that are participating to the research program called The Norwegian Manufacturing Future (SFI NORMAN......This paper gives indications to important factors that must be considered for effectiveness of the production control systems under uncertainty. Five key factors have been identified by the literature study. Production schedule generation and execution approach under uncertainty, information...

  2. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  4. Replacement of the computerized control system at NPP under operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, A.D.; Rakitin, I.D.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons and preconditions for replacement of the computerized control systems (CCS) at NPP under operation are consi-- dered. Problems dealing with management of CCS replacement, maintenance of a new CCS as well as NPP personnel training for the new system maintenance are discussed. A necessity of NPP personnel participation in these works in order to adapt CCS to requirements of NPP operation personnel and to initiate the training process is underlined. Replacement of CCS at NPP under operation is associated, as a rule, with obsolescence of old systems not ensuring growing requirements to NPP workability and safety. Principles observed at CCS replacement are reduced, mainly, to the following; maximum utilizatian of existing equipment, metal strUctures, cables, instruments, power supplies, ventilation system minimum of construction works and new communications; the least change of acting panels and boxes; changes in control desks should be introduced on the basis of the analysis of operator actions '

  5. O sistema de crenças do aprendiz brasileiro de inglês: fatores que influenciam na construção de crenças Belief systems of Brazilians learning English: factors that influence in the building of beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Madeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As crenças sobre aprendizagem de línguas têm sido tópico de interesse entre autores em pesquisadores na área de ensino de línguas. Este trabalho traz uma discussão sobre os fatores que atuam na formação das crenças de alunos e professores de Língua Inglesa. Inicialmente, comento sobre o interesse pela investigação do sistema de crenças do aprendiz de inglês como língua estrangeira. Mostro a influência que as crenças que compõem o imaginário dos professores e aprendizes exercem na maneira como abordam o processo de ensino/aprendizagem. Passo então para a discussão dos principais fatores responsáveis pela formação das crenças, entre os quais alguns estão intimamente relacionados ao contexto brasileiro de ensino/aprendizagem da língua inglesa.Language learning beliefs has been a frequently discussed topic of Applied Linguistics in the area of language learning and teaching. This paper discusses the beliefs learners and teachers of English as a second language hold about the learning/teaching process. I will start the discussion exposing the reason why more and more researchers are interested in investigating the beliefs system of those involved in the task of learning the English language to show the influence that the beliefs that compose this system have in the way they approach the process of learning a new language. I will next present and discuss some of the main factors that act in the construction of students and teachers´ beliefs and some of the beliefs they hold, not all of which beneficial for the good performance in that process.

  6. Control of a perturbed under-actuated mechanical system

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia

    2015-11-05

    In this work, the trajectory tracking problem for an under-actuated mechanical system in presence of unknown input disturbances is addressed. The studied inertia wheel inverted pendulum falls in the class of non minimum phase systems. The proposed high order sliding mode control architecture including a controller and differentiator allows to track accurately the predefined trajectory and to stabilize the internal dynamics. The robustness of the proposed approach is illustrated through different perturbation and output noise configurations.

  7. The BEL information extraction workflow (BELIEF): evaluation in the BioCreative V BEL and IAT track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Sumit; Hodapp, Sven; Senger, Philipp; Ansari, Sam; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches have become extremely important in systems biology to achieve a better understanding of biological mechanisms. For network representation, the Biological Expression Language (BEL) is well designed to collate findings from the scientific literature into biological network models. To facilitate encoding and biocuration of such findings in BEL, a BEL Information Extraction Workflow (BELIEF) was developed. BELIEF provides a web-based curation interface, the BELIEF Dashboard, that incorporates text mining techniques to support the biocurator in the generation of BEL networks. The underlying UIMA-based text mining pipeline (BELIEF Pipeline) uses several named entity recognition processes and relationship extraction methods to detect concepts and BEL relationships in literature. The BELIEF Dashboard allows easy curation of the automatically generated BEL statements and their context annotations. Resulting BEL statements and their context annotations can be syntactically and semantically verified to ensure consistency in the BEL network. In summary, the workflow supports experts in different stages of systems biology network building. Based on the BioCreative V BEL track evaluation, we show that the BELIEF Pipeline automatically extracts relationships with an F-score of 36.4% and fully correct statements can be obtained with an F-score of 30.8%. Participation in the BioCreative V Interactive task (IAT) track with BELIEF revealed a systems usability scale (SUS) of 67. Considering the complexity of the task for new users-learning BEL, working with a completely new interface, and performing complex curation-a score so close to the overall SUS average highlights the usability of BELIEF.Database URL: BELIEF is available at http://www.scaiview.com/belief/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluation of forest management systems under risk of wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Hyytiainen; Robert G. Haight

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the economic efficiency of even- and uneven-aged management systems under risk of wildfire. The management problems are formulated for a mixed-conifer stand and approximations of the optimal solutions are obtained using simulation optimization. The Northern Idaho variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator and its Fire and Fuels Extension is used to predict...

  9. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  10. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Wang, L.C.; Chou, S.N.; Huang, C.; Jou, G.T.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10

  11. FSI analysis of piping systems under seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.; Ma, D.C.; Chang, Yao W.; Liu, Wing Kam

    1991-01-01

    A formulation which accounts for fluid-structure interaction of piping system under seismic excitation is presented. The governing equations of the fluid and the structure to model the pipe are stated. Using the finite element method the discretized equations are obtained. A transformation procedure for proper assembly of matrices is introduced. A solution algorithm is described. 9 refs., 2 figs

  12. RITUALISTIC TERMS IN THE ALEVI BELIEF SYSTEM ALEVİ İNANÇ SİSTEMİNDEKİ RİTÜELİK ÖZEL TERİMLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERSAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Alevi belief system is one of the important richnesses within Turkish language and culture. Spread over a far and wide geography, the community has also shaped many rituals and belief practices with its own dynamics. Thus, a world of numerous ritualistic terms is brought in Turkish language and culture. Due to the secrecy of the belief system, it has not been possible to ascertain the majority of the ritualistic terms by means of visual methods. In recent years, the overgeneralisation of the terms which have been ascertained seems to be a common mistake as well. However, a term sometimes has manifold meanings even in the same village. For this reason, false meanings might be attributed to a ritualistic term mentioned in a writing or poem. In this article the ritual of muhasip cemi, which is accepted as the secret prayer of the Alevi belief system, will be explained with materials collected from nine cities. The study will also be supported by visual elements that will be presented in an order similar to that of a ritual. Different terminological names attributed to the same belief practice will be given within the explanations as well. Alevi inanç sistemi, Türk dili ve kültürünün önemli zenginliklerindendir. Geniş bir coğrafyaya yayılan inanç zümresi birçok ritüel ve inanç pratiğini de kendi dinamikleri ile şekillendirmiştir. Bu sayede zengin bir ritüelik terim dünyası da Türk diline ve kültürüne kazandırılmıştır. Alevi inanç sistemine dair ritüelik terimlerin büyük bir çoğunluğu özellikle de inanç sisteminden kaynaklanan gizlilik sebebiyle görsel unsurlarla tespit edilememiştir. Son yıllarda tespit edilen terimleri de Aleviliğin geneline şümullandırma gibi bir hataya düşülmektedir. Oysaki bir köy içerisinde bile aynı terim farklı anlamlandırmalarla kullanılmaktadır. Bu sebeple bir yazma veya bir şiirde geçen ritüelik bir terime yanlış anlamlar yüklenebilmektedir. Bu makalede

  13. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  14. Reliability analysis of service water system under earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu; Qian Xiaoming; Lu Xuefeng; Wang Shengfei; Niu Fenglei

    2013-01-01

    Service water system is one of the important safety systems in nuclear power plant, whose failure probability is always gained by system reliability analysis. The probability of equipment failure under the earthquake is the function of the peak acceleration of earthquake motion, while the occurrence of earthquake is of randomicity, thus the traditional fault tree method in current probability safety assessment is not powerful enough to deal with such case of conditional probability problem. An analysis frame was put forward for system reliability evaluation in seismic condition in this paper, in which Monte Carlo simulation was used to deal with conditional probability problem. Annual failure probability of service water system was calculated, and failure probability of 1.46X10 -4 per year was obtained. The analysis result is in accordance with the data which indicate equipment seismic resistance capability, and the rationality of the model is validated. (authors)

  15. What Happens When a Teacher's Science Belief Structure Is in Disequilibrium? Entangled Nature of Beliefs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anita; Park, Soonhye; Hand, Brian

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative case study examined the process of change in an experienced elementary teacher's belief structure during implementation of an inquiry-based science program. Difficulties generally associated with ascertaining beliefs were minimized by using Leatham's (Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 91-102 (2006) Sensible System Framework, enabling researchers to obtain rich descriptions of the teacher's belief structure by focusing on words (professed beliefs), intentions (intended beliefs), and actions (enacted beliefs). Models were constructed of the teacher's belief structure before and after implementation of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach (Hand et al. International Journal of Science Education, 26(2), 131-149, 2004), an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. Key beliefs for this teacher were related to how students learn, goals for teaching science, focus of instruction, and roles of teacher and student. Ultimately, the teacher shifted her professed, intended, and enacted beliefs resulting in a shift from a teacher-centered to a student-centered classroom. Findings support Thagard's Coherence Theory of Justification (2002), positing that change in one belief creates a state of disequilibrium that must be alleviated by changing/realigning other beliefs in order to re-establish coherence in the overall belief structure. This research focus is distinct from the general trend in teacher beliefs research in important ways. Most significant is that this study was not focused on the traditional two lists—those beliefs that were consistent with practice and those that were inconsistent with practice—but instead focused on the entwined nature of beliefs and practice and have shown that a teacher's practice can be viewed as their enacted beliefs, an integral part of the teacher's overall belief structure.

  16. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  17. Scandinavian belief in fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Ström

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  18. A dual system model of preferences under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a dual system model (DSM) of decision making under risk and uncertainty according to which the value of a gamble is a combination of the values assigned to it independently by the affective and deliberative systems. On the basis of research on dual process theories and empirical research in Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) and Rottenstreich and Hsee (2001) among others, the DSM incorporates (a) individual differences in disposition to rational versus emotional decision making, (b) the affective nature of outcomes, and (c) different task construals within its framework. The model has good descriptive validity and accounts for (a) violation of nontransparent stochastic dominance, (b) fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, (c) ambiguity aversion, (d) common consequence effect, (e) common ratio effect, (f) isolation effect, and (g) coalescing and event-splitting effects. The DSM is also used to make several novel predictions of conditions under which specific behavior patterns may or may not occur.

  19. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Vergnes, J.; Zaetta, A.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  20. An Appraisal of Religious Art and Symbolic Beliefs in the Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African arts stem from their themes of symbolism, functionalism and utilitarianism, which describe African art as quite multi-functional. This however does not say that some African art does not have its underlying aesthetic import. In Africa, by virtue of their belief system, their spiritual practices have led to the creation of new ...

  1. Generalized thermalization for integrable system under quantum quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sushruth; Lochan, Kinjalk; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2018-01-01

    We investigate equilibration and generalized thermalization of the quantum Harmonic chain under local quantum quench. The quench action we consider is connecting two disjoint harmonic chains of different sizes and the system jumps between two integrable settings. We verify the validity of the generalized Gibbs ensemble description for this infinite-dimensional Hilbert space system and also identify equilibration between the subsystems as in classical systems. Using Bogoliubov transformations, we show that the eigenstates of the system prior to the quench evolve toward the Gibbs Generalized Ensemble description. Eigenstates that are more delocalized (in the sense of inverse participation ratio) prior to the quench, tend to equilibrate more rapidly. Further, through the phase space properties of a generalized Gibbs ensemble and the strength of stimulated emission, we identify the necessary criterion on the initial states for such relaxation at late times and also find out the states that would potentially not be described by the generalized Gibbs ensemble description.

  2. Site utility system optimization with operation adjustment under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Gai, Limei; Smith, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors. • Multi-period operation and recourses deal with uncertainty implementation. • Operation scheduling are specified at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. • Steam mains superheating affects steam distribution and power generation in the system. - Abstract: Utility systems must satisfy process energy and power demands under varying conditions. The system performance is decided by the system configuration and individual equipment operating load for boilers, gas turbines, steam turbines, condensers, and let down valves. Steam mains conditions in terms of steam pressures and steam superheating also play important roles on steam distribution in the system and power generation by steam expansion in steam turbines, and should be included in the system optimization. Uncertainties such as process steam power demand changes and electricity price fluctuations should be included in the system optimization to eliminate as much as possible the production loss caused by steam power deficits due to uncertainties. In this paper, uncertain factors are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors, and operation scheduling containing multi-period equipment load sharing, redundant equipment start up, and electricity import to compensate for power deficits, have been presented to deal with the happens of uncertainties, and are formulated as a multi-period item and a recourse item in the optimization model. There are two case studies in this paper. One case illustrates the system design to determine system configuration, equipment selection, and system operation scheduling at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. The other case provides operational optimization scenarios for an existing system, especially when the steam superheating varies. The proposed method can provide practical guidance to system energy efficiency improvement.

  3. Strategic plans for designing information systems under local government

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1998-01-01

    In decentralized administration local bodies are concerned with various administrative, educational and development issues. So in local government the planning for use of technology have started to recognize the value of information. This study attempts to evolve technical guidelines for building up an information system under local government that has to provide networking services by connecting various offices and institutions like Block Panchayat Office, Village Panchayat Office, District...

  4. Nonlinear system identification of smart structures under high impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarp Arsava, Kemal; Kim, Yeesock; El-Korchi, Tahar; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop numerical models for the prediction and analysis of the highly nonlinear behavior of integrated structure control systems subjected to high impact loading. A time-delayed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (TANFIS) is proposed for modeling of the complex nonlinear behavior of smart structures equipped with magnetorheological (MR) dampers under high impact forces. Experimental studies are performed to generate sets of input and output data for training and validation of the TANFIS models. The high impact load and current signals are used as the input disturbance and control signals while the displacement and acceleration responses from the structure–MR damper system are used as the output signals. The benchmark adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used as a baseline. Comparisons of the trained TANFIS models with experimental results demonstrate that the TANFIS modeling framework is an effective way to capture nonlinear behavior of integrated structure–MR damper systems under high impact loading. In addition, the performance of the TANFIS model is much better than that of ANFIS in both the training and the validation processes. (paper)

  5. Nonlinear system identification of smart structures under high impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarp Arsava, Kemal; Kim, Yeesock; El-Korchi, Tahar; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop numerical models for the prediction and analysis of the highly nonlinear behavior of integrated structure control systems subjected to high impact loading. A time-delayed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (TANFIS) is proposed for modeling of the complex nonlinear behavior of smart structures equipped with magnetorheological (MR) dampers under high impact forces. Experimental studies are performed to generate sets of input and output data for training and validation of the TANFIS models. The high impact load and current signals are used as the input disturbance and control signals while the displacement and acceleration responses from the structure-MR damper system are used as the output signals. The benchmark adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used as a baseline. Comparisons of the trained TANFIS models with experimental results demonstrate that the TANFIS modeling framework is an effective way to capture nonlinear behavior of integrated structure-MR damper systems under high impact loading. In addition, the performance of the TANFIS model is much better than that of ANFIS in both the training and the validation processes.

  6. Stress Biomarkers in Vanaraja Chicken Maintained Under Various Rearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is of major concern for poultry industry because it exerts deleterious effects on different parameters like feed intake, feed conversion ratio, weight gain, etc. In present study various enzymatic viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and non-enzymatic components like reduced glutathione (GSH, hemoglobin and stress induced cellular damage i.e. lipid peroxidation was estimated to access the stress level in Vanaraja chickens reared under various rearing systems during summer. Significantly (p<0.05 increased activities of CAT and SOD was observed in deep litter system as compared to cage and semi-intensive rearing system. However, non-significant change in CAT and significantly increased activity of SOD was observed as the age progress. GSH-Px activity significantly lower (p<0.05 in the deep litter as compared to other systems, however, the activity increases significantly (p<0.05 at 8th wks as compared to 4th wks. GSH level was found maximum in cage system compared to deep litter and semi-intensive system. Non-significant changes were observed in hemoglobin concentration during study both between age groups as well as the age progresses. Observations of the study suggested that cage system is better than deep litter and semi-intensive system in handling the stress induced by different environmental factors.

  7. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  8. Experimental analysis of chaos in under actuated electromechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Hernandez, H. G. [Universidad la Salle, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez Gallegos, Jaime [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico); Alvarez Gallegos Joaquin [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2001-10-01

    An under actuated system is a kind of non-autonomous robotic system in which there are more links than actuators. The complexity of the dynamical behavior of these systems allows a wide variety of steady-state responses. The reconstruction of attractors based on time series obtained from measurements of one of the variables of a two-link, planar, under actuated robot called Pendubot, is developed. Time-delay coordinates, average mutual information, and percentage of false nearest neighbors' methods are used to reconstruct the invariant sets. It is shown that, under the action of a periodic torque, the Pendubot can display a variety of steady-state dynamics, including strange attractors. [Spanish] Un sistema electromecanico subactuado es un tipo de sistema robotico no autonomo que cuenta con mas eslabones que actuadores. La complejidad del comportamiento dinamico de estos sistemas permite una gran variedad de respuestas en estado estacionario. En este trabajo se desarrolla la reconstruccion de atractores basada en series de tiempo obtenidas a partir de mediciones de una de las variables de un robot planar de dos grados de libertad subactuado llamado Pendubot. A fin de reconstruir los conjuntos invariantes, se utilizan tecnica como retraso de coordenadas, promedio de informacion mutua y porcentaje de falsos vecinos cercanos. Se muestra que bajo la accion de un torque periodico, el Pendubot puede desplegar una variedad de comportamientos dinamicos en estado estacionario incluyendo atractores extranos.

  9. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivan Murali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1 the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2 involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3 the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74% were returned and 309 (69% were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Salient results are: (1 Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional characteristic, involvement and belief explains 47% of the variance in the intention to use CDSS. This is significantly higher than the models addressed so far. The results will have a major impact in implementing CDSS in developing

  10. Executive functions in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Omar; Spinella, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Moral, religious, and paranormal beliefs share some degree of overlap and play important roles in guiding peoples' behavior. Although partly cultural phenomena, they also have neurobiological components based on functional neuroimaging studies and research in clinical populations. Because all three show relationships to prefrontal system functioning, the current study examined whether they related to executive functions as measured by the Executive Function Inventory in a community sample. As in previous research, religious beliefs related positively to both moral attitudes and paranormal beliefs. Moral attitudes, however, did not relate to paranormal beliefs. Paranormal beliefs related inversely to impulse control and organization, whereas small positive correlations occurred between traditional religious beliefs, impulse control, and empathy. Moral attitudes, on the other hand, showed consistent positive correlations with all executive functions measured, independent of demographic influences. These findings concordantly support that prefrontal systems play a role in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

  11. Soil Erodibility Parameters Under Various Cropping Systems of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, P. M.; van der Zijp, M.; Kwaad, F. J. P. M.

    1996-08-01

    For four years, runoff and soil loss from seven cropping systems of fodder maize have been measured on experimental plots under natural and simulated rainfall. Besides runoff and soil loss, several variables have also been measured, including rainfall kinetic energy, degree of slaking, surface roughness, aggregate stability, soil moisture content, crop cover, shear strength and topsoil porosity. These variables explain a large part of the variance in measured runoff, soil loss and splash erosion under the various cropping systems. The following conclusions were drawn from the erosion measurements on the experimental plots (these conclusions apply to the spatial level at which the measurements were carried out). (1) Soil tillage after maize harvest strongly reduced surface runoff and soil loss during the winter; sowing of winter rye further reduced winter erosion, though the difference with a merely tilled soil is small. (2) During spring and the growing season, soil loss is reduced strongly if the soil surface is partly covered by plant residues; the presence of plant residue on the surface appeared to be essential in achieving erosion reduction in summer. (3) Soil loss reductions were much higher than runoff reductions; significant runoff reduction is only achieved by the straw system having flat-lying, non-fixed plant residue on the soil surface; the other systems, though effective in reducing soil loss, were not effective in reducing runoff.

