WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying adaptive variation

  1. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Design of a SCARA Robot Manipulator System Under Parametric Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adelhed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available – The sliding mode control (SMC has yet proven its efficiency through several theoretical researches. Indeed, the robotic field is recognized as one of the main SMC portals on practical implementations. The interest of this work consists in testing the SMC robustness and its reliability versus the parameters variation and model uncertainties. In this paper, an algorithm for trajectory tracking task of robot manipulators based on a SMC has been proposed. Then, aiming to deal with the presence of disturbances and parametric modeling uncertainties, the adopted control law has been extended to an adaptive SMC version based integral sliding surface, where the selection of the parameters adaptation law has been detailed. It has been proven that the adaptive control design can stabilize both position and velocity of the system, where the explicit use of the system dynamic model becomes no longer required. Simulation results performed on a SCARA robot manipulator reveal improving control acting clearly denoted by the introduction of the adaptive control design

  2. The physiological variations of adaptation mechaniam in Glycine soja seedlings under saline and alkaline stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, S.; Li, M.; Yang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The seedlings of Glycine soja were treated with varying saline stress and alkaline stress. The growth, photosynthesis and concentrations of inorganic ions in tissue sap of stressed seedlings were measured to elucidate the mechanism of saline and alkaline stress (high pH) damage to G. soja, and the differences between physiological adaptive mechanism to alkaline stress and saline stress. Our experimental data showed alkalinity had a more severe effects on G. soja seedlings than salinity in the similar concentration, severely inhibited shoot and root growth, and photosynthesis. Diurnal change of pN showed the bimodal curves getting less obvious and transformed to be single peak with increasing stress intensity which might be an efficient energy-conserving strategy for G. soja to adapt to saline and alkaline stress. Na+/K+ were all increased, with greater degrees of increasing under alkaline than under saline stress, cations and anions were almost not accumulated under high alkaline stress, while the influx of superfluous Na+ can be balanced by the accumulation of Cl-, SO42-, H2PO4- in root under saline stress. This indicated that the roots of G. soja were injured so severely that couldn't absorb Na+ and keep ion balance under high alkaline stress including high-pH stress, which might lead to greater accumulation of Na+ in leaves under alkaline stress than that under saline stress, and then sharply reduced the growth and photosynthesis. pN of G. soja seedlings was promoted under low concentration saline and alkaline stresses. Na+/K+ were significant lower in leaves compare with that in roots, and a large amount of Na+ was accumulated in stems of G. soja seedlings under both stresses. Under alkaline stress, the K+, NO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ contents in leaves were increased with increasing Na+, and maintain high water content in root. Our results showed obvious differences between physiological adaptive mechanisms to saline stress and alkaline stress. This study would

  3. Empirical Estimation of Climate Impacts Under Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J. A.; Jina, A.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating the impacts of climate change requires a careful account of both the present levels of adaptation observed in different regions and the adaptive capacity those regions might show under climate change. To date, little empirical evidence on either of these components. We present a general approach for empirically estimating the impacts of climate change under both forms of adaptation, applied to the United States. We draw upon relationships between daily temperatures and impacts on mortality, agriculture, and crime, from the econometric climate impacts literature. These are estimated using year-to-year temperature variation within each location. The degree to which regions are vulnerable to high temperatures varies across the US, with warmer regions generally showing less vulnerability. As climate changes, cooler regions will adopt behaviors from warmer regions, such as greater use of air conditioning, and their impact relationships will change accordingly. The rate at which regions have adapted is estimated from changes in these relationships over recent decades. We use these results to model future changes in each US county. as they are exposed to warmer temperatures and adopt characteristics of currently warmer areas. We do this across a full range of climate and statistical uncertainty. The median degree to which adaptation alleviates impacts varies by sector, with 10% lower rates of temperature-induced crime, 15% lower yield losses to maize, to 80% lower rates of heat-related mortality. However, the uncertainty in adaptive capacity remains greater than these changes. Uncertainty in regional response relationships and the rate of adaptation dominate the uncertainty in our total result. We perform two thought experiments to explore the extreme potential for adaptation in light of this uncertainty. We replace the regional relationships with a uniform approach to complete temperature insensitivity, using the normal estimated rate of adaptation. We also

  4. On Self-Adaptive Method for General Mixed Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Bnouhachem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a new self-adaptive method for solving general mixed variational inequalities, which can be viewed as an improvement of the method of (Noor 2003. Global convergence of the new method is proved under the same assumptions as Noor's method. Some preliminary computational results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Since the general mixed variational inequalities include general variational inequalities, quasivariational inequalities, and nonlinear (implicit complementarity problems as special cases, results proved in this paper continue to hold for these problems.

  5. Sea level adaptation decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, T. L.; Guttorp, P.; Drews, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level rise has serious consequences for harbor infrastructure, storm drains and sewer systems, and many other issues. Adapting to sea level rise requires comparing different possible adaptation strategies, comparing the cost of different actions (including no action), and assessing where...... and at what point in time the chosen strategy should be implemented. All these decisions must be made under considerable uncertainty—in the amount of sea level rise, in the cost and prioritization of adaptation actions, and in the implications of no action. Here we develop two illustrative examples...

  6. Iterative CT reconstruction via minimizing adaptively reweighted total variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Niu, Tianye; Petrongolo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction via total variation (TV) minimization has demonstrated great successes in accurate CT imaging from under-sampled projections. When projections are further reduced, over-smoothing artifacts appear in the current reconstruction especially around the structure boundaries. We propose a practical algorithm to improve TV-minimization based CT reconstruction on very few projection data. Based on the theory of compressed sensing, the L-0 norm approach is more desirable to further reduce the projection views. To overcome the computational difficulty of the non-convex optimization of the L-0 norm, we implement an adaptive weighting scheme to approximate the solution via a series of TV minimizations for practical use in CT reconstruction. The weight on TV is initialized as uniform ones, and is automatically changed based on the gradient of the reconstructed image from the previous iteration. The iteration stops when a small difference between the weighted TV values is observed on two consecutive reconstructed images. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on both a digital phantom and a physical phantom. Using 20 equiangular projections, our method reduces reconstruction errors in the conventional TV minimization by a factor of more than 5, with improved spatial resolution. By adaptively reweighting TV in iterative CT reconstruction, we successfully further reduce the projection number for the same or better image quality.

  7. Operator adaptation to changes in system reliability under adaptable automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Sauer, Juergen

    2017-09-01

    This experiment examined how operators coped with a change in system reliability between training and testing. Forty participants were trained for 3 h on a complex process control simulation modelling six levels of automation (LOA). In training, participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (50%). The impact of training experience on operator behaviour was examined during a 2.5 h testing session, in which participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (60%). The results showed that most operators did not often switch between LOA. Most chose an LOA that relieved them of most tasks but maintained their decision authority. Training experience did not have a strong impact on the outcome measures (e.g. performance, complacency). Low system reliability led to decreased performance and self-confidence. Furthermore, complacency was observed under high system reliability. Overall, the findings suggest benefits of adaptable automation because it accommodates different operator preferences for LOA. Practitioner Summary: The present research shows that operators can adapt to changes in system reliability between training and testing sessions. Furthermore, it provides evidence that each operator has his/her preferred automation level. Since this preference varies strongly between operators, adaptable automation seems to be suitable to accommodate these large differences.

  8. In vitro adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum reveal variations in cultivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Pereira, Ligia; Dash, Rashmi; Walke, Jayashri T; Gawas, Pooja; Sharma, Ambika; Manoharan, Suresh Kumar; Guler, Jennifer L; Maki, Jennifer N; Kumar, Ashwani; Mahanta, Jagadish; Valecha, Neena; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Vaz, Marina; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2016-01-22

    Culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum parasites can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations in drug resistance, pathogenesis and immune evasion. To help ground population-based calculations and inferences from culture-adapted parasites, the complete range of parasites from a study area must be well represented in any collection. To this end, standardized adaptation methods and determinants of successful in vitro adaption were sought. Venous blood was collected from 33 P. falciparum-infected individuals at Goa Medical College and Hospital (Bambolim, Goa, India). Culture variables such as whole blood versus washed blood, heat-inactivated plasma versus Albumax, and different starting haematocrit levels were tested on fresh blood samples from patients. In vitro adaptation was considered successful when two four-fold or greater increases in parasitaemia were observed within, at most, 33 days of attempted culture. Subsequently, parasites from the same patients, which were originally cryopreserved following blood draw, were retested for adaptability for 45 days using identical host red blood cells (RBCs) and culture media. At a new endemic area research site, ~65% of tested patient samples, with varied patient history and clinical presentation, were successfully culture-adapted immediately after blood collection. Cultures set up at 1% haematocrit and 0.5% Albumax adapted most rapidly, but no single test condition was uniformly fatal to culture adaptation. Success was not limited by low patient parasitaemia nor by patient age. Some parasites emerged even after significant delays in sample processing and even after initiation of treatment with anti-malarials. When 'day 0' cryopreserved samples were retested in parallel many months later using identical host RBCs and media, speed to adaptation appeared to be an intrinsic property of the parasites collected from individual patients. Culture adaptation of P. falciparum in a field setting is formally shown to be

  9. On user behaviour adaptation under interface change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Rosman2_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2213 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Rosman2_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Haifa, Israel, 24-27 February 2014 On User Behaviour Adaptation Under Interface Change Benjamin Rosman_ Subramanian Ramamoorthy M. M. Hassan Mahmud School of Informatics University of Edinburgh...

  10. Capacities for population-genetic variation and ecological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragoslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary science of population genetics it is equally complex and important to visualize how adaptive limits of individual variation are determined, as well as to describe the amount and sort of this variation. Almost all century the scientists devoted their efforts to explain the principles and structure of biological variation (genetic, developmental, environmental, interactive, etc., basing its maintenance within existing limits mostly on equilibria proclaimed by Hardy-Weinberg rules. Among numerous model-organisms that have been used to prove these rules and demonstrate new variants within mentioned concepts, Drosophila melanogaster is a kind of queen that is used in thousands of experiments for almost exactly 100 years (CARPENTER 1905, with which numerous discoveries and principles were determined that later turned out to be applicable to all other organisms. It is both, in nature and in laboratory, that Drosophilids were used to demonstrate the basic principles of population-genetic variation that was later applied to other species of animals. In ecological-genetic variation their richness in different environments could be used as an exact indicator of the status of a determined habitat, and its population-genetic structure may definitely point out to a possibility that specific resources of the environment start to be in danger to deteriorate, or to disappear in the near future. This paper shows clear-cut differences among environmental habitats, when populations of Drosophilidae are quantitatively observed in different wild, semi-domestic and domestic environments, demonstrating a highly expressed mutual dependence of these two parameters. A crucial approach is how to estimate the causes that determine the limits of biological, i.e. of individual and population-genetic variation. The realized, i.e. adaptive variation, is much lesser than a total possible variation of a polygenic trait, and in this study, using a moderately

  11. An Adaptive Approach to Variational Nodal Diffusion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Lewis, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    An adaptive grid method is presented for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in two dimensions. The primal hybrid finite elements employed in the variational nodal method are used to reduce the diffusion equation to a coupled set of elemental response matrices. An a posteriori error estimator is developed to indicate the magnitude of local errors stemming from the low-order elemental interface approximations. An iterative procedure is implemented in which p refinement is applied locally by increasing the polynomial order of the interface approximations. The automated algorithm utilizes the a posteriori estimator to achieve local error reductions until an acceptable level of accuracy is reached throughout the problem domain. Application to a series of X-Y benchmark problems indicates the reduction of computational effort achievable by replacing uniform with adaptive refinement of the spatial approximations

  12. The genomic signature of parallel adaptation from shared genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesti, Marius; Gavrilets, Sergey; Hendry, Andrew P; Salzburger, Walter; Berner, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Parallel adaptation is common and may often occur from shared genetic variation, but the genomic consequences of this process remain poorly understood. We first use individual-based simulations to demonstrate that comparisons between populations adapted in parallel to similar environments from shared variation reveal a characteristic genomic signature around a selected locus: a low-divergence valley centred at the locus and flanked by twin peaks of high divergence. This signature is initiated by the hitchhiking of haplotype tracts differing between derived populations in the broader neighbourhood of the selected locus (driving the high-divergence twin peaks) and shared haplotype tracts in the tight neighbourhood of the locus (driving the low-divergence valley). This initial hitchhiking signature is reinforced over time because the selected locus acts as a barrier to gene flow from the source to the derived populations, thus promoting divergence by drift in its close neighbourhood. We next empirically confirm the peak-valley-peak signature by combining targeted and RAD sequence data at three candidate adaptation genes in multiple marine (source) and freshwater (derived) populations of threespine stickleback. Finally, we use a genome-wide screen for the peak-valley-peak signature to discover additional genome regions involved in parallel marine-freshwater divergence. Our findings offer a new explanation for heterogeneous genomic divergence and thus challenge the standard view that peaks in population divergence harbour divergently selected loci and that low-divergence regions result from balancing selection or localized introgression. We anticipate that genome scans for peak-valley-peak divergence signatures will promote the discovery of adaptation genes in other organisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adaptive Randomized Ensemble Tracking Using Appearance Variation and Occlusion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking-by-detection methods have been widely studied with promising results. These methods usually train a classifier or a pool of classifiers in an online manner and use previous tracking results to generate a new training set for object appearance and update the current model to predict the object location in subsequent frames. However, the updating process may easily cause drifting in terms of appearance variation and occlusion. The previous methods for updating the classifier(s decided whether or not to update the classifier(s by a fixed learning rate parameter in all scenarios. The learning rate parameter has a great influence on the tracker’s performance and should be dynamically adjusted according to the change of scene during tracking. In this paper, we propose a novel method to model the time-varying appearance of an object that takes appearance variation and occlusion of local patches into consideration. In contrast with the existing methods, the learning rate for updating classifier ensembles adaptively is adjusted by estimating the appearance variation with sparse optical flow and the possible occlusion of the object between consecutive frames. Experiments and evaluations on some challenging video sequences have been done and the results demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust against appearance variation and occlusion than those state-of-the-art approaches.

  14. Biological clockwork underlying adaptive rhythmic movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya; Chen, Jun; Friesen, W. Otto

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complexity of neuronal circuits, precise mathematical descriptions of brain functions remain an elusive ambition. A more modest focus of many neuroscientists, central pattern generators, are more tractable neuronal circuits specialized to generate rhythmic movements, including locomotion. The relative simplicity and well-defined motor functions of these circuits provide an opportunity for uncovering fundamental principles of neuronal information processing. Here we present the culmination of mathematical analysis that captures the adaptive behaviors emerging from interactions between a central pattern generator, the body, and the physical environment during locomotion. The biologically realistic model describes the undulatory motions of swimming leeches with quantitative accuracy and, without further parameter tuning, predicts the sweeping changes in oscillation patterns of leeches undulating in air or swimming in high-viscosity fluid. The study demonstrates that central pattern generators are capable of adapting oscillations to the environment through sensory feedback, but without guidance from the brain. PMID:24395788

  15. Widespread parallel population adaptation to climate variation across a radiation: implications for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roger S; Barlow, Axel; Malhotra, Anita; Surget-Groba, Yann

    2015-03-01

    Global warming will impact species in a number of ways, and it is important to know the extent to which natural populations can adapt to anthropogenic climate change by natural selection. Parallel microevolution within separate species can demonstrate natural selection, but several studies of homoplasy have not yet revealed examples of widespread parallel evolution in a generic radiation. Taking into account primary phylogeographic divisions, we investigate numerous quantitative traits (size, shape, scalation, colour pattern and hue) in anole radiations from the mountainous Lesser Antillean islands. Adaptation to climatic differences can lead to very pronounced differences between spatially close populations with all studied traits showing some evidence of parallel evolution. Traits from shape, scalation, pattern and hue (particularly the latter) show widespread evolutionary parallels within these species in response to altitudinal climate variation greater than extreme anthropogenic climate change predicted for 2080. This gives strong evidence of the ability to adapt to climate variation by natural selection throughout this radiation. As anoles can evolve very rapidly, it suggests anthropogenic climate change is likely to be less of a conservation threat than other factors, such as habitat loss and invasive species, in this, Lesser Antillean, biodiversity hot spot. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Herbert; Hegele, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioral adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioral adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  17. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  18. Adaptive neural network motion control for aircraft under uncertainty conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A. V.; Tiaglik, M. S.; Tiumentsev, Yu V.

    2018-02-01

    We need to provide motion control of modern and advanced aircraft under diverse uncertainty conditions. This problem can be solved by using adaptive control laws. We carry out an analysis of the capabilities of these laws for such adaptive systems as MRAC (Model Reference Adaptive Control) and MPC (Model Predictive Control). In the case of a nonlinear control object, the most efficient solution to the adaptive control problem is the use of neural network technologies. These technologies are suitable for the development of both a control object model and a control law for the object. The approximate nature of the ANN model was taken into account by introducing additional compensating feedback into the control system. The capabilities of adaptive control laws under uncertainty in the source data are considered. We also conduct simulations to assess the contribution of adaptivity to the behavior of the system.

  19. Catch Me if You Can: Adaptation from Standing Genetic Variation to a Moving Phenotypic Optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Sebastian; Hermisson, Joachim; Kopp, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Adaptation lies at the heart of Darwinian evolution. Accordingly, numerous studies have tried to provide a formal framework for the description of the adaptive process. Of these, two complementary modeling approaches have emerged: While so-called adaptive-walk models consider adaptation from the successive fixation of de novo mutations only, quantitative genetic models assume that adaptation proceeds exclusively from preexisting standing genetic variation. The latter approach, however, has focused on short-term evolution of population means and variances rather than on the statistical properties of adaptive substitutions. Our aim is to combine these two approaches by describing the ecological and genetic factors that determine the genetic basis of adaptation from standing genetic variation in terms of the effect-size distribution of individual alleles. Specifically, we consider the evolution of a quantitative trait to a gradually changing environment. By means of analytical approximations, we derive the distribution of adaptive substitutions from standing genetic variation, that is, the distribution of the phenotypic effects of those alleles from the standing variation that become fixed during adaptation. Our results are checked against individual-based simulations. We find that, compared to adaptation from de novo mutations, (i) adaptation from standing variation proceeds by the fixation of more alleles of small effect and (ii) populations that adapt from standing genetic variation can traverse larger distances in phenotype space and, thus, have a higher potential for adaptation if the rate of environmental change is fast rather than slow. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. A comparison of adaptive and adaptable automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of different forms of adaptive and adaptable automation was examined under low- and high-stress conditions, in the form of different levels of noise. Thirty-six participants were assigned to one of the three types of variable automation (adaptive event-based, adaptive performance-based and adaptable serving as a control condition). Participants received 3 h of training on a simulation of a highly automated process control task and were subsequently tested during a 4-h session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. The results for performance suggested no clear benefits of one automation control mode over the other two. However, it emerged that participants under adaptable automation adopted a more active system management strategy and reported higher levels of self-confidence than in the two adaptive control modes. Furthermore, the results showed higher levels of perceived workload, fatigue and anxiety for performance-based adaptive automation control than the other two modes. This study compared two forms of adaptive automation (where the automated system flexibly allocates tasks between human and machine) with adaptable automation (where the human allocates the tasks). The adaptable mode showed marginal advantages. This is of relevance, given that this automation mode may also be easier to design.

  1. Robust Hammerstein Adaptive Filtering under Maximum Correntropy Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongze Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The maximum correntropy criterion (MCC has recently been successfully applied to adaptive filtering. Adaptive algorithms under MCC show strong robustness against large outliers. In this work, we apply the MCC criterion to develop a robust Hammerstein adaptive filter. Compared with the traditional Hammerstein adaptive filters, which are usually derived based on the well-known mean square error (MSE criterion, the proposed algorithm can achieve better convergence performance especially in the presence of impulsive non-Gaussian (e.g., α-stable noises. Additionally, some theoretical results concerning the convergence behavior are also obtained. Simulation examples are presented to confirm the superior performance of the new algorithm.