  12. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  13. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  14. Operator adaptation to changes in system reliability under adaptable automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Sauer, Juergen

    2017-09-01

    This experiment examined how operators coped with a change in system reliability between training and testing. Forty participants were trained for 3 h on a complex process control simulation modelling six levels of automation (LOA). In training, participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (50%). The impact of training experience on operator behaviour was examined during a 2.5 h testing session, in which participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (60%). The results showed that most operators did not often switch between LOA. Most chose an LOA that relieved them of most tasks but maintained their decision authority. Training experience did not have a strong impact on the outcome measures (e.g. performance, complacency). Low system reliability led to decreased performance and self-confidence. Furthermore, complacency was observed under high system reliability. Overall, the findings suggest benefits of adaptable automation because it accommodates different operator preferences for LOA. Practitioner Summary: The present research shows that operators can adapt to changes in system reliability between training and testing sessions. Furthermore, it provides evidence that each operator has his/her preferred automation level. Since this preference varies strongly between operators, adaptable automation seems to be suitable to accommodate these large differences.

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study of Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom Behavior Management in Urban American and Korean School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-Sook

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' beliefs on classroom behavior management strategies for students in urban public high schools between teachers in the United States and the Republic of Korea. This study incorporates data collected from teacher self-reported survey questionnaire, which is the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom…

  16. A Comparative Study of Elementary Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom and Behavior Management in the USA and Korean School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Myung-sook; Shin, Sunwoo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate elementary teachers' beliefs and inter-cultural perspectives in classroom management (instructional environment and behavior management) for students in public schools of the U.S. and Korea. The results supported that the two groups of teachers showed similar beliefs in instructional…

  17. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nativ, R.; Hunley, A.E.

    1993-07-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small

  18. Supplemental Material, PWQ42_2_747845_Choma_and_Prusaczyk - The Effects of System Justifying Beliefs on Skin-Tone Surveillance, Skin-Color Dissatisfaction, and Skin-Bleaching Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Choma, Becky L.; Prusaczyk, Elvira

    2018-01-01

    Supplemental Material, PWQ42_2_747845_Choma_and_Prusaczyk for The Effects of System Justifying Beliefs on Skin-Tone Surveillance, Skin-Color Dissatisfaction, and Skin-Bleaching Behavior by Becky L. Choma, and Elvira Prusaczyk in Psychology of Women Quarterly

  19. The System-Synergetic Approach to Development of Banking Systems under Conditions of Financial Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karcheva Ganna T.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the theoretical and practical aspects of using the system-synergetic approach to the development and functioning of banking systems under conditions of financial instability. It has been grounded that the theoretical foundations for the development of banking systems are based on the system approach, according to which the banking systems belong to a class of special complex dynamic, self-motivated and open systems with an integrated structure of subsystems and functions. The study of such systems should include two aspects — system-cybernetic and system-synergetic ones. It has been proved that under stationary conditions the banking system development goes on in accordance with the systemcybernetic model, which suggests the presence of a management subsystem, which functions are performed by the central bank. Under conditions of financial instability, in the pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis periods to study the development of banking systems the system-synergetic approach taking into account the multi-variant and alternative development of the banking system at bifurcation points is used. The criteria of the banking system entering the phase of bifurcation based on assessing the volatility of the current liabilities and possibility of building an analytical trend have been determined. The methodical approaches to evaluating the synergistic effects and level of financial stability of the banking system have been suggested, experimental calculations have been made.

  20. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    to accumulate in the top soil layer and timing of herbicide applications sometimes seems to target the emergence pattern of these weeds poorly. In contrast to the management of most diseases and pests, weed management should be considered in a time frame. The abilities to produce above and below ground...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...

  1. Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2–4). PMID:22666332

  2. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  3. Economic performance optimization of an absorption cooling system under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebreslassie, Berhane H.; Guillen-Gosalbez, Gonzalo; Jimenez, Laureano; Boer, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Many of the strategies devised so far to address the optimization of energy systems are deterministic approaches that rely on estimated data. However, in real world applications there are many sources of uncertainty that introduce variability into the decision-making problem. Within this general context, we propose a novel approach to address the design of absorption cooling systems under uncertainty in the energy cost. As opposed to other approaches that optimize the expected performance of the system as a single objective, in our method the design task is formulated as a stochastic bi-criteria non-linear optimization problem that simultaneously accounts for the minimization of the expected total cost and the financial risk associated with the investment. The latter criterion is measured by the downside risk, which avoids the need to define binary variables thus improving the computational performance of the model. The capabilities of the proposed modeling framework and solution strategy are illustrated in a case study problem that addresses the design of a typical absorption cooling system. Numerical results demonstrate that the method presented allows to manage the risk level effectively by varying the area of the heat exchangers of the absorption cycle. Specifically, our strategy allows identifying the optimal values of the operating and design variables of the cycle that make it less sensitive to fluctuations in the energy price, thus improving its robustness in the face of uncertainty.

  4. Multiculturalism, Medicine, and Health Part III: Health Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Supernatural beliefs relate to a Power or powers considered beyond nature. Persons who wish to draw upon the power of supernatural forces often attempt to do so through prayers, ceremonies, or special acknowledgement. While some physicians feel uncomfortable at times with beliefs that differ from their own, the chaplaincy system, in place in most hospitals, is evidence that health-care systems can comfortably accommodate supernatural beliefs. We must make an effort to understand and accommoda...

  5. Explanatory Coherence and Belief Revision in Naive Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    continental drift (Thagard & Nowak, 1988), and debates about why the dinosaurs became extinct . Application of ECHO to the belief revisions in Pat and Hal...rewono of nocuamy Idid 4onoly by bodck number) Students of reasoning have long tried to understand how people revise systems of beliefs. We maintain...Princeton University Students of reasoning have long tried to understand how people revise systems of beliefs (see Wertheimer, 1945, for example). We will

  6. Theoretical analysis of ejector refrigeration system performance under overall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weixiong; Shi, Chaoyin; Zhang, Shuangping; Chen, Huiqiang; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Real gas theoretical model is used to get ejector performance at critical/sub-critical modes. • The model has a better accuracy against the experiment results compared to ideal gas model. • The overall performances of two refrigerants are analyzed based on the parameter analysis. - Abstract: The ejector refrigeration integrated in the air-conditioning system is a promising technology, because it could be driven by the low grade energy. In the present study, a theoretical calculation based on the real gas property is put forward to estimate the ejector refrigeration system performance under overall modes (critical/sub-critical modes). The experimental data from literature are applied to validate the proposed model. The findings show that the proposed model has higher accuracy compared to the model using the ideal gas law, especially when the ejector operates at sub-critical mode. Then, the performances of the ejector refrigeration circle using different refrigerants are analyzed. R290 and R134a are selected as typical refrigerants by considering the aspects of COP, environmental impact, safety and economy. Finally, the ejector refrigeration performance is investigated under variable operation conditions with R290 and R134a as refrigerants. The results show that the R290 ejector circle has higher COP under critical mode and could operate at low evaporator temperature. However, the performance would decrease rapidly at high condenser temperature. The performance of R134a ejector circle is the opposite, with relatively lower COP, and higher COP at high condenser temperature compared to R290.

  7. Speed of disentanglement in multiqubit systems under a depolarizing channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fu-Lin, E-mail: flzhang@tju.edu.cn; Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin, E-mail: mailinliang@yahoo.com.cn

    2013-06-15

    We investigate the speed of disentanglement in the multiqubit systems under the local depolarizing channel, in which each qubit is independently coupled to the environment. We focus on the bipartition entanglement between one qubit and the remaining qubits constituting the system, which is measured by the negativity. For the two-qubit system, the speed for the pure state completely depends on its entanglement. The upper and lower bounds of the speed for arbitrary two-qubit states, and the necessary conditions for a state achieving them, are obtained. For the three-qubit system, we study the speed for pure states, whose entanglement properties can be completely described by five local-unitary-transformation invariants. An analytical expression of the relation between the speed and the invariants is derived. The speed is enhanced by the three-tangle which is the entanglement among the three qubits, but reduced by the two-qubit correlations outside the concurrence. The decay of the negativity can be restrained by the other two negativity with the coequal sense. The unbalance between two qubits can reduce the speed of disentanglement of the remaining qubit in the system, and even can retrieve the entanglement partially. For the k-qubit systems in an arbitrary superposition of Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state and W state, the speed depends almost entirely on the amount of the negativity when k increases to five or six. An alternative quantitative definition for the robustness of entanglement is presented based on the speed of disentanglement, with comparison to the widely studied robustness measured by the critical amount of noise parameter where the entanglement vanishes. In the limit of large number of particles, the alternative robustness of the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type states is inversely proportional to k, and the one of the W states approaches 1/√(k)

  8. Optimal maintenance of a multi-unit system under dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ho-Joon

    The availability, or reliability, of an engineering component greatly influences the operational cost and safety characteristics of a modern system over its life-cycle. Until recently, the reliance on past empirical data has been the industry-standard practice to develop maintenance policies that provide the minimum level of system reliability. Because such empirically-derived policies are vulnerable to unforeseen or fast-changing external factors, recent advancements in the study of topic on maintenance, which is known as optimal maintenance problem, has gained considerable interest as a legitimate area of research. An extensive body of applicable work is available, ranging from those concerned with identifying maintenance policies aimed at providing required system availability at minimum possible cost, to topics on imperfect maintenance of multi-unit system under dependencies. Nonetheless, these existing mathematical approaches to solve for optimal maintenance policies must be treated with caution when considered for broader applications, as they are accompanied by specialized treatments to ease the mathematical derivation of unknown functions in both objective function and constraint for a given optimal maintenance problem. These unknown functions are defined as reliability measures in this thesis, and theses measures (e.g., expected number of failures, system renewal cycle, expected system up time, etc.) do not often lend themselves to possess closed-form formulas. It is thus quite common to impose simplifying assumptions on input probability distributions of components' lifetime or repair policies. Simplifying the complex structure of a multi-unit system to a k-out-of-n system by neglecting any sources of dependencies is another commonly practiced technique intended to increase the mathematical tractability of a particular model. This dissertation presents a proposal for an alternative methodology to solve optimal maintenance problems by aiming to achieve the

  9. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  10. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Technology as a Global Learning Tool: Information Systems Success and Control Belief Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlie C.; Vannoy, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol- (VoIP) enabled online learning service providers struggling with high attrition rates and low customer loyalty issues despite VoIP's high degree of system fit for online global learning applications. Effective solutions to this prevalent problem rely on the understanding of system quality, information quality, and…

  11. Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D

    1988-11-01

    Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities.

  12. Food beliefs and practices among the Kalenjin pregnant women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Broerse, Jacqueline; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural

  13. Modeling dynamic behavior of superconducting maglev systems under external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Xue, Cun; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2017-08-01

    For a maglev system, vertical and lateral displacements of the levitation body may simultaneously occur under external disturbances, which often results in changes in the levitation and guidance forces and even causes some serious malfunctions. To fully understand the effect of external disturbances on the levitation performance, in this work, we build a two-dimensional numerical model on the basis of Newton's second law of motion and a mathematical formulation derived from magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear constitutive relation between the electric field and the current density. By using this model, we present an analysis of dynamic behavior for two typical maglev systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. The results show that during the vertical movement, the levitation force is closely associated with the flux motion and the moving velocity of the superconductor. After being disturbed at the working position, the superconductor has a disturbance-induced initial velocity and then starts to periodically vibrate in both lateral and vertical directions. Meanwhile, the lateral and vertical vibration centers gradually drift along their vibration directions. The larger the initial velocity, the faster their vibration centers drift. However, the vertical drift of the vertical vibration center seems to be independent of the direction of the initial velocity. In addition, due to the lateral and vertical drifts, the equilibrium position of the superconductor in the maglev systems is not a space point but a continuous range.

  14. Dynamic response of multiple nanobeam system under a moving nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Hosseini Hashemi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, nonlocal continuum based model of multiple nanobeam system (MNBS under a moving nanoparticle is investigated using Eringen’s nonlocal theory. Beam layers are assumed to be coupled by winkler elastic medium and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to model each layer of beam. The Hamilton’s principle, Eigen function technique and the Laplace transform method are employed to solve the governing equations. Analytical solutions of the transverse displacements for MNBs with simply supported boundary condition are presented for double layered and three layered MNBSs. For higher number of layers, the governing set of equations is solved numerically and the results are presented. This study shows that small-scale parameter has a significant effect on dynamic response of MNBS under a moving nanoparticle. Sensitivity of dynamical deflection to variation of nonlocal parameter, stiffness of Winkler elastic medium and number of nanobeams are presented in nondimensional form for each layer. Keywords: Dynamic response, Analytical solution, Moving particle, Nanobeam, Multi-layered nanobeam

  15. Understanding the role of public belief systems in perceptions of bio-physical, socioeconomic and cultural-spiritual vulnerabilities through the use of an emergent analytical framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available and Spiritual Markers ? Belief in ancestors and witchcraft ? Myths and legends ? Cultural practises influence how people use natural resources ? Sacred spaces/animals and plants ? Local Knowledge ? Culturally embedded ? Contrasts and duality ? Between... bio-medicine and traditional healing ? Religious duality ? Younger generations? dis/interest in traditions ? City life vs. village life ? Old vs. new ito education ? Old vs. new ? Hierarchy of access ? Trust/belief in traditional leadership...

  16. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  17. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun

    2017-10-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  19. Intelligent systems in oil field development under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Marco A.C.; Vellasco, Marley M.B.R. (eds.) [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Intelligent Systems use a range of methodologies for analysis, pre-processing, storage, organization, enhancing and mining of operational data, turning it into useful information and knowledge for decision makers in business enterprises. These intelligent technologies for decision support have been used with success by companies and organizations that are looking for competitive advantages whenever the issues on forecast, optimization, risks analysis, fraud detection, and decision under uncertainties are presented. Intelligent Systems (IS) offer to managers and decision makers the best solutions for complex applications, normally considered difficult, very restrictive or even impossible. The use of such techniques leads to a revolutionary process which has a significant impact in the business management strategy, by providing on time, correct information, ready to use. Computational intelligence techniques, especially genetic algorithms, genetic programming, neural networks, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy as well as modern finance theories, such as real options theory, are here presented and exemplified in oil and gas exploitation and production. This book is addressed to executives and students, directly involved or interested in intelligent management in different fields. (orig.)

  20. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  1. Tapping Students' Science Beliefs: A Resource for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Brian; Adams, Ray

    If teachers do not determine children's understandings and beliefs the children cannot be challenged. Five individual units are presented that have the intention of drawing out the underlying beliefs that children hold with respect to various aspects of science. "Skateboard News" is a newsletter which discusses aspects of skateboards and…

  2. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  3. Comparing replacement rates under private and federal retirement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patricia P

    One measure of the adequacy of retirement income is replacement rate - the percentage of pre-retirement salary that is available to a worker in retirement. This article compares salary replacement rates for private-sector employees of medium and large private establishments with those for federal employees under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees Retirement System. Because there is no standard benefit formula to represent the variety of formulas available in the private sector, a composite defined benefit formula was developed using the characteristics of plans summarized in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Medium and Large Employer Plan Survey. The resulting "typical" private-sector defined benefit plan, with an accompanying defined contribution plan, was then compared with the two federal systems. The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) is a stand-alone defined benefit plan whose participants are not covered by Social Security. Until passage of the 1983 Amendments to Social Security Act, it was the only retirement plan for most federal civilian employees. Provisions of the 1983 Amendments were designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. One provision created the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), which covers federal employees hired after 1983. It was one of the provisions designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. FERS employees contribute to and are covered by Social Security. FERS, which is a defined benefit plan, also includes a basic benefit and a 401(k)-type plan known as the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). To compare how retirees would fare under the three different retirement systems, benefits of employees retiring at age 65 with 35 years of service were calculated using hypothetical workers with steady earnings. Workers were classified according to a percentage of the average wage in the economy: low earners (45 percent), average earners

  4. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is therefore a need for teachers to be sensitised to the different values embedded in each belief system and all cultureal orientations. The prevalence of values and belief systems in the OBE curricula of C2005 and the NCS will have to be acknowledged, identified, and promoted. South African Journal of Education ...

  5. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...... in order to deal with inconsistencies and, particularly, the issue of inconsistencies, and belief revision is examined in relation to the GOAL agent programming language....

  6. Modeling intelligent agent beliefs in a card game scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołuński, Marcel; Tomanek, Roman; WÄ siewicz, Piotr

    In this paper we explore the problem of intelligent agent beliefs. We model agent beliefs using multimodal logics of belief, KD45(m) system implemented as a directed graph depicting Kripke semantics, precisely. We present a card game engine application which allows multiple agents to connect to a given game session and play the card game. As an example simplified version of popular Saboteur card game is used. Implementation was done in Java language using following libraries and applications: Apache Mina, LWJGL.

  7. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  8. Gimme that old time religion: the influence of the healthcare belief system of chiropractic's early leaders on the development of x-ray imaging in the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kenneth John

    2014-01-01

    Chiropractic technique systems have been historically documented to advocate overutilization of radiography. Various rationales for this have been explored in the literature. However, little consideration has been given to the possibility that the healthcare belief system of prominent early chiropractors may have influenced the use of the diagnostic modality through the years. The original rationale was the visualisation of chiropractic subluxations, defined as bones slightly out of place, pressing on nerves, and ultimately causing disease. This paradigm of radiography has survived in parts of the chiropractic profession, despite lacking evidence of clinical validity. The purpose of this paper is to compare the characteristics of the chiropractic technique systems that have utilised radiography for subluxation detection with the characteristics of religion, and to discover potential historical links that may have facilitated the development of those characteristics. Twenty-three currently or previously existing technique systems requiring radiography for subluxation analysis were found using a search of the internet, books and consultation with experts. Evidence of religiosity from the early founders' writings was compared with textbooks, published papers, and websites of subsequently developed systems. Six criteria denoting religious thinking were developed using definitions from various sources. They are: supernatural concepts, claims of supremacy, rules and rituals, sacred artefacts, sacred stories, and special language. All of these were found to a greater or lesser degree in the publicly available documents of all the subluxation-based chiropractic x-ray systems. The founders and early pioneers of chiropractic did not benefit from the current understanding of science and research, and therefore substituted deductive and inductive reasoning to arrive at conclusions about health and disease in the human body. Some of this thinking and rationalisation

  9. Iraqi children's rights: building a system under fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan

    2009-01-01

    War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.

  10. Self Confidence Spillovers and Motivated Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Villeval, Marie Claire

    that success when competing in a task increases the performers’ self-confidence and competitiveness in the subsequent task. We also find that such spillovers affect the self-confidence of low-status individuals more than that of high-status individuals. Receiving good news under Affirmative Action, however......Is success in a task used strategically by individuals to motivate their beliefs prior to taking action in a subsequent, unrelated, task? Also, is the distortion of beliefs reinforced for individuals who have lower status in society? Conducting an artefactual field experiment in India, we show...

  11. A Method to Evaluate Groundwater flow system under the Seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, N.; Marui, A.