  2. Catch Me if You Can: Adaptation from Standing Genetic Variation to a Moving Phenotypic Optimum

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszewski, Sebastian; Hermisson, Joachim; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation lies at the heart of Darwinian evolution. Accordingly, numerous studies have tried to provide a formal framework for the description of the adaptive process. Of these, two complementary modeling approaches have emerged: While so-called adaptive-walk models consider adaptation from the successive fixation of de novo mutations only, quantitative genetic models assume that adaptation proceeds exclusively from preexisting standing genetic variation. The latter approach, however, has fo...

  3. A variational analysis for large deflection of skew plates under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, the static behaviour of thin isotropic skew plates under uniformly distributed load is analyzed with the geometric nonlinearity of the model properly handled. A variational method based on total potential energy has been implemented through assumed displacement field. The computational work has ...

  4. Single Image Super-Resolution via Adaptive High-Dimensional Non-Local Total Variation and Adaptive Geometric Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao; He, Xiaohai; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2017-01-01

    Single image super-resolution (SR) is very important in many computer vision systems. However, as a highly ill-posed problem, its performance mainly relies on the prior knowledge. Among these priors, the non-local total variation (NLTV) prior is very popular and has been thoroughly studied in recent years. Nevertheless, technical challenges remain. Because NLTV only exploits a fixed non-shifted target patch in the patch search process, a lack of similar patches is inevitable in some cases. Thus, the non-local similarity cannot be fully characterized, and the effectiveness of NLTV cannot be ensured. Based on the motivation that more accurate non-local similar patches can be found by using shifted target patches, a novel multishifted similar-patch search (MSPS) strategy is proposed. With this strategy, NLTV is extended as a newly proposed super-high-dimensional NLTV (SHNLTV) prior to fully exploit the underlying non-local similarity. However, as SHNLTV is very high-dimensional, applying it directly to SR is very difficult. To solve this problem, a novel statistics-based dimension reduction strategy is proposed and then applied to SHNLTV. Thus, SHNLTV becomes a more computationally effective prior that we call adaptive high-dimensional non-local total variation (AHNLTV). In AHNLTV, a novel joint weight strategy that fully exploits the potential of the MSPS-based non-local similarity is proposed. To further boost the performance of AHNLTV, the adaptive geometric duality (AGD) prior is also incorporated. Finally, an efficient split Bregman iteration-based algorithm is developed to solve the AHNLTV-AGD-driven minimization problem. Extensive experiments validate the proposed method achieves better results than many state-of-the-art SR methods in terms of both objective and subjective qualities.

  5. Genetic Adaptation to Growth Under Laboratory Conditions in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Knöppel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evolution under controlled laboratory conditions is becoming increasingly important to address various evolutionary questions, including, for example, the dynamics and mechanisms of genetic adaptation to different growth and stress conditions. In such experiments, mutations typically appear that increase the fitness under the conditions tested (medium adaptation, but that are not necessarily of interest for the specific research question. Here, we have identified mutations that appeared during serial passage of E. coli and S. enterica in four different and commonly used laboratory media and measured the relative competitive fitness and maximum growth rate of 111 genetically re-constituted strains, carrying different single and multiple mutations. Little overlap was found between the mutations that were selected in the two species and the different media, implying that adaptation occurs via different genetic pathways. Furthermore, we show that commonly occurring adaptive mutations can generate undesired genetic variation in a population and reduce the accuracy of competition experiments. However, by introducing media adaptation mutations with large effects into the parental strain that was used for the evolution experiment, the variation (standard deviation was decreased 10-fold, and it was possible to measure fitness differences between two competitors as small as |s| < 0.001.

  6. Adaptation prevents the extinction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under toxic beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Baselga-Cervera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population’s adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics—a fluctuation analysis—and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10−6 and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER. Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be

  7. Adaptation services of floodplains and wetlands under transformational climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew; Lavorel, Sandra; Wise, Russell M; Dunlop, Michael; Overton, Ian C; Williams, Kristen J

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly used services where ecosystems persist or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are important adaptation services because they support future options. The adaptation services approach can be applied to decisions on trade-offs between currently valued services and benefits from maintaining future options. For example, ecosystem functions and services of floodplains depend on river flows. In those regions of the world where climate change projections are for hotter, drier conditions, floods will be less frequent and floodplains will either persist, though with modified structure and function, or transform to terrestrial (flood-independent) ecosystems. Many currently valued ecosystem services will reduce in supply or become unavailable, but new options are provided by adaptation services. We present a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, for operationalizing the adaptation services concept for floodplains and wetlands. We found large changes in flow and flood regimes are likely under a scenario of +1.6°C by 2030, even with additional water restored to rivers under the proposed Murray-Darling Basin Plan. We predict major changes to floodplain ecosystems, including contraction of riparian forests and woodlands and expansion of terrestrial, drought-tolerant vegetation communities. Examples of adaptation services under this scenario include substitution of irrigated agriculture with dryland cropping and floodplain grazing; mitigation of damage from rarer, extreme floods; and increased tourism, recreational, and cultural values derived from fewer, smaller wetlands that can be maintained with environmental flows. Management for adaptation services will require decisions on where intervention can

  8. Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Jason R.; Imhoff, Vance E.; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Pote, Ben L.; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E.; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

  9. Adaptive genetic potential of coniferous forest tree species under climate change: implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Georgeta; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Teodosiu, Maria; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Daia, Mihai; Mirancea, Ionel; Ivanov, Paula; Alin, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Mountain ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change. The real potential for adaptation depends upon the existence of a wide genetic diversity in trees populations, upon the adaptive genetic variation, respectively. Genetic diversity offers the guarantee that forest species can survive, adapt and evolve under the influence of changing environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic diversity and adaptive genetic potential of two local species - Norway spruce and European silver fir - in the context of regional climate change. Based on data from a long-term provenance experiments network and climate variables spanning over more than 50 years, we have investigated the impact of climatic factors on growth performance and adaptation of tree species. Our results indicate that climatic and geographic factors significantly affect forest site productivity. Mean annual temperature and annual precipitation amount were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables. Combining the additive genetic model with the analysis of nuclear markers we obtained different images of the genetic structure of tree populations. As genetic indicators we used: gene frequencies, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, genetic variance, plasticity. Spatial genetic analyses have allowed identifying the genetic centers holding high genetic diversity which will be valuable sources of gene able to buffer the negative effects of future climate change. Correlations between the marginal populations and in the optimal vegetation, between the level of genetic diversity and ecosystem stability, will allow the assessment of future risks arising from current genetic structure. Therefore, the strategies for sustainable forest management have to rely on the adaptive genetic variation and local adaptation of the valuable genetic resources. This work was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM (Evaluating the adaptive potential of the main

  10. Taxonomic, spatial and adaptive genetic variation of Beta section Beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrello, Marco; Henry, Karine; Devaux, Pierre; Desprez, Bruno; Manel, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    The genetic variation of Beta section Beta is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters. There are significant associations between molecular markers and environmental variables. We investigated the genetic diversity of Beta section Beta, which includes the wild and cultivated relatives of the sugar beet. The taxa included in the study were: Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, B. vulgaris subsp. adanensis, B. macrocarpa, B. patula and B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (garden beet, leaf beet and swiss chards). We collected 1264 accessions originating from the entire distribution area of these taxa and genotyped them for 4436 DArT markers (DArTs). We showed that the genetic variation of these accessions is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters: (1) samples of Beta macrocarpa, (2) samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, (3) Mediterranean and Asian samples and (4) Atlantic and Northern European samples. These last two clusters were mainly composed of samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. We investigated in deeper detail the genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima, which constituted the majority (80%) of the wild samples. This subspecies exhibited a clinal genetic variation from South-East to North-West. We detected some markers significantly associated to environmental variables in B. vulgaris subsp. maritima. These associations are interpreted as results of natural selection. The variable most often involved in the associations was annual mean temperature. Therefore, these markers can be useful for the development of frost-tolerant winter beets and drought-tolerant rain-fed beets.

  11. Adaptive scheduling with postexamining user selection under nonidentical fading

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-11-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive scheduling algorithm for multiuser environments with statistically independent but nonidentically distributed (i.n.d.) channel conditions. The algorithm aims to reduce feedback load by sequentially and arbitrarily examining the user channels. It also provides improved performance by realizing postexamining best user selection. The first part of the paper presents new formulations for the statistics of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the scheduled user under i.n.d. channel conditions. The second part capitalizes on the findings in the first part and presents various performance and processing complexity measures for adaptive discrete-time transmission. The results are then extended to investigate the effect of outdated channel estimates on the statistics of the scheduled user SNR, as well as some performance measures. Numerical results are provided to clarify the usefulness of the scheduling algorithm under perfect or outdated channel estimates. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  12. S3-5: Adaptive Coding of the Input: Functional Benefits from Adaptation to Motion, Tilt, and Brightness Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arni Kristjansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that adaptation effects, some resulting from negative aftereffects from viewing of a stimulus tilted in a certain way or a stimulus moving in a particular direction, reflect that the visual system adjusts its responses to the statistics of the input at any given time. I will review results from my laboratory on such effects, which show that discrimination around the level of an adapting stimulus (e.g., a particular motion direction, a certain tilt, or the midpoint of brightness variation improves with prolonged adaptation to such a stimulus. So, for example, orientation discrimination thresholds around the adapted orientation decrease with increased viewing of a Gabor varying in phase over time. Similar improvements of discrimination of brightness changes are reported for a stimulus varying sinusoidally in luminance over time and for adaptation to motion. The results show how adaptation can lead to better discrimination around the level of the adapting stimulus itself, and that discrimination performance improves steadily with increased adaptation. The results show how the visual system adjusts its response characteristics to the properties of the visual input at a given time.

  13. Parameter choice in Banach space regularization under variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Bernd; Mathé, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The authors study parameter choice strategies for the Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems in Banach spaces. The effectiveness of any parameter choice for obtaining convergence rates depends on the interplay of the solution smoothness and the nonlinearity structure, and it can be expressed concisely in terms of variational inequalities. Such inequalities are link conditions between the penalty term, the norm misfit and the corresponding error measure. The parameter choices under consideration include an a priori choice, the discrepancy principle as well as the Lepskii principle. For the convenience of the reader, the authors review in an appendix a few instances where the validity of a variational inequality can be established. (paper)

  14. Digest: Plants adapt under attack: genotypic selection and phenotypic plasticity under herbivore pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nichola J

    2018-03-31

    Plant species adapt to changing environmental conditions through phenotypic plasticity and natural selection. Agrawal et al. (2018) found that dandelions responded to the presence of insect pests by producing higher levels of defensive compounds. This defensive response resulted both from phenotypic plasticity, with individual plants' defenses triggered by insect attack, and from evolution by natural selection acting on genetic variation in the plant population. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Thermal adaptation and clinal mitochondrial DNA variation of European anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gonçalo; Lima, Fernando P; Martel, Paulo; Castilho, Rita

    2014-10-07

    Natural populations of widely distributed organisms often exhibit genetic clinal variation over their geographical ranges. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, illustrates this by displaying a two-clade mitochondrial structure clinally arranged along the eastern Atlantic. One clade has low frequencies at higher latitudes, whereas the other has an anti-tropical distribution, with frequencies decreasing towards the tropics. The distribution pattern of these clades has been explained as a consequence of secondary contact after an ancient geographical isolation. However, it is not unlikely that selection acts on mitochondria whose genes are involved in relevant oxidative phosphorylation processes. In this study, we performed selection tests on a fragment of 1044 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using 455 individuals from 18 locations. We also tested correlations of six environmental features: temperature, salinity, apparent oxygen utilization and nutrient concentrations of phosphate, nitrate and silicate, on a compilation of mitochondrial clade frequencies from 66 sampling sites comprising 2776 specimens from previously published studies. Positive selection in a single codon was detected predominantly (99%) in the anti-tropical clade and temperature was the most relevant environmental predictor, contributing with 59% of the variance in the geographical distribution of clade frequencies. These findings strongly suggest that temperature is shaping the contemporary distribution of mitochondrial DNA clade frequencies in the European anchovy. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution using adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Changfei; Zeng, Dong; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease by assessing the myocardial perfusion hemodynamic maps (MPHM). Meanwhile, the repeated scanning of the same region results in a relatively large radiation dose to patients potentially. In this work, we present a robust MPCT deconvolution algorithm with adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization to estimate residue function accurately under the low-dose context, which is termed `MPD-AwTTV'. More specifically, the AwTTV regularization takes into account the anisotropic edge property of the MPCT images compared with the conventional total variation (TV) regularization, which can mitigate the drawbacks of TV regularization. Subsequently, an effective iterative algorithm was adopted to minimize the associative objective function. Experimental results on a modified XCAT phantom demonstrated that the present MPD-AwTTV algorithm outperforms and is superior to other existing deconvolution algorithms in terms of noise-induced artifacts suppression, edge details preservation and accurate MPHM estimation.

  17. Content-Aware Video Adaptation under Low-Bitrate Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Ming-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless network and the improvement of mobile device capability, video streaming is more and more widespread in such an environment. Under the condition of limited resource and inherent constraints, appropriate video adaptations have become one of the most important and challenging issues in wireless multimedia applications. In this paper, we propose a novel content-aware video adaptation in order to effectively utilize resource and improve visual perceptual quality. First, the attention model is derived from analyzing the characteristics of brightness, location, motion vector, and energy features in compressed domain to reduce computation complexity. Then, through the integration of attention model, capability of client device and correlational statistic model, attractive regions of video scenes are derived. The information object- (IOB- weighted rate distortion model is used for adjusting the bit allocation. Finally, the video adaptation scheme dynamically adjusts video bitstream in frame level and object level. Experimental results validate that the proposed scheme achieves better visual quality effectively and efficiently.

  18. Adapt or Perish: A Review of Planning Approaches for Adaptation under Deep Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Kwakkel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in long-term plans that can adapt to changing situations under conditions of deep uncertainty. We argue that a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social objectives, but should be robust and able to be adapted over time to (unforeseen future conditions. Large numbers of papers dealing with robustness and adaptive plans have begun to appear, but the literature is fragmented. The papers appear in disparate journals, and deal with a wide variety of policy domains. This paper (1 describes and compares a family of related conceptual approaches to designing a sustainable plan, and (2 describes several computational tools supporting these approaches. The conceptual approaches all have their roots in an approach to long-term planning called Assumption-Based Planning. Guiding principles for the design of a sustainable adaptive plan are: explore a wide variety of relevant uncertainties, connect short-term targets to long-term goals over time, commit to short-term actions while keeping options open, and continuously monitor the world and take actions if necessary. A key computational tool across the conceptual approaches is a fast, simple (policy analysis model that is used to make large numbers of runs, in order to explore the full range of uncertainties and to identify situations in which the plan would fail.

  19. Managing coastal environments under climate change: Pathways to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; García-León, Manuel; Gracia, Vicente; Devoy, Robert; Stanica, Adrian; Gault, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the question of how to manage vulnerable coastal systems so as to make them sustainable under present and future climates. This is interpreted in terms of the coastal functionality, mainly natural services and support for socio-economic activities. From here we discuss how to adapt for long term trends and for short terms episodic events using the DPSIR framework. The analysis is presented for coastal archetypes from Spain, Ireland and Romania, sweeping a range of meteo-oceanographic and socio-economic pressures, resulting in a wide range of fluxes among them those related to sediment. The analysis emphasizes the variables that provide a higher level of robustness. That means mean sea level for physical factors and population density for human factors. For each of the studied cases high and low sustainability practices, based on stakeholders preferences, are considered and discussed. This allows proposing alternatives and carrying out an integrated assessment in the last section of the paper. This assessment permits building a sequence of interventions called adaptation pathway that enhances the natural resilience of the studied coastal systems and therefore increases their sustainability under present and future conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sound velocity variations and melting of vanadium under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Chengda; Jin Xiaogang; Zhou Xianming; Liu Jianjun; Hu Jinbiao

    2001-01-01

    The sound velocities of vanadium at shock pressure ranging from 154 to 250 GPa were determined using transparent-window optical analyser techniques. A discontinuity in sound velocities at about 225 GPa may mark the partial melting under shock compression. The comparison between the measured sound velocity data sets above ∼225 GPa and calculated values yields γ 0 ∼2.0 and the empirical expression γρ=γ 0 ρ 0 is basically tenable. Additionally, shock temperatures along the principal Hugoniot of vanadium were also determined from interfacial radiation intensities according to Grover's ideal interface model. Thus the temperature at this solid-liquid phase transition was constrained to be round about 7800(±800) K on the basis of the measured Hugoniot temperatures, melting temperatures, and high-pressure sound velocity variations with pressure. (author)

  1. Adaptive Second-Order Total Variation: An Approach Aware of Slope Discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Lenzen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Total variation (TV) regularization, originally introduced by Rudin, Osher and Fatemi in the context of image denoising, has become widely used in the field of inverse problems. Two major directions of modifications of the original approach were proposed later on. The first concerns adaptive variants of TV regularization, the second focuses on higher-order TV models. In the present paper, we combine the ideas of both directions by proposing adaptive second-order TV models, including one anisotropic model. Experiments demonstrate that introducing adaptivity results in an improvement of the reconstruction error. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Population size, habitat fragmentation, and the nature of adaptive variation in a stream fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Dylan J; Debes, Paul V; Bernatchez, Louis; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-07

    Whether and how habitat fragmentation and population size jointly affect adaptive genetic variation and adaptive population differentiation are largely unexplored. Owing to pronounced genetic drift, small, fragmented populations are thought to exhibit reduced adaptive genetic variation relative to large populations. Yet fragmentation is known to increase variability within and among habitats as population size decreases. Such variability might instead favour the maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms and/or generate more variability in adaptive differentiation at smaller population size. We investigated these alternative hypotheses by analysing coding-gene, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with different biological functions in fragmented brook trout populations of variable sizes. Putative adaptive differentiation was greater between small and large populations or among small populations than among large populations. These trends were stronger for genetic population size measures than demographic ones and were present despite pronounced drift in small populations. Our results suggest that fragmentation affects natural selection and that the changes elicited in the adaptive genetic composition and differentiation of fragmented populations vary with population size. By generating more variable evolutionary responses, the alteration of selective pressures during habitat fragmentation may affect future population persistence independently of, and perhaps long before, the effects of demographic and genetic stochasticity are manifest. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Stormwater management: adaptation and planning under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailhot, A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Extreme rainfall events are expected to increase in intensity and frequency in a future climate. Such a change will have an impact on the level of service provided by stormwater infrastructures since the current capacity is based on statistical analyses of past events, assuming that past conditions are representative of future climate conditions. Therefore, an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events will result in increasing runoff volumes and peak discharges that will more frequently exceed the capacity of current systems. For that reason, it is important to look for adaptation measures and to review design criteria in order to maintain an acceptable level of service in the long term. One important challenge related to stormwater management and climate change (CC) is related to the time scale of both the expected lifespan of some system components (that can last up to 100 years) and the horizon of the actual CC projection (50 to 100 years). Pipes currently replaced or installed may consequently experience very different climatic conditions during their lifetime and a general degradation of the level of service may be expected according to the actual CC projections. Among others, this means that the design criteria currently used must be reviewed. This paper intends to review and describe the main issues related to adaptation and planning of stormwater management infrastructures under climate change. More precisely, the following topics will be presented and discussed: 1) what are the available projections for intense rainfall events and what are the main uncertainties related to these projections? (how reliable are they?); 2) what will be the impacts of CC on stormwater management according to available projections? 3) how do we revise design criteria in a changing climate and define the level of service in a context where the return period concept is no longer valid? 4) what kind of adaptation measures can be put forward

  4. High natural gene expression variation in the reef-building coral Acropora millepora: potential for acclimative and adaptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Bellantuono, Anthony J; Ridgway, Tyrone; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2013-04-08