    2011-12-01

    A rapid increase of population in the world causes growth of water demands, and this may result worldwide water shortage in future. Especially, in the coastal area, water resource development becomes important because the half of the world population is concentrated in this area. Recently, countermeasures to mitigate climate change are discussed. Coastal area is one of the promising places for disposal of high-level nuclear waste or carbon dioxide capture and storage. Lots of development will be conducted in the coastal areas, however there are a lot of uncertainties remaining to understand the hydrogeological environment in there. It has been said that salt water / fresh water interface is formed in the place where meteoric fresh groundwater and salt groundwater from the ocean meet, and there is a large amount of groundwater discharge on the seafloor of the end of this interface so far. Recently, there is a lot of research about this submarine groundwater discharge because of the protection of the coastal ecosystem. In addition, there is a report that fresh water under the seabed was discovered on the continental shelf away from a present coastline by tens of kilometers in many parts of the world, because recently offshore drilling technology has been improving. Classical theory about formulation of salt water / fresh water interface could not explain completely, and consideration of longterm geochemical process (e.g., sea level fluctuations) is needed to understand this mechanism. Fresh (or brackish) groundwater under the seabed have been found on the investigation related to a seabed resources exploration in the field of coal mining, oceanic engineering works such as submarine tunnels, the atomic research, and the collection investigations of the basic data in the earth science field. A lot of fresh water under the seabed is confirmed on the offshore side from a present coastline as for these cases, and it is suggested that the end position of the salt water

  12. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  13. Quadratic stabilisability of multi-agent systems under switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongqiang; Ji, Zhijian; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the stabilisability of multi-agent systems (MASs) under switching topologies. Necessary and/or sufficient conditions are presented in terms of graph topology. These conditions explicitly reveal how the intrinsic dynamics of the agents, the communication topology and the external control input affect stabilisability jointly. With the appropriate selection of some agents to which the external inputs are applied and the suitable design of neighbour-interaction rules via a switching topology, an MAS is proved to be stabilisable even if so is not for each of uncertain subsystem. In addition, a method is proposed to constructively design a switching rule for MASs with norm-bounded time-varying uncertainties. The switching rules designed via this method do not rely on uncertainties, and the switched MAS is quadratically stabilisable via decentralised external self-feedback for all uncertainties. With respect to applications of the stabilisability results, the formation control and the cooperative tracking control are addressed. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  14. Modeling of thermal explosion under pressure in metal ceramic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.; Dudko, V.; Skachek, B.; Matvienko, A.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The process of reactive in situ synthesis of dense ceramic matrix composites in Ti-B-C, Ti-B-N, Ti-Si-N systems is modeled. These ceramics are fabricated on the basis of compacted blends of ceramic powders, namely Ti-B 4 C and/or Ti-BN. The objectives of the project are to identify and investigate the optimal thermal conditions preferable for production of fully dense ceramic matrix composites. Towards this goal heat transfer and combustion in dense and porous ceramic blends are investigated during monotonous heating at a constant rate. This process is modeled using a heat transfer-combustion model with kinetic parameters determined from the differential thermal analysis of the experimental data. The kinetic burning parameters and the model developed are further used to describe the thermal explosion synthesis in a restrained die under pressure. It is shown that heat removal from the reaction zone affects the combustion process and the final phase composition

  15. Variation in Payment Rates under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky, Sam; Ryan, Andrew M; Mijanovich, Tod; Blustein, Jan

    2017-04-01

    To measure variation in payment rates under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) and identify the main payment adjustments that drive variation. Medicare cost reports for all Medicare-certified hospitals, 1987-2013, and Dartmouth Atlas geographic files. We measure the Medicare payment rate as a hospital's total acute inpatient Medicare Part A payment, divided by the standard IPPS payment for its geographic area. We assess variation using several measures, both within local markets and nationally. We perform a factor decomposition to identify the share of variation attributable to specific adjustments. We also describe the characteristics of hospitals receiving different payment rates and evaluate changes in the magnitude of the main adjustments over time. Data downloaded from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the National Bureau of Economic Research, and the Dartmouth Atlas. In 2013, Medicare paid for acute inpatient discharges at a rate 31 percent above the IPPS base. For the top 10 percent of discharges, the mean rate was double the IPPS base. Variations were driven by adjustments for medical education and care to low-income populations. The magnitude of variation has increased over time. Adjustments are a large and growing share of Medicare hospital payments, and they create significant variation in payment rates. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Adaptation of cell renewal systems under continuous irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    There are adaptive changes in the proliferative characteristics of renewal tissues under the stress of continuous low-dose-rate irradiation which indicate that cell and tissue kinetics will have a considerable effect on the radiation response. Factors that determine the adaptation response involve cellular radiosensitivity, i.e. cell cycle effects, which determine the rate of cell sterilization and death, and compensatory cell proliferation and the capacity for regeneration, i.e. changes in the patterns of cell population kinetics, which determine the rate of cell birth. In rapidly dividing cell renewal systems, there is an effective elimination of damaged cells, with almost complete repair of cellular nonlethal damage. In slowly dividing renewal tissues, there is some repair or elimination of cellular radiation damage and the pattern of cell proliferation during regeneration is relatively little disturbed by prior continuous irradiation. Experimental data on intestinal epithelium, immunohematopoietic tissues, seminiferous epithelium and regenerating liver are presented. Discussion includes differences in adaptation to continuous low-dose-rate irradiation involving intracellular and extracellular control mechanisms which regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation and, thereby, control cell population levels and physiological function. 29 references

  17. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  18. Computation of thermodynamic equilibrium in systems under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2016-04-01

    pressure. To compute a case of high and low pressure around a stressed inclusion we first did a Finite Element Method calculation of a rigid inclusion in a viscous matrix under simple shear. From the computed stress distribution we took the local pressure (mean stress) in each grid point of the FEM calculation. This was used as input thermodynamic pressure in the Gibbs minimization and the result showed it is possible to have an equilibrium situation in which chlorite-amphibole is stable in the low pressure domain and kyanite in the high pressure domain of the stress field around the inclusion. Interestingly, the calculation predicts the redistribution of fluid from an average content of fluid in the system. The fluid in equilibrium tends to accumulate in the low pressure areas whereas it leaves the high pressure areas dry. Transport of fluid components occurs not necessarily by fluid flow, but may happen for example by diffusion. We conclude that an apparent disequilibrium texture may be explained by equilibrium under pressure variations, and apparent fluid addition by redistribution of fluid controlled by the local stress distribution. [1] Mukai et al. (2014), Journal of Petrology, 55 (8), p. 1457-1477. [2] Holland and Powell (1998), Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16, p. 309-343 [3] Johnson et al. (1992), Computers & Geosciences, 18 (7), p. 899-947 [4] Connolly (2005), Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 236, p. 524-541

  19. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean

    2018-05-01

    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  20. Functional neuroimaging of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sam; Sheth, Sameer A; Cohen, Mark S

    2008-02-01

    The difference between believing and disbelieving a proposition is one of the most potent regulators of human behavior and emotion. When one accepts a statement as true, it becomes the basis for further thought and action; rejected as false, it remains a string of words. The purpose of this study was to differentiate belief, disbelief, and uncertainty at the level of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the brains of 14 adults while they judged written statements to be "true" (belief), "false" (disbelief), or "undecidable" (uncertainty). To characterize belief, disbelief, and uncertainty in a content-independent manner, we included statements from a wide range of categories: autobiographical, mathematical, geographical, religious, ethical, semantic, and factual. The states of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty differentially activated distinct regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. Belief and disbelief differ from uncertainty in that both provide information that can subsequently inform behavior and emotion. The mechanism underlying this difference appears to involve the anterior cingulate cortex and the caudate. Although many areas of higher cognition are likely involved in assessing the truth-value of linguistic propositions, the final acceptance of a statement as "true" or its rejection as "false" appears to rely on more primitive, hedonic processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula. Truth may be beauty, and beauty truth, in more than a metaphorical sense, and false propositions may actually disgust us.

  1. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654

  2. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eSchmack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity towards unfounded beliefs. 109 healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818 and rs4680, also known as val158met that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioural experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity towards unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world.

  3. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  4. Underestimating belief in climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T.

    2018-03-01

    People are influenced by second-order beliefsbeliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.

  5. Towards the Measurement of EFL Listening Beliefs with Item Response Theory Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, John-Michael L.; Tseng, Wen-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present research aims to identify the underlying English listening belief structure of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners, thereby informing methodologies for subsequent analysis of beliefs with respect to listening achievement. Development of a measurement model of English listening learning beliefs entailed the creation of an…

  6. Development of Self-Belief for Employability in Higher Education: Ability, Efficacy and Control in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nancy K.

    2014-01-01

    Self-belief is argued here to be a key aspect of employability development that has been largely under conceptualisation in terms of what the construct may mean and how it may be developed through higher education (HE) study. This paper proposes three fundamental beliefs that need to be fostered in order to develop student self-belief: (1) that…

  7. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple systemic embolism in infective endocarditis underlying in Barlow's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Fan, Bing; Wu, Hongyi; Wang, Xiangfei; Li, Chenguang; Xu, Rende; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2016-08-11

    Systemic embolism, especially septic embolism, is a severe complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, concurrent embolism to the brain, coronary arteries, and spleen is very rare. Because of the risk of hemorrhage or visceral rupture, anticoagulants are recommended only if an indication is present, e.g. prosthetic valve. Antiplatelet therapy in IE is controversial, but theoretically, this therapy has the potential to prevent and treat thrombosis and embolism in IE. Unfortunately, clinical trial results have been inconclusive. We describe a previously healthy 50-year-old man who presented with dysarthria secondary to bacterial endocarditis with multiple cerebral, coronary, splenic, and peripheral emboli; antibiotic therapy contributed to the multiple emboli. Emergency splenectomy was performed, with subsequent mitral valve repair. Pathological examination confirmed mucoid degeneration and mitral valve prolapse (Barlow's disease) as the underlying etiology of the endocardial lesion. Continuous antibiotics were prescribed, postoperatively. Transthoracic echocardiography at 1.5, 3, and 6 months after the onset of his illness showed no severe regurgitation, and there was no respiratory distress, fever, or lethargy during follow-up. Although antibiotic use in IE carries a risk of septic embolism, these drugs have bactericidal and antithrombotic benefits. It is important to consider that negative blood culture and symptom resolution do not confirm complete elimination of bacteria. However, vegetation size and Staphylococcus aureus infection accurately predict embolization. It is also important to consider that bacteria can be segregated from the microbicide when embedded in platelets and fibrin. Therefore, antimicrobial therapy with concurrent antiplatelet therapy should be considered carefully.

  9. Thermal performance of marketed SDHW systems under laboratory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua

    A test facility for solar domestic hot water systems, SDHW systems was established at the Technical University of Denmark in 1992. During the period 1992-2012 21 marketed SDHW systems, 16 systems from Danish manufacturers and 5 systems from manufacturers from abroad, have been tested in the test...... comfort, avoiding simple errors, using the low flow principle and heat stores with a high degree of thermal stratification and by using components with good thermal characteristics....

  10. A general family of preferential belief removal operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  11. Belief Systems and Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Sedlak (1074), Searle (1060), Gtrawson (196U), and Wittgenstein (1958). [4] (1973), Charniak (1072), ilcCarthy and Hayes (1969), HcDermott (107...in Speech Acts", Philosophical Review 73, ^39-460. Wittgenstein , Ludwig 1958 Philosophical Investigations ( New York: The Macmillan Co.) (Tr

  12. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1998-01-01

    ... (200 at each of 3 sites) who have not received a diagnosis of breast cancer, and (3) quantitatively test the effectiveness of an educational approach that utilizes an existing network of lay workers who are indigenous to the target communities...

  13. Evolving Beliefs about Teaching and Learning. The View from Hofstra University: A Perspective on Teachers' Beliefs and Their Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Michael

    This paper examines the notion of teacher beliefs as complex ideological systems which have a bearing on actions. The focus is on the beliefs that students bring into their formal teacher education program, which are based on their predominantly authoritarian and didactic schooling experience. These students enter teacher education with…

  14. Simulation of an under-floor heating system integrated with solar energy under the weather conditions of Beirut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, Patrick; Ghali, Kamel [American University of Beirut (Lebanon)], email: pek01@aub.edu.lb, email: ka04@aub.edu.lb

    2011-07-01

    Residential heating indoors can use convective systems, where hot air is blown into the space, or radiant systems, where a radiant panel transfers heat via both convection and radiation. Radiant systems can provide thermal comfort for less energy by directly heating the human body. The aim of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using under-floor solar energy heating systems in the climatic conditions of Beirut. An under-floor heating system with solar/diesel energy system was developed and optimized specifically for Beirut. Results showed that the system could lead to 38% energy savings and a 96% reduction in CO2 emissions with a solar fraction of 95%. An economic analysis was also performed using incremental prices of diesel costs and the cost of land for the installation; it yielded a figure of 19000$/m2 savings over the system's lifetime. This study demonstrated that the use of an under-floor heating system with solar energy in Beirut would have ecological and economic benefits.

  15. Hardware control system using modular software under RSX-11D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittell, R.S.; Helland, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A modular software system used to control extensive hardware is described. The development, operation, and experience with this software are discussed. Included are the methods employed to implement this system while taking advantage of the Real-Time features of RSX-11D. Comparisons are made between this system and an earlier nonmodular system. The controlled hardware includes magnet power supplies, stepping motors, DVM's, and multiplexors, and is interfaced through CAMAC. 4 figures

  16. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  17. Beliefs of grade six learners’ regarding adolescent pregnancy and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grobler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating adolescent pregnancy and risky sexual behaviour is becoming more common amongst young adolescents and especially amongst black adolescents in South Africa. Statistics confirm that South African adolescents as young as fourteen are already sexually active and become pregnant. The decision to become sexually active with resulting adolescent pregnancy whether planned or not, are directly influenced by the teenager’s beliefs. A person’s beliefs consist of a person’ own individual beliefs or attitude as well as what the individual subjective norm which the individual perceive as other people’s beliefs regarding the same object of reason. The aim of the study was to describe the attitude of black grade six learners under the age of fourteen, towards adolescent pregnancy and sex. A quantitative descriptive research design was used. Results were clustered according to demographic variables as well as beliefs that consist of attitude and subjective norm.

  18. Reliability analysis of emergency decay heat removal system of nuclear ship under various accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    A reliability analysis is given for the emergency decay heat removal system of the Nuclear Ship ''Mutsu'' and the emergency sea water cooling system of the Nuclear Ship ''Savannah'', under ten typical nuclear ship accident conditions. Basic event probabilities under these accident conditions are estimated from literature survey. These systems of Mutsu and Savannah have almost the same reliability under the normal condition. The dispersive arrangement of a system is useful to prevent the reduction of the system reliability under the condition of an accident restricted in one room. As for the reliability of these two systems under various accident conditions, it is seen that the configuration and the environmental condition of a system are two main factors which determine the reliability of the system. Furthermore, it was found that, for the evaluation of the effectiveness of safety system of a nuclear ship, it is necessary to evaluate its reliability under various accident conditions. (author)

  19. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytic descriptions of stochastic bistable systems under force ramp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friddle, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    Solving the two-state master equation with time-dependent rates, the ubiquitous driven bistable system, is a long-standing problem that does not permit a complete solution for all driving rates. Here we show an accurate approximation to this problem by considering the system in the control parameter regime. The results are immediately applicable to a diverse range of bistable systems including single-molecule mechanics.

  1. Reliability assessment of complex electromechanical systems under epistemic uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Jinhua; Li, Yan-Feng; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Peng, Weiwen; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of macro-engineering and mega-project have led to the increasing complexity of modern electromechanical systems (EMSs). The complexity of the system structure and failure mechanism makes it more difficult for reliability assessment of these systems. Uncertainty, dynamic and nonlinearity characteristics always exist in engineering systems due to the complexity introduced by the changing environments, lack of data and random interference. This paper presents a comprehensive study on the reliability assessment of complex systems. In view of the dynamic characteristics within the system, it makes use of the advantages of the dynamic fault tree (DFT) for characterizing system behaviors. The lifetime of system units can be expressed as bounded closed intervals by incorporating field failures, test data and design expertize. Then the coefficient of variation (COV) method is employed to estimate the parameters of life distributions. An extended probability-box (P-Box) is proposed to convey the present of epistemic uncertainty induced by the incomplete information about the data. By mapping the DFT into an equivalent Bayesian network (BN), relevant reliability parameters and indexes have been calculated. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method is utilized to compute the DFT model with consideration of system replacement policy. The results show that this integrated approach is more flexible and effective for assessing the reliability of complex dynamic systems. - Highlights: • A comprehensive study on the reliability assessment of complex system is presented. • An extended probability-box is proposed to convey the present of epistemic uncertainty. • The dynamic fault tree model is built. • Bayesian network and Monte Carlo simulation methods are used. • The reliability assessment of a complex electromechanical system is performed.

  2. Order picking in carousel systems under the nearest item heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.

    2001-01-01

    A carousel is a computer-controlled warehousing system, which is widely used to store small- and medium-sized goods. One of the most important performance characteristics of such systems is the pick time of an order, which mostly depends on the travel time of the carousel. In this article, we

  3. Order picking in carousel systems under the nearest item heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2000-01-01

    A carousel is a computer controlled warehousing system, which is widely used to store small and medium sized goods. One of the most important performance characteristics of such systems is the pick time of an order, which mostly depends on the travel time of the carousel. In this paper we consider

  4. Order picking in carousel systems under the nearest item heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.B.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2001-01-01

    A carousel is a computer-controlled warehousing system, which is widely used to store small- and medium-sized goods+ One of the most important performance character- istics of such systems is the pick time of an order, which mostly depends on the travel time of the carousel+ In this article, we

  5. Spoken language identification system adaptation in under-resourced environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech Recognition (ASR) systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. Given that few task-specific corpora exist and speech technology systems perform poorly when deployed in a new environment, we investigate the use of acoustic model adaptation...

  6. Maize cultivar performance under diverse organic production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize cultivar performance can vary widely among different production systems. The need for high-performing hybrids for organic systems with wide adaptation to various macroenvironments is becoming increasingly important. The goal of this study was to characterize inbred lines developed by distinc...

  7. The filtered venting system under construction at barseback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A filter venting containment system, bearing the acronym FILTRA will be installed at the Swedish nuclear power plant Barseback. The Barseback Power Plant is owned by the Southern Sweden Power Supply (Sydkraft AB) and has two 1700-MW boiling water reactors. The reactors are of ASEA-ATOM design with pressure suppression containments (Mark IItype). The installation of the filter venting system is a condition set by the Swedish government for a continued operating license after September 1, 1986. The construction work for the FILTRA plant, the first of its kind ever planned, will be completed at the end of 1985. The FILTRA is designed so that 99.9% of the core inventory of radioactivity, excluding inert gases, is retained in the reactor containment and filter system in the event of containment venting. Another design guideline is to achieve passive functioning of the FILTRA plant during the first 24 h of an accident. The FILTRA plant is common to the two reactors on the site and consists mainly of two systems, a venting system (pressure relief system) and a filtering system. The total cost is approximately U.S. $15 million

  8. Fault tolerance improvement for queuing systems under stress load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, Eh.G.; Florko, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Various kinds of queuing information systems (exchange auctions systems, web servers, SCADA) are faced to unpredictable situations during operation, when information flow that requires being analyzed and processed rises extremely. Such stress load situations often require human (dispatcher's or administrator's) intervention that is the reason why the time of the first denial of service is extremely important. Common queuing systems architecture is described. Existing approaches to computing resource management are considered. A new late-first-denial-of-service resource management approach is proposed

  9. Reconfigurable Control of Input Affine Nonlinear Systems under Actuator Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    loop is preserved. The RB is realized by a virtual actuator and a reference model. Using notions of incremental and input-to-state stability (ISS), it is shown that ISS of the closed-loop reconfigured system can be achieved by the separate design of the virtual actuator. The proposed method does...... not need any knowledge of the nominal controller and only assumes that the nominal closed-loop system is ISS. The method is demonstrated on a dynamic positioning system for an offshore supply vessel, where the virtual actuator is designed using backstepping....