    Ecosystems worldwide are suffering the consequences of anthropogenic impact. The diverse ecosystem of coral reefs, for example, are globally threatened by increases in sea surface temperatures due to global warming. Studies to date have focused on determining genetic diversity, the sequence variability of genes in a species, as a proxy to estimate and predict the potential adaptive response of coral populations to environmental changes linked to climate changes. However, the examination of natural gene expression variation has received less attention. This variation has been implicated as an important factor in evolutionary processes, upon which natural selection can act. We acclimatized coral nubbins from six colonies of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora to a common garden in Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, GBR) for a period of four weeks to remove any site-specific environmental effects on the physiology of the coral nubbins. By using a cDNA microarray platform, we detected a high level of gene expression variation, with 17% (488) of the unigenes differentially expressed across coral nubbins of the six colonies (jsFDR-corrected, p < 0.01). Among the main categories of biological processes found differentially expressed were transport, translation, response to stimulus, oxidation-reduction processes, and apoptosis. We found that the transcriptional profiles did not correspond to the genotype of the colony characterized using either an intron of the carbonic anhydrase gene or microsatellite loci markers. Our results provide evidence of the high inter-colony variation in A. millepora at the transcriptomic level grown under a common garden and without a correspondence with genotypic identity. This finding brings to our attention the importance of taking into account natural variation between reef corals when assessing experimental gene expression differences. The high transcriptional variation detected in this study is interpreted and discussed within the

  5. Parallel Evolution of Chromatin Structure Underlying Metabolic Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Guo, Xiaoxian; Cai, Pengli; Cheng, Xiaozhi; Piškur, Jure; Ma, Yanhe; Jiang, Huifeng; Gu, Zhenglong

    2017-11-01

    Parallel evolution occurs when a similar trait emerges in independent evolutionary lineages. Although changes in protein coding and gene transcription have been investigated as underlying mechanisms for parallel evolution, parallel changes in chromatin structure have never been reported. Here, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a distantly related yeast species, Dekkera bruxellensis, are investigated because both species have independently evolved the capacity of aerobic fermentation. By profiling and comparing genome sequences, transcriptomic landscapes, and chromatin structures, we revealed that parallel changes in nucleosome occupancy in the promoter regions of mitochondria-localized genes led to concerted suppression of mitochondrial functions by glucose, which can explain the metabolic convergence in these two independent yeast species. Further investigation indicated that similar mutational processes in the promoter regions of these genes in the two independent evolutionary lineages underlay the parallel changes in chromatin structure. Our results indicate that, despite several hundred million years of separation, parallel changes in chromatin structure, can be an important adaptation mechanism for different organisms. Due to the important role of chromatin structure changes in regulating gene expression and organism phenotypes, the novel mechanism revealed in this study could be a general phenomenon contributing to parallel adaptation in nature. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Repeated adaptive introgression at a gene under multiallelic balancing selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Castric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently diverged species typically have incomplete reproductive barriers, allowing introgression of genetic material from one species into the genomic background of the other. The role of natural selection in preventing or promoting introgression remains contentious. Because of genomic co-adaptation, some chromosomal fragments are expected to be selected against in the new background and resist introgression. In contrast, natural selection should favor introgression for alleles at genes evolving under multi-allelic balancing selection, such as the MHC in vertebrates, disease resistance, or self-incompatibility genes in plants. Here, we test the prediction that negative, frequency-dependent selection on alleles at the multi-allelic gene controlling pistil self-incompatibility specificity in two closely related species, Arabidopsis halleri and A. lyrata, caused introgression at this locus at a higher rate than the genomic background. Polymorphism at this gene is largely shared, and we have identified 18 pairs of S-alleles that are only slightly divergent between the two species. For these pairs of S-alleles, divergence at four-fold degenerate sites (K = 0.0193 is about four times lower than the genomic background (K = 0.0743. We demonstrate that this difference cannot be explained by differences in effective population size between the two types of loci. Rather, our data are most consistent with a five-fold increase of introgression rates for S-alleles as compared to the genomic background, making this study the first documented example of adaptive introgression facilitated by balancing selection. We suggest that this process plays an important role in the maintenance of high allelic diversity and divergence at the S-locus in flowering plant families. Because genes under balancing selection are expected to be among the last to stop introgressing, their comparison in closely related species provides a lower-bound estimate of the time since the

  7. Phylogenomics Reveals Three Sources of Adaptive Variation during a Rapid Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Pease

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately 2.5 million years ago and find evidence for at least three sources of adaptive genetic variation that fuel diversification. First, we detect introgression both historically between early-branching lineages and recently between individual populations, at specific loci whose functions indicate likely adaptive benefits. Second, we find evidence of lineage-specific de novo evolution for many genes, including loci involved in the production of red fruit color. Finally, using a "PhyloGWAS" approach, we detect environment-specific sorting of ancestral variation among populations that come from different species but share common environmental conditions. Estimated across the whole clade, small but substantial and approximately equal fractions of the euchromatic portion of the genome are inferred to contribute to each of these three sources of adaptive genetic variation. These results indicate that multiple genetic sources can promote rapid diversification and speciation in response to new ecological opportunity, in agreement with our emerging phylogenomic understanding of the complexity of both ancient and recent species radiations.

  8. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Spatiotemporal variation in local adaptation of a specialist insect herbivore to its long-lived host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalske, Aino; Leimu, Roosa; Scheepens, J F; Mutikainen, Pia

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation of interacting species to one another indicates geographically variable reciprocal selection. This process of adaptation is central in the organization and maintenance of genetic variation across populations. Given that the strength of selection and responses to it often vary in time and space, the strength of local adaptation should in theory vary between generations and among populations. However, such spatiotemporal variation has rarely been explicitly demonstrated in nature and local adaptation is commonly considered to be relatively static. We report persistent local adaptation of the short-lived herbivore Abrostola asclepiadis to its long-lived host plant Vincetoxicum hirundinaria over three successive generations in two studied populations and considerable temporal variation in local adaptation in six populations supporting the geographic mosaic theory. The observed variation in local adaptation among populations was best explained by geographic distance and population isolation, suggesting that gene flow reduces local adaptation. Changes in herbivore population size did not conclusively explain temporal variation in local adaptation. Our results also imply that short-term studies are likely to capture only a part of the existing variation in local adaptation. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Catenary Variation of Soil Properties under Oil Palm Plantation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic position and ground slope are the main factors accounting for variations in soil properties along the catena. There is the need to manage parts of oil palm plantation on different topographic positions differently, taking cognizance of variations in soil properties along the catena, in order to ensure long term ...

  11. Variations in morphological and life-history traits under extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C than at 32°C in D. ananassae. The genetic variations for all the quantitative and life-history traits were higher at low temperature. Variation in sexual traits was more pronounced as compared with other morphometric traits, which shows that ...

  12. Molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate sensing, signaling, and adaptation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoliang; Liao, Hong; Lucas, William J

    2014-03-01

    As an essential plant macronutrient, the low availability of phosphorus (P) in most soils imposes serious limitation on crop production. Plants have evolved complex responsive and adaptive mechanisms for acquisition, remobilization and recycling of phosphate (Pi) to maintain P homeostasis. Spatio-temporal molecular, physiological, and biochemical Pi deficiency responses developed by plants are the consequence of local and systemic sensing and signaling pathways. Pi deficiency is sensed locally by the root system where hormones serve as important signaling components in terms of developmental reprogramming, leading to changes in root system architecture. Root-to-shoot and shoot-to-root signals, delivered through the xylem and phloem, respectively, involving Pi itself, hormones, miRNAs, mRNAs, and sucrose, serve to coordinate Pi deficiency responses at the whole-plant level. A combination of chromatin remodeling, transcriptional and posttranslational events contribute to globally regulating a wide range of Pi deficiency responses. In this review, recent advances are evaluated in terms of progress toward developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular events underlying control over P homeostasis. Application of this knowledge, in terms of developing crop plants having enhanced attributes for P use efficiency, is discussed from the perspective of agricultural sustainability in the face of diminishing global P supplies. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Variational infrared image enhancement based on adaptive dual-threshold gradient field equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenda; Xu, Zhijun; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Fan; Han, Xizhen

    2014-09-01

    Infrared images are characterized by low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and fuzzy texture edges. This article introduces the variational infrared image enhancement algorithm based on gradient field equalization with adaptive dual thresholds. Firstly, we transform the image into gradient domain and get the gradient histogram. Then, we do the gradient histogram equalization. By setting adaptive dual thresholds to qualify the gradients, the image is prevented from over enhancement. The total variation (TV) model is adopted in the reconstruction of the enhanced image to suppress noise. It is shown from experimental results that the image edge details are significantly enhanced, and therefore the algorithm is qualified for enhancement of infrared images in different applications.

  14. Total variation regularization for seismic waveform inversion using an adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Peng; Liao, Wenyuan; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchuan

    2018-04-01

    Full waveform inversion is an effective tool for recovering the properties of the Earth from seismograms. However, it suffers from local minima caused mainly by the limited accuracy of the starting model and the lack of a low-frequency component in the seismic data. Because of the high velocity contrast between salt and sediment, the relation between the waveform and velocity perturbation is strongly nonlinear. Therefore, salt inversion can easily get trapped in the local minima. Since the velocity of salt is nearly constant, we can make the most of this characteristic with total variation regularization to mitigate the local minima. In this paper, we develop an adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method to implement total variation regularization by projecting the solution onto a total variation norm constrained convex set, through which the total variation norm constraint is satisfied at every model iteration. The smooth background velocities are first inverted and the perturbations are gradually obtained by successively relaxing the total variation norm constraints. Numerical experiment of the projection of the BP model onto the intersection of the total variation norm and box constraints has demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of our adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method. A workflow is designed to recover complex salt structures in the BP 2004 model and the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model, starting from a linear gradient model without using low-frequency data below 3 Hz. The salt inversion processes demonstrate that wavefield reconstruction inversion with a total variation norm and box constraints is able to overcome local minima and inverts the complex salt velocity layer by layer.

  15. Variations in morphological and life-history traits under extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    The genetic variations for all the quantitative and life-history traits were higher at ... variation in quantitative traits has important evolutionary ..... Mean ± SE and phenotypic variance (s2) of morphometric and life-history traits in D. ananassae reared at different temperatures. 18°C. 25°C. 32°C. Trait. Sex. Mean ± SE s2. Mean ± ...

  16. Empirical analysis of skin friction under variations of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Alvarez, A. R. de la; Groot Viana, M. de

    2014-01-01

    In soil geotechnical characterization, strength parameters, cohesion (c) and internal friction angle (Φ) has been traditional measured without taking into account temperature, been a very important issue in energy geostructures. The present document analyzes the variation of these parameters in soil-concrete interface at different temperatures. A traditional shear strength case with a forced plane of failure was used. Several tests were carried out to determine the variation of skin friction in granular and cohesive oils with temperature. (Author)

  17. Predictable variation of range-sizes across an extreme environmental gradient in a lizard adaptive radiation: evolutionary and ecological inferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pincheira-Donoso

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of current species geographic range-size variation reflect historical dynamics of dispersal and provide insights into future consequences under changing environments. Evidence suggests that climate warming exerts major damage on high latitude and elevation organisms, where changes are more severe and available space to disperse tracking historical niches is more limited. Species with longer generations (slower adaptive responses, such as vertebrates, and with restricted distributions (lower genetic diversity, higher inbreeding in these environments are expected to be particularly threatened by warming crises. However, a well-known macroecological generalization (Rapoport's rule predicts that species range-sizes increase with increasing latitude-elevation, thus counterbalancing the impact of climate change. Here, I investigate geographic range-size variation across an extreme environmental gradient and as a function of body size, in the prominent Liolaemus lizard adaptive radiation. Conventional and phylogenetic analyses revealed that latitudinal (but not elevational ranges significantly decrease with increasing latitude-elevation, while body size was unrelated to range-size. Evolutionarily, these results are insightful as they suggest a link between spatial environmental gradients and range-size evolution. However, ecologically, these results suggest that Liolaemus might be increasingly threatened if, as predicted by theory, ranges retract and contract continuously under persisting climate warming, potentially increasing extinction risks at high latitudes and elevations.

  18. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S J; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders

    2014-03-04

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2-4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25-123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3-9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12-71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure.

  19. Hybrid Vibration Control under Broadband Excitation and Variable Temperature Using Viscoelastic Neutralizer and Adaptive Feedforward Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. O. Marra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber, the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper.

  20. Optimal adaptation to extreme rainfalls under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    2017-04-01

    More intense and frequent rainfalls have increased the number of urban flooding events in recent years, prompting adaptation efforts. Economic optimization is considered an efficient tool to decide on the design level for adaptation. The costs associated with a flooding to the T-year level and the annual capital and operational costs of adapting to this level are described with log-linear relations. The total flooding costs are developed as the expected annual damage of flooding above the T-year level plus the annual capital and operational costs for ensuring no flooding below the T-year level. The value of the return period T that corresponds to the minimum of the sum of these costs will then be the optimal adaptation level. The change in climate, however, is expected to continue in the next century, which calls for expansion of the above model. The change can be expressed in terms of a climate factor (the ratio between the future and the current design level) which is assumed to increase in time. This implies increasing costs of flooding in the future for many places in the world. The optimal adaptation level is found for immediate as well as for delayed adaptation. In these cases the optimum is determined by considering the net present value of the incurred costs during a sufficiently long time span. Immediate as well as delayed adaptation is considered.

  1. Implementation arrangements for climate adaptation in the Netherlands: characteristics and underlying mechanisms of adaptive governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin van Buuren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change is a rapidly emerging policy domain. Over the last decade we have witnessed many attempts to enhance the climate robustness of agriculture, urban development, water systems, and nature to an increase in flood and drought risks due to a higher variability in rainfall patterns and sea level rise. In the vulnerable Dutch delta, regional authorities have developed adaptation measures that deal with flood risk, the availability of fresh water, subsidence, and salt water intrusion. In view of all the uncertainties that surround climate change, scientists emphasize that it should be possible to make changes when conditions change or insights evolve. The concept of adaptive governance has been introduced to facilitate the process of climate adaptation. Adaptive governance requires the availability of governance arrangements that facilitate adaptiveness by being flexible to enable adjustment. Although flexible arrangements for adaptation to climate change make sense from an adaptive governance perspective, from a more bureaucratic, political, and legal perspective, there might be good reasons to make arrangements as solid and robust as possible. In this article we answer the question to what extent the arrangements used to implement various adaptation measures are really adaptive and what mechanisms play a role in obstructing the accomplishment of adaptive arrangements. By analyzing and comparing nine adaptation cases, dealing with different climate issues, and the arrangements used to implement them from both a governance and a legal perspective, we are able to get more detailed insight into the main characteristics of the selected arrangements, their degree of adaptiveness, and the main hampering mechanisms for the creation or functioning of adaptive arrangements.

  2. Pan-Genome Analysis Links the Hereditary Variation of Leptospirillum ferriphilum With Its Evolutionary Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Niche adaptation has long been recognized to drive intra-species differentiation and speciation, yet knowledge about its relatedness with hereditary variation of microbial genomes is relatively limited. Using Leptospirillum ferriphilum species as a case study, we present a detailed analysis of genomic features of five recognized strains. Genome-to-genome distance calculation preliminarily determined the roles of spatial distance and environmental heterogeneity that potentially contribute to intra-species variation within L. ferriphilum species at the genome level. Mathematical models were further constructed to extrapolate the expansion of L. ferriphilum genomes (an ‘open’ pan-genome, indicating the emergence of novel genes with new sequenced genomes. The identification of diverse mobile genetic elements (MGEs (such as transposases, integrases, and phage-associated genes revealed the prevalence of horizontal gene transfer events, which is an important evolutionary mechanism that provides avenues for the recruitment of novel functionalities and further for the genetic divergence of microbial genomes. Comprehensive analysis also demonstrated that the genome reduction by gene loss in a broad sense might contribute to the observed diversification. We thus inferred a plausible explanation to address this observation: the community-dependent adaptation that potentially economizes the limiting resources of the entire community. Now that the introduction of new genes is accompanied by a parallel abandonment of some other ones, our results provide snapshots on the biological fitness cost of environmental adaptation within the L. ferriphilum genomes. In short, our genome-wide analyses bridge the relation between genetic variation of L. ferriphilum with its evolutionary adaptation.

  3. How low can you go? An adaptive energetic framework for interpreting basal metabolic rate variation in endotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; McKechnie, Andrew E; Vézina, François

    2017-12-01

    Adaptive explanations for both high and low body mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms are pervasive in evolutionary physiology, but arguments implying a direct adaptive benefit of high BMR are troublesome from an energetic standpoint. Here, we argue that conclusions about the adaptive benefit of BMR need to be interpreted, first and foremost, in terms of energetics, with particular attention to physiological traits on which natural selection is directly acting. We further argue from an energetic perspective that selection should always act to reduce BMR (i.e., maintenance costs) to the lowest level possible under prevailing environmental or ecological demands, so that high BMR per se is not directly adaptive. We emphasize the argument that high BMR arises as a correlated response to direct selection on other physiological traits associated with high ecological or environmental costs, such as daily energy expenditure (DEE) or capacities for activity or thermogenesis. High BMR thus represents elevated maintenance costs required to support energetically demanding lifestyles, including living in harsh environments. BMR is generally low under conditions of relaxed selection on energy demands for high metabolic capacities (e.g., thermoregulation, activity) or conditions promoting energy conservation. Under these conditions, we argue that selection can act directly to reduce BMR. We contend that, as a general rule, BMR should always be as low as environmental or ecological conditions permit, allowing energy to be allocated for other functions. Studies addressing relative reaction norms and response times to fluctuating environmental or ecological demands for BMR, DEE, and metabolic capacities and the fitness consequences of variation in BMR and other metabolic traits are needed to better delineate organismal metabolic responses to environmental or ecological selective forces.

  4. ADAPTIVE COUNTING RULE FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING UNDER CORRELATED ENVIRONMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the Cognitive Radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. Spectrum sensing detection performance can be greatly improved, through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme, which implements an adaptive...

  5. 3D Facial Landmarking under Expression, Pose, and Occlusion Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dibeklioğ lu; A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); L. Akarun

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomatic localization of 3D facial features is important for face recognition, tracking, modeling and expression analysis. Methods developed for 2D images were shown to have problems working across databases acquired with different illumination conditions. Expression variations, pose

  6. A simple genetic architecture underlies morphological variation in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Boyko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs exhibit tremendous phenotypic diversity, including a greater variation in body size than any other terrestrial mammal. Here, we generate a high density map of canine genetic variation by genotyping 915 dogs from 80 domestic dog breeds, 83 wild canids, and 10 outbred African shelter dogs across 60,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Coupling this genomic resource with external measurements from breed standards and individuals as well as skeletal measurements from museum specimens, we identify 51 regions of the dog genome associated with phenotypic variation among breeds in 57 traits. The complex traits include average breed body size and external body dimensions and cranial, dental, and long bone shape and size with and without allometric scaling. In contrast to the results from association mapping of quantitative traits in humans and domesticated plants, we find that across dog breeds, a small number of quantitative trait loci (< or = 3 explain the majority of phenotypic variation for most of the traits we studied. In addition, many genomic regions show signatures of recent selection, with most of the highly differentiated regions being associated with breed-defining traits such as body size, coat characteristics, and ear floppiness. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of mapping multiple traits in the domestic dog using a database of genotyped individuals and highlight the important role human-directed selection has played in altering the genetic architecture of key traits in this important species.

  7. The limit of irrigation adaption due to the inter-crop conflict of water use under changing climate and landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Iizumi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Kotoku, M.; Sakurai, G.; Nishimori, M.

    2017-12-01

    Replacing rainfed cropping system by irrigated one is assumed to be an effective measure for climate change adaptation in agriculture. However, in many agricultural impact assessments, future irrigation scenarios are externally given and do not consider variations in the availability of irrigation water under changing climate and land use. Therefore, we assess the potential effects of adaption measure expanding irrigated area under climate change by using a large-scale crop-river coupled model, CROVER [Okada et al. 2015, JAMES]. The CROVER model simulates the large-scale terrestrial hydrological cycle and crop growth depending on climate, soil properties, landuse, crop cultivation management, socio-economic water demand, and reservoir operation management. The bias-corrected GCMs outputs under the RCP 8.5 scenario were used. The future expansion of irrigation area was estimated by using the extrapolation method based on the historical change in irrigated and rainfed areas. As the results, the irrigation adaptation has only a limited effect on the rice production in East Asia due to the conflict of water use for irrigation with the other crops, whose farmlands require unsustainable water extraction with the excessively expanding irrigated area. In contrast, the irrigation adaptation benefits maize production in Europe due to the little conflict of water use for irrigation. Our findings suggest the importance of simulating the river water availability and crop production in a single model for the more realistic assessment in the irrigation adaptation potential effects of crop production under changing climate and land use.

  8. Temporal variation in sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citri : Adaptation, constraint, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Laura; Langenhof, Minke B. W.; Pen, Ido; Shuker, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex ratio theory has been very successful in predicting under which circumstances parents should bias their investment towards a particular offspring sex. However, most examples of adaptive sex ratio bias come from species with well-defined mating systems and sex determining mechanisms, while in

  9. Copy Number Variation in Fungi and Its Implications for Wine Yeast Genetic Diversity and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Steenwyk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, copy number (CN variation has emerged as a new and significant source of genetic polymorphisms contributing to the phenotypic diversity of populations. CN variants are defined as genetic loci that, due to duplication and deletion, vary in their number of copies across individuals in a population. CN variants range in size from 50 base pairs to whole chromosomes, can influence gene activity, and are associated with a wide range of phenotypes in diverse organisms, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this review, we introduce CN variation, discuss the genetic and molecular mechanisms implicated in its generation, how they can contribute to genetic and phenotypic diversity in fungal populations, and consider how CN variants may influence wine yeast adaptation in fermentation-related processes. In particular, we focus on reviewing recent work investigating the contribution of changes in CN of fermentation-related genes in yeast wine strains and offer notable illustrations of such changes, including the high levels of CN variation among the CUP genes, which confer resistance to copper, a metal with fungicidal properties, and the preferential deletion and duplication of the MAL1 and MAL3 loci, respectively, which are responsible for metabolizing maltose and sucrose. Based on the available data, we propose that CN variation is a substantial dimension of yeast genetic diversity that occurs largely independent of single nucleotide polymorphisms. As such, CN variation harbors considerable potential for understanding and manipulating yeast strains in the wine fermentation environment and beyond.

  10. Dynamic formant extraction of wa language based on adaptive variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meijun; Dong, Huazhen; Pan, Wenlin

    2017-08-01

    Wa language is one of Chinese minority languages spoken by the Wa nationality who lives in Yunnan Province, China. Until now, it has not been studied from the perspective of Engineering Phonetics. In this paper, for the above reason, by the adaptive variational mode decomposition (AVMD) we have investigated the dynamic formant characteristics of Wa language. Firstly, more precisely, use the synthetic dimension to split Wa language isolated words into voiceless and voiced segment, initials and finals. Secondly, use Linear Prediction Coding to estimate the first three formant frequencies and their bandwidths roughly. Thirdly, select the appropriate equilibrium constraint parameter and the number of decomposed layers so that Adaptive Variational Mode Decomposition (AVMD) can decompose the signal into some intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) without pattern aliasing. Fourthly, use the estimated formant frequencies and bandwidths to determine precisely the required IMFs. Fifthly, use the Hilbert transform to calculate the instantaneous frequency of the above determinate IMFs. Further, we implement the weight average operation on instantaneous frequencies to obtain the first three formant frequencies for each frame. Finally, comparing the first three formant frequencies obtained by the adaptive variance modal decomposition and by Praat software respectively, so we have drawn the conclusion that the relative correct rate of the former to the latter can reach 86% averagely in terms of the selected isolated words, which has shown that our method is effective on Wa language.

  11. Continent-Wide Climatic Variation Drives Local Adaptation in North American White Clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara J; Cui Zhou, Daniel; Kuhle, Amy; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2017-12-21

    Climate-associated clines in adaptive polymorphisms are commonly cited as evidence of local adaptation within species. However, the contribution of the clinally varying trait to overall fitness is often unknown. To address this question, we examined survival, vegetative growth, and reproductive output in a central US common garden experiment using 161 genotypes of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) originating from 15 locations across North America. White clover is polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release upon tissue damage), a chemical defense against generalist herbivores, and climate-associated cyanogenesis clines have repeatedly evolved across the species range. Over a 12-month experiment, we observed striking correlations between the population of origin and plant performance in the common garden, with climatic distance from the common garden site predicting fitness more accurately than geographic distance. Assessments of herbivore leaf damage over the 2015 growing season indicated marginally lower herbivory on cyanogenic plants; however, this effect did not result in increased fitness in the common garden location. Linear mixed modeling suggested that while cyanogenesis variation had little predictive value for vegetative growth, it is as important as climatic variation for predicting reproductive output in the central United States. Together, our findings suggest that knowledge of climate similarity, as well as knowledge of locally favored adaptive traits, will help to inform transplantation strategies for restoration ecology and other conservation efforts in the face of climate change. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  13. Variation in Gas Exchange Characteristics in Clones of Eucalyptus сamaldulensis Under Varying Conditions of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha R. Warrier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available he Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India has a long term systematic tree improvement programme for Eucalyptus species aimed at enhancing productivity and breeding for trait specific clones. In the process, thirty high yielding clones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. were identified. Carbondioxide enrichment studies in special chambers help in understanding the changes at individual level, and also at physiological, biochemical and genetic level. It also provides valuable information for establishing plantations at different geographic locations. Considerable variations were observed when the selected 30 clones of E. camaldulensis were subjected to physiological studies under elevated CO2 conditions (600 mol mol-1. Ten clones exhibited superior growth coupled with favourable physiological characteristics including high photosynthetic rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency under elevated carbon di oxide levels. Clones with minimal variation in physiological characteristics under elevated levels of CO2 suggest their ability to overcome physiological stresses and adapt to varying climatic conditions.

  14. Cohesion and adaptability among individuals under treatment for infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza; Caleffi, Lorena; Baron, Ana; Mattana, Eunice; Chaves, Marcia Lorena F

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cohesion and adaptability as relationship patterns of individuals in the presence or absence of infertility. Infertile subjects (20 men and 26 women, age 29.9 yr., SD = 3.8), and 100 fertile individuals (52 men and 48 women, age 29.5 yr., SD = 3.6) were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil. Subjects were married for the first time and had no children. The pattern of relationship (cohesion and adaptability) was assessed on the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III). Subjects were also interviewed and the interviews tape-recorded and analyzed by independent and blinded senior psychiatrists. The concepts of cohesion and adaptability did not differentiate infertile couples from fertile ones. Further, the recorded interviews also resulted in heterogeneous. nonconcordant judgments. These results lead to two conclusions: that awareness of infertility is not present in the population studied or that it is present but the magnitude of its effect is quite small and that FACES III and the interview focus on adaptability and cohesion are not sensitive enough to measure the difficulties in these couples' relationships. This leads us to reflect on the type of psychiatric support available to infertile couples.

  15. Adaptive Counting Rule for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Under Correlated Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the cognitive radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. It has been shown in the literature that spectrum sensing performance can be greatly improved through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a data fusion based cooperative spectrum...... conditions. The impact of correlation on the performance of the considered counting rules is then studied. It is concluded that the proposed adaptive counting rule detection performance reaches in some cases the one of the optimum counting rule, and therefore it adapts to the correlation conditions which...

  16. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  17. Solving Quasi-Variational Inequalities for Image Restoration with Adaptive Constraint Sets

    KAUST Repository

    Lenzen, F.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We consider a class of quasi-variational inequalities (QVIs) for adaptive image restoration, where the adaptivity is described via solution-dependent constraint sets. In previous work we studied both theoretical and numerical issues. While we were able to show the existence of solutions for a relatively broad class of problems, we encountered difficulties concerning uniqueness of the solution as well as convergence of existing algorithms for solving QVIs. In particular, it seemed that with increasing image size the growing condition number of the involved differential operator posed severe problems. In the present paper we prove uniqueness for a larger class of problems, particularly independent of the image size. Moreover, we provide a numerical algorithm with proved convergence. Experimental results support our theoretical findings.

  18. Adaptation in climate change hotspots: Change under way in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-26

    Jan 26, 2015 ... The individual articles are now available online. Vulnerability to climate change in three hot spots in Africa and Asia: key issues for policy-relevant adaptation and resilience-building research (PDF, 282 KB) (Editorial). De Souza, K., Kituyi, E., Leone, M., Harvey, B., Murali, K.S., Ford, J.D. Systematic review ...

  19. Climate change impact assessment and adaptation under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Expected impacts of climate change are associated with large uncertainties, particularly at the local level. Adaptation scientists, practitioners, and decision-makers will need to find ways to cope with these uncertainties. Several approaches have been suggested as ‘uncertainty-proof’ to some

  20. Spoken language identification system adaptation in under-resourced environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech Recognition (ASR) systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. Given that few task-specific corpora exist and speech technology systems perform poorly when deployed in a new environment, we investigate the use of acoustic model adaptation...

  1. New Keynesian model dynamics under heterogeneous expectations and adaptive learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fukač, Martin

    -, č. 5 (2006), s. 1-41 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : imperfect and heterogeneous knowledge * adaptive learning * monetary policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cnb.cz/www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/cnb_wp/index.html

  2. Thermal adaptation in Drosophila serrata under conditions linked to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    longong), F (Forster) and C (Coffs Harbour), were held at. 25°C ± 0.5°C for 20 generations at a census size of 1000 flies. While laboratory adaptation is known to occur in this species, population-specific responses for stress and life-history measures appear uncommon (Hoffmann et al. 2003; M. Schiffer, unpublished data).

  3. Genetic Variation and Adaptation in Africa: Implications for Human Evolution and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Felicia; Hirbo, Jibril; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Because modern humans originated in Africa and have adapted to diverse environments, African populations have high levels of genetic and phenotypic diversity. Thus, genomic studies of diverse African ethnic groups are essential for understanding human evolutionary history and how this leads to differential disease risk in all humans. Comparative studies of genetic diversity within and between African ethnic groups creates an opportunity to reconstruct some of the earliest events in human population history and are useful for identifying patterns of genetic variation that have been influenced by recent natural selection. Here we describe what is currently known about genetic variation and evolutionary history of diverse African ethnic groups. We also describe examples of recent natural selection in African genomes and how these data are informative for understanding the frequency of many genetic traits, including those that cause disease susceptibility in African populations and populations of recent African descent. PMID:24984772

  4. Improving yield by exploiting mechanisms underlying natural variation of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tracy; Kramer, David M; Raines, Christine A

    2012-04-01

    Increasing photosynthesis in C3 species has been identified as an approach to increase the yield of crop plants. Most of our knowledge of photosynthetic performance has come from studies in which plants were grown in controlled growth conditions but plants in natural environments have to cope with unpredictable and rapidly changing conditions. Plants adapt to the light environment in which they grow and this is demonstrated by the differences in anatomy and morphology of leaves in sun and shade leaves. Superimposed on this are the dynamic responses of plants to rapid changes in the light environment that occur throughout the day. Application of next generation sequencing (NGS), QTL analysis and innovative phenomic screening can provide information to underpin approaches for breeding of higher yielding crop plants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Marginal adaptation of composite resins under two adhesive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dačić, Stefan; Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolić, Marija; Cenić, Milica; Dačić-Simonović, Dragica

    2016-11-01

    In the present research, different adhesive techniques were used to set up fillings with composite resins. After the application of etch and rinse or self etch adhesive technique, marginal adaptation of composite fillings was estimated by the length of margins without gaps, and by the microretention of resin in enamel and dentin. The study material consisted of 40 extracted teeth. Twenty Class V cavities were treated with 35% phosphorous acid and restored after rinsing by Adper Single Bond 2 and Filtek Ultimate-ASB/FU 3M ESPE composite system. The remaining 20 cavities were restored by Adper Easy One-AEO/FU 3M ESPE composite system. Marginal adaptation of composite fillings was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The etch and rinse adhesive technique showed a significantly higher percentage of margin length without gaps (in enamel: 92.5%, in dentin: 57.3%), compared with the self-etch technique with lower percentage of margin length without gaps, in enamel 70.4% (p resin tugs in interprismatic spaces of enamel, while the dentin microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers with resin tugs in dentin canals. In the second technique, resin tugs were rarely seen and a microgap was dominant along the border of restoration margins. The SEM analysis showed a better marginal adaptation of composite resin to enamel and dentin with better microretention when the etch and rinse adhesive procedure was applied. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Variations in morphological and life-history traits under extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    increases in ecologically extreme environments, thus promoting more rapid evolutionary change. An alternative hypothesis (Johnson and Frey 1967; Blum 1988) assumes that heritability decreases under stress, which may lead to deceleration of the evolutionary process. At present, it seems that neither of these hypotheses ...

  7. Variations on Much Ado About Nothing: Beatrice and Benedick in Target-Language Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Marta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drama texts are characterized by the transient nature of their stage reception and their malleability. This implies a close relationship with the context of performance while it also explains why they are frequently subject to varying degrees of adaptation. This article will study variations on Shakespeare’s comedy Much Ado About Nothing, first revising different approaches to its performance in the original language, and then analysing two adaptations which involve translation: a Spanish play, Jacinto Benavente’s Los favoritos, and a French opera, Hector Berlioz’s Béatrice et Bénédict, both inspired by the two most attractive and witty characters in the bard’s text, Beatrice and Benedick, who have been the object of a number of versions and adaptations and therefore encourage exploration in different contexts. Slightly different ways of dealing with the main elements in the play will be observed in these two target texts, for instance regarding the general tone, or issues such as the concepts of marriage and love; ultimately, these aspects also highlight the suppleness of drama texts, particularly of classic works, which tend to move easily between languages and cultures, historic periods or artistic genres.

  8. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  9. Wind power variations under humid and arid meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • It indicates the role of weather parameters’ roles in the wind energy calculation. • Meteorological variables are more significant in arid regions for wind power. • It provides opportunity to take into consideration air density variability. • Wind power is presented in terms of the wind speed, temperature and pressure. - Abstract: The classical wind power per rotor area per time is given as the half product of the air density by third power of the wind velocity. This approach adopts the standard air density as constant (1.23 g/cm 3 ), which ignores the density dependence on air temperature and pressure. Weather conditions are not taken into consideration except the variations in wind velocity. In general, increase in pressure and decrease in temperature cause increase in the wind power generation. The rate of increase in the pressure has less effect on the wind power as compared with the temperature rate. This paper provides the wind power formulation based on three meteorological variables as the wind velocity, air temperature and air pressure. Furthermore, from the meteorology point of view any change in the wind power is expressed as a function of partial changes in these meteorological variables. Additionally, weather conditions in humid and arid regions differ from each other, and it is interesting to see possible differences between the two regions. The application of the methodology is presented for two meteorology stations in Istanbul, Turkey, as representative of the humid regions and Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for arid region, both on daily record bases for 2010. It is found that consideration of air temperature and pressure in the average wind power calculation gives about 1.3% decrease in Istanbul, whereas it is about 13.7% in Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah. Hence, consideration of meteorological variables in wind power calculations becomes more significant in arid regions

  10. Pathogen richness and abundance predict patterns of adaptive major histocompatibility complex variation in insular amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Supen; Liu, Conghui; Wilson, Anthony B; Zhao, Na; Li, Xianping; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Xu; Liu, Xuan; Li, Yiming

    2017-09-01

    The identification of the factors responsible for genetic variation and differentiation at adaptive loci can provide important insights into the evolutionary process and is crucial for the effective management of threatened species. We studied the impact of environmental viral richness and abundance on functional diversity and differentiation of the MHC class Ia locus in populations of the black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), an IUCN-listed species, on 24 land-bridge islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and three nearby mainland sites. We found a high proportion of private MHC alleles in mainland and insular populations, corresponding to 32 distinct functional supertypes, and strong positive selection on MHC antigen-binding sites in all populations. Viral pathogen diversity and abundance were reduced at island sites relative to the mainland, and islands housed distinctive viral communities. Standardized MHC diversity at island sites exceeded that found at neutral microsatellites, and the representation of key functional supertypes was positively correlated with the abundance of specific viruses in the environment (Frog virus 3 and Ambystoma tigrinum virus). These results indicate that pathogen-driven diversifying selection can play an important role in maintaining functionally important MHC variation following island isolation, highlighting the importance of considering functionally important genetic variation and host-pathogen associations in conservation planning and management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmboviţa County, and Secuieni, Neamţ County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

  13. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Object tracking under nonuniform illumination with adaptive correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Kenia; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.; Kober, Vitaly

    2013-09-01

    A real-time system for illumination-invariant object tracking is proposed. The system is able to estimate at high-rate the position of a moving target in an input scene when is corrupted by the presence of a high cluttering background and nonuniform illumination. The position of the target is estimated with the help of a filter bank of space-variant correlation filters. The filters in the bank, adapt their parameters according to the local statistical parameters of the observed scene in a small region centered at coordinates of a predicted position for the target in each frame. The prediction is carried out by exploiting information of present and past frames, and by using a dynamic motion model of the target in a two-dimensional plane. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system are presented and discussed in terms of tracking accuracy, computational complexity, and tolerance to nonuniform illumination.

  15. Plant's adaptive response under UV-B-radiation influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chenko, O.A.; Grodzinskij, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction of ozone layer, owing to anthropogenic contamination of an atmosphere results in increase of intensity of UV-radiation and shift of its spectrum in the short-wave side that causes strengthening of various biological effects of irradiation. Consequences of these processes may include increase of injuring of plants and decrease of productivity of agricultural crops to increased UV levels. The important significance in the plant's adaptation to different unfavorable factors has the plant's radioadaptive answer. It has been shown that radioadaptation of plants occurred not only after irradiation with g-radiation in low doses but after UV-rays action . Reaction of radioadaptation it seems to be nonspecific phenomenon in relation to type radiations

  16. Adaptation Tipping Points of a Wetland under a Drying Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nanda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands experience considerable alteration to their hydrology, which typically contributes to a decline in their overall ecological integrity. Wetland management strategies aim to repair wetland hydrology and attenuate wetland loss that is associated with climate change. However, decision makers often lack the data needed to support complex social environmental systems models, making it difficult to assess the effectiveness of current or past practices. Adaptation Tipping Points (ATPs is a policy-oriented method that can be useful in these situations. Here, a modified ATP framework is presented to assess the suitability of ecosystem management when rigorous ecological data are lacking. We define the effectiveness of the wetland management strategy by its ability to maintain sustainable minimum water levels that are required to support ecological processes. These minimum water requirements are defined in water management and environmental policy of the wetland. Here, we trial the method on Forrestdale Lake, a wetland in a region experiencing a markedly drying climate. ATPs were defined by linking key ecological objectives identified by policy documents to threshold values for water depth. We then used long-term hydrologic data (1978–2012 to assess if and when thresholds were breached. We found that from the mid-1990s, declining wetland water depth breached ATPs for the majority of the wetland objectives. We conclude that the wetland management strategy has been ineffective from the mid-1990s, when the region’s climate dried markedly. The extent of legislation, policies, and management authorities across different scales and levels of governance need to be understood to adapt ecosystem management strategies. Empirical verification of the ATP assessment is required to validate the suitability of the method. However, in general we consider ATPs to be a useful desktop method to assess the suitability of management when rigorous ecological data

  17. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  18. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, Roberto; Rodríguez, A

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation of crops to climate change has to be addressed locally due to the variability of soil, climate and the specific socio-economic settings influencing farm management decisions. Adaptation of rainfed cropping systems in the Mediterranean is especially challenging due to the projected...... decline in precipitation in the coming decades, which will increase the risk of droughts. Methods that can help explore uncertainties in climate projections and crop modelling, such as impact response surfaces (IRSs) and ensemble modelling, can then be valuable for identifying effective adaptations. Here......, a combination of adaptations for dealing with climate change demonstrated that effective adaptation is possible at Lleida. Combinations based on a cultivar without vernalization requirements showed good and wide adaptation potential. Few combined adaptation options performed well under rainfed conditions...