  10. Measuring epistemological beliefs in history education : An exploration of naïve and nuanced beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, G.; Logtenberg, A.; Wansink, B.; Huijgen, T.; van Boxtel, C.; van Drie, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates a questionnaire that measures epistemological beliefs in history. Participants were 922 exam students. A basic division between naïve and nuanced ideas underpins the questionnaire. However, results show this division oversimplifies the underlying structure. Exploratory factor

  11. Beliefs about Meditating among University Students, Faculty, and Staff: A Theory-Based Salient Belief Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Stress impacts college students, faculty, and staff alike. Although meditation has been found to decrease stress, it is an underutilized strategy. This study used the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to identify beliefs underlying university constituents' decision to meditate. Participants: N = 96 students, faculty, and staff at a large…

  12. RSX system development under VAX/VMS compatibility mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuka, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Control System for the Proton Storage Ring now being built at Los Alamos will use a VAX-11/750 as its main control computer with several LSI-11/23 microprocessors reading and controlling the hardware. The VMS Compatibility Mode makes it possible to use the VAX as a development system for the LSI-11/23 microprocessors running the RSX-11S (stand-alone) operating system. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)-supplied software is used to generate the RSX-11S operating system and DECNET-11S network software. We use the VMS editors to create source files, the Macro-11 assembler and the PDP-11 Fortran-77 compiler to generate object code, and the RSX Task Builder to link the executable RSX task image. The RSX task then can be tested to some extent on the VAX before it is down-line loaded to the LSI-11/23 for further testing

  13. Assessment of sorghum–cowpea intercrop system under water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... In such instances, crop models can be used as decision support ... Planting dates (trigger season climate method, modelling and fixed date approaches), .... cowpea intercrop system for biomass accumulation (2.1%), water.

  14. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM ACCURACY UNDER SIMULATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MERKISZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The instrument landing system (ILS is the most popular landing aid in the world. It is a distance-angled support system for landing in reduced visibility, while its task is the safe conduct of the aircraft from the prescribed course landing on the approach path. The aim of this study is to analyse the correctness of the ILS in simulated conditions. The study was conducted using a CKAS MotionSim5 flight simulator in the Simulation Research Laboratory of the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. With the advancement of technical equipment, it was possible to check the operation of the system in various weather conditions. Studies have shown that the impact of fog, rain and snow on the correct operation of the system is marginal. Significant influence has been observed, however, during landing in strong winds.

  15. Stabilization of Networked Control Systems Under Feedback-based Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Lei; Hristu-Varsakelis, Dimitrios

    2004-01-01

    We study the stabilization of a networked control system (NSC) in which multiple sensors and actuators of a physical plant share a communication medium to exchange information with a remote controller...

  16. Medical Student Beliefs about Disclosure of Mental Health Issues: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peter; Rix, Andrew; Grant, Andrew

    In 2012 the United Kingdom's General Medical Council (GMC) commissioned research to develop guidance for medical schools on how best to support students with mental illness. One of the key findings from medical student focus groups in the study was students' strong belief that medical schools excluded students on mental health grounds. Students believed mental illness was a fitness to practice matter that led to eventual dismissal, although neither personal experience nor empirical evidence supported this belief. The objective of the present study was a deeper exploration of this belief and its underlying social mechanisms. This included any other beliefs that influenced medical students' reluctance to disclose a mental health problem, the factors that reinforced these beliefs, and the feared consequences of revealing a mental illness. The study involved a secondary analysis of qualitative data from seven focus groups involving 40 student participants across five UK medical schools in England, Scotland, and Wales. Student beliefs clustered around (1) the unacceptability of mental illness in medicine, (2) punitive medical school support systems, and (3) the view that becoming a doctor is the only successful career outcome. Reinforcing mechanisms included pressure from senior clinicians, a culture of "presenteeism," distrust of medical school staff, and expectations about conduct. Feared consequences centered on regulatory "fitness to practice" proceedings that would lead to expulsion, reputational damage, and failure to meet parents' expectations. The study's findings provide useful information for veterinary medical educators interested in creating a culture that encourages the disclosure of mental illness and contributes to the debate about mental illness within the veterinary profession.

  17. Quantum system under periodic perturbation: Effect of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, M.; Joichi, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Yoshimura, M.

    1997-01-01

    In many physical situations the behavior of a quantum system is affected by interaction with a larger environment. We develop, using the method of an influence functional, how to deduce the density matrix of the quantum system incorporating the effect of environment. After introducing the characterization of the environment by spectral weight, we first devise schemes to approximate the spectral weight, and then a perturbation method in field theory models, in order to approximately describe the environment. All of these approximate models may be classified as extended Ohmic models of dissipation whose differences are in the high frequency part. The quantum system we deal with in the present work is a general class of harmonic oscillators with an arbitrary time-dependent frequency. The late time behavior of the system is well described by an approximation that employs a localized friction in the dissipative part of the correlation function appearing in the influence functional. The density matrix of the quantum system is then determined in terms of a single classical solution obtained with the time-dependent frequency. With this one can compute the entropy, the energy distribution function, and other physical quantities of the system in a closed form. A specific application is made to the case of a periodically varying frequency. This dynamical system has a remarkable property when the environmental interaction is switched off: The effect of the parametric resonance gives rise to an exponential growth of the populated number in higher excitation levels, or particle production in field theory models. The effect of the environment is investigated for this dynamical system and it is demonstrated that there exists a critical strength of the friction for the parametric effect. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Romeike

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Results Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one’s body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as

  19. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeike, Kristina; Abidi, Latifa; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke

    2016-08-17

    Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA) are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one's body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as an insult. Finally, men and women usually cannot exercise

  20. Crop and Irrigation Management Systems under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Caparrós

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Ruscus aculeatus, known as “butcher’s broom”, Maytenus senegalensis, known as “confetti tree”, and Juncus acutus, known as “spiny rush” were grown in pots with a mixture of sphagnum peat-moss and Perlite in order to determine the effect and evolution over time of three water use systems on plant growth, water saving and nutrient uptake. These were an open system (irrigated with standard nutrient solution and two closed systems (blended-water (drainage water blended with water of low electrical conductivity (EC and sequential reuse of drainage (sequential-reuse water, over a period of 8 weeks. Irrigation with blended- and sequential-reuse-water increased the biomass of all three species at the end of the experiment, compared to the open system. Overall, sequential-reuse-water treatment maximised biomass production. The application of blended- and sequential-reuse-water allowed savings of 17% of water in comparison to the open system. Regarding Cl, NO3− and H2PO4− loads, there was a removal of 5%, 32% and 32%; respectively in the blended-water treatment and 15%, 17% and 17% in the sequential-reuse water treatment compared to the open system. For the cation loads (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in these water treatments there was a removal of 10%, 32%, 7% and 18% respectively in the blended-water treatment, and 17%, 22%, 17% and 18% respectively in the sequential-reuse treatment, compared to the open system.

  1. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  2. Defense strategies for asymmetric networked systems under composite utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Hang Seng Management College, Hon Kong; Hausken, Kjell [University of Stavanger, Norway; He, Fei [Texas A& M University, Kingsville, TX, USA; Yau, David K. Y. [Singapore University of Technology and Design; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY)

    2017-11-01

    We consider an infrastructure of networked systems with discrete components that can be reinforced at certain costs to guard against attacks. The communications network plays a critical, asymmetric role of providing the vital connectivity between the systems. We characterize the correlations within this infrastructure at two levels using (a) aggregate failure correlation function that specifies the infrastructure failure probability giventhe failure of an individual system or network, and (b) first order differential conditions on system survival probabilities that characterize component-level correlations. We formulate an infrastructure survival game between an attacker and a provider, who attacks and reinforces individual components, respectively. They use the composite utility functions composed of a survival probability term and a cost term, and the previously studiedsum-form and product-form utility functions are their special cases. At Nash Equilibrium, we derive expressions for individual system survival probabilities and the expected total number of operational components. We apply and discuss these estimates for a simplified model of distributed cloud computing infrastructure

  3. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclot, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author) [fr

  4. Torsional Vibration of a Shafting System under Electrical Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsional vibration responses of a nonlinear shafting system are studied by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix combining with the Newmark-β method. Firstly, the system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, from which a multi-segment lumped mass model is established. Secondly, accumulated errors are eliminated from the eigenfrequencies and responses of the system's torsional vibration by this newly developed procedure. The incremental transfer matrix method, combining the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix with Newmark-β method, is further applied to solve the dynamical equations for the torsional vibration of the nonlinear shafting system. Lastly, the shafting system of a turbine-generator is employed as an illustrating example, and simulation analysis has been performed on the transient responses of the shaft's torsional vibrations during typical power network disturbances, such as three-phase short circuit, two-phase short circuit and asynchronous juxtaposition. The results validate the present method and are instructive for the design of a turbo-generator shaft.

  5. Dynamic simulation of variable capacity refrigeration systems under abnormal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Nan; Shao Shuangquan; Tian Changqing; Yan Yuying

    2010-01-01

    There are often abnormal working conditions at evaporator outlet of a refrigeration system, such as two-phase state in transient process, and it is essential to investigate such transient behaviours for system design and control strategy. In this paper, a dynamic lumped parameter model is developed to simulate the transient behaviours of refrigeration system with variable capacity in both normal and abnormal working conditions. The appropriate discriminant method is adopted to switch the normal and abnormal conditions smoothly and to eliminate the simulated data oscillation. In order to verify the dynamic model, we built a test system with variable frequency compressor, water-cooling condenser, evaporator and electronic expansion valve. Calculated values from the mathematical model show reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that the transient behaviours of the variable capacity refrigeration system in the abnormal working conditions can be calculated reliably with the dynamic model when the compressor rotary speed or the opening of electronic expansion valve changes abruptly.

  6. A comparison of nitrate level in spinach grown both under different densities in aquaponic system and under natural growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai PETREA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As bio-integrated systems that link both plants and fish culture, inside aquaponic systems, the processes of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrification in nitrite and nitrate are essential for growth and development of both fish and plants culture biomass. Plants with nearly the same nutritional requirements during their life cycle, like spinach in our case, are recommended to be grown under aquaponic conditions. Although nitrates concentrations up to 200 – 250mg/l are reported to be acceptable for fish growth, in the last years the toxic effect of long term exposure to high nitrate levels on fish and plants cultured biomass were highlighted. The main goal of the present study is to compare the nitrate level of spinach, grown in an aquaponic system, under three plant densities (V1 - 59 plants/m2, V2 - 48plants/m2 and V3 – 39 plants/m2. The second objective is to compare the results obtained, in term of nitrate content, for spinach grown in the integrated rainbow trout – spinach aquaponic system with those of marketable spinach, grown under conventional condition, in the field. The experimental design consists in a recirculating aquaculture system with 12 growing units, mechanical and biological water treatment units and four aquaponic units. Fish were fed with two types of feed with 41% and 50% protein, using 3 different feeding regimes. The results show a higher nitrate level on spinach grown in aquaponic system, compared to the one derived from field culture. Differences were observed also among the three variants grown in aquaponic conditions, under different plant densities. As a conclusion, it can be said that considering the nitrate level, spinach grown in aquaponic system is marketable.

  7. Cascading failures in interdependent systems under a flow redistribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingrui; Arenas, Alex; Yaǧan, Osman

    2018-02-01

    Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines. Here, we consider a model consisting of systems A and B with initial line loads and capacities given by {LA,i,CA ,i} i =1 n and {LB,i,CB ,i} i =1 n, respectively. When a line fails in system A , a fraction of its load is redistributed to alive lines in B , while remaining (1 -a ) fraction is redistributed equally among all functional lines in A ; a line failure in B is treated similarly with b giving the fraction to be redistributed to A . We give a thorough analysis of cascading failures of this model initiated by a random attack targeting p1 fraction of lines in A and p2 fraction in B . We show that (i) the model captures the real-world phenomenon of unexpected large scale cascades and exhibits interesting transition behavior: the final collapse is always first order, but it can be preceded by a sequence of first- and second-order transitions; (ii) network robustness tightly depends on the coupling coefficients a and b , and robustness is maximized at non-trivial a ,b values in general; (iii) unlike most existing models, interdependence has a multifaceted impact on system robustness in that interdependency can lead to an improved robustness for each individual network.

  8. Robust Optimisation for Hydroelectric System Operation under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolopoulou, D.; De Greve, Z.; McCulloch, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal dispatch scheme for a cascade hydroelectric power system that maximises the head levels of each dam, and minimises the spillage effects taking into account uncertainty in the net load variations, i.e., the difference between the load and the renewable resources, and inflows to the cascade. By maximising the head levels of each dam the volume of water stored, which is a metric of system resiliency, is maximised. In this regard, the operation of the cascade ...

  9. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  10. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  11. Structural studies of lamellar surfactant systems under shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experimental studies on concentrated surfactant systems are reviewed. Particular attention is focused on the transformation from planar lamellar sheets to multilamellar vesicles. It is discussed whether both of these states are thermodynamic stable, or if the MLV is an artifact of shear in...

  12. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time,

  13. Robust collaborative process interactions under system crash and network failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung

    2013-01-01

    With the possibility of system crashes and network failures, the design of robust client/server interactions for collaborative process execution is a challenge. If a business process changes its state, it sends messages to the relevant processes to inform about this change. However, server crashes

  14. Event-triggered control systems under packet losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, V.S.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Networked control systems (NCSs) offer many benefits in terms of increased flexibility and maintainability but might also suffer from inevitable imperfections such as packet dropouts and limited communications resources. In this paper, (static and dynamic) event-triggered control (ETC) strategies

  15. Roads On The U.S. nation Forests: An Analysis of Public Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values Expressed in the News Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan

    1999-01-01

    Public attitudes, beliefs, and underlying values about roads on the U.S. national forests expressed in more than 4,000 on-line news stories during a 3-year period are analyzed by using computer methods. The belief that forest roads provide access for recreation was expressed most frequently, accounting for about 40% of all beliefs expressed. The belief that roads cause...

  16. Underlying mechanism in the water chemistry of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium between dissolved hydrogen and oxygen in the molecular decomposition of water, and the equilibrium between hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions in the ionic dissociation of water, both constitute important underlying mechanisms in the corrosion behaviour of water. The two equilibria, and the rates of the reactions involved in water and steam, will be compared and contrasted as a function of temperature, pressure and radiation. The effects of the equilibria on the hydrolysis and solubility of ferrous and ferric ions, and the ions of other metals, will be discussed in relation to the control of conditions in the coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. A third mechanism to discussed is the electrochemical exchange reactions that can contribute to the contamination of circuits. (author)

  17. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qingyong; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao

    2009-01-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle

  18. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: hedoubling@gmail.com; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2009-02-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  19. Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

    2014-11-01

    Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum thermostatted disordered systems and sensitivity under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzan, Tommaso; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2018-03-01

    A one-dimensional quantum system with off diagonal disorder, consisting of a sample of conducting regions randomly interspersed within potential barriers is considered. Results mainly concerning the large N limit are presented. In particular, the effect of compression on the transmission coefficient is investigated. A numerical method to simulate such a system, for a physically relevant number of barriers, is proposed. It is shown that the disordered model converges to the periodic case as N increases, with a rate of convergence which depends on the disorder degree. Compression always leads to a decrease of the transmission coefficient which may be exploited to design nano-technological sensors. Effective choices for the physical parameters to improve the sensitivity are provided. Eventually large fluctuations and rate functions are analysed.

  1. Frequency domain analysis of piping systems under short duration loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, K.; Sand, H.; Lockau, J.

    1981-01-01

    In piping analysis two procedures are used almost exclusively: the modal superposition method for relatively long input time histories (e.g., earthquake) and direct integration of the equations of motion for short input time histories. A third possibility, frequency domain analysis, has only rarely been applied to piping systems to date. This paper suggests the use of frequency domain analysis for specific piping problems for which only direct integration could be used in the past. Direct integration and frequency domain analysis are compared, and it is shown that the frequency domain method is less costly if more than four or five load cases are considered. In addition, this method offers technical advantages, such as more accurate representation of modal damping and greater insight into the structural behavior of the system. (orig.)

  2. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  3. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) System under Uncertainty from Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Flynn, Damian

    2016-01-01

    An automatic voltage control (AVC) system maintains the voltage profile of a power system in an acceptable range and minimizes the operational cost by coordinating the regulation of controllable components. Typically, all of the parameters in the optimization problem are assumed to be certain...... and constant in the decision making process. However, for high shares of wind power, uncertainty in the decision process due to wind power variability may result in an infeasible AVC solution. This paper proposes a voltage control approach which considers the voltage uncertainty from wind power productions....... The proposed method improves the performance and the robustness of a scenario based approach by estimating the potential voltage variations due to fluctuating wind power production, and introduces a voltage margin to protect the decision against uncertainty for each scenario. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  4. Distributed Secure Coordinated Control for Multiagent Systems Under Strategic Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi; Wen, Guanghui; Hu, Guoqiang

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies a distributed secure consensus tracking control problem for multiagent systems subject to strategic cyber attacks modeled by a random Markov process. A hybrid stochastic secure control framework is established for designing a distributed secure control law such that mean-square exponential consensus tracking is achieved. A connectivity restoration mechanism is considered and the properties on attack frequency and attack length rate are investigated, respectively. Based on the solutions of an algebraic Riccati equation and an algebraic Riccati inequality, a procedure to select the control gains is provided and stability analysis is studied by using Lyapunov's method.. The effect of strategic attacks on discrete-time systems is also investigated. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.

  5. Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems under Uncertain Forecasts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler

    2016-12-01

    The paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources and energy storage devices, and develops an optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize the system operation in spite of forecasting errors. The proposed method builds on a chance-constrained multi-period AC OPF formulation, where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with a prescribed probability. To enable a computationally affordable solution approach, a convex reformulation of the OPF task is obtained by resorting to i) pertinent linear approximations of the power flow equations, and ii) convex approximations of the chance constraints. Particularly, the approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive optimization strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed OPF task into a model predictive control framework.

  6. The big chill puts the electric system under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2012-01-01

    Written at the occasion of a cold wave in France in February 2012 with a new peak in electricity consumption, the article first analyses the specific meteorological conditions associated with this event, and then outlines that the massive use of electric heating makes the French system particularly sensitive to temperatures, but also that the peak is also due to the massive use of electric domestic appliances at about 7 p.m. He describes how this peak is faced in terms of energy sources and outlines that there was no risk for grid security. He comments the availability of nuclear and hydroelectric energy, and of other energies (oil, coal, gas), and the margin levels. He finally states that costs of a cold wave are predictable and could be mitigated by supporting the installation of energy-saving or non-electric heating systems

  7. Simulation of Aircraft Sortie Generation Under an Autonomic Logistics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Lockheed Martin and the Joint Program Office are developing a new autonomic logistics system for the multibillion F-35 Lightning Joint Strike Fighter...partners (United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey, Canada, Australia, Denmark, and Norway). Lockheed Martin is the primary aircraft contractor...Accountability Office, 2014). Lockheed Martin , the prime contractor of the F-35 project, describes ALIS in its official website as: “ALIS serves as

  8. Optimal tax depreciation under a progressive tax system

    OpenAIRE

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time, and after a number of periods the firm enters a steady state where depreciation is constant and equal to replacement investments. This way, the optimal solution trades off the benefits of accelerated...

  9. Security Assessment of Payment Systems under PCI DSS Incompatibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bahtiyar , Şerif; Gür , Gürkan; Altay , Levent

    2014-01-01

    Part 9: Malicious Behavior and Fraud; International audience; With the ubiquitous proliferation of electronic payment systems, data and application security has become more critical for financial operations. The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) has been developed by the payment industry to provide a widely-applicable and definitive security compliance among all components in electronic payment infrastructure. However, the security impact of PCI DSS incompatibilities and ...

  10. Formal modeling of a system of chemical reactions under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Schlipf, John

    2014-10-01

    We describe a novel formalism representing a system of chemical reactions, with imprecise rates of reactions and concentrations of chemicals, and describe a model reduction method, pruning, based on the chemical properties. We present two algorithms, midpoint approximation and interval approximation, for construction of efficient model abstractions with uncertainty in data. We evaluate computational feasibility by posing queries in computation tree logic (CTL) on a prototype of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.