  19. Intraspecific variation in body size and the rate of reproduction in female insects - adaptive allometry or biophysical constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Friberg, Magne; Karlsson, Bengt; Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl

    2012-11-01

    1. A high rate of reproduction may be costly if ecological factors limit immediate reproductive output as a fast metabolism compromises own future survival. Individuals with more reserves need more time and opportunity to realize their reproductive potential. Theory therefore predicts that the reproductive rate, defined as the investment in early reproduction in proportion to total potential, should decrease with body size within species. 2. However, metabolic constraints on body size- and temperature-dependent biological rates may impede biophysical adaptation. Furthermore, the sequential manner resources that are allocated to somatic vs. reproductive tissue during ontogeny may, when juveniles develop in unpredictable environments, further contribute to non-adaptive variation in adult reproductive rates. 3. With a model on female egg laying in insects, we demonstrate how variation in body reserves is predicted to affect reproductive rate under different ecological scenarios. Small females always have higher reproductive rates but shorter lifespans. However, incorporation of female host selectivity leads to more similar reproductive rates among female size classes, and oviposition behaviour is predicted to co-evolve with reproductive rate, resulting in small females being more selective in their choice and gaining relatively more from it. 4. We fed simulations with data on the butterfly Pararge aegeria to compare model predictions with reproductive rates of wild butterflies. However, simulated reproductive allometry was a poor predictor of that observed. Instead, reproductive rates were better explained as a product of metabolic constraints on rates of egg maturation, and an empirically derived positive allometry between reproductive potential and size. However, fitness is insensitive to moderate deviations in reproductive rate when oviposition behaviour is allowed to co-evolve in the simulations, suggesting that behavioural compensation may mitigate putative

  20. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R.; Matala, Andrew P.; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  1. Additional insights into the adaptation of cotton plants under abiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiotic stress is the primary cause of crop losses worldwide. In addition to protein coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in plant stress responses. Though miRNAs are key in regulating many aspects of plant developmental plasticity under abiotic stresses, very few information are available ...

  2. Thermal adaptation in Drosophila serrata under conditions linked to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    temperature-specific directional selection for increased viability and productivity under both temperature regimes, and reduced development time ... tested in the fluctuating environment, productivity of the 7–18°C lines selected with a cold shock was relatively lower than that of lines ..... overcome this problem. Despite this ...

  3. Contemporary temperature-driven divergence in a Nordic freshwater fish under conditions commonly thought to hinder adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen Finn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the limits of adaptation to temperature is important given the IPCC-predicted rise in global temperatures. The rate and scope of evolutionary adaptation can be limited by low genetic diversity, gene flow, and costs associated with adaptive change. Freshwater organisms are physically confined to lakes and rivers, and must therefore deal directly with climate variation and change. In this study, we take advantage of a system characterised by low genetic variation, small population size, gene flow and between-trait trade-offs to study how such conditions affect the ability of a freshwater fish to adapt to climate change. We test for genetically-based differences in developmental traits indicating local adaptation, by conducting a common-garden experiment using embryos and larvae from replicate pairs of sympatric grayling demes that spawn and develop in natural cold and warm water, respectively. These demes have common ancestors from a colonization event 22 generations ago. Consequently, we explore if diversification may occur under severely constraining conditions. Results We found evidence for divergence in ontogenetic rates. The divergence pattern followed adaptation predictions as cold-deme individuals displayed higher growth rates and yolk conversion efficiency than warm-deme individuals at the same temperature. The cold-deme embryos had a higher rate of muscle mass development. Most of the growth- and development differences occurred prior to hatch. The divergence was probably not caused by genetic drift as there was a strong degree of parallelism in the divergence pattern and because phenotypic differentiation (QST was larger than estimated genetic drift levels (microsatellite FST between demes from different temperature groups. We also document that these particular grayling populations cannot develop successfully at temperatures above 12°C, whereas other European populations can, and that increasing the

  4. The Adaptive Significance of Natural Genetic Variation in the DNA Damage Response of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetec, Nicolas; Cridland, Julie M; Zhao, Li; Begun, David J

    2016-03-01

    Despite decades of work, our understanding of the distribution of fitness effects of segregating genetic variants in natural populations remains largely incomplete. One form of selection that can maintain genetic variation is spatially varying selection, such as that leading to latitudinal clines. While the introduction of population genomic approaches to understanding spatially varying selection has generated much excitement, little successful effort has been devoted to moving beyond genome scans for selection to experimental analysis of the relevant biology and the development of experimentally motivated hypotheses regarding the agents of selection; it remains an interesting question as to whether the vast majority of population genomic work will lead to satisfying biological insights. Here, motivated by population genomic results, we investigate how spatially varying selection in the genetic model system, Drosophila melanogaster, has led to genetic differences between populations in several components of the DNA damage response. UVB incidence, which is negatively correlated with latitude, is an important agent of DNA damage. We show that sensitivity of early embryos to UVB exposure is strongly correlated with latitude such that low latitude populations show much lower sensitivity to UVB. We then show that lines with lower embryo UVB sensitivity also exhibit increased capacity for repair of damaged sperm DNA by the oocyte. A comparison of the early embryo transcriptome in high and low latitude embryos provides evidence that one mechanism of adaptive DNA repair differences between populations is the greater abundance of DNA repair transcripts in the eggs of low latitude females. Finally, we use population genomic comparisons of high and low latitude samples to reveal evidence that multiple components of the DNA damage response and both coding and non-coding variation likely contribute to adaptive differences in DNA repair between populations.

  5. Adaptive economic and ecological forest management under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest managers must deal with inherently stochastic ecological and economic processes. The future growth of trees is uncertain, and so is their value. The randomness of low-impact, high frequency or rare catastrophic shocks in forest growth has significant implications in shaping the mix of tree species and the forest landscape. In addition, the fluctuations of wood prices influence greatly forest revenues. Methods Markov decision process models (MDPs offer a rigorous and practical way of developing optimum management strategies, given these multiple sources of risk. Results Examples illustrate how such management guidelines are obtained with MDPs for combined ecological and economic objectives, including diversity of tree species and size, landscape diversity, old growth preservation, and carbon sequestration. Conclusions The findings illustrate the power of the MDP approach to deal with risk in forest resource management. They recognize that the future is best viewed in terms of probabilities. Given these probabilities, MDPs tie optimum adaptive actions strictly to the state of the forest and timber prices at decision time. The methods are theoretically rigorous, numerically efficient, and practical for field implementation.

  6. Preparedness Formation of the Future Vocational Education Teachers to Occupational Adaptation under Conditions of Globalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushentseva, Liliya

    2014-01-01

    The problem of the preparedness formation of future teachers of vocational training to the professional adaptation under conditions of globalization processes in society is considered. The analysis of scientific and educational literature devoted to the study of occupational adaptation and preparedness formation of specialists to it is carried…

  7. A high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy approach to assess adaptive variation in the chemical composition of pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Bağcıoğlu, Murat; Tafinstseva, Valeria; Kohler, Achim; Ohlson, Mikael; Fjellheim, Siri

    2017-12-01

    The two factors defining male reproductive success in plants are pollen quantity and quality, but our knowledge about the importance of pollen quality is limited due to methodological constraints. Pollen quality in terms of chemical composition may be either genetically fixed for high performance independent of environmental conditions, or it may be plastic to maximize reproductive output under different environmental conditions. In this study, we validated a new approach for studying the role of chemical composition of pollen in adaptation to local climate. The approach is based on high-throughput Fourier infrared (FTIR) characterization and biochemical interpretation of pollen chemical composition in response to environmental conditions. The study covered three grass species, Poa alpina , Anthoxanthum odoratum , and Festuca ovina . For each species, plants were grown from seeds of three populations with wide geographic and climate variation. Each individual plant was divided into four genetically identical clones which were grown in different controlled environments (high and low levels of temperature and nutrients). In total, 389 samples were measured using a high-throughput FTIR spectrometer. The biochemical fingerprints of pollen were species and population specific, and plastic in response to different environmental conditions. The response was most pronounced for temperature, influencing the levels of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in pollen of all species. Furthermore, there is considerable variation in plasticity of the chemical composition of pollen among species and populations. The use of high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy provides fast, cheap, and simple assessment of the chemical composition of pollen. In combination with controlled-condition growth experiments and multivariate analyses, FTIR spectroscopy opens up for studies of the adaptive role of pollen that until now has been difficult with available methodology. The approach can easily be

  8. GNSS/Low-Cost MEMS-INS Integration Using Variational Bayesian Adaptive Cubature Kalman Smoother and Ensemble Regularized ELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassana Maigary Georges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the inertial navigation system (INS devices used in land vehicle navigation (LVN, low-cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS inertial sensors have received more interest for bridging global navigation satellites systems (GNSS signal failures because of their price and portability. Kalman filter (KF based GNSS/INS integration has been widely used to provide a robust solution to the navigation. However, its prediction model cannot give satisfactory results in the presence of colored and variational noise. In order to achieve reliable and accurate positional solution for LVN in urban areas surrounded by skyscrapers or under dense foliage and tunnels, a novel model combining variational Bayesian adaptive Kalman smoother (VB-ACKS as an alternative of KF and ensemble regularized extreme learning machine (ERELM for bridging global positioning systems outages is proposed. The ERELM is applied to reduce the fluctuating performance of GNSS during an outage. We show that a well-organized collection of predictors using ensemble learning yields a more accurate positional result when compared with conventional artificial neural network (ANN predictors. Experimental results show that the performance of VB-ACKS is more robust compared with KF solution, and the prediction of ERELM contains the smallest error compared with other ANN solutions.

  9. Symmetry-Adapted Ro-vibrational Basis Functions for Variational Nuclear Motion Calculations: TROVE Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Ovsyannikov, Roman I

    2017-09-12

    We present a general, numerically motivated approach to the construction of symmetry-adapted basis functions for solving ro-vibrational Schrödinger equations. The approach is based on the property of the Hamiltonian operator to commute with the complete set of symmetry operators and, hence, to reflect the symmetry of the system. The symmetry-adapted ro-vibrational basis set is constructed numerically by solving a set of reduced vibrational eigenvalue problems. In order to assign the irreducible representations associated with these eigenfunctions, their symmetry properties are probed on a grid of molecular geometries with the corresponding symmetry operations. The transformation matrices are reconstructed by solving overdetermined systems of linear equations related to the transformation properties of the corresponding wave functions on the grid. Our method is implemented in the variational approach TROVE and has been successfully applied to many problems covering the most important molecular symmetry groups. Several examples are used to illustrate the procedure, which can be easily applied to different types of coordinates, basis sets, and molecular systems.

  10. Quasi optimal and adaptive sparse grids with control variates for PDEs with random diffusion coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Tamellini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-05

    In this talk we discuss possible strategies to minimize the impact of the curse of dimensionality effect when building sparse-grid approximations of a multivariate function u = u(y1, ..., yN ). More precisely, we present a knapsack approach , in which we estimate the cost and the error reduction contribution of each possible component of the sparse grid, and then we choose the components with the highest error reduction /cost ratio. The estimates of the error reduction are obtained by either a mixed a-priori / a-posteriori approach, in which we first derive a theoretical bound and then tune it with some inexpensive auxiliary computations (resulting in the so-called quasi-optimal sparse grids ), or by a fully a-posteriori approach (obtaining the so-called adaptive sparse grids ). This framework is very general and can be used to build quasi-optimal/adaptive sparse grids on bounded and unbounded domains (e.g. u depending on uniform and normal random distributions for yn), using both nested and non-nested families of univariate collocation points. We present some theoretical convergence results as well as numerical results showing the efficiency of the proposed approach for the approximation of the solution of elliptic PDEs with random diffusion coefficients. In this context, to treat the case of rough permeability fields in which a sparse grid approach may not be suitable, we propose to use the sparse grids as a control variate in a Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. 1 Catenary Variation of Soil Properties under Oil Palm Plantation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Department of Geography ... This study characterizes variations in soil properties in a catena under a 30-year oil palm (Elaeis guineesis) plantation established on ... gmelina, pines, eucalyptus, cocoa and para rubber grown in plantations in ...

  12. Sector-condition-based results for adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems under input saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of adaptive feedback controllers for two problems (namely, stabilization and synchronization) of chaotic systems with unknown parameters by considering input saturation constraints. A novel generalized sector condition is developed to deal with the saturation nonlinearities for synthesizing the nonlinear and the adaptive controllers for the stabilization and synchronization control objectives. By application of the proposed sector condition and rigorous regional stability analysis, control and adaptation laws are formulated to guarantee local stabilization of a nonlinear system under actuator saturation. Further, simple control and adaptation laws are developed to synchronize two chaotic systems under uncertain parameters and input saturation nonlinearity. Numerical simulation results for Rössler and FitzHugh–Nagumo models are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive stabilization and synchronization control methodologies

  13. Parallel and interrelated neural systems underlying adaptive navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Canfield, James G; Yeshenko, Oksana

    2005-06-01

    The ability to process in parallel multiple forms of sensory information, and link sensory-sensory associations to behavior, presumably allows for the opportunistic use of the most reliable and predictive sensory modalities in diverse behavioral contexts. Evolutionary considerations indicate that such processing may represent a fundamental operating principle underlying complex sensory associations and sensory-motor integration. Here, we suggest that animal navigation is a particularly useful model of such opportunistic use of sensory and motor information because it is possible to study directly the effects of memory on neural system functions. First, comparative evidence for parallel processing across multiple brain structures during navigation is provided from the literatures on fish and rodent navigation. Then, based on neurophysiological evidence of coordinated, multiregional processing, we provide a neurobiological explanation of learning and memory effects on neural circuitry mediating navigation.

  14. Cathode-ray-tube to reflection-print matching under mixed chromatic adaptation using RLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Roy S.; Choh, Heui-Keun

    1995-10-01

    Color-appearance models are used to relate chromatic stimuli viewed under one set of viewing and illuminating conditions to a differing set such that when each stimulus is viewed in its respective conditions, the stimuli match in color appearance. These models assume the observer has a steady-state adaptation to each condition. In practice, observers often view stimuli under mixed adaptation; this could occur when viewing CRT and reflection-print stimuli simultaneously. A visual experiment was performed to determine whether the RLAB color-appearance model could be used successfully to generate reflection prints that match the appearance of the CRT when viewed under mixed states of adaptation and in turn as stand- alone images viewed under a single state of adaptation. Sixteen observers viewed four pictorial images displayed on a D65 balanced CRT display in a room lit with cool-white fluorescent luminaries. The RLAB color-appearance model was used to calculate corresponding images where the observer's state of chromatic adaptation was assumed to be one of the following: adaptation to each device condition, a single adaptation at the midpoint of the two device conditions, adaptation to the CRT condition and a print adaptation shifted 25% toward the CRT condition, adaptation to the print condition and a CRT adaptation shifted 25% toward the print condition, and a CRT condition shifted 25% toward the print condition and a print condition shifted 25% toward the CRT condition. Each condition was compared pairwise and Thurstone's law of comparative judgments was used to calculate interval scales of quality. Observers first judged the reflection prints adjacent to the CRT display selecting the image closest in color appearance to the CRT image; they also categorized the closest image as `acceptable,' `marginally acceptable,' or `not acceptable.' The images were again scaled except the display was turned off; this determined the best stand-alone color reproduction. The

  15. Melanic variation underlies aposematic color variation in two hymenopteran mimicry systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Hines

    Full Text Available The stinging hymenopteran velvet ants (Mutillidae and bumble bees (Apidae: Bombus spp. have both undergone extensive diversification in aposematic color patterns, including yellow-red hues and contrasting dark-light body coloration, as a result of Müllerian mimicry. Understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying shifts in these mimetic colors requires characterization of their pigmentation. In this study, a combination of solubility, spectrophotometry, and melanin degradation analysis are applied to several color forms and species of these lineages to determine that orange-red colors in both lineages are comprised of primarily dopamine-derived pheomelanins. Until a few recent studies, pheomelanins were thought not to occur in insects. These results support their potential to occur across insects and particularly among the Hymenoptera. Shifts between black and orange-red colors, such as between mimetic color forms of bumble bee Bombus melanopygus, are inferred to involve modification of the ratios of dark eumelanins to red pheomelanins, thus implicating the melanin pathway in mimetic diversification. This discovery highlights the need to focus on how pheomelanins are synthesized in the insect melanin pathway and the potential for new pigments to be found even in some of our most well-known insect systems.

  16. Geographical variation in heading characters among wheat landraces, Triticum aestivum L., and its implication for their adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Yokoyama, H

    1992-07-01

    Heading time and its constituent traits, photoperiodic response, narrow-sense earliness and vernalization requirement, were surveyed for 158 wheat landraces. Wide varietal variation was observed in each character. Nearly half of the variation for each character was explained by a geographical difference in origin. Based on these data and the growing environments in each locality, we analyzed "adaptation strategy", seen as the adjustment of heading time in terms of differences in the constituent traits, both individually and combined. The difference among localities indicated that wheat landraces had been selected for early heading as an adaptation strategy to water stress and/or high temperature in early summer. This change was caused by a reduction in photoperiodic response and narrow-sense earliness. The vernalization requirement was also reduced for adaptation to relatively mild winters. Adaptation strategy deduced from the variation within each locality was also different amongst localities. In the central region of wheat evolution, where wide variations existed in both photoperiodic response and narrow-sense earliness, the late-heading trait was achieved by either one of these traits individually or both of them combined. On the contrary, in the eastern and the western regions, wide variation in heading time was achieved by the unique combination of photoperiodic response and narrowsense earliness. A sampling strategy for wheat germ plasm is also discussed.

  17. Intraspecific variation in stomatal traits, leaf traits and physiology reflects adaptation along aridity gradients in a South African shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane E; Adams, Christopher A; Holsinger, Kent E

    2016-01-01

    Trait-environment relationships are commonly interpreted as evidence for local adaptation in plants. However, even when selection analyses support this interpretation, the mechanisms underlying differential benefits are often unknown. This study addresses this gap in knowledge using the broadly distributed South African shrub Protea repens. Specifically, the study examines whether broad-scale patterns of trait variation are consistent with spatial differences in selection and ecophysiology in the wild. In a common garden study of plants sourced from 19 populations, associations were measured between five morphological traits and three axes describing source climates. Trait-trait and trait-environment associations were analysed in a multi-response model. Within two focal populations in the wild, selection and path analyses were used to test associations between traits, fecundity and physiological performance. Across 19 populations in a common garden, stomatal density increased with the source population's mean annual temperature and decreased with its average amount of rainfall in midsummer. Concordantly, selection analysis in two natural populations revealed positive selection on stomatal density at the hotter, drier site, while failing to detect selection at the cooler, moister site. Dry-site plants with high stomatal density also had higher stomatal conductances, cooler leaf temperatures and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates than those with low stomatal density, but no such relationships were present among wet-site plants. Leaf area, stomatal pore index and specific leaf area in the garden also co-varied with climate, but within-population differences were not associated with fitness in either wild population. The parallel patterns of broad-scale variation, differences in selection and differences in trait-ecophysiology relationships suggest a mechanism for adaptive differentiation in stomatal density. Densely packed stomata may improve performance by

  18. Adaptive reptile color variation and the evolution of the Mc1r gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Hoekstra, Hopi E; Nachman, Michael W

    2004-08-01

    The wealth of information on the genetics of pigmentation and the clear fitness consequences of many pigmentation phenotypes provide an opportunity to study the molecular basis of an ecologically important trait. The melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is responsible for intraspecific color variation in mammals and birds. Here, we study the molecular evolution of Mc1r and investigate its role in adaptive intraspecific color differences in reptiles. We sequenced the complete Mc1r locus in seven phylogenetically diverse squamate species with melanic or blanched forms associated with different colored substrates or thermal environments. We found that patterns of amino acid substitution across different regions of the receptor are similar to the patterns seen in mammals, suggesting comparable levels of constraint and probably a conserved function for Mc1r in mammals and reptiles. We also found high levels of silent-site heterozygosity in all species, consistent with a high mutation rate or large long-term effective population size. Mc1r polymorphisms were strongly associated with color differences in Holbrookia maculata and Aspidoscelis inornata. In A. inornata, several observations suggest that Mc1r mutations may contribute to differences in color: (1) a strong association is observed between one Mc1r amino acid substitution and dorsal color; (2) no significant population structure was detected among individuals from these populations at the mitochondrial ND4 gene; (3) the distribution of allele frequencies at Mc1r deviates from neutral expectations; and (4) patterns of linkage disequilibrium at Mc1r are consistent with recent selection. This study provides comparative data on a nuclear gene in reptiles and highlights the utility of a candidate-gene approach for understanding the evolution of genes involved in vertebrate adaptation.