  11. Tactical decision making under stress (TADMUS) decision support system

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Jeffrey G.; Kelly, Richard T.; Moore, Ronald A.; Hutchins, Susan G.

    1996-01-01

    A prototype decision support system (DSS) was developed to enhance Navy tactical decision making based on naturalistic decision processes. Displays were developed to support critical decision making tasks through recognition-primed and explanation-based reasoning processes and cognitive analysis of the decision making problems faced by Navy tactical officers in a shipboard Combat Information Center. Baseline testing in high intensity, peace keeping, littoral scenarios indicated...

  12. Accounting for Investement Property Under Romanian Accounting System

    OpenAIRE

    Sava Raluca

    2015-01-01

    Investment property, an important component of the current assets, need special attention both in terms of their impact on accounting and well as in reporting the annual financial statements. Internationally their accounting treatment is presented by the IAS 40 Investment property issued in 2000 and being operative for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2001 with a number of subsequent amendments.First step in aligning the Romanian accounting system (RAS) to the international acco...

  13. Internal design of technical systems under conditions of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoshchekov, P S; Morozov, V V; Fedorov, V V

    1982-03-01

    An investigation is made of a model of internal design of a complex technical system in the presence of uncertain factors. The influence of an opponent on the design is examined. The concepts of hierarchical and balanced compatibility between the criteria of the designer, the opponent and the segregations functions are introduced and studied. The connection between the approach proposed and the methods of artificial intelligence is discussed. 5 references.

  14. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data.

  15. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC OBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data

  16. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  17. Finland: Innovation Policy Tools under National Innovation System Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A. Vorobeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the for a long time Finland’s national innovation system (NIS had been being one of the most successful and effective in the world. But some years ago the situation changed: Finland’s NIS run into system crisis. And today Finnish government tries to work out anticrisis innovation policy. So the purpose of this article is to show up the innovation policy instruments which are able put an end to the crisis and to determine conditions of their successful use. Methods: the article is based on the national innovation systems concept and government policy-mix aimed at the NIS development. Results: the authors show up how Finnish government looks for optimal policy-mix to overcome the crisis, demonstrate in details complementary components of the relevant innovation policy, describe conditions for their success and effectiveness to consider whether they are useful in other countries. Conclusions and Relevance: to overcome the NIS crisis the Finnish government uses such instruments as strategic programs of socio-economic development with targets which can’t be achieved without adequate high technology and innovative development complemented by incentives to make business innovate actively. The conditions of such policy success are: 1 such feature of Finnish society as all stakeholders of economic development consensus on one issue: the main factor of development are innovations; 2 anticrisis stage of Finnish innovative policy is based previously accumulated knowledge and know-how. 

  18. Memory under stress: from single systems to network changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory toward more reflexive, 'habitual' processes. Stress-related alterations in amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus, dorsal striatum, and prefrontal cortex seem to play a key role in this shift. The bias toward systems proficient in threat processing and the implementation of well-established routines may facilitate coping with an acute stressor. Overreliance on these reflexive systems or the inability to shift flexibly between them, however, may represent a risk factor for psychopathology in the long-run. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Belief Control Practices and Organizational Performances: A Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belief Control Practices and Organizational Performances: A Survey of Sugar Industry in Kenya. ... employees in the company core values and design of strategic control systems to cope with changing internal and external operating business ...

  20. Inclusive education: a case of beliefs competing for implementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this exclusionary agenda positioned the school as inclusive on the grounds ... by Lewin's theory of planned change, the study identified four belief systems which ...... International Journal of Educational Development, 31:50-58.

  1. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    In an analysis of Curriculum 2005 and the National Curriculum Statement, value and belief systems ... directives for teachers about the identification of values within the ... Parks (Fowler et al., 1992:106) makes a distinction between religion,.

  2. Study of RF system of Hefei storage ring under injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Li Yongjun; Huang Guirong; Zhang Pengfei; Li Weimin; Liu Zuping; He Duohui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the beam loading effect of RF system and the conditions of Robinson instability are analyzed in detail. By the study of the injection beam intensity limit dependent on detune angle and visible detune angle, it is found that the storage ring can be injected to more than 300 mA current intensity to attain the design target of phase II project in the lower energy injection situation of Hefei Storage Ring if a certain power is feed in the RF cavity and a certain tuning angle of the RF cavity is set

  3. Shearographic System for Dynamic Analysis of Materials under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Correa-Rojas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Shearography is a tool for monitoring and inspecting of structural flaws and imperfections in different types of industrial, automotive and aeronautics applications. It is based on digital correlation of two speckle patterns in two states of interest: with and without load. The technique has the special quality of being very robust against environmental disturbances. We present a shearographic system to analyze the dynamic behavior of the strain that suffers a material in response to changes in temperature throughout the thermal load process.

  4. Reliability analysis of water distribution systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, M.L.; Kumar, Arun; Sharma, P.B.

    1995-01-01

    In most of the developing countries, the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) are of intermittent type because of the shortage of safe drinking water. Failure of a pipeline(s) in such cases will cause not only the fall in one or more nodal heads but also the poor connectivity of source with various demand nodes of the system. Most of the previous works have used the two-step algorithm based on pathset or cutset approach for connectivity analysis. The computations become more cumbersome when connectivity of all demand nodes taken together with that of supply is carried out. In the present paper, network connectivity based on the concept of Appended Spanning Tree (AST) is suggested to compute global network connectivity which is defined as the probability of the source node being connected with all the demand nodes simultaneously. The concept of AST has distinct advantages as it attacks the problem directly rather than in an indirect way as most of the studies so far have done. Since the water distribution system is a repairable one, a general expression for pipeline avialability using the failure/repair rate is considered. Furthermore, the sensitivity of global reliability estimates due to the likely error in the estimation of failure/repair rates of various pipelines is also studied

  5. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  6. Maintenance cost models in deregulated power systems under opportunity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, K.; Dahal, K.; Azaiez, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    In a centralized power system, the operator is responsible for scheduling maintenance. There are different types of maintenance, including corrective maintenance; predictive maintenance; preventive maintenance; and reliability-centred maintenance. The main cause of power failures is poor maintenance. As such, maintenance costs play a significant role in deregulated power systems. They include direct costs associated with material and labor costs as well as indirect costs associated with spare parts inventory, shipment, test equipment, indirect labor, opportunity costs and cost of failure. In maintenance scheduling and planning, the cost function is the only component of the objective function. This paper presented the results of a study in which different components of maintenance costs were modeled. The maintenance models were formulated as an optimization problem with single and multiple objectives and a set of constraints. The maintenance costs models could be used to schedule the maintenance activities of power generators more accurately and to identify the best maintenance strategies over a period of time as they consider failure and opportunity costs in a deregulated environment. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Cholinergic stimulation enhances Bayesian belief updating in the deployment of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossel, Simone; Bauer, Markus; Mathys, Christoph; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J; Stephan, Klaas E; Friston, Karl J

    2014-11-19

    The exact mechanisms whereby the cholinergic neurotransmitter system contributes to attentional processing remain poorly understood. Here, we applied computational modeling to psychophysical data (obtained from a spatial attention task) under a psychopharmacological challenge with the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (Reminyl). This allowed us to characterize the cholinergic modulation of selective attention formally, in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject, crossover design, 16 healthy human subjects performed a modified version of Posner's location-cueing task in which the proportion of validly and invalidly cued targets (percentage of cue validity, % CV) changed over time. Saccadic response speeds were used to estimate the parameters of a hierarchical Bayesian model to test whether cholinergic stimulation affected the trial-wise updating of probabilistic beliefs that underlie the allocation of attention or whether galantamine changed the mapping from those beliefs to subsequent eye movements. Behaviorally, galantamine led to a greater influence of probabilistic context (% CV) on response speed than placebo. Crucially, computational modeling suggested this effect was due to an increase in the rate of belief updating about cue validity (as opposed to the increased sensitivity of behavioral responses to those beliefs). We discuss these findings with respect to cholinergic effects on hierarchical cortical processing and in relation to the encoding of expected uncertainty or precision. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415735-08$15.00/0.

  8. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  9. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  10. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  11. Playing with knowledge and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiutek, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  12. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  13. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  14. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  15. Equilibria in social belief removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  16. Politics of climate change belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  17. REFORMING OF LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNDER AUTHORITY OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh O.S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems related to the reform of land management from the beginning of the land reform ill the presentine. This need has arisen due to making another attempt to reorganize the structure of the land structures. With the launch of the land reform established the State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources in 1992. To speed up land reform and land privatization in 2001 formed the administrative bodies of the State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine. In order to improve the system of state land management in 2011 created the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine, which was reorganized in 2014 into the State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre. Over the years, in order to "optimize" the system of central executive body, content of this body has not been changed and constantly was changing its name and subordination, namely: the State Committee for Land Resources - Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine - Ministry of Agrarian policy and Food of Ukraine, State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre - Ministry of regional development, construction and housing. On the basis of analysis concerning the powers of the central executive authorities, local authorities found that the newly farmed Service State Land Cadastre das not contribute to the effectiveness of the administration, especially at the national level, as these features ave not provided by "Regulations on State Land Cadastre " and other regulations. In addition, the local level detected removal of local government in matters of land relations. In conclusion, proposed system based redistribution of powers on the level of central executive bodies and local authorities to reform the system of land management with regard to decentralized processes in Ukraine. It is advisable to restore central authority for land reform and regulation of land relations to the

  18. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  19. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  20. Pattern formation in diffusive excitable systems under magnetic flow effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvogo, Alain; Takembo, Clovis N.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, Timoléon C.

    2017-07-01

    We study the spatiotemporal formation of patterns in a diffusive FitzHugh-Nagumo network where the effect of electromagnetic induction has been introduced in the standard mathematical model by using magnetic flux, and the modulation of magnetic flux on membrane potential is realized by using memristor coupling. We use the multi-scale expansion to show that the system equations can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation. The linear stability analysis is performed and discussed with emphasis on the impact of magnetic flux. It is observed that the effect of memristor coupling importantly modifies the features of modulational instability. Our analytical results are supported by the numerical experiments, which reveal that the improved model can lead to nonlinear quasi-periodic spatiotemporal patterns with some features of synchronization. It is observed also the generation of pulses and rhythmics behaviors like breathing or swimming which are important in brain researches.

  1. Pattern Transitions in Bacterial Oscillating System under Nanofluidic Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie-Pan; Chou, Chia-Fu

    2011-03-01

    Successful binary fission in E. coli relies on remarkable oscillatory behavior of the MinCDE protein system to determine the exact division site. The most favorable models to explain this fascinating spatiotemporal regulation on dynamic MinDE pattern formation in cells are based on reaction-diffusion scenario. Although not fully understood, geometric factors caused by bacterial morphology play a crucial role in MinDE dynamics. In the present study, bacteria were cultured, confined and reshaped in various micro/nanofluidic devices, to mimic either curvature changes of cell peripherals. Fluorescence imaging was utilized to detail the mode transitions in multiple MinDE patterns. The understanding of the physics in multiple pattern formations is further complemented via in silico modeling. The study synergizes the join merits of in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches, to grasp the insight of stochastic dynamics inherited from the noisy mesoscopic biophysics. We acknowledge support from the Foresight Project, Academia Sinica.

  2. 15 N separation in the Nitrox system under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.; Baldea, A.; Teaca, C.; Horga, R.; Abrudean, M.

    1999-01-01

    The basic isotope exchange reaction responsible for the separation of 15 N in Nitrox system is that between gaseous nitrogen oxides and aqueous nitric acid with single stage separation factor α = 1.055 for M.l -1 nitric acid, at 25 deg. C and atmospheric pressure. The rate of nitrogen isotope exchange between NO and HNO 3 has been measured as a function of nitric oxide pressure 0.1 - 0.4 MPa for 1 and 2 M.l -1 . It is concluded that 15 N/ 14 N exchange rate in NO-HNO 3 system has a linear dependence on NO pressure as indicated by rate measurements at different NO partial pressure and constant overall pressure, by adding helium in reactor. Using the rate law: R = [HNO 3 ] 2 [N 2 O 3 ] the 15 N/ 14 N exchange rates for nitric acid concentrations 1.5 - 10 M.l -1 were calculated. In order to know what happens in 15 N separation at higher pressure, when the isotopic transport between two phases is improved, a stainless steel laboratory experimental setup with 1000 mm long x 18 mm i,d. column, packed with triangular wire springs 1.8 x 1.8 x 0.2 mm was utilised. At 0.15 MPA and 2.36 ml.cm -2 . min -1 flow rate HETP was 7% smaller than at atmospheric pressure and 1.5 times smaller flow rate. HETP at 3.14 ml . cm -2 . min -1 flow rate and 0.18 MPa is practically equal with that obtained at atmospheric pressure and 2 times smaller flow rate. The operation of the 15 N separation setup at 0.18 MPa, instead of atmospheric pressure, will permit to double the 10 M.l -1 nitric acid flow rate and of 15 N production of the given column. (authors)

  3. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  4. Increasing the productive efficiency of carabaos under smallholder farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momongan, V.G.; Sarabia, A.S.; Roxas, N.P.; Palad, O.A.; Obsioma, A.R.; Nava, Z.M.; Del Barrio, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need to improve the reproductive efficiency of carabaos to meet the increasing demand for draught power, meat and milk. Under village conditions carabaos appear to have a pregnancy rate of 17.7%; this could be attributed greatly to tethering management, which prevents their natural breeding activities. Moreover, about 32% of the breedable female carabaos are acyclic and only 3.5% are in oestrus at any one time. Carabaos which are either cycling or pregnant have a better body condition than those which are acyclic or non-pregnant. The plasma progesterone level was very low at the time of insemination (<0.5 ng/mL), but gradually increased to above 2.0 ng/mL during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Thus, it was possible to diagnose early pregnancy and to confirm oestrus. A positive correlation was observed between plasma and milk progesterone concentrations during the oestrous cycle (r=0.60) and pregnancy (r=0.50). Oestrus synchronization was found to be a useful tool in implementing the cross-breeding of Philippine carabaos with riverine buffaloes through artificial insemination; an average pregnancy rate of about 30% was obtained using frozen semen. The performance of cross-breds showed that the weights at birth were about 36.0 ± 0.9 kg for Phil-Ravi, 33.6 ± 0.9 kg for Phil-Murrah compared with 26.8 ± 0.9 kg for Philippine carabaos. The weights of the three genotypes at 12 months were: 157.0 ± 9.8 kg for Philippine carabaos, 215.4 ± 7.7 kg for Phil-Ravi and 199.8 ± 12.1 kg for Phil-Murrah. At 2 years of age, the carabaos weighed 217.3 ± 18.6 kg, Phil-Ravi 365 ± 23.4 kg and Phil-Murrah 366.3 ± 19.4 kg. The results of this study show that progesterone measurement and oestrus synchronization can be used effectively for cross-breeding carabaos with the frozen semen of river buffaloes. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Against Motivational Efficacy of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbae Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Bromwich (2010 argues that a belief is motivationally efficacious in that, other things being equal, it disposes an agent to answer a question in accordance with that belief. I reply that what we are disposed to do is largely determined by our genes, whereas what we believe is largely determined by stimuli from the environment. We have a standing and default disposition to answer questions honestly, ceteris paribus, even before we are exposed to environmental stimuli. Since this standing and default disposition is innate, and our beliefs have their source in environmental stimuli, our beliefs cannot be the source of the disposition. Moreover, a recent finding in neuroscience suggests that motivation is extrinsic to belief.

  6. 75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Joanna Johnson, Office of Information Technology, TSA-11, Transportation Security... Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY: Transportation... System Operator Security Information. Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number: Not yet...

  7. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  8. IMO and stakeholders looking for improvements: Pricing system under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Changing the way of how Ontario's electric market clearing price is established has been announced by the Independent Market Operator, in response to excessive price fluctuations following deregulation, and in spite of the considerable concern about how any change to the pricing system might affect investor confidence. To tackle the issue, an internal team was formed, with input to this team through the IMO's Marker Operations Standing Committee. The following pricing issues are considered to be in need of attention: (1) the discrepancy between real-time prices and published pre-dispatch prices; (2) the difference between prices paid for imported power and domestic power during times of shortage; (3) the inclusion of various factors, such as the additional cost of imported power in non-competitive parts of energy bills known as 'uplift charges'; (4) the failure of the market clearing price to reflect the value of power; (5) the use of non-market procedures that have an effect on price; and (6) adjustments to the offer stack designed to reduce volatility during ramp-up periods. The IMO emphasized its keen awareness of how much investor confidence is predicated on the assumption that market conditions alone will determine prices. Accordingly, its actions are guided strictly by the desire to support reliability and are not intended to be seen as intervening in the competitive market

  9. Accounting for Investement Property Under Romanian Accounting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investment property, an important component of the current assets, need special attention both in terms of their impact on accounting and well as in reporting the annual financial statements. Internationally their accounting treatment is presented by the IAS 40 Investment property issued in 2000 and being operative for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2001 with a number of subsequent amendments.First step in aligning the Romanian accounting system (RAS to the international accounting and financial reporting standards has manifested in terms of properties starting with 2012 but only for the listed companies - OMFP 1286 which has brought significant changes in the execution way of the individual financial statements of these companies and in terms of the accounting presentation of the investment properties and fixed assets held for sale. In accordance with this order and the Romanian accounting rules recognize investment properties as being a separate component of the fixed assets, applying the provisions of IAS 40.This paper deals with the next step by presenting the occurred legislative changes related to the accounting treatment of the investment property, changes that are applicable to all the Romanian companies, not just those listed on the stock exchange, starting from the financial year 2015.

  10. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  11. Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soliman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

  12. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  13. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    it indicate that a more fundamental *conceptual change* has taken place? In this paper we extend Braüner's hybrid-logical analysis of first-order false-belief tasks to the second-order case, and argue that our analysis supports a version of the conceptual change position.......The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does...

  15. Negative emotions can attenuate the influence of beliefs on logical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Vartanian, Oshin

    2011-01-01

    Although the influence of beliefs on logical reasoning is well documented, how emotions modulate the effect of beliefs during reasoning remains unexamined. We instructed participants to reason about syllogisms involving neutral or emotionally charged content. We also manipulated the consistency of beliefs with logical validity. When content was neutral, participants exhibited the belief-bias effect observed in previous studies of reasoning. In contrast, when confronted with emotionally charged content participants were less likely to be influenced by their beliefs. Our results suggest that under certain conditions negative emotions can attenuate the influence of beliefs during logical reasoning. Drawing on the affect infusion model, we attribute this effect to a more vigilant, systematic scrutiny of beliefs in the presence of negative emotions. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  16. 20 CFR 411.550 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system? 411.550 Section 411.550 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system? The amount of each monthly outcome...

  17. 42 CFR 403.308 - State systems under demonstration projects-mandatory approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State systems under demonstration projects..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Recognition of State... approval of a State system are met under § 403.304 (b)(1)-(10) and § 403.304(c), and, if appropriate § 403...

  18. Interaction Effects of Gender and Motivational Beliefs on Self-Regulated Learning: A Study at ICT- Integrated Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the interaction effects of gender and motivational beliefs on students' self-regulated learning. Specifically, three types of motivational beliefs under the Expectancy-Value Model were examined, namely self-efficacy, control beliefs and anxiety. Methodology: A quantitative correlational research design was used…

  19. Lenses; systems; sensitive; leadership; models; integral; spiritual; images; evolve; states; stages; consciousness; power; force; determinants; mind; genius; belief systems; evolution; spiritual growth; rationality; attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus C. van der Merwe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lenses on spirituality and being church; the road ahead for the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA. At this point of time the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA is facing the seemingly unsolvable dilemma of not being able to handle diversity in a positive manner. By applying three lenses to the current impasse with regards to the church’s struggle with diversity, this article aims at providing an answer to the question of how to proceed. The first lens addresses the challenge to maintain spiritual health and harmony in the midst of differences and tension in the church. The theory behind systems sensitive leadership as lens serves as the guideline to achieve the necessary spiritual health that the church needs in such challenging times. The second lens explores the inner Christian spiritual path in a both developmental and comprehensive way. Drawing on the work of Paul Smith this lens sets forth the developmental framework by which Christians grow inwardly in their understanding of Jesus and his teachings. The third lens is a view on a practice whereby the validity of intellectual positions, statements, or ideologies could be appraised as an innate quality in any subject. This lens opens a unique perspective which provides not only a new understanding of humanity’s journey in the universe, but also serves as a guide to were we and the whole cosmos are on our personal journeys to become who we could be. The vision that is provided by these three lenses has the capacity not only to serve as guidelines, but also to provide the tools to handle the challenges the church has to face on the road a head.