  19. Potential for adaptation to climate change: family-level variation in fitness-related traits and their responses to heat waves in a snail population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Katja; Seppälä, Katri; Seppälä, Otto

    2017-06-15

    On-going global climate change poses a serious threat for natural populations unless they are able to evolutionarily adapt to changing environmental conditions (e.g. increasing average temperatures, occurrence of extreme weather events). A prerequisite for evolutionary change is within-population heritable genetic variation in traits subject to selection. In relation to climate change, mainly phenological traits as well as heat and desiccation resistance have been examined for such variation. Therefore, it is important to investigate adaptive potential under climate change conditions across a broader range of traits. This is especially true for life-history traits and defences against natural enemies (e.g. parasites) since they influence organisms' fitness both directly and through species interactions. We examined the adaptive potential of fitness-related traits and their responses to heat waves in a population of a freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We estimated family-level variation and covariation in life history (size, reproduction) and constitutive immune defence traits [haemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase (PO)-like activity, antibacterial activity of haemolymph] in snails experimentally exposed to typical (15 °C) and heat wave (25 °C) temperatures. We also assessed variation in the reaction norms of these traits between the treatments. We found that at the heat wave temperature, snails were larger and reproduced more, while their immune defence was reduced. Snails showed high family-level variation in all examined traits within both temperature treatments. The only negative genetic correlation (between reproduction and antibacterial activity) appeared at the high temperature. However, we found no family-level variation in the responses of most examined traits to the experimental heat wave (i.e. largely parallel reaction norms between the treatments). Only the reduction of PO-like activity when exposed to the high temperature showed family

  20. Adaptive under relaxation factor of MATRA code for the efficient whole core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Kim, S. J.; Seo, K. W.; Hwang, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    Such nonlinearities are handled in MATRA code using outer iteration with Picard scheme. The Picard scheme involves successive updating of the coefficient matrix based on the previously calculated values. The scheme is a simple and effective method for the nonlinear problem but the effectiveness greatly depends on the under-relaxing capability. Accuracy and speed of calculation are very sensitively dependent on the under-relaxation factor in outer-iteration updating the axial mass flow using the continuity equation. The under-relaxation factor in MATRA is generally utilized with a fixed value that is empirically determined. Adapting the under-relaxation factor to the outer iteration is expected to improve the calculation effectiveness of MATRA code rather than calculation with the fixed under-relaxation factor. The present study describes the implementation of adaptive under-relaxation within the subchannel code MATRA. Picard iterations with adaptive under-relaxation can accelerate the convergence for mass conservation in subchannel code MATRA. The most efficient approach for adaptive under relaxation appears to be very problem dependent

  1. Role of genetics in adapting forests under climate change: lessons learned from common garden experiments in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive management aiming at reducing vulnerability and enhancing the resilience of forested ecosystems is a key to preserving the potential of forests to provide multiple ecosystem services under climate change. Planting alternative or non native tree species adapted to future conditions and also utilizing the genetic variation within tree species has also been suggested as an important adaptive management strategy under climate change. Therefore, knowledge on suitable provenances/populations is a key issue. Provenance trial experiments, where several populations of a species are planted in a particular climate or throughout an appropriate climatic gradient offers a great opportunity to understand adaptive genetic variation within a tree species. These trials were primarily established, for identifying populations with desired growth and fitness characteristics. Due to the increasing interest in climate change, such trials were revisited to understand the relation between growth performance and climate and to recommend suitable populations for future conditions. Here we present the lessons learned from provenance trials of Norway spruce and Douglas -fir in central Europe. With data from provenance trials planted across a wide range of environmental conditions in central Europe we developed multivariate models, Universal Response Functions (URFs). The URFs predict growth performance as a function of climate of planting locations (i.e. environmental factors) and provenance/ population origin (i.e. genetic factors). The flexibility of the URFs as a decision making tool is remarkable. The model can be used as to identify suitable planting material for a give site, and vice versa and also as a species distribution model (SDM) with integrated genetic variation. Under current and climate change scenarios, the URFs were applied to predict populations with higher growth performance in central Europe and also as species distribution models for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga

  2. Spatiotemporal Variations of Extreme Precipitation under a Changing Climate in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingquan Lü

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the world. Monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme precipitation offers valuable information for adaptation and mitigation strategies and reservoir management schemes. This study examined variations in extreme precipitation over the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA in China to investigate the potential role of climate warming and Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR. The trends in extreme precipitation over the TGRA were investigated using the iterative-based Mann–Kendall (MK test and Sen’s slope estimator, based on weather station daily data series and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data series. The mean and density distribution of extreme precipitation indices between pre-dam and post-dam, pre-1985 and post-1985, and near and distant reservoir area were assessed by the Mann–Whitney test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The ratio of extreme precipitation to non-extreme precipitation became larger. The precipitation was characterized by increases in heavy precipitation as well as decreases in light and moderate rain. Comparing extreme precipitation indices between pre-1985 (cooling and post-1985 (warming indicated extreme precipitation has changed to become heavier. Under climate warming, the precipitation amount corresponding to more than the 95th percentile increased at the rate of 6.48%/°C. Results from comparing extreme precipitation for the pre- and post-dam, near reservoir area (NRA and away from the reservoir area (ARA imply an insignificant role of the TGR on rainfall extremes over the TGRA. Moreover, the impoundment of TGR did not exert detectable impacts on the surface relative humidity (RH and water vapor pressure (WP.

  3. Validity of tests under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization and generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun; Yu, Xinxin

    2013-12-01

    Some covariate-adaptive randomization methods have been used in clinical trials for a long time, but little theoretical work has been done about testing hypotheses under covariate-adaptive randomization until Shao et al. (2010) who provided a theory with detailed discussion for responses under linear models. In this article, we establish some asymptotic results for covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization under generalized linear models with possibly unknown link functions. We show that the simple t-test without using any covariate is conservative under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization in terms of its Type I error rate, and that a valid test using the bootstrap can be constructed. This bootstrap test, utilizing covariates in the randomization scheme, is shown to be asymptotically as efficient as Wald's test correctly using covariates in the analysis. Thus, the efficiency loss due to not using covariates in the analysis can be recovered by utilizing covariates in covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization. Our theory is illustrated with two most popular types of discrete outcomes, binary responses and event counts under the Poisson model, and exponentially distributed continuous responses. We also show that an alternative simple test without using any covariate under the Poisson model has an inflated Type I error rate under simple randomization, but is valid under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization. Effects on the validity of tests due to model misspecification is also discussed. Simulation studies about the Type I errors and powers of several tests are presented for both discrete and continuous responses. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Adaptation to Pronunciation Variations in Indonesian Spoken Query-Based Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Dessi Puji; Furui, Sadaoki

    Recognition errors of proper nouns and foreign words significantly decrease the performance of ASR-based speech applications such as voice dialing systems, speech summarization, spoken document retrieval, and spoken query-based information retrieval (IR). The reason is that proper nouns and words that come from other languages are usually the most important key words. The loss of such words due to misrecognition in turn leads to a loss of significant information from the speech source. This paper focuses on how to improve the performance of Indonesian ASR by alleviating the problem of pronunciation variation of proper nouns and foreign words (English words in particular). To improve the proper noun recognition accuracy, proper-noun specific acoustic models are created by supervised adaptation using maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR). To improve English word recognition, the pronunciation of English words contained in the lexicon is fixed by using rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed through spoken query based Indonesian IR. We used Inference Network-based (IN-based) IR and compared its results with those of the classical Vector Space Model (VSM) IR, both using a tf-idf weighting schema. Experimental results show that IN-based IR outperforms VSM IR.

  5. Adaptive variation in beach mice produced by two interacting pigmentation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Steiner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the genetic basis of ecologically important morphological variation such as the diverse color patterns of mammals. Here we identify genetic changes contributing to an adaptive difference in color pattern between two subspecies of oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus. One mainland subspecies has a cryptic dark brown dorsal coat, while a younger beach-dwelling subspecies has a lighter coat produced by natural selection for camouflage on pale coastal sand dunes. Using genome-wide linkage mapping, we identified three chromosomal regions (two of major and one of minor effect associated with differences in pigmentation traits. Two candidate genes, the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r and its antagonist, the Agouti signaling protein (Agouti, map to independent regions that together are responsible for most of the difference in pigmentation between subspecies. A derived mutation in the coding region of Mc1r, rather than change in its expression level, contributes to light pigmentation. Conversely, beach mice have a derived increase in Agouti mRNA expression but no changes in protein sequence. These two genes also interact epistatically: the phenotypic effects of Mc1r are visible only in genetic backgrounds containing the derived Agouti allele. These results demonstrate that cryptic coloration can be based largely on a few interacting genes of major effect.

  6. The method of adaptation under the parameters of the subject of the information interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инесса Анатольевна Воробьёва

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the effectiveness of settings (adaptation created software and hardware on the particular subject of the method was developed for adaptation under the parameters of the subject of information interaction in the form of a set of operations to build a network dialog procedures on the basis of accounting for entry-level qualification of the subject, assessment of the current level of skills and operational restructuring of the network in accordance with the assessment of his level.

  7. Shape variation in the human pelvis and limb skeleton: Implications for obstetric adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Helen K; Decrausaz, Sarah-Louise

    2016-04-01

    Under the obstetrical dilemma (OD) hypothesis, selection acts on the human female pelvis to ensure a sufficiently sized obstetric canal for birthing a large-brained, broad shouldered neonate, while bipedal locomotion selects for a narrower and smaller pelvis. Despite this female-specific stabilizing selection, variability of linear dimensions of the pelvic canal and overall size are not reduced in females, suggesting shape may instead be variable among females of a population. Female canal shape has been shown to vary among populations, while male canal shape does not. Within this context, we examine within-population canal shape variation in comparison with that of noncanal aspects of the pelvis and the limbs. Nine skeletal samples (total female n = 101, male n = 117) representing diverse body sizes and shapes were included. Principal components analysis was applied to size-adjusted variables of each skeletal region. A multivariate variance was calculated using the weighted PC scores for all components in each model and F-ratios used to assess differences in within-population variances between sexes and skeletal regions. Within both sexes, multivariate canal shape variance is significantly greater than noncanal pelvis and limb variances, while limb variance is greater than noncanal pelvis variance in some populations. Multivariate shape variation is not consistently different between the sexes in any of the skeletal regions. Diverse selective pressures, including obstetrics, locomotion, load carrying, and others may act on canal shape, as well as genetic drift and plasticity, thus increasing variation in morphospace while protecting obstetric sufficiency. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Frequency-specific adaptation and its underlying circuit model in the auditory midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eShen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Receptive fields of sensory neurons are considered to be dynamic and depend on the stimulus history. In the auditory system, evidence of dynamic frequency-receptive fields has been found following stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. However, the underlying mechanism and circuitry of SSA have not been fully elucidated. Here, we studied how frequency-receptive fields of neurons in rat inferior colliculus (IC changed when exposed to a biased tone sequence. Pure tone with one specific frequency (adaptor was presented markedly more often than others. The adapted tuning was compared with the original tuning measured with an unbiased sequence. We found inhomogeneous changes in frequency tuning in IC, exhibiting a center-surround pattern with respect to the neuron’s best frequency. Central adaptors elicited strong suppressive and repulsive changes while flank adaptors induced facilitative and attractive changes. Moreover, we proposed a two-layer model of the underlying network, which not only reproduced the adaptive changes in the receptive fields but also predicted novelty responses to oddball sequences. These results suggest that frequency-specific adaptation in auditory midbrain can be accounted for by an adapted frequency channel and its lateral spreading of adaptation, which shed light on the organization of the underlying circuitry.

  9. On the role of model-based monitoring for adaptive planning under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Luciano; Kwakkel, Jan; Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Mariolijn

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive plans, designed to anticipate and respond to an unfolding uncertain future, have found a fertile application domain in the planning of deltas that are exposed to rapid socioeconomic development and climate change. Adaptive planning, under the moniker of adaptive delta management, is used in the Dutch Delta Program for developing a nation-wide plan to prepare for uncertain climate change and socio-economic developments. Scientifically, adaptive delta management relies heavily on Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways. Currently, in the Netherlands the focus is shifting towards implementing the adaptive delta plan. This shift is especially relevant because the efficacy of adaptive plans hinges on monitoring on-going developments and ensuring that actions are indeed taken if and when necessary. In the design of an effective monitoring system for an adaptive plan, three challenges have to be confronted: • Shadow of the past: The development of adaptive plans and the design of their monitoring system relies heavily on current knowledge of the system, and current beliefs about plausible future developments. A static monitoring system is therefore exposed to the exact same uncertainties one tries to address through adaptive planning. • Inhibition of learning: Recent applications of adaptive planning tend to overlook the importance of learning and new information, and fail to account for this explicitly in the design of adaptive plans. • Challenge of surprise: Adaptive policies are designed in light of the current foreseen uncertainties. However, developments that are not considered during the design phase as being plausible could still substantially affect the performance of adaptive policies. The shadow of the past, the inhibition of learning, and the challenge of surprise taken together suggest that there is a need for redesigning the concepts of monitoring and evaluation to support the implementation of adaptive plans. Innovations from control theory

  10. Genomic variation associated with local adaptation of weedy rice during de-domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jie; Zhou, Yongjun; Mao, Lingfeng; Ye, Chuyu; Wang, Weidi; Zhang, Jianping; Yu, Yongyi; Fu, Fei; Wang, Yunfei; Qian, Feijian; Qi, Ting; Wu, Sanling; Sultana, Most Humaira; Cao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Yu; Timko, Michael P.; Ge, Song; Fan, Longjiang; Lu, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    De-domestication is a unique evolutionary process by which domesticated crops are converted into ‘wild predecessor like' forms. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) is an excellent model to dissect the molecular processes underlying de-domestication. Here, we analyse the genomes of 155 weedy and 76 locally cultivated rice accessions from four representative regions in China that were sequenced to an average 18.2 × coverage. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses indicate that Chinese weedy rice was de-domesticated independently from cultivated rice and experienced a strong genetic bottleneck. Although evolving from multiple origins, critical genes underlying convergent evolution of different weedy types can be found. Allele frequency analyses suggest that standing variations and new mutations contribute differently to japonica and indica weedy rice. We identify a Mb-scale genomic region present in weedy rice but not cultivated rice genomes that shows evidence of balancing selection, thereby suggesting that there might be more complexity inherent to the process of de-domestication. PMID:28537247

  11. Standing genetic variation in contingency loci drives the rapid adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to a novel host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains multiple highly mutable sites, or contingency loci. It has been suggested that standing variation at these loci is a mechanism for rapid adaptation to a novel environment, but this phenomenon has not been shown experimentally. In previous work we showed that the virulence of C. jejuni NCTC11168 increased after serial passage through a C57BL/6 IL-10(-/- mouse model of campylobacteriosis. Here we sought to determine the genetic basis of this adaptation during passage. Re-sequencing of the 1.64 Mb genome to 200-500 X coverage allowed us to define variation in 23 contingency loci to an unprecedented depth both before and after in vivo adaptation. Mutations in the mouse-adapted C. jejuni were largely restricted to the homopolymeric tracts of thirteen contingency loci. These changes cause significant alterations in open reading frames of genes in surface structure biosynthesis loci and in genes with only putative functions. Several loci with open reading frame changes also had altered transcript abundance. The increase in specific phases of contingency loci during in vivo passage of C. jejuni, coupled with the observed virulence increase and the lack of other types of genetic changes, is the first experimental evidence that these variable regions play a significant role in C. jejuni adaptation and virulence in a novel host.

  12. Reactive power control methods for improved reliability of wind power inverters under wind speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    temperature fluctuation in the most stressed devices of 3L-NPC wind power inverter under severe wind speed variations can be significantly stabilized, and the reliability of the power converter can thereby be improved while the increased stress of the other devices in the same power converter......The thermal cycling of power switching devices may lead to failures that compromise the reliability of power converters. Wind Turbine Systems (WTS) are especially subject to severe thermal cycling which may be caused by the wind speed variations or power grid faults. This paper proposes a control...... method to relieve the thermal cycling of power switching devices under severe wind speed variations, by circulating reactive power among the parallel power converters in a WTS or among the WTS's in a wind park. The amount of reactive power is adjusted to limit the junction temperature fluctuation...

  13. "They Have to Adapt to Learn": Surgeons' Perspectives on the Role of Procedural Variation in Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apramian, Tavis; Cristancho, Sayra; Watling, Chris; Ott, Michael; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research increasingly acknowledges the existence of significant procedural variation in surgical practice. This study explored surgeons' perspectives regarding the influence of intersurgeon procedural variation on the teaching and learning of surgical residents. This qualitative study used a grounded theory-based analysis of observational and interview data. Observational data were collected in 3 tertiary care teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Semistructured interviews explored potential procedural variations arising during the observations and prompts from an iteratively refined guide. Ongoing data analysis refined the theoretical framework and informed data collection strategies, as prescribed by the iterative nature of grounded theory research. Our sample included 99 hours of observation across 45 cases with 14 surgeons. Semistructured, audio-recorded interviews (n = 14) occurred immediately following observational periods. Surgeons endorsed the use of intersurgeon procedural variations to teach residents about adapting to the complexity of surgical practice and the norms of surgical culture. Surgeons suggested that residents' efforts to identify thresholds of principle and preference are crucial to professional development. Principles that emerged from the study included the following: (1) knowing what comes next, (2) choosing the right plane, (3) handling tissue appropriately, (4) recognizing the abnormal, and (5) making safe progress. Surgeons suggested that learning to follow these principles while maintaining key aspects of surgical culture, like autonomy and individuality, are important social processes in surgical education. Acknowledging intersurgeon variation has important implications for curriculum development and workplace-based assessment in surgical education. Adapting to intersurgeon procedural variations may foster versatility in surgical residents. However, the existence of procedural variations and their active use in surgeons

  14. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  15. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. © 2015 Society for

  16. Identification of Nonstandard Multifractional Brownian Motions under White Noise by Multiscale Local Variations of Its Sample Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Il Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hurst exponent and variance are two quantities that often characterize real-life, high-frequency observations. Such real-life signals are generally measured under noise environments. We develop a multiscale statistical method for simultaneous estimation of a time-changing Hurst exponent H(t and a variance parameter C in a multifractional Brownian motion model in the presence of white noise. The method is based on the asymptotic behavior of the local variation of its sample paths which applies to coarse scales of the sample paths. This work provides stable and simultaneous estimators of both parameters when independent white noise is present. We also discuss the accuracy of the simultaneous estimators compared with a few selected methods and the stability of computations with regard to adapted wavelet filters.

  17. Numerical simulation of supersonic over/under expanded jets using adaptive grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, S.; Shirani, E.

    2001-05-01

    Numerical simulation of supersonic under and over expanded jet was simulated. In order to achieve the solution efficiently and with high resolution, adaptive grid is used. The axisymmetric compressible, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations in body fitted curvilinear coordinate were solved numerically. The equations were discretized by using control volume, and the Van Leer flux splitting approach. The equations were solved implicitly. The obtained computer code was used to simulate four different cases of moderate and strong under and over expanded jet flows. The results show that with the adaptation of the grid, the various features of this complicated flow can be observed. It was shown that the adaptation method is very efficient and has the ability to make fine grids near the high gradient regions. (author)

  18. Rapid Genetic Adaptation during the First Four Months of Survival under Resource Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Spatiotonal adaptivity in super-resolution of under-sampled image sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis concerns the use of spatial and tonal adaptivity in improving the resolution of aliased image sequences under scene or camera motion. Each of the five content chapters focuses on a different subtopic of super-resolution: image registration (chapter 2), image fusion (chapter 3 and 4),

  20. Rational Adaptation under Task and Processing Constraints: Implications for Testing Theories of Cognition and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…

  1. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  2. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Spatio-temporal variations of vegetation indicators in Eastern Siberia under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamova, Eugenia V.; Solovyev, Vladimir S.

    2017-11-01

    Study of spatio-temporal variations of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and phenological parameters of Eastern Siberia vegetation cover under global warming was carried out on AVHRR/NOAA data (1982-2014). Trend maps of NDVI and annual variations of phenological parameters and NDVI are analyzed. A method based on stable transition of air temperature through +5°C was used to estimate the beginning, end and the length of the growing season. Correlation between NDVI and phenological parameters, surface air temperature and precipitation are discussed.

  4. Preliminay Investigation of Variation in Some Dark Adaptation Aspects fo Possible Relevance to Military Helicopter Aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    not incorporate some of the critical specifications for measuring dark adaptation. 76Case reports of patients with coeliac disease defective 101diets...or end point of adaptation had been suspected. 2 The factors apart from disease and unusual conditions may be considered in two categories: those

  5. Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross-cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant-pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  8. Mineral Nutritional Yield and Nutrient Density of Locally Adapted Wheat Genotypes under Organic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daniel Moreira-Ascarrunz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the nutritional yield, nutrient density, stability, and adaptability of organically produced wheat for sustainable and nutritional high value food production. This study evaluated the nutritional yield of four minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg in 19 wheat genotypes, selected as being locally adapted under organic agriculture conditions. The new metric of nutritional yield was calculated for each genotype and they were evaluated for stability using the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI stability analysis and for genotypic value, stability, and adaptability using the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP procedure. The results indicated that there were genotypes suitable for production under organic agriculture conditions with satisfactory yields (>4000 kg·ha−1. Furthermore, these genotypes showed high nutritional yield and nutrient density for the four minerals studied. Additionally, since these genotypes were stable and adaptable over three environmentally different years, they were designated “balanced genotypes” for the four minerals and for the aforementioned characteristics. Selection and breeding of such “balanced genotypes” may offer an alternative to producing nutritious food under low-input agriculture conditions. Furthermore, the type of evaluation presented here may also be of interest for implementation in research conducted in developing countries, following the objectives of producing enough nutrients for a growing population.

  9. SOGI-FLL Based Adaptive Filter for DSTATCOM Under Variable Supply Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Vishal; Arya, Sabha Raj

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an adaptive filter based on second order generalized integrator-frequency locked loop (SOGI-FLL) for distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) operating under variable supply frequency with nonlinear load. It is observed that under variable supply frequency, the FLL provides an excellent frequency tracking performance. Necessary compensation can be provided by DSTATCOM at any frequency with the help of SOGI-FLL. The MATLAB simulink model of DSTATCOM is developed with SOGI-FLL based control algorithm and rectifier based nonlinear load. This three wire system is simulated in power factor correction and zero voltage regulation mode under variable supply frequency.

  10. Adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: some underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Tong, Jian

    2014-04-22

    During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative damage and, alterations in several cellular processes in mice pre-exposed to radiofrequency fields and subsequently subjected to sub-lethal or lethal doses of γ-radiation or injected with bleomycin, a radiomimetic chemical mutagen. These observations indicated the induction of adaptive response providing the animals the ability to resist subsequent damage. Similar studies conducted by independent researchers in mice and rats have supported our observation on increased survival. In this paper, we have presented a brief review of all of our own and other independent investigations on radiofrequency fields-induced adaptive response and some underlying mechanisms discussed.

  11. Adaptive Response in Animals Exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields: Some Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative damage and, alterations in several cellular processes in mice pre-exposed to radiofrequency fields and subsequently subjected to sub-lethal or lethal doses of γ-radiation or injected with bleomycin, a radiomimetic chemical mutagen. These observations indicated the induction of adaptive response providing the animals the ability to resist subsequent damage. Similar studies conducted by independent researchers in mice and rats have supported our observation on increased survival. In this paper, we have presented a brief review of all of our own and other independent investigations on radiofrequency fields-induced adaptive response and some underlying mechanisms discussed.

  12. Microfluidic-Based Measurement Method of Red Blood Cell Aggregation under Hematocrit Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jun

    2017-09-06

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are considered to be promising biomarkers for effectively monitoring blood rheology at extremely low shear rates. In this study, a microfluidic-based measurement technique is suggested to evaluate RBC aggregation under hematocrit variations due to the continuous ESR. After the pipette tip is tightly fitted into an inlet port, a disposable suction pump is connected to the outlet port through a polyethylene tube. After dropping blood (approximately 0.2 mL) into the pipette tip, the blood flow can be started and stopped by periodically operating a pinch valve. To evaluate variations in RBC aggregation due to the continuous ESR, an EAI (Erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate Aggregation Index) is newly suggested, which uses temporal variations of image intensity. To demonstrate the proposed method, the dynamic characterization of the disposable suction pump is first quantitatively measured by varying the hematocrit levels and cavity volume of the suction pump. Next, variations in RBC aggregation and ESR are quantified by varying the hematocrit levels. The conventional aggregation index (AI) is maintained constant, unrelated to the hematocrit values. However, the EAI significantly decreased with respect to the hematocrit values. Thus, the EAI is more effective than the AI for monitoring variations in RBC aggregation due to the ESR. Lastly, the proposed method is employed to detect aggregated blood and thermally-induced blood. The EAI gradually increased as the concentration of a dextran solution increased. In addition, the EAI significantly decreased for thermally-induced blood. From this experimental demonstration, the proposed method is able to effectively measure variations in RBC aggregation due to continuous hematocrit variations, especially by quantifying the EAI.

  13. Microfluidic-Based Measurement Method of Red Blood Cell Aggregation under Hematocrit Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are considered to be promising biomarkers for effectively monitoring blood rheology at extremely low shear rates. In this study, a microfluidic-based measurement technique is suggested to evaluate RBC aggregation under hematocrit variations due to the continuous ESR. After the pipette tip is tightly fitted into an inlet port, a disposable suction pump is connected to the outlet port through a polyethylene tube. After dropping blood (approximately 0.2 mL) into the pipette tip, the blood flow can be started and stopped by periodically operating a pinch valve. To evaluate variations in RBC aggregation due to the continuous ESR, an EAI (Erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate Aggregation Index) is newly suggested, which uses temporal variations of image intensity. To demonstrate the proposed method, the dynamic characterization of the disposable suction pump is first quantitatively measured by varying the hematocrit levels and cavity volume of the suction pump. Next, variations in RBC aggregation and ESR are quantified by varying the hematocrit levels. The conventional aggregation index (AI) is maintained constant, unrelated to the hematocrit values. However, the EAI significantly decreased with respect to the hematocrit values. Thus, the EAI is more effective than the AI for monitoring variations in RBC aggregation due to the ESR. Lastly, the proposed method is employed to detect aggregated blood and thermally-induced blood. The EAI gradually increased as the concentration of a dextran solution increased. In addition, the EAI significantly decreased for thermally-induced blood. From this experimental demonstration, the proposed method is able to effectively measure variations in RBC aggregation due to continuous hematocrit variations, especially by quantifying the EAI. PMID:28878199

  14. The effect of subdivision on variation at multi-allelic loci under balancing selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution of polymorp......Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution......, and to the possibility of inferring ancient population genetic events and processes. In addition, it is shown that, for sporophytic self-incompatibility systems, it is not necessarily true in a subdivided population that recessive alleles are more frequent than dominant ones. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Aug...

  15. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  16. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  17. Variation tolerant self-adaptive clock generation architecture based on a ring oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Puigdemont, Jordi; Calomarde Palomino, Antonio; Moll Echeto, Francisco de Borja

    2012-01-01

    In this work we propose a self-adaptive clock based on a ring oscillator as the solution for the increasing uncertainty in the critical path delay. This increase in uncertainty forces to add more safety margins to the clock period which produces a circuit performance downgrade. We evaluate three self-adaptive clock systems: free running ring oscillator, infinite impulse response filter controlled RO and TEAtime controlled ring oscillator. The safety margin reduction of th...

  18. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic variation for yield, leaf area index, period of maximum soil cover, sensitivity for N-shortage and nitrogen efficiency under low input circumstances was found. However, in these experiments varietie...

  19. Emergence of intercolonial variation in termite shelter tube patterns and prediction of its underlying mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Mizumoto, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Matsuura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Building behaviours occur in various organisms from bacteria to humans. Social insects build various structures such as large nests and underground galleries, achieved by self-organization. Structures built by social insects have recently been demonstrated to vary widely in size and shape within a species, even under the same environmental conditions. However, little is known about how intraspecific variation in structures emerges from collective behaviours. Here we show that the colony varia...

  20. The structural variation of phytoplankton in the Gulf of Riga under the influence of environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgensone, Iveta

    2011-01-01

    „The structural variation of phytoplankton in the Gulf of Riga under the influence of environmental factors.” Trends of phytoplankton (1976-2008) from the Gulf of Riga and the related environmental factors are investigated. Phytoplankton response to riverine DOM and nutrient increase was tested and the effect on the pelagic food web assessed. Changes in the winter-spring DIN/DIP ratio cause shift from diatoms to cyanobacteria. Dinoflagellate biomass remains constant after temperature excee...

  1. Variation in hospital length of stay: do physicians adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital where they work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Judith D; Westert, Gert P; Lagoe, Ronald; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2006-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that physicians who work in different hospitals adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital under consideration. Secondary data were used, originating from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS). SPARCS is a major management tool for assisting hospitals, agencies, and health care organizations with decision making in relation to financial planning and monitoring of inpatient and ambulatory surgery services and costs in New York state. Data on length of stay for surgical interventions and medical conditions (a total of seven diagnosis-related groups [DRGs]) were studied, to find out whether there is more variation between than within hospitals. Data (1999, 2000, and 2001) from all hospitals in New York state were used. The study examined physicians practicing in one hospital and physicians practicing in more than one hospital, to determine whether average length of stay differs according to the hospital of practice. Multilevel models were used to determine variation between and within hospitals. A t-test was used to test whether length of stay for patients of each multihospital physician differed from the average length of stay in each of the two hospitals. There is significantly (phospitals in most of the study populations. Physicians working in two hospitals had patient lengths of stay comparable with the usual practice in the hospital where the procedure was performed. The proportion of physicians working in one hospital did not have a consistent effect for all DRGs on the variation within hospitals. Physicians adapt to their colleagues or to the managerial demands of the particular hospital in which they work. The hospital and broader work environment should be taken into account when developing effective interventions to reduce variation in medical practice.

  2. Adaptive Fuzzy Logic based MPPT Control for PV System Under Partial Shading Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Subhashree; Rout, Pravat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Partial shading causes power loss, hotspots and threatens the reliability of the Photovoltaic generation system. Moreover characteristic curves exhibit multiple peaks. Conventional MPPT techniques under this condition often fail to give optimum MPP. Focusing on the afore mentioned problem an attempt has been made to design an Adaptive Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System based Fuzzy Logic Control MPPT.The mathematical model of PV array is simulated using in MATLAB/Simulink environment.Various...

  3. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  4. Sequence and expression variations suggest an adaptive role for the DA1-like gene family in the evolution of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gu, Yongzhe; He, Lingli; Chen, Qingshan; He, Chaoying

    2015-05-15

    The DA1 gene family is plant-specific and Arabidopsis DA1 regulates seed and organ size, but the functions in soybeans are unknown. The cultivated soybean (Glycine max) is believed to be domesticated from the annual wild soybeans (Glycine soja). To evaluate whether DA1-like genes were involved in the evolution of soybeans, we compared variation at both sequence and expression levels of DA1-like genes from G. max (GmaDA1) and G. soja (GsoDA1). Sequence identities were extremely high between the orthologous pairs between soybeans, while the paralogous copies in a soybean species showed a relatively high divergence. Moreover, the expression variation of DA1-like paralogous genes in soybean was much greater than the orthologous gene pairs between the wild and cultivated soybeans during development and challenging abiotic stresses such as salinity. We further found that overexpressing GsoDA1 genes did not affect seed size. Nevertheless, overexpressing them reduced transgenic Arabidopsis seed germination sensitivity to salt stress. Moreover, most of these genes could improve salt tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, corroborated by a detection of expression variation of several key genes in the salt-tolerance pathways. Our work suggested that expression diversification of DA1-like genes is functionally associated with adaptive radiation of soybeans, reinforcing that the plant-specific DA1 gene family might have contributed to the successful adaption to complex environments and radiation of the plants.

  5. Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Erica N. C.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Myers, James R.; Paulo, Maria João; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (δ-, γ-, α-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For δ- and γ- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between

  6. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Zancolli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX. Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

  7. Wall thickness variation effect on tank’s shape behaviour under critical harmonic settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shamel Fahmy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wall thickness variation on tank’s wall buckling mode under the effect of critical harmonic settlement for open top tanks. The study was performed on four tanks which have the same geometric and material properties except wall thickness, for each case the tank was subjected to several settlement waves which has the same settlement amplitude, and the buckling mode and critical vertical settlement results were compared. For buckling mode, the results show that tanks with wall thickness at a close range have similar buckling mode behaviour and in case using too thick wall the buckling mode starts to change. And for the effect on critical vertical settlement, the results show that vertical settlement is sensitive to any variation in wall thickness beside that settlement value changes with the effected wave number and this variation could change the whole behaviour of the tanks. The study recommended that in case of performing analysis for a tank with neglecting the variation in wall thickness values, the value of chosen wall thickness should be the average of wall thickness values obtained from the designed equation.

  8. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  9. Scenario-based fitted Q-iteration for adaptive control of water reservoir systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, mathematical models have largely been used to support planning and management of water resources systems. Yet, the increasing uncertainties in their inputs - due to increased variability in the hydrological regimes - are a major challenge to the optimal operations of these systems. Such uncertainty, boosted by projected changing climate, violates the stationarity principle generally used for describing hydro-meteorological processes, which assumes time persisting statistical characteristics of a given variable as inferred by historical data. As this principle is unlikely to be valid in the future, the probability density function used for modeling stochastic disturbances (e.g., inflows) becomes an additional uncertain parameter of the problem, which can be described in a deterministic and set-membership based fashion. This study contributes a novel method for designing optimal, adaptive policies for controlling water reservoir systems under climate-related uncertainty. The proposed method, called scenario-based Fitted Q-Iteration (sFQI), extends the original Fitted Q-Iteration algorithm by enlarging the state space to include the space of the uncertain system's parameters (i.e., the uncertain climate scenarios). As a result, sFQI embeds the set-membership uncertainty of the future inflow scenarios in the action-value function and is able to approximate, with a single learning process, the optimal control policy associated to any scenario included in the uncertainty set. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic water system, consisting of a regulated lake operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. Numerical results show that the sFQI algorithm successfully identifies adaptive solutions to operate the system under different inflow scenarios, which outperform the control policy designed under historical conditions. Moreover, the sFQI policy generalizes over inflow scenarios not directly experienced during the policy design

  10. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Dar es Salaam. Durban. Bloemfontein. Antananarivo. Cape Town. Ifrane ... program strategy. A number of CCAA-supported projects have relevance to other important adaptation-related themes such as disaster preparedness and climate.

  11. Genetic variation in 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter expression causes adaptive changes in 5-HT4 receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Katie Ann; Licht, Cecilie Löe; Bruce, Aynsley

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) expression is a key risk factor for psychiatric disorder and has been linked to changes in the expression of certain 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study investigated the effect of variation in 5-HTT expression on 5-HT4 receptor levels in both 5-HTT...... knockout (KO) and overexpressing (OE) mice using autoradiography with the selective 5-HT4 receptor radioligand, [3H]SB207145. Compared to wild-type (5-HTT+/+) controls, homozygous 5-HTT KO mice (5-HTT-/-) had reduced 5-HT4 receptor binding site density in all brain regions examined (35-65% of 5-HTT...

  12. Adaptive guided image filter for warping in variational optical flow computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Z.; Poppe, R.W.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    The variational optical flow method is considered to be the standard method to calculate an accurate dense motion field between successive frames. It assumes that the energy function has spatiotemporal continuities and appearance motions are small. However, for real image sequences, the temporal

  13. Investigation of microbial adaptation to salinity variation for treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate by membrane bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jang, Duksoo; Moon, Chungman; Ahn, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    Even though reverse osmosis (RO) technologies are widely used for sustainable water reclamation, the control of concentrates containing a high concentration of dissolved matters originated from feed water should be considered. The effect of variations in salinity on biological wastewater treatment...

  14. Plasticity in Meristem Allocation as an Adaptive Strategy of a Desert Shrub under Contrasting Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2017-11-01

    , representing an important adaptive strategy. This information contributes to understand the life-history strategies of long-lived plants under stressful environments.

  15. Modeling the two-locus architecture of divergent pollinator adaptation: how variation in SAD paralogs affects fitness and evolutionary divergence in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2015-01-01

    Divergent selection by pollinators can bring about strong reproductive isolation via changes at few genes of large effect. This has recently been demonstrated in sexually deceptive orchids, where studies (1) quantified the strength of reproductive isolation in the field; (2) identified genes that appear to be causal for reproductive isolation; and (3) demonstrated selection by analysis of natural variation in gene sequence and expression. In a group of closely related Ophrys orchids, specific floral scent components, namely n-alkenes, are the key floral traits that control specific pollinator attraction by chemical mimicry of insect sex pheromones. The genetic basis of species-specific differences in alkene production mainly lies in two biosynthetic genes encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases (SAD) that are associated with floral scent variation and reproductive isolation between closely related species, and evolve under pollinator-mediated selection. However, the implications of this genetic architecture of key floral traits on the evolutionary processes of pollinator adaptation and speciation in this plant group remain unclear. Here, we expand on these recent findings to model scenarios of adaptive evolutionary change at SAD2 and SAD5, their effects on plant fitness (i.e., offspring number), and the dynamics of speciation. Our model suggests that the two-locus architecture of reproductive isolation allows for rapid sympatric speciation by pollinator shift; however, the likelihood of such pollinator-mediated speciation is asymmetric between the two orchid species O. sphegodes and O. exaltata due to different fitness effects of their predominant SAD2 and SAD5 alleles. Our study not only provides insight into pollinator adaptation and speciation mechanisms of sexually deceptive orchids but also demonstrates the power of applying a modeling approach to the study of pollinator-driven ecological speciation.

  16. Wheat genotypic variation in dynamic fluxes of WSC components in different stem segments under drought during grain filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC, composed mainly of fructans, are the major carbon sources for grain filling during periods of decreasing photosynthesis or under drought stress after anthesis. Here, in a field drought experiment, WSC levels and associated enzyme activities were followed in different stem segments (peduncle, penultimate internode, lower parts of stem, and sheath during grain filling. The focus was on two double haploid (DH lines, DH 307 and DH 338, derived from a Westonia/Kauz cross, two drought-tolerant wheat varieties that follow different drought adaptation strategies during grain filling. The results showed that in irrigated plants, in the period between 20 to 30 days after anthesis (DAA, 70-80% of WSC were fructans. Before and after this period, the fructan proportion varied from 10 to 60%, depending on the location along the stem. Under drought, the fructan proportion changed, depending on genotype and developmental stages. After anthesis, stem fructans accumulation occurred mainly in the peduncle and penultimate internode until 14 DAA in both DH lines, with clear genotypic variation in subsequent fructan degradation under drought. In DH 307 a significant reduction of fructans with a concomitant increase in fructose levels occurred earlier in the lower parts of the stem and the sheath, as compared to DH 338 or other stem segments in both lines. This was associated with an earlier increase of grain weight and thousand grain weight in DH 307. Spatiotemporal analysis of fructan dynamics and enzymatic activities in fructan metabolism revealed that several types of FEHs are involved in fructan remobilization to the grain under drought.