  20. Multilingualism, Perceived Positive Language Interaction (PPLI), and Learner Beliefs: What Do Turkish Students Believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the interface between learner beliefs and multilingualism in the under-researched English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context of Turkey. The study investigates the underlying constructs of a modified Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) completed by 168 EFL learners in Turkey using an exploratory factor analysis…

  1. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  2. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  3. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become "Normalized".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-12

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  4. Dissociation, Paranormal Belief, and Quality of Life in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tungshan Chou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of religiosity in current health-related literature is mostly based on the traditional Christian belief system. It has been argued that such a measurement approach may misrepresent the true degree of religiosity in Taiwanese people. In this study, religiosity was measured in two ways: self-reported religion type and a qualitatively derived index of religious piety based on principles as suggested by Gries, Su, and Schak to be used in the Taiwanese context. Their effects on dissociation, paranormal belief, and quality of life were juxtaposed for comparison. In addition, the beneficial effect of religious piety was examined in the framework of McClenon’s ritual healing theory. A total of 266 healthy older adults across Taiwan were interviewed by four trained assistants over a 4-month period. Factor scores were used to represent the dissociative tendencies (depersonalization/derealization, forgetfulness, amnesia, and psychological absorption and paranormal belief facets (precognition, psi power, other forms of life, traditional religious belief, superstition, and telepathy. The results showed that older people of high religious piety display better quality of life profiles than their counterparts in the low religious piety group. The effects of self-reported religion type were mainly seen with paranormal beliefs compatible with their religious beliefs, whereas the effects of religious piety were more pronounced in relation to quality of life than dissociation and paranormal belief. The beneficial advantage of dissociation hypothesized by ritual healing theory did not receive empirical support in the nonclinical sample of this study.

  5. Performance Analysis of a Voltage Source Converter (VSC based HVDC Transmission System under Faulted Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri RABIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltage Source Converter (VSC based HVDC transmission technology hasbeen selected as the basis for several recent projects due to its controllability,compact modular design, ease of system interface, and low environmentalimpact. This paper investigates the dynamic performance of a 200MW,±100kV VSC-HVDC transmission system under some faulted conditionsusing MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results confirm the satisfactoryperformance of the proposed system under active and reactive powervariations and fault conditions.

  6. System for Determining Dynamic Under Keel Clearance of Vessels Entering the Port of Swinoujscie (DRWPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Gucma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a system for determining dynamic under keel clearance. In order to build a DRWPS system, a mixed model was created based on the analysis of math models. The system includes advisory software for defining the conditions for the entering of large LNG vessels in the context of under keel clearance and software was built to support the decision-making of operators who are responsible for introducing these vessels to the Port of Swinoujscie.

  7. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  8. The Relationship among Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning, Pedagogical Beliefs, and Beliefs about ICT Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Dian; Emaliana, Ive

    2017-01-01

    This paper elucidates the relationship among pre-service teachers' beliefs about language learning, pedagogical beliefs, and beliefs about ICT Integration through survey methodology. This study employed a quantitative approach, particularly a correlational relationship to investigate the relationships among beliefs about language learning,…

  9. Further tests of belief-importance theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Petrides

    Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  10. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  11. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  12. Beliefs about meditating among university students, faculty, and staff: a theory-based salient belief elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; Middlestadt, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Stress impacts college students, faculty, and staff alike. Although meditation has been found to decrease stress, it is an underutilized strategy. This study used the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to identify beliefs underlying university constituents' decision to meditate. N=96 students, faculty, and staff at a large midwestern university during spring 2012. A survey measured the RAA global constructs and elicited the beliefs underlying intention to meditate. Thematic and frequency analyses and multiple regression were performed. Quantitative analyses showed that intention to meditate was significantly predicted (R2=.632) by attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control. Qualitative analyses revealed advantages (eg, reduced stress; feeling calmer), disadvantages (eg, takes time; will not work), and facilitating circumstances (eg, having more time; having quiet space) of meditating. Results of this theory-based research suggest how college health professionals can encourage meditation practice through individual, interpersonal, and environmental interventions.

  13. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  14. Children's beliefs about parental divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitienė, Miglė

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...

  15. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of Appell systems under second-class Mei symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Ping, Luo; Jing-Li, Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the new concept of the conformal invariance and the conserved quantities for Appell systems under second-class Mei symmetry. The one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and infinitesimal transformation vector of generator are described in detail. The conformal factor in the determining equations under second-class Mei symmetry is found. The relationship between Appell system's conformal invariance and Mei symmetry are discussed. And Appell system's conformal invariance under second-class Mei symmetry may lead to corresponding Hojman conserved quantities when the conformal invariance satisfies some conditions. Lastly, an example is provided to illustrate the application of the result. (general)

  16. 20 CFR 411.525 - What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EN payment systems? 411.525 Section 411.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.525 What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems? (a) For payments for outcome payment months, both...

  17. Reliability optimization for series systems under uncertain component failure rates in the design phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, Q.; Peng, H.; van Houtum, G.J.J.A.N.; Adan, I.J.B.F.

    2018-01-01

    We develop an optimization model to determine the reliability design of critical components in a serial system. The system is under a service contract, and a penalty cost has to be paid by the OEM when the total system down time exceeds a predetermined level, which complicates the evaluation of the

  18. 76 FR 78673 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS) AGENCY: Transportation Security... burden for the TSA Exercise Information System (EXIS). EXIS is a web portal designed to serve... Requirement Title: Exercise Information System (EXIS). Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number...

  19. The influence of initial beliefs on judgments of probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Erica C; Lagnado, David A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experimentally induced prior beliefs affect processing of evidence including the updating of beliefs under uncertainty about the unknown probabilities of outcomes and the structural, outcome-generating nature of the environment. Participants played a gambling task in the form of computer-simulated slot machines and were given information about the slot machines' possible outcomes without their associated probabilities. One group was induced with a prior belief about the outcome space that matched the space of actual outcomes to be sampled; the other group was induced with a skewed prior belief that included the actual outcomes and also fictional higher outcomes. In reality, however, all participants sampled evidence from the same underlying outcome distribution, regardless of priors given. Before and during sampling, participants expressed their beliefs about the outcome distribution (values and probabilities). Evaluation of those subjective probability distributions suggests that all participants' judgments converged toward the observed outcome distribution. However, despite observing no supporting evidence for fictional outcomes, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed priors condition expected them in the future. A probe of the participants' understanding of the underlying outcome-generating processes indicated that participants' judgments were based on the information given in the induced priors and consequently, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed condition believed the slot machines were not games of chance while participants in the control condition believed the machines generated outcomes at random. Beyond Bayesian or heuristic belief updating, priors not only contribute to belief revision but also affect one's deeper understanding of the environment.

  20. [Parental beliefs on medication and satisfaction with child healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore a possible significant relationship between parental beliefs about medication and satisfaction with the medical care their children receive in two different healthcare settings. The study included a total of 1,517 parents whose children were being treated either in pediatric primary care or pediatric emergency centers in eastern Andalusia. Of these, 489 were men and 1,028 women. The research instruments used were the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Scale of Satisfaction with Health Care Services. Our results indicate that high levels of negative beliefs about medication were significantly associated with lower levels of parent satisfaction with healthcare received. Satisfaction with pediatric healthcare depends on aspects relating to the healthcare system, but certainly personal psychological and social variables like beliefs and parent’s previous expectations may play an important role too.

  1. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  2. PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ABOUT TEACHING ENGLISH TO PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti K. Karekatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of an ongoing doctoral research on ‘Teacher Talk in ESL Classrooms’. The idea for this was gained through the hypothesis that teachers’ beliefs about English teaching may also mould their talk. The researcher intends here to analyse and comment on teachers’ English teaching beliefs. It is generally accepted that teaching is greatly affected by the belief systems of its practitioners-teachers. Teachers’ beliefs influence their consciousness, teaching attitude, teaching methods and teaching policies, and finally, learners’ development. Horwitz (1987 also states rightly that the formation of teachers’ educational beliefs in language teaching/ learning process will influence, though indirectly, on forming effective teaching methods and will bring about the improvement of learners’ language learning abilities. In Indian context, there is dearth of research evaluating teachers’ beliefs about English teaching. This study explores teachers’ beliefs regarding teaching English to children and tries to explore whether medium of instruction makes any difference in their beliefs. It also intends to determine what similar and different beliefs might be held by in-service teachers from two different mediums. A total of 100 pre-service teachers are the subjects of this study. In order to recognize these teachers’ specific beliefs in a more systematic way, a research instrument, The Questionnaire of Primary School Pre-service English Teachers’ Teaching Beliefs was developed. Almost all of these pre-service teachers expected to have training regarding how to make their talk effective and relevant in classrooms.

  3. Using Co-Occurrence to Evaluate Belief Coherence in a Large Non Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow “cohere” with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian’s coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance. PMID:23155383

  4. Using co-occurrence to evaluate belief coherence in a large non clinical sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pechey

    Full Text Available Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow "cohere" with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs. The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural. Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian's coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance.

  5. Response of a Duffing—Rayleigh system with a fractional derivative under Gaussian white noise excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ran-Ran; Xu Wei; Yang Gui-Dong; Han Qun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the response analysis of a Duffing–Rayleigh system with fractional derivative under Gaussian white noise excitation. A stochastic averaging procedure for this system is developed by using the generalized harmonic functions. First, the system state is approximated by a diffusive Markov process. Then, the stationary probability densities are derived from the averaged Itô stochastic differential equation of the system. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by the results from the Monte Carlo simulation of the original system. Moreover, the effects of different system parameters and noise intensity on the response of the system are also discussed. (paper)

  6. 78 FR 77484 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Officer, Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security Administration, 601 South... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY... Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of...

  7. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through aut...

  8. Results on stabilization of nonlinear systems under finite data-rate constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    We discuss in this paper a result concerning the stabilization problem of nonlinear systems under data-rate constraints using output feedback. To put the result in a broader context, we shall first review a number of recent contributions on the stabilization problem under data-rate constraints when

  9. Optimal Control Strategies in a Two Dimensional Differential Game Using Linear Equation under a Perturbed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Danjuma SHEHU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper lays emphasis on formulation of two dimensional differential games via optimal control theory and consideration of control systems whose dynamics is described by a system of Ordinary Differential equation in the form of linear equation under the influence of two controls U(. and V(.. Base on this, strategies were constructed. Hence we determine the optimal strategy for a control say U(. under a perturbation generated by the second control V(. within a given manifold M.

  10. Yoruba customs and beliefs pertaining to twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Fernand; Olaleye-Oruene, Taiwo; Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Bryan, Elizabeth

    2002-04-01

    The Yoruba are an important ethnic group mainly occupying Southwestern Nigeria. Mainly for genetic reasons, this very large tribe happens to present the highest dizygotic twinning rate in the world (4.4 % of all maternities). The high perinatal mortality rate associated with such pregnancies has contributed to the integration of a special twin belief system within the African traditional religion of this tribe. The latter is based on the concept of a supreme deity called Olodumare or Olorun, assisted by a series of secondary gods (Orisha) while Yoruba religion also involves immortality and reincarnation of the soul based on the animistic cult of ancestors. Twins are therefore given special names and believed to detain special preternatural powers. In keeping with their refined artistic tradition, the Yoruba have produced numerous wooden statuettes called Ibejis that represent the souls of deceased newborn twins and are involved in elaborate rituals. Among Yoruba traditional beliefs and lore some twin-related themes are represented which are also found in other parts of the world. Basic features of the original Yoruba beliefs have found their way into the religious traditions of descendants of African slaves imported in the West Indies and in South America.

  11. Challenging pseudoscientific and paranormal beliefs held by some pre-service primary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happs, John C.

    1991-12-01

    The widespread public acceptance of many paranormal and pseudoscientific claims should be of some concern to science educators who are striving to produce a scientifically literate community. There is ample evidence to show that students at all levels of our education system believe in aspects of pseudoscience based on claims and assumptions that are in conflict with accumulated scientific knowledge and a rigorous methodology. A survey was designed to assess primary and secondary science teacher-trainees' views. Afterwards 60 students were introduced to the notion of a ‘fair test’ and what constitutes ‘evidence’. Demonstrations of psychic powers were provided and a video shown of professional water-diviners repeatedly failing to locate water under controlled conditions. A re-survey, 3 months later, indicated a rejection of many prior beliefs. However, almost half of the group retained their beliefs in miracles and E.S.P. whilst more than 40% retained their belief in visitors from outer space and that the solar system was created by a supernatural force.

  12. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  13. BEHAVIOUR OF BACKFILL MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  14. Fatigue Durability Analysis of Collecting Rapping System in Electrostatic Precipitators under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Lotfi Neyestanak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of collecting rapping system in electrostatic precipitators (ESP and controlling the relevant damage under impact loading, fatigue durability of this system is analyzed in the present study based on the numerical and experimental results considering fatigue damage growth and vibration acceleration in the collecting system because of the successive impact of rapping hammers. By microscopic examination of the fracture surface of rapping hammer, beach marks obviously show typical fatigue failure in the rapping hammer arm. In addition, the microscopic examination of the cross section of the collecting plates indicates the corrosion voids which cause crack and eventually fatigue failure. The finite element method is applied to determine both the stress and concentration positions of dynamic stress on the rapping system under impact loading. The paper results can be utilized in system optimization and new material selection for the system by evaluating rapping system durability.

  15. ROBUST KALMAN FILTERING FOR SYSTEMS UNDER NORM BOUNDED UNCERTAINTIES IN ALL SYSTEM MATRICES AND ERROR COVARIANCE CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yuanqing; HAN Jingqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns robust Kalman filtering for systems under norm bounded uncertainties in all the system matrices and error covariance constraints. Sufficient conditions are given for the existence of such filters in terms of Riccati equations. The solutions to the conditions can be used to design the filters. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.

  16. Assessment of the underlying systems involved in standing balance: the additional value of electromyography in system identification and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Kordelaar, J. van; Kam, D. de; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Schouten, A.C.; Kooij, H. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Closed loop system identification (CLSIT) is a method to disentangle the contribution of underlying systems in standing balance. We investigated whether taking into account lower leg muscle activation in CLSIT could improve the reliability and accuracy of estimated parameters identifying

  17. Assessment of the underlying systems involved in standing balance : the additional value of electromyography in system identification and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J. H.; Van Kordelaar, J.; de Kam, D.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Schouten, A. C.; Van Der Kooij, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Closed loop system identification (CLSIT) is a method to disentangle the contribution of underlying systems in standing balance. We investigated whether taking into account lower leg muscle activation in CLSIT could improve the reliability and accuracy of estimated parameters identifying

  18. Assessment of the underlying systems involved in standing balance : The additional value of electromyography in system identification and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; van Kordelaar, J.; de Kam, D.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Schouten, A.C.; van der Kooij, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Closed loop system identification (CLSIT) is a method to disentangle the contribution of underlying systems in standing balance. We investigated whether taking into account lower leg muscle activation in CLSIT could improve the reliability and accuracy of estimated parameters

  19. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  20. Material flow enhancement in production assembly lines under application of zoned order picking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Živanić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduced research work relates to the possibility of material flow enhancement in production systems, with the apostrophe on material order picking in production assembly lines. The paper presents basic rules and the results related to formed computer models of zoned order picking systems under the application of developed bound cavities method.

  1. 60 changes in soil properties under alley cropping system of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena leucocephala ... of improved farming system is efficient recycling of organic materials. This exploits ... in form of violent shower of short duration. Rainfall is seasonal and defines ...

  2. 75 FR 57017 - Venice Gathering System, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-497-000] Venice Gathering System, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization September 10, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Venice Gathering System, LLC (VGS), 1000 Louisiana, Suite 4300, Houston, Texas 77002...

  3. Soil microbial communities under cacao agroforestry and cover crop systems in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) trees are grown in tropical regions worldwide for chocolate production. We studied the effects of agroforestry management systems and cover cropping on soil microbial communities under cacao in two different replicated field experiments in Peru. Two agroforestry systems, Imp...

  4. Time-resolved magnetic field effects in exciplex systems under X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, S.V.; Lavrik, N.L.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of exciplex systems after X-irradiation of pyrene and N,N-diethylaniline in methanol as well as the influence of the applied magnetic field on exciplex fluorescence was registered using a time-resolving method. The experimental results confirmed the hypothesis on exciplex emergence in the system under study. (author)

  5. Construção e validação de escala de crenças sobre o sistema treinamento Development and validation of a training system beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Aparecida de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a construção e validação da escala de crenças sobre o sistema de treinamento. Os itens foram formulados a partir do Modelo MAIS (Borges-Andrade, 1982 aplicado à avaliação de treinamento, das escalas de cinismo organizacional (Tesluk, Farr, Mathieu, & Vance, 1995 e das crenças que as pessoas possuem sobre treinamento descritas na revisão de Rousseau (1997. Crenças são vistas como os aspectos cognitivos relacionados a um objeto (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Foram criados 35 itens, que passaram por processo de validação semântica e estatística no Banco do Brasil. Na validação estatística, realizada com 327 casos, utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e análise fatorial (PAF, rotação oblíqua. Os resultados dessas análises indicaram a existência de três fatores, com índices psicométricos adequados e conteúdos consistentes com o modelo teórico adotado, o que sugere a validade interna do instrumento. Possibilidades de intervenção nas organizações com o uso dessa escala também são discutidas.This paper focuses on the development and validation of a scale for measuring beliefs on the training system. The MAIS Model (Borges-Andrade, 1982 applied to training evaluation, the Organizational Cynicism Scales (Tesluk, Farr, Mathieu, & Vance, 1995 and the beliefs people hold on training, described in Rousseau's (1997 review, have been used as a basis for formulating the scale items. Beliefs are viewed as cognitive aspects related to an object (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Thirty-five items have been formulated and semantically and statistically validated in Banco do Brasil. For statistical validation, 327 cases have been collected and principal components analysis and factor analysis (PAF, oblimin rotation have been used. The results have indicated the existence of three factors, with adequate psychometric indexes. Their content has been found to be consistent with the adopted theoretical model. These results

  6. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  7. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-02-01

    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  8. Reflection on Quality Assurance System of Higher Vocational Education under Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data has the features like Volume, Variety, Value and Velocity. Here come the new opportunities and challenges for construction of Chinese quality assurance system of higher vocational education under big data era. There are problems in current quality assurance system of higher vocational education, such as imperfect main body, non-formation of internally and externally incorporated quality assurance system, non-scientific security standard and insufficiency in security investment. The construction of higher vocational education under big data era requires a change in the idea of quality assurance system construction to realize the multiple main bodies and multiple layers development trend for educational quality assurance system, and strengthen the construction of information platform for quality assurance system.

  9. Generalizing a model beyond the inherence heuristic and applying it to beliefs about objective value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Graham

    2014-10-01

    The inherence heuristic is characterized as part of an instantiation of a more general model that describes the interaction between undeveloped intuitions, produced by System 1 heuristics, and developed beliefs, constructed by System 2 reasoning. The general model is described and illustrated by examining another instantiation of the process that constructs belief in objective moral value.

  10. Case Study on the Unavailability of a Ship Propulsion System under Aging Effects and Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Tadatsugi Okazaki

    2016-01-01

    Unavailability of a ship propulsion system under aging effects and proper maintenance is estimated using GO-FLOW. GO-FLOW is an effective software tool for the unavailability analysis of complex systems. Aging effects are incorporated into GO-FLOW using a time-dependent technique and assuming a linear aging model. The results show that the aging effects and improper maintenance can potentially increase the frequency of accidents due to a malfunction of the propulsion system by a factor of three.

  11. Uncovering the underlying physical mechanisms of biological systems via quantification of landscape and flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Li; Chu Xiakun; Yan Zhiqiang; Zheng Xiliang; Zhang Kun; Zhang Feng; Yan Han; Wu Wei; Wang Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we explore the physical mechanisms of biological processes such as protein folding and recognition, ligand binding, and systems biology, including cell cycle, stem cell, cancer, evolution, ecology, and neural networks. Our approach is based on the landscape and flux theory for nonequilibrium dynamical systems. This theory provides a unifying principle and foundation for investigating the underlying mechanisms and physical quantification of biological systems. (topical review)

  12. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clair Jorge Olivo; Carlos Alberto Agnolin; Priscila Flôres Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg Diehl; Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant gra...

  13. EAST-AIA deployment under vacuum: Calibration of laser diagnostic system using computer vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng; Wu, Zhenwei; Li, Yingying; Sun, Yongjun; Zheng, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Bruno, Vincent; Eric, Villedieu [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The first deployment of the EAST articulated inspection arm robot under vacuum is presented. • A computer vision based approach to measure the laser spot displacement is proposed. • An experiment on the real EAST tokamak is performed to validate the proposed measure approach, and the results shows that the measurement accuracy satisfies the requirement. - Abstract: For the operation of EAST tokamak, it is crucial to ensure that all the diagnostic systems are in the good condition in order to reflect the plasma status properly. However, most of the diagnostic systems are mounted inside the tokamak vacuum vessel, which makes them extremely difficult to maintain under high vacuum condition during the tokamak operation. Thanks to a system called EAST articulated inspection arm robot (EAST-AIA), the examination of these in-vessel diagnostic systems can be performed by an embedded camera carried by the robot. In this paper, a computer vision algorithm has been developed to calibrate a laser diagnostic system with the help of a monocular camera at the robot end. In order to estimate the displacement of the laser diagnostic system with respect to the vacuum vessel, several visual markers were attached to the inner wall. This experiment was conducted both on the EAST vacuum vessel mock-up and the real EAST tokamak under vacuum condition. As a result, the accuracy of the displacement measurement was within 3 mm under the current camera resolution, which satisfied the laser diagnostic system calibration.

  14. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  15. Belief Bisimulation for Hidden Markov Models Logical Characterisation and Decision Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming; Zhang, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes connections between logical equivalences and bisimulation relations for hidden Markov models (HMM). Both standard and belief state bisimulations are considered. We also present decision algorithms for the bisimilarities. For standard bisimilarity, an extension of the usual...... partition refinement algorithm is enough. Belief bisimilarity, being a relation on the continuous space of belief states, cannot be described directly. Instead, we show how to generate a linear equation system in time cubic in the number of states....

  16. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  17. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...

  18. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze

    2015-01-01

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  19. Generator Rescheduling under Congested Power System with Wind Integrated Competitive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhan Gope

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy like wind or solar energy creates a huge pressure to the system operator (SO to ensure the congestion free transmission network under deregulated power market. Congestion Management (CM with integration of wind farm in double auction electricity market are described in this work to minimize fuel cost, system losses and locational marginal price (LMP of the system. Location of Wind Farm (WF is identified based by using Bus sensitivity factor (BSF, which is also used for selection of load bus for double auction bidding (DAB. The impacts of wind farm in congested power system under deregulated environment have been investigated in this work. Modified 39-bus New England test system is used for demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP.

  20. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  1. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  2. Stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Xiangrong

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to deal with the stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation. First, the original stochastic viscoelastic system is converted to an equivalent stochastic system without viscoelastic terms by approximately adding the equivalent stiffness and damping. Relying on the means of non-smooth transformation of state variables, the above system is replaced by a new system without an impact term. Then, the stationary probability density functions of the system are observed analytically through stochastic averaging method. By considering the effects of the biquadratic nonlinear damping coefficient and the noise intensity on the system responses, the effectiveness of the theoretical method is tested by comparing the analytical results with those generated from Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, it does deserve attention that some system parameters can induce the occurrence of stochastic P-bifurcation.

  3. Electric-power systems planning and greenhouse-gas emission management under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ►A multistage stochastic integer programming model is developed for planning electric-power systems. ►Uncertain and dynamic information can be incorporated within a multilayer scenario tree. ►This can help minimize system cost under random energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement goal. ►Results can support decisions of facility expansion, electricity supply and GHG mitigation. - Abstract: In this study, a multistage interval-stochastic integer programming model is formulated for managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and planning electric-power systems under uncertainty. The developed model can reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of energy systems. Besides, the model can be used for answering questions related to types, times, demands and mitigations of energy systems planning practices, with the objective of minimizing system cost over a long-time planning horizon. The solutions can help generate electricity-generation schemes and capacity-expansion plans under different GHG-mitigation options and electricity-demand levels. Tradeoffs among system cost, energy security, and emission management can also be tackled. A high system cost will increase renewable energy supply and reduce GHG emission, while a desire for a low cost will run into risks of a high energy deficiency and a high GHG emission.

  4. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Caires,Eduardo Fávero; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) under no-tillage (NT) is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastur...

  5. Irrigation, Planting Date And Intra-Row Spacing Effects On Soybean Grown Under Dry Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل; Khalifa, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars (Glycine maxima (L) Merr.) differing in maturity period, leaf size and stem height were sown five times at fortnight intervals during the rainy season at four intra—row spacings under supplementary irrigation at one site and under rainfed conditions at another site in the central rainlands of Sudan. Cultivars responded differently to the system of production. Sowing date and moisture availability were the main factors controlling soybean production. The late maturing cul...

  6. Social normative beliefs regarding cigarette smoking in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Piko, Bettina F; Balazs, Mate A; Struk, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Hungary will continue to experience a high burden of disease and death from lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease unless there is a significant reduction in youth smoking. Social factors have been found to be among the most important determinants of adolescent smoking, yet few studies have investigated social normative beliefs in Hungarian youth. The purpose of the current study was to investigate three measures of smoking normative beliefs thought to influence adolescent smoking: perceived prevalence of smoking; perceived popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society; and perceived disapproval by friends and family. A cross-sectional school-based survey of eighth grade (n = 258) and 12th grade (n = 288) students in Mako, Hungary was conducted to assess social normative beliefs about smoking, current smoking, ever smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. The association of the normative beliefs with the smoking behavior variables was examined through logistic regression analysis, and the underlying factor structure of the normative belief items in the current sample was determined through factor analysis. The percent of boys reporting current smoking was 40.5% in 12th grade and 27.0% in eighth grade. Among girls, the percent was 44.0% of 12th graders and 29.1% of eighth graders. Parent/peer disapproval was the most consistently associated normative belief with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking across both samples. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Rational Irrationality: Modeling Climate Change Belief Polarization Using Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Belief polarization is said to occur when two people respond to the same evidence by updating their beliefs in opposite directions. This response is considered to be "irrational" because it involves contrary updating, a form of belief updating that appears to violate normatively optimal responding, as for example dictated by Bayes' theorem. In light of much evidence that people are capable of normatively optimal behavior, belief polarization presents a puzzling exception. We show that Bayesian networks, or Bayes nets, can simulate rational belief updating. When fit to experimental data, Bayes nets can help identify the factors that contribute to polarization. We present a study into belief updating concerning the reality of climate change in response to information about the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW). The study used representative samples of Australian and U.S. Among Australians, consensus information partially neutralized the influence of worldview, with free-market supporters showing a greater increase in acceptance of human-caused global warming relative to free-market opponents. In contrast, while consensus information overall had a positive effect on perceived consensus among U.S. participants, there was a reduction in perceived consensus and acceptance of human-caused global warming for strong supporters of unregulated free markets. Fitting a Bayes net model to the data indicated that under a Bayesian framework, free-market support is a significant driver of beliefs about climate change and trust in climate scientists. Further, active distrust of climate scientists among a small number of U.S. conservatives drives contrary updating in response to consensus information among this particular group. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. A Duopoly Manufacturers’ Game Model Considering Green Technology Investment under a Cap-and-Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the duopoly manufacturers’ decision-making considering green technology investment and under a cap-and-trade system. It was assumed there were two manufacturers producing products which were substitutable for one another. On the basis of this assumption, the optimal production capacity, price, and green technology investment of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system were obtained. The increase or decrease of the optimal production quantity of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system was decided by their green technology level. The increase of the optimal price as well as the increase or decrease of the maximum expected profits were decided by the initial carbon emission quota granted by the government. Our research indicates that the carbon emission of unit product is inversely proportional to the market share of an enterprise and becomes an important index to measure the core competitiveness of an enterprise.

  9. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  10. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  11. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  12. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  13. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  14. Machiavellian Beliefs and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Dan; Cody, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Replicates previous findings of separate Machiavellian belief constructs (Deceit, Flatter, Immorality, and Cynicism). Indicates that different constructs predict selection of compliance-gaining strategies; for example, actors who scored high on Immorality used more referent influence on superiors. Discusses implications of this study concerning a…

  15. Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems networks of plausible inference

    CERN Document Server

    Pearl, Judea

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertainty--and offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provid

  16. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Tak-Ming; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2013-01-01

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).

  17. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Tak-Ming; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2013-09-01

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k=8∼10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/kmerHMM.

  18. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2013-06-29

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).

  19. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  20. Localization of periodic orbits of the Roessler system under variation of its parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Starkov, Konstantin K.

    2007-01-01

    The localization problem of compact invariant sets of the Roessler system is considered in this paper. The main interest is attracted to a localization of periodic orbits. We establish a number of algebraic conditions imposed on parameters under which the Roessler system has no compact invariant sets contained in half-spaces z > 0; z < 0 and in some others. We prove that if parameters (a, b, c) of the Roessler system are such that this system has no equilibrium points then it has no periodic orbits as well. In addition, we give localization conditions of compact invariant sets by using linear functions and one quadratic function

  1. Localization of periodic orbits of the Roessler system under variation of its parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)]. E-mail: konst@citedi.mx; Starkov, Konstantin K. [UABC - Campus Tijuana, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas e Ingenieria, Calzada Tecnologico, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    The localization problem of compact invariant sets of the Roessler system is considered in this paper. The main interest is attracted to a localization of periodic orbits. We establish a number of algebraic conditions imposed on parameters under which the Roessler system has no compact invariant sets contained in half-spaces z > 0; z < 0 and in some others. We prove that if parameters (a, b, c) of the Roessler system are such that this system has no equilibrium points then it has no periodic orbits as well. In addition, we give localization conditions of compact invariant sets by using linear functions and one quadratic function.

  2. 42 CFR 413.220 - Methodology for calculating the per-treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rate under the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011. 413.220 Section 413.220...-treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011. (a) Data sources. The methodology for determining the per treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system...

  3. GRANT FINANCIAL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS; Checklist for Reviewing Systems Under the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) of 1996, issued September 9, 1997. JFMIP intends for the requirements to promote understanding of key financial management systems concepts and requirements, to provide a framework for establishing integrated financial management...

  4. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  5. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  6. Alteration of political belief by non- invasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eChawke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non- invasive brain simulation (tRNS to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant’s initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.

  7. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Marković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects' behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects' responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects.

  8. Agents' beliefs and economic regimes polarization in interacting markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, F.; Naimzada, A. K.; Pecora, N.; Pireddu, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, a model of a market consisting of real and financial interacting sectors is studied. Agents populating the stock market are assumed to be not able to observe the true underlying fundamental, and their beliefs are biased by either optimism or pessimism. Depending on the relevance they give to beliefs, they select the best performing strategy in an evolutionary perspective. The real side of the economy is described within a multiplier-accelerator framework with a nonlinear, bounded investment function. We study the effect of market integration, in particular, of the financialization of the real market. We show that strongly polarized beliefs in an evolutionary framework can introduce multiplicity of steady states, which, consisting in enhanced or depressed levels of income, reflect and reproduce the optimistic or pessimistic nature of the agents' beliefs. The polarization of these steady states, which coexist with an unbiased steady state, positively depends on that of the beliefs and on their relevance. Moreover, with a mixture of analytical and numerical tools, we show that such static characterization is inherited also at the dynamical level, with possibly complex attractors that are characterized by endogenously fluctuating pessimistic and optimistic prices and levels of national income, with the effect of having several coexisting business cycles. This framework, when stochastic perturbations are included, is able to account for stylized facts commonly observed in real financial markets, such as fat tails and excess volatility in the returns distributions, as well as bubbles and crashes for stock prices.

  9. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  10. Effect of thermal conductivities of shape stabilized PCM on under-floor heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wenlong; Xie, Biao; Zhang, Rongming; Xu, Zhiming; Xia, Yuting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • HCE-SSPCM was prepared and used in under-floor heating system. • Enhancing thermal conductivity improved the efficiency of energy and space. • Too high thermal conductivity over a range was meaningless. • The economic benefits of the phase change energy storage system were the best. - Abstract: A kind of heat conduction-enhanced shape-stabilized PCM (HCE-SSPCM) was utilized in the under-floor heating system for house heating in winter. This system charges heat by using cheap nighttime electricity and provides heating needs throughout all day. The effect of thermal conductivity of the PCM on energy savings and economic benefits of the system were theoretically and experimentally studied. HCE-SSPCM plates, made of (solid paraffin + liquid paraffin)/high density polyethylene/expanded graphite, were introduced to a test room with under-floor heating system. And the operating characteristics of the system were compared with that of the non-phase change energy storage system and the conventional air conditioning system. The results showed that enhancing the thermal conductivity of PCM in a certain range could significantly improve the energy efficiency of the heating system and reduce the thickness of thermal insulating materials. But the improving effect was not obvious when the thermal conductivity was beyond 1.0 W/m K. The phase change energy storage system had a comfortable temperature environment and the best economic benefits among the three different heating types especially when the ratio of peak-valley electric price was high. Therefore, increasing the thermal conductivity of SSPCM will be of great significance for house heating

  11. Order effects in research on paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Measures of paranormal belief and emotional intelligence were given a group of 72 college students using Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim's Emotional Intelligence Scale. Order effects indicated that participants who took the Paranormal Belief Scale first had lower emotional intelligence scores than those who took the Emotional Intelligence Scale first. The study demonstrates the importance of taking order effects into account when conducting research on paranormal belief.

  12. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram V...

  13. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  14. A Mixed Methods Approach to Code Stakeholder Beliefs in Urban Water Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Henry, A.; Pivo, G.

    2017-12-01

    What is a reliable way to code policies to represent belief systems? The Advocacy Coalition Framework posits that public policy may be viewed as manifestations of belief systems. Belief systems include both ontological beliefs about cause-and-effect relationships and policy effectiveness, as well as normative beliefs about appropriate policy instruments and the relative value of different outcomes. The idea that belief systems are embodied in public policy is important for urban water governance because it trains our focus on belief conflict; this can help us understand why many water-scarce cities do not adopt innovative technology despite available scientific information. To date, there has been very little research on systematic, rigorous methods to measure the belief system content of public policies. We address this by testing the relationship between beliefs and policy participation to develop an innovative coding framework. With a focus on urban water governance in Tucson, Arizona, we analyze grey literature on local water management. Mentioned policies are coded into a typology of common approaches identified in urban water governance literature, which include regulation, education, price and non-price incentives, green infrastructure and other types of technology. We then survey local water stakeholders about their perceptions of these policies. Urban water governance requires coordination of organizations from multiple sectors, and we cannot assume that belief development and policy participation occur in a vacuum. Thus, we use a generalized exponential random graph model to test the relationship between perceptions and policy participation in the Tucson water governance network. We measure policy perceptions for organizations by averaging across their respective, affiliated respondents and generating a belief distance matrix of coordinating network participants. Similarly, we generate a distance matrix of these actors based on the frequency of their

  15. Vehicle detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery using attribute belief propagation (ABP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Ying; Zhang, Li; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    With the popularity of very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery, the shape, color, and context attribute of vehicles are better characterized. Due to the various road surroundings and imaging conditions, vehicle attributes could be adversely affected so that vehicle is mistakenly detected or missed. This paper is motivated to robustly extract the rich attribute feature for detecting the vehicles of VHR imagery under different scenarios. Based on the hierarchical component tree of vehicle context, attribute belief propagation (ABP) is proposed to detect salient vehicles from the statistical perspective. With the Max-tree data structure, the multi-level component tree around the road network is efficiently created. The spatial relationship between vehicle and its belonging context is established with the belief definition of vehicle attribute. To effectively correct single-level belief error, the inter-level belief linkages enforce consistency of belief assignment between corresponding components at different levels. ABP starts from an initial set of vehicle belief calculated by vehicle attribute, and then iterates through each component by applying inter-level belief passing until convergence. The optimal value of vehicle belief of each component is obtained via minimizing its belief function iteratively. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of VHR imagery acquired in the city and inter-city areas of the West and South China. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect vehicle efficiently and suppress the erroneous effectively. The proposed ABP framework is promising to robustly classify the vehicles from VHR Aerial imagery.

  16. Genetic Correlates of Maladaptive Beliefs: COMT VAL(158)MET and Irrational Cognitions Linked Depending on Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podina, Ioana; Popp, Radu; Pop, Ioan; David, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Maladaptive/irrational beliefs are significant cognitive vulnerability mechanisms in psychopathology. They are more likely to be associated with a genetic vulnerability marker under conditions of emotional distress when irrational beliefs are more salient. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the COMT Val(158)Met gene variation in relation to irrational beliefs, assuming this relationship depended on the level of emotional distress. Two hundred and sixty-seven genotyped volunteers were assessed for core/general maladaptive beliefs, as well as trait emotional distress. We focused on context-independent measures of irrational beliefs and emotional distress in the absence of a stressor. As expected, the relationship between COMT Val(158)Met and irrational beliefs depended on the level of emotional distress (f(2)=.314). The COMT Val(158)Met-irrationality association was significant only when individuals fell in the average to above average range of emotional distress. Furthermore, within this range the Met allele seemed to relate to higher irrational beliefs. These results were significant for overall irrational beliefs and its subtypes, but not for rational beliefs, the functional counterpart of irrationality. In light of the study's limitations, the results should be considered as preliminary. If replicable, these findings have potential implications for therapygenetics, changing the view that COMT Val(158)Met might be of greater relevance when treatment modality does not rely on cognitive variables. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  18. Public health systems under attack in Canada: Evidence on public health system performance challenges arbitrary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe; Perreault, Robert

    2016-10-20

    Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features. Furthermore, increased financial resources and increased staffing per capita are significantly associated with improved population health outcomes. We contend that any effort at optimization of public health systems should at least be guided by these four evidence-informed factors. Canada already has existing capacity in carrying out public health systems and services research. Further advancement of our academic and professional expertise on public health systems will allow Canadian public health jurisdictions to be inspired by the best public health models and become stronger advocates for public health's resources, interventions and outcomes when they need to be celebrated or defended.

  19. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  20. Adaptive Fuzzy Logic based MPPT Control for PV System Under Partial Shading Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Subhashree; Rout, Pravat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Partial shading causes power loss, hotspots and threatens the reliability of the Photovoltaic generation system. Moreover characteristic curves exhibit multiple peaks. Conventional MPPT techniques under this condition often fail to give optimum MPP. Focusing on the afore mentioned problem an attempt has been made to design an Adaptive Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System based Fuzzy Logic Control MPPT.The mathematical model of PV array is simulated using in MATLAB/Simulink environment.Various...

  1. Persia under Mongol domination. The effectiveness and and failings of a dual administrative system

    OpenAIRE

    Aigle , Denise

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper points out the break of the traditionnal administrative patterns from dure Gret' Khans period to the fall of the Persian Ilkhanate in 1355. Previously, financial and secretarial offices had been handed down, to generation, in established families. However, under the Mongols, a dual administrative system was set up, consisting of both Mongol and local peersonnal. This administratif system was efficient on the beginning of the period. But during de Ilkhanid's ...

  2. Existence of Generalized Homoclinic Solutions of Lotka-Volterra System under a Small Perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Lotka-Volterra system under a small perturbation vxx=-μ(1-a2u-v)v+ϵf(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux), uxx=-(1-u-a1v)u+ϵg(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux). By the Fourier series expansion technique method, the fixed point theorem, the perturbation theorem, and the reversibility, we prove that near μ=0 the system has a generalized homoclinic solution exponentially approaching a periodic solution.

  3. Existence of Generalized Homoclinic Solutions of Lotka-Volterra System under a Small Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Mi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates Lotka-Volterra system under a small perturbation vxx=-μ(1-a2u-vv+ϵf(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux, uxx=-(1-u-a1vu+ϵg(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux. By the Fourier series expansion technique method, the fixed point theorem, the perturbation theorem, and the reversibility, we prove that near μ=0 the system has a generalized homoclinic solution exponentially approaching a periodic solution.

  4. Evolution of nitrate level in green lettuce conventional grown under natural conditions and aquaponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Flavius Blidariu; Drasovean Alexandru; Grozea Adrian; Radulov Isidora; Lalescu Dacian

    2013-01-01

    Aquaponics integrates growing plants without soil technology with aquaculture, having an important role in recovery of nutrients from effluents. The research aimed to evaluate nitrates level in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) conventional grown under natural conditions and in integrated aquaponic system with a recirculated aquaculture system designed for pikeperch growth (Sander lucioperca). Conventional production (54 plants) has been obtained in the field without fertilizer or pesticide management...

  5. Consensus of Fractional-Order Multiagent Systems with Double Integrator under Switching Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the practical environments, many systems can only be described with the fractional-order dynamics. In this paper, the consensus of fractional-order multiagent systems with double integrator under switching topologies is investigated. By applying Mittag-Leffler function, Laplace transform, and dwell time technique, a sufficient condition on consensus is obtained. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.

  6. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  7. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2013-01-01

    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy conce...

  8. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  9. Forward induction reasoning and correct beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perea y Monsuwé, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    All equilibrium concepts implicitly make a correct beliefs assumption, stating that a player believes that his opponents are correct about his first-order beliefs. In this paper we show that in many dynamic games of interest, this correct beliefs assumption may be incompatible with a very basic form

  10. Islamic Cultures: Health Care Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…

  11. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  12. Using system dynamics for simulation and optimization of one coal industry system under fuzzy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.P.; Li, X.F. [Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, we have developed a model that integrates system dynamics with fuzzy multiple objective programming (SD-FMOP). This model can be used to study the complex interactions in a industry system. In the process of confirming sensitive parameters and fuzzy variables of the SD model, we made use of fuzzy multi-objective programming to help yield the solution. We adopted the chance-constraint programming model to convert the fuzzy variables into precise values. We use genetic algorithm to solve FMOP model, and obtain the Pareto solution through the programming models. It is evident that FMOP is effective in optimizing the given system to obtain the decision objectives of the SD model. The results recorded from the SD model are in our option, reasonable and credible. These results may help governments to establish more effective policy related to the coal industry development.

  13. A model system to give an insight into the behaviour of gold nanoparticles under ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjauny, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-composites fabricated with ion-based techniques have a number of attractive characteristics. However, the main and most crucial difficulty in obtaining commercial NPs-based devices is the inability to produce a suitable narrow size and spatial NP distributions. The objective of this thesis is twofold: i) to go further in the description of the behavior of the ion-driven NPs and ii) to overcome the limitations related to the ion-beam techniques providing a guideline methodology to rationalize the synthesis of NPs when ion-beams are used. Thus, a model system is fabricated. It consists of chemically synthesized metallic nanoparticles sandwiched between two silica layers. We show how the ion irradiation and the temperature can be used to tune the size distribution of the embedded NPs. Moreover, we show that when an initially large NPs size distribution is considered, the study of the growth kinetic of the NPs under irradiation can be problematic. Our model system is than used to investigate in detail the behavior of the NPs under irradiation. We show that the evolution of the precipitate phase under irradiation is successfully described by an Ostwald ripening mechanism in an open system limited by the diffusion. Moreover, the concentration threshold for nucleation as well as the surface tension and the gold diffusivity in silica under irradiation is estimated. Finally, direct and inverse Ostwald ripening processes under irradiation are systematically investigated and the existing theoretical models experimentally checked. (author)

  14. Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Ivar; Meulman, Brendo; Vreeburg, Jan H G; Spiller, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can take place by building small autonomous decentralised units that operate closer to the actual demand. Research has shown that variability and uncertainty in urban development does affect the cost effectiveness of this approach. Previous studies do not, however, consider the entire sanitation system from collection to treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the economic performance of three sanitation systems with different scales and systems characteristics under a variety of urban development pathways. Three systems are studied: (I) a centralised conventional activated sludge treatment, (II) a community on site source separation grey water and black water treatment and (III) a hybrid with grey water treatment at neighbourhood scale and black water treatment off site. A modelling approach is taken that combines a simulation of greenfield urban growth, a model of the wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure design properties and a model that translates design parameters into discounted asset lifetime costs. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the economic performance under uncertain development trends. Results show that the conventional system outperforms both of the other systems when total discounted lifetime costs are assessed, because it benefits from economies of scale. However, when population growth is lower than expected, the source-separated system is more cost effective, because of reduced idle capacity. The hybrid system is not competitive under any circumstance due to the costly double piping and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S; Dairaku, A; Komine, H; Saito, O; Sakai, N; Isizawa, T; Maruyama, I

    2013-01-01

    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  16. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  17. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  18. UK-based physical therapists' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise and knee osteoarthritis: findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Melanie A; Nicholls, Elaine E; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M; Foster, Nadine E

    2009-11-15

    Within the UK, differences exist between physical therapists' use of exercise for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and recent exercise recommendations. This may be explained by their underlying attitudes and beliefs. We aimed to describe UK physical therapists' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise and knee OA, and understand and explain them. A survey was mailed to 2,000 UK-based chartered physical therapists that included 23 attitude statements derived from recently published recommendations. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of questionnaire respondents (n = 24), and were recorded and analyzed thematically. The questionnaire response rate was 58% (n = 1,152); 538 respondents reported treating a patient with knee OA in the last 6 months. The survey highlighted uncertainty about potential benefits of exercise for knee OA: only 56% largely/totally agreed that knee problems are improved by local exercise. Although exercise adherence was deemed important, it was seen as the patient's, not the therapist's, responsibility. Interviews revealed an underlying biomedical model of care of knee pain, with knee OA viewed as a progressive degenerative condition. A paternalistic treatment approach was evident. Health care systems presented a number of barriers to best practice, including limited opportunity to provide followup. Although the attitudes and beliefs of physical therapists may help to explain differences between current practice and recent exercise recommendations, the wider health care system also plays a part. Further research is needed to support meaningful shifts in physical therapy care in line with the best practice recommendations.

  19. Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic system under parametric excitation in the form of a non-Erlang renewal jump process is considered. The excitation is a random train of nonoverlapping rectangular pulses with equal, deterministic heights. The time intervals between two consecutive jumps up (or down), are the sum of two...

  20. Optimal policies for Production-Clearing Systems under Continuous-Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germs, R.; Foreest, van Nicky D.; Kilic, Onur A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a production-clearing system with compound Poisson demand under continuous review. The production facility produces one type of item without stopping and at a constant rate, and stores the product into a buffer to meet future demand. To prevent high inventory levels, a

  1. Extensible Synthetic File Servers? or: Structuring the Glue between Tester and System Under Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belinfante, Axel; Mullender, Sape J.; Collyer, G.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a few simple scenarios of how we can design and develop a compositional synthetic ��?le server that gives access to external processes – in particular, in the context of testing, gives access to the system under test – such that certain parts of said synthethic ��?le server can be

  2. 76 FR 4651 - Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-58-000] Venice... on January 7, 2011, Venice Gathering System, L.L.C. (Venice), 1000 Louisiana, Suite 4300, Houston... existing 20- inch diameter natural gas supply lateral pipeline, offshore Louisiana, under Venice's blanket...

  3. 42 CFR 412.632 - Method of payment under the inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rehabilitation facility receives payment under this subpart for inpatient operating costs and capital-related... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR... and for costs of an approved education program and other costs paid outside the prospective payment...

  4. Catch crop biomass production, nitrogen uptake and root development under different tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2012-01-01

    tinctoria L.), perennial ryegrass (RG) (Lolium perenne L.) and fodder radish (FR) (Raphanus sativus L.) under three tillage systems. For that, we used a tillage experiment established in 2002 on a Danish sandy loam. The tillage treatments were direct drilling (D), harrowing to 8–10 cm (H) and ploughing (P...

  5. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  6. Creating and Using a Computer Networking and Systems Administration Laboratory Built under Relaxed Financial Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Michael P.; Mullins, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Computer Science Department at Slippery Rock University created a laboratory for its Computer Networks and System Administration and Security courses under relaxed financial constraints. This paper describes the department's experience designing and using this laboratory, including lessons learned and descriptions of some student projects…

  7. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Design of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Lu, Q.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Zheng, Y.; Shi, L.; Shi, X.

    2018-03-01

    Supercritical CO2 has the characteristics of low viscosity, high diffusion and zero surface tension, and it is considered as a new fluid for non-polluting and non-aqueous fracturing which can be used for shale gas development. Fracturing refers to a method of utilizing the high-pressure fluid to generate fractures in the rock formation so as to improve the oil and gas flow conditions and increase the oil and gas production. In this article, a new type of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions is designed, which is based on characteristics of supercritical CO2, shale reservoir and down-hole environment. The experimental system consists of three sub-systems, including supercritical CO2 generation system, supercritical CO2 fracturing system and data analysis system. It can be used to simulate supercritical CO2 fracturing under geo-stress conditions, thus to study the rock initiation pressure, the formation of the rock fractures, fractured surface morphology and so on. The experimental system has successfully carried out a series of supercritical CO2 fracturing experiments. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the experimental system and the high efficiency of supercritical CO2 in fracturing tight rocks.

  9. Power System Stabilizer Design Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Multiobjective Function Implemented Under Graphical Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouraf Djamel Eddine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Power system stability considered a necessary condition for normal functioning of an electrical network. The role of regulation and control systems is to ensure that stability by determining the essential elements that influence it. This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based multiobjective function to tuning optimal parameters of Power System Stabilizer (PSS; this later is used as auxiliary to generator excitation system in order to damp electro mechanicals oscillations of the rotor and consequently improve Power system stability. The computer simulation results obtained by developed graphical user interface (GUI have proved the efficiency of PSS optimized by a Particle Swarm Optimization, in comparison with a conventional PSS, showing stable   system   responses   almost   insensitive   to   large parameter variations.Our present study was performed using a GUI realized under MATLAB in our work.

  10. Beliefs about work and beliefs about groupwork: Exploring the relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Smrt & Karau’s (2011) finding that the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) influences individual behaviour towards groups, emphasized that individuals who have a stronger PWE are less likely to socially loaf. This note aims to contribute to this research by exploring the influence which a key component of the PWE, the vocation, has on individual beliefs about groupwork. An online questionnaire based on Wrzesniewski et al.’s (1997) research on personal relationships to work and Karau & Elsaid’s (200...

  11. Believing what we do not believe: Acquiescence to superstitious beliefs and other powerful intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, Jane L

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, research on superstition and magical thinking has focused on people's cognitive shortcomings, but superstitions are not limited to individuals with mental deficits. Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults have superstitions that are not rational. Dual process models--such as the corrective model advocated by Kahneman and Frederick (2002, 2005), which suggests that System 1 generates intuitive answers that may or may not be corrected by System 2--are useful for illustrating why superstitious thinking is widespread, why particular beliefs arise, and why they are maintained even though they are not true. However, to understand why superstitious beliefs are maintained even when people know they are not true requires that the model be refined. It must allow for the possibility that people can recognize--in the moment--that their belief does not make sense, but act on it nevertheless. People can detect an error, but choose not to correct it, a process I refer to as acquiescence. The first part of the article will use a dual process model to understand the psychology underlying magical thinking, highlighting features of System 1 that generate magical intuitions and features of the person or situation that prompt System 2 to correct them. The second part of the article will suggest that we can improve the model by decoupling the detection of errors from their correction and recognizing acquiescence as a possible System 2 response. I suggest that refining the theory will prove useful for understanding phenomena outside of the context of magical thinking. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Soil aggregation and organic carbon of Oxisols under coffee in agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pinto Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive land use can lead to a loss of soil physical quality with negative impacts on soil aggregates, resistance to root penetration, porosity, and bulk density. Organic and agroforestry management systems can represent sustainable, well-balanced alternatives in the agroecosystem for promoting a greater input of organic matter than the conventional system. Based on the hypothesis that an increased input of organic matter improves soil physical quality, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of coffee production systems on soil physical properties in two Red-Yellow Oxisols (Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos in the region of Caparaó, Espirito Santo, Brazil. On Farm 1, we evaluated the following systems: primary forest (Pf1, organic coffee (Org1 and conventional coffee (Con1. On Farm 2, we evaluated: secondary forest (Sf2, organic coffee intercropped with inga (Org/In2, organic coffee intercropped with leucaena and inga (Org/In/Le2, organic coffee intercropped with cedar (Org/Ced2 and unshaded conventional coffee (Con2. Soil samples were collected under the tree canopy from the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers. Under organic and agroforestry coffee management, soil aggregation was higher than under conventional coffee. In the agroforestry system, the degree of soil flocculation was 24 % higher, soil moisture was 80 % higher, and soil resistance to penetration was lower than in soil under conventional coffee management. The macroaggregates in the organic systems, Org/In2, Org/In/Le2, and Org/Ced2 contained, on average, 29.1, 40.1 and 34.7 g kg-1 organic carbon, respectively. These levels are higher than those found in the unshaded conventional system (Con2, with 20.2 g kg-1.

  13. The Ethics of Belief, Cognition, and Climate Change Pseudoskepticism: Implications for Public Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcello, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between knowledge, belief, and ethics is an inaugural theme in philosophy; more recently, under the title "ethics of belief" philosophers have worked to develop the appropriate methodology for studying the nexus of epistemology, ethics, and psychology. The title "ethics of belief" comes from a 19th-century paper written by British philosopher and mathematician W.K. Clifford. Clifford argues that we are morally responsible for our beliefs because (a) each belief that we form creates the cognitive circumstances for related beliefs to follow, and (b) we inevitably influence each other through those beliefs. This study argues that recent cognitive research supports Cliffordian insights regarding patterns of belief formation and social influence. From the confirmation offered by such research, it follows that informational accuracy holds serious ethical significance in public discourse. Although scientific and epistemological matters are not always thought to be linked to normative morality, this study builds on Clifford's initial insights to show their linkage is fundamental to inquiry itself. In turn, Clifford's ethical and epistemic outline can inform a framework grounded in "public reason" under which seemingly opposed science communication strategies (e.g., "information deficit" and "cultural cognition" models) are philosophically united. With public discourse on climate change as the key example, empirically informed and grounded strategies for science communication in the public sphere are considered. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Introducing the modified paranormal belief scale: distinguishing between classic paranormal beliefs, religious paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity among undergraduates in Northern Ireland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J.; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2009-01-01

    Previous empirical studies concerned with the association between paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity have produced conflicting evidence. Drawing on Rice's (2003) distinction between classic paranormal beliefs and religious paranormal beliefs, the present study proposed a modified form of the Tobacyk Revised Paranormal Belief Scale to produce separate scores for these two forms of paranormal belief, styled 'religious paranormal beliefs' and 'classic paranormal beliefs'. Data provi...

  15. A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of "reverse desertification". Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L. cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively. Most of the isolates (95% presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuum rhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40% under drought stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the

  16. Aspects of two-level systems under external time-dependent fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Wreszinski, W.F. [Tomsk State University and Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics (Russian Federation); Barata, J.C.A.; Gitman D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil)]. E-mails: jbarata@fma.if.usp.br; gitman@fma.if.usp.br

    2001-12-14

    The dynamics of two-level systems in time-dependent backgrounds is under consideration. We present some new exact solutions in special backgrounds decaying in time. On the other hand, following ideas of Feynman et al, we discuss in detail the possibility of reducing the quantum dynamics to a classical Hamiltonian system. This, in particular, opens the possibility of directly applying powerful methods of classical mechanics (e.g. KAM methods) to study the quantum system. Following such an approach, we draw conclusions of relevance for 'quantum chaos' when the external background is periodic or quasi-periodic in time. (author)

  17. Dynamic response of a rub-impact rotor system under axial thrust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xueli; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xiang, Xiuqiao; Li, Chaoshun; Luo, Zhimeng [Huazhong University of Science andTechnology, College of Hydroelectric and Digitalization Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2009-11-15

    A model of a rigid rotor system under axial thrust with rotor-to-stator is developed based on the classic impact theory and is analyzed by the Lagrangian dynamics. The rubbing condition is modeled using the elastic impact-contact idealization, which consists of normal and tangential forces at the rotor-to-stator contact point. Mass eccentricity and rotating speed are used as control parameters to simulate the response of rotor system. The motions of periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic are found in the rotor system response. Mass eccentricity plays an important role in creating chaotic phenomena. (orig.)

  18. Research on the reliability of friction system under combined additive and multiplicative random excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaojiao; Xu, Wei; Lin, Zifei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the reliability of a non-linearly damped friction oscillator under combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise excitations is investigated. The stochastic averaging method, which is usually applied to the research of smooth system, has been extended to the study of the reliability of non-smooth friction system. The results indicate that the reliability of friction system can be improved by Coulomb friction and reduced by random excitations. In particular, the effect of the external random excitation on the reliability is larger than the effect of the parametric random excitation. The validity of the analytical results is verified by the numerical results.

  19. Grid Voltage Synchronization for Distributed Generation Systems under Grid Fault Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvaro; Rocabert, J.; Candela, I.

    2015-01-01

    on the installation of STATCOMs and DVRs, as well as on advanced control functionalities for the existing power converters of distributed generation plants, have contributed to enhance their response under faulty and distorted scenarios and, hence, to fulfill these requirements. In order to achieve satisfactory......The actual grid code requirements for the grid connection of distributed generation systems, mainly wind and PV systems, are becoming very demanding. The Transmission System Operators (TSOs) are especially concerned about the Low Voltage Ride Through requirements. Solutions based...

  20. Mission reliability of semi-Markov systems under generalized operational time requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyue; Hillston, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Mission reliability of a system depends on specific criteria for mission success. To evaluate the mission reliability of some mission systems that do not need to work normally for the whole mission time, two types of mission reliability for such systems are studied. The first type corresponds to the mission requirement that the system must remain operational continuously for a minimum time within the given mission time interval, while the second corresponds to the mission requirement that the total operational time of the system within the mission time window must be greater than a given value. Based on Markov renewal properties, matrix integral equations are derived for semi-Markov systems. Numerical algorithms and a simulation procedure are provided for both types of mission reliability. Two examples are used for illustration purposes. One is a one-unit repairable Markov system, and the other is a cold standby semi-Markov system consisting of two components. By the proposed approaches, the mission reliability of systems with time redundancy can be more precisely estimated to avoid possible unnecessary redundancy of system resources. - Highlights: • Two types of mission reliability under generalized requirements are defined. • Equations for both types of reliability are derived for semi-Markov systems. • Numerical methods are given for solving both types of reliability. • Simulation procedure is given for estimating both types of reliability. • Verification of the numerical methods is given by the results of simulation