  17. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  18. Sources of variation in under-5 mortality across sub-Saharan Africa: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Heft-Neal, Sam; Bendavid, Eran

    2016-12-01

    Detailed spatial understanding of levels and trends in under-5 mortality is needed to improve the targeting of interventions to the areas of highest need, and to understand the sources of variation in mortality. To improve this understanding, we analysed local-level information on child mortality across sub-Saharan Africa between 1980-2010. We used data from 82 Demographic and Health Surveys in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, including the location and timing of 3·24 million childbirths and 393 685 deaths, to develop high-resolution spatial maps of under-5 mortality in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. These estimates were at a resolution of 0·1 degree latitude by 0·1 degree longitude (roughly 10 km × 10 km). We then analysed this spatial information to distinguish within-country versus between-country sources of variation in mortality, to examine the extent to which declines in mortality have been accompanied by convergence in the distribution of mortality, and to study localised drivers of mortality differences, including temperature, malaria burden, and conflict. In our sample of sub-Saharan African countries from the 1980s to the 2000s, within-country differences in under-5 mortality accounted for 74-78% of overall variation in under-5 mortality across space and over time. Mortality differed significantly across only 8-15% of country borders, supporting the role of local, rather than national, factors in driving mortality patterns. We found that by the end of the study period, 23% of the eligible children in the study countries continue to live in mortality hotspots-areas where, if current trends continue, the Sustainable Developent Goals mortality targets will not be met. In multivariate analysis, within-country mortality levels at each pixel were significantly related to local temperature, malaria burden, and recent history of conflict. Our findings suggest that sub-national determinants explain a greater portion of under-5 mortality than do country

  19. Differences in Cold Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Jana; Mansilla, María C.; de Mendoza, Diego; Elhottová, Dana; Konopásek, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis, which grows under aerobic conditions, employs fatty acid desaturase (Des) to fluidize its membrane when subjected to temperature downshift. Des requires molecular oxygen for its activity, and its expression is regulated by DesK-DesR, a two-component system. Transcription of des is induced by the temperature downshift and is decreased when membrane fluidity is restored. B. subtilis is also capable of anaerobic growth by nitrate or nitrite respiration. We studied the mechanism of cold adaptation in B. subtilis under anaerobic conditions that were predicted to inhibit Des activity. We found that in anaerobiosis, in contrast to aerobic growth, the induction of des expression after temperature downshift (from 37°C to 25°C) was not downregulated. However, the transfer from anaerobic to aerobic conditions rapidly restored the downregulation. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the induction of des expression was substantially reduced by the addition of external fluidizing oleic acid and was fully dependent on the DesK-DesR two-component regulatory system. Fatty acid analysis proved that there was no desaturation after des induction under anaerobic conditions despite the presence of high levels of the des protein product, which was shown by immunoblot analysis. The cold adaptation of B. subtilis in anaerobiosis is therefore mediated exclusively by the increased anteiso/iso ratio of branched-chain fatty acids and not by the temporarily increased level of unsaturated fatty acids that is typical under aerobic conditions. The degrees of membrane fluidization, as measured by diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy, were found to be similar under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:20581210

  20. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  1. Power variation and frequency regulation. Adaptation of PWR plant possibilities to the network needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baboulin, J.P.; Burger, M.

    1980-01-01

    When the PWR are an important part of the power installed on a network, and that will be the case of the EDF network in the coming years, the participation of those plants to the power regulating becomes a necessity for the operating staff. This load regulating includes: daily variations of high amplitude; a permanent frequency - power regulating. The first part of the communication shows the network exploitation principles, and the resulting power variations concerning the existing nuclear power plants. Such transients are leading to stresses on fuel. The second part of the communication reports about the test program engaged by EDF in collaboration with the CEA and FRAMATOME, in order to study the fuel behaviour in real power conditions and power cycles, and that, just to the operational burn up of this fuel. (author)

  2. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL OF MULTICHANNEL LINEAR STATIONARY SYSTEMS UNDER PARAMETRIC UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei A. Bobtsov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of adaptive control for multi-channel linear stationary plants under parametric uncertainty with arbitrary relative degree of each local subsystem. The synthesized regulator provides stabilization of control plant on condition that for each local subsystem only output variables are measured with known relative degrees, but the order of linear differential equations is unknown. We consider the synthesis of control system for two-channel system for simplification of the synthesis method. The "serial compensator" algorithm is chosen as basic approach with A.L. Fradkov's passification theorem and additional filters containing high gain constants in their structure. Durability of the closed system in the group of pointed types of regulators is analyzed and the necessary and sufficient conditions for exponential convergence properties are considered. We suggest adaptive version of the "serial compensator" method from the practical point of view, where customization of the gain constant is based on the integral type algorithm. We show the results of computer simulation for the third and second order subsystems under parametric uncertainty to illustrate the proposed approach workability. It is shown that the proposed technique makes it possible to synthesize control algorithms for multichannel systems under parametric uncertainty with minimal dynamical order as compared to known foreign and domestic counterparts.

  3. The impact of covariate misclassification using generalized linear regression under covariate-adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liqiong; Yeatts, Sharon D; Wolf, Bethany J; McClure, Leslie A; Selim, Magdy; Palesch, Yuko Y

    2018-01-01

    Under covariate adaptive randomization, the covariate is tied to both randomization and analysis. Misclassification of such covariate will impact the intended treatment assignment; further, it is unclear what the appropriate analysis strategy should be. We explore the impact of such misclassification on the trial's statistical operating characteristics. Simulation scenarios were created based on the misclassification rate and the covariate effect on the outcome. Models including unadjusted, adjusted for the misclassified, or adjusted for the corrected covariate were compared using logistic regression for a binary outcome and Poisson regression for a count outcome. For the binary outcome using logistic regression, type I error can be maintained in the adjusted model, but the test is conservative using an unadjusted model. Power decreased with both increasing covariate effect on the outcome as well as the misclassification rate. Treatment effect estimates were biased towards the null for both the misclassified and unadjusted models. For the count outcome using a Poisson model, covariate misclassification led to inflated type I error probabilities and reduced power in the misclassified and the unadjusted model. The impact of covariate misclassification under covariate-adaptive randomization differs depending on the underlying distribution of the outcome.

  4. Transposable Element-Mediated Balancing Selection at Hsp90 Underlies Embryo Developmental Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Lingling; Li, Qing; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Pengcheng; Xu, Yanan; Kang, Le

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the roles of transposable elements (TEs) in the evolution of genome and adaptation is a long-sought goal. Here, we present a new model of TE co-option, in which a TE is harnessed by an essential gene and confers local adaptation through heterozygote advantage. We characterized a human Alu-like TE family, the Lm1 elements, in the genome of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria that harbors 0.7 million copies of the elements. Scanning Lm1 insertions in the natural locust populations revealed the widespread high polymorphism of Lm1. An Lm1 was recruited into the coding region of Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an important molecular chaperone for diverse signal transduction and developmental pathways. Only heterozygotes of the allele are present in natural populations. Allele frequency increases with decreased latitudes in east coastal China, even increasing up to 76% in southern populations. Regions flanking the Lm1 insertion display clear signatures of a selective sweep linked to Lm1. The Lm1-mediated Hsp90 mutation is consequential for the embryonic development of locust. Heterozygous embryos develop faster than the wild type, particularly when cued by long-day parental photoperiod. The heterozygotes also present a reduced within-population variation in embryonic development, i.e., high developmental synchrony of embryos. The naturally occurring Hsp90 mutation could facilitate multivoltinism and developmental synchronization of the locust in southern tropical region. These results revealed a genetic mechanism behind microevolutionary changes in which balancing selection may have acted to maintain the heterozygote advantage through TE co-option in essential genes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Palmer, Alexander D.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h2 = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h2 = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  6. Adaptive Artificial intelligence based fuzzy logic MPPTcontrol for stande-alone photovoltaic system under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaghba Layachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available there is an increased need for analysing the effect of atmospheric variables on photovoltaic (PV production and performance. The outputs from the different PV cells in different atmospheric conditions, such as irradiation and temperature , differ from each other evidencing knowledge deficiency in PV systems [14]. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP. Among all MPPT methods existing in the literature, perturb and observe (P&O is the most commonly used for its simplicity and ease of implementation; however, it presents drawbacks such as slow response speed, oscillation around the MPP in steady state, and even tracking in wrong way under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. In order to allow a functioning around the optimal point Mopt, we have inserted a DC-DC converter (Buck–Boost for a better matching between the PV and the load. This paper, we study the Maximum power point tracking using adaptive Intelligent fuzzy logic and conventional (P&O control for stande-alone photovoltaic Array system .In particular, the performances of the controllers are analyzed under variation weather conditions with are constant temperature and variable irradiation. The proposed system is simulated by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. According to the results, fuzzy logic controller has shown better performance during the optimization.

  7. Transcriptomes Reveal Genetic Signatures Underlying Physiological Variations Imposed by Different Fermentation Conditions in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Roger S.; van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Wiersma, Anne; Overmars, Lex; Marco, Maria L.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are utilized widely for the fermentation of foods. In the current post-genomic era, tools have been developed that explore genetic diversity among LAB strains aiming to link these variations to differential phenotypes observed in the strains investigated. However, these genotype-phenotype matching approaches fail to assess the role of conserved genes in the determination of physiological characteristics of cultures by environmental conditions. This manuscript describes a complementary approach in which Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was fermented under a variety of conditions that differ in temperature, pH, as well as NaCl, amino acid, and O2 levels. Samples derived from these fermentations were analyzed by full-genome transcriptomics, paralleled by the assessment of physiological characteristics, e.g., maximum growth rate, yield, and organic acid profiles. A data-storage and -mining suite designated FermDB was constructed and exploited to identify correlations between fermentation conditions and industrially relevant physiological characteristics of L. plantarum, as well as the associated transcriptome signatures. Finally, integration of the specific fermentation variables with the transcriptomes enabled the reconstruction of the gene-regulatory networks involved. The fermentation-genomics platform presented here is a valuable complementary approach to earlier described genotype-phenotype matching strategies which allows the identification of transcriptome signatures underlying physiological variations imposed by different fermentation conditions. PMID:22802930

  8. Intraspecific shape variation in horseshoe crabs: the importance of sexual and natural selection for local adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Søren; Nielsen, Kasper Sauer Kollerup; Bussarawit, Somchai

    2011-01-01

    A morphometric analysis of the body shape of three species of horseshoe crabs was undertaken in order to infer the importance of natural and sexual selection. It was expected that natural selection would be most intense, leading to highest regional differentiation, in the American species Limulus...... polyphemus, which has the largest climatic differences between different populations. Local adaptation driven by sexual selection was expected in males but not females because horseshoe crab mating behaviour leads to competition between males, but not between females. Three hundred fifty-nine horseshoe crabs...

  9. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...

  10. Magnetic resonance image restoration via dictionary learning under spatially adaptive constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Dong, Pei; Feng, David Dagan; Luo, Jianhua; Huang, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a spatially adaptive constrained dictionary learning (SAC-DL) algorithm for Rician noise removal in magnitude magnetic resonance (MR) images. This algorithm explores both the strength of dictionary learning to preserve image structures and the robustness of local variance estimation to remove signal-dependent Rician noise. The magnitude image is first separated into a number of partly overlapping image patches. The statistics of each patch are collected and analyzed to obtain a local noise variance. To better adapt to Rician noise, a correction factor is formulated with the local signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, the trained dictionary is used to denoise each image patch under spatially adaptive constraints. The proposed algorithm has been compared to the popular nonlocal means (NLM) filtering and unbiased NLM (UNLM) algorithm on simulated T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted MR images. Our results suggest that the SAC-DL algorithm preserves more image structures while effectively removing the noise than NLM and it is also superior to UNLM at low noise levels.

  11. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna J; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pinel, Philippe; Revkin, Susannah K; Cohen, Laurent; Cohen, David

    2006-05-30

    Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations). The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5-8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  12. Distributed adaptive asymptotically consensus tracking control of uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wen, Changyun; Huang, Jiangshuai; Fan, Huijin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a backstepping based distributed adaptive control scheme is proposed for multiple uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition. The common desired trajectory is allowed totally unknown by part of the subsystems and the linearly parameterized trajectory model assumed in currently available results is no longer needed. To compensate the effects due to unknown trajectory information, a smooth function of consensus errors and certain positive integrable functions are introduced in designing virtual control inputs. Besides, to overcome the difficulty of completely counteracting the coupling terms of distributed consensus errors and parameter estimation errors in the presence of asymmetric Laplacian matrix, extra information transmission of local parameter estimates are introduced among linked subsystem and adaptive gain technique is adopted to generate distributed torque inputs. It is shown that with the proposed distributed adaptive control scheme, global uniform boundedness of all the closed-loop signals and asymptotically output consensus tracking can be achieved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Study of Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Self-Adaptive Control under Multiagent Markov Game Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-adaptive control as a multiagent Markov game problem. The design employs traffic signal control agent (TSCA for each signalized intersection that coordinates with neighboring TSCAs. A mathematical model for TSCAs’ interaction is built based on nonzero-sum markov game which has been applied to let TSCAs learn how to cooperate. A multiagent Markov game reinforcement learning approach is constructed on the basis of single-agent Q-learning. This method lets each TSCA learn to update its Q-values under the joint actions and imperfect information. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically. The simulation results show that the proposed method is convergent and effective in realistic traffic self-adaptive control setting.

  14. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations. Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article 1 describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  15. CRAUL: Compiler and Run-Time Integration for Adaptation under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Ioannidis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of workstations provide a cost‐effective, high performance parallel computing environment. These environments, however, are often shared by multiple users, or may consist of heterogeneous machines. As a result, parallel applications executing in these environments must operate despite unequal computational resources. For maximum performance, applications should automatically adapt execution to maximize use of the available resources. Ideally, this adaptation should be transparent to the application programmer. In this paper, we present CRAUL (Compiler and Run‐Time Integration for Adaptation Under Load, a system that dynamically balances computational load in a parallel application. Our target run‐time is software‐based distributed shared memory (SDSM. SDSM is a good target for parallelizing compilers since it reduces compile‐time complexity by providing data caching and other support for dynamic load balancing. CRAUL combines compile‐time support to identify data access patterns with a run‐time system that uses the access information to intelligently distribute the parallel workload in loop‐based programs. The distribution is chosen according to the relative power of the processors and so as to minimize SDSM overhead and maximize locality. We have evaluated the resulting load distribution in the presence of different types of load – computational, computational and memory intensive, and network load. CRAUL performs within 5–23% of ideal in the presence of load, and is able to improve on naive compiler‐based work distribution that does not take locality into account even in the absence of load.

  16. GNBP domain of Anopheles darlingi: are polymorphic inversions and gene variation related to adaptive evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, L C; Rafael, M S

    2016-02-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in humans in South America. In the Amazon basin, it lives along the banks of rivers and lakes, which responds to the annual hydrological cycle (dry season and rainy season). In these breeding sites, the larvae of this mosquito feed on decomposing organic and microorganisms, which can be pathogenic and trigger the activation of innate immune system pathways, such as proteins Gram-negative binding protein (GNBP). Such environmental changes affect the occurrence of polymorphic inversions especially at the heterozygote frequency, which confer adaptative advantage compared to homozygous inversions. We mapped the GNBP probe to the An. darlingi 2Rd inversion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), which was a good indicator of the GNBP immune response related to the chromosomal polymorphic inversions and adaptative evolution. To better understand the evolutionary relations and time of divergence of the GNBP of An. darlingi, we compared it with nine other mosquito GNBPs. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of the GNBP sequence between the species of mosquitoes demonstrated three clades. Clade I and II included the GNBPB5 sequence, and clade III the sequence of GNBPB1. Most of these sequences of GNBP analyzed were homologous with that of subfamily B, including that of An. gambiae (87 %), therefore suggesting that GNBP of An. darling belongs to subfamily B. This work helps us understand the role of inversion polymorphism in evolution of An. darlingi.

  17. The genetic architecture of ecological adaptation: intraspecific variation in host plant use by the lepidopteran crop pest Chloridea virescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Sara J; Gould, Fred; Hopper, Keith R

    2018-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in ecologically important traits is a cornerstone of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The evolution and maintenance of this variation depends on genetic architecture, which in turn determines responses to natural selection. Some models suggest that traits with complex architectures are less likely to respond to selection than those with simple architectures, yet rapid divergence has been observed in such traits. The simultaneous evolutionary lability and genetic complexity of host plant use in the Lepidopteran subfamily Heliothinae suggest that architecture may not constrain ecological adaptation in this group. Here we investigate the response of Chloridea virescens, a generalist that feeds on diverse plant species, to selection for performance on a novel host, Physalis angulata (Solanaceae). P. angulata is the preferred host of Chloridea subflexa, a narrow specialist on the genus Physalis. In previous experiments, we found that the performance of C. subflexa on P. angulata depends on many loci of small effect distributed throughout the genome, but whether the same architecture would be involved in the generalist's adoption of P. angulata was unknown. Here we report a rapid response to selection in C. virescens for performance on P. angulata, and establish that the genetic architecture of intraspecific variation is quite similar to that of the interspecific differences in terms of the number, distribution, and effect sizes of the QTL involved. We discuss the impact of genetic architecture on the ability of Heliothine moths to respond to varying ecological selection pressures.

  18. Mosasauroid phylogeny under multiple phylogenetic methods provides new insights on the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago R Simões

    Full Text Available Mosasauroids were a successful lineage of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes that radiated during the Late Cretaceous (95-66 million years ago. They can be considered one of the few lineages in the evolutionary history of tetrapods to have acquired a fully aquatic lifestyle, similarly to whales, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a long history of research on this group, their phylogenetic relationships have only been tested so far using traditional (unweighted maximum parsimony. However, hypotheses of mosasauroid relationships and the recently proposed multiple origins of aquatically adapted pelvic and pedal features in this group can be more thoroughly tested by methods that take into account variation in branch lengths and evolutionary rates. In this study, we present the first mosasauroid phylogenetic analysis performed under different analytical methods, including maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and implied weighting maximum parsimony. The results indicate a lack of congruence in the topological position of halisaurines and Dallasaurus. Additionally, the genus Prognathodon is paraphyletic under all hypotheses. Interestingly, a number of traditional mosasauroid clades become weakly supported, or unresolved, under Bayesian analyses. The reduced resolutions in some consensus trees create ambiguities concerning the evolution of fully aquatic pelvic/pedal conditions under many analyses. However, when enough resolution was obtained, reversals of the pelvic/pedal conditions were favoured by parsimony and likelihood ancestral state reconstructions instead of independent origins of aquatic features in mosasauroids. It is concluded that most of the observed discrepancies among the results can be associated with different analytical procedures, but also due to limited postcranial data on halisaurines, yaguarasaurines and Dallasaurus.

  19. Mosasauroid phylogeny under multiple phylogenetic methods provides new insights on the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernygora, Oksana; Paparella, Ilaria; Jimenez-Huidobro, Paulina; Caldwell, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Mosasauroids were a successful lineage of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) that radiated during the Late Cretaceous (95–66 million years ago). They can be considered one of the few lineages in the evolutionary history of tetrapods to have acquired a fully aquatic lifestyle, similarly to whales, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a long history of research on this group, their phylogenetic relationships have only been tested so far using traditional (unweighted) maximum parsimony. However, hypotheses of mosasauroid relationships and the recently proposed multiple origins of aquatically adapted pelvic and pedal features in this group can be more thoroughly tested by methods that take into account variation in branch lengths and evolutionary rates. In this study, we present the first mosasauroid phylogenetic analysis performed under different analytical methods, including maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and implied weighting maximum parsimony. The results indicate a lack of congruence in the topological position of halisaurines and Dallasaurus. Additionally, the genus Prognathodon is paraphyletic under all hypotheses. Interestingly, a number of traditional mosasauroid clades become weakly supported, or unresolved, under Bayesian analyses. The reduced resolutions in some consensus trees create ambiguities concerning the evolution of fully aquatic pelvic/pedal conditions under many analyses. However, when enough resolution was obtained, reversals of the pelvic/pedal conditions were favoured by parsimony and likelihood ancestral state reconstructions instead of independent origins of aquatic features in mosasauroids. It is concluded that most of the observed discrepancies among the results can be associated with different analytical procedures, but also due to limited postcranial data on halisaurines, yaguarasaurines and Dallasaurus. PMID:28467456

  20. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  1. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  2. Adaptive Sensing with Reliable Guarantee under White Gaussian Noise Channels of Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of sensing is a fundamental research topic in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an adaptive sensing technique to guarantee the end-to-end reliability while maximizing the lifetime of sensor networks under additive white Gaussian noise channels. First, we conduct theoretical analysis to obtain optimal node number N∗, node placement d∗, and node transmission structure P∗ under minimum total energy consumption and minimum unit data transmission energy consumption. Then, because sensor nodes closer to the sink consume more energy, nodes far from the sink have more residual energy. Based on this observation, we propose an adaptive sensing technique to achieve balanced network energy consumption. It adopts lower reliability requirement and shorter transmission distance for nodes near the sink and adopts higher reliability requirement and farther transmission distance for nodes far from the sink. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our design can improve the network lifetime by several times (1–5 times and network utility by 20% and the desired reliability level is also guaranteed.

  3. The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valladares, F.; Matesanz, S.; Guilhaumon, F.; Araujo, M.; Balaguer, L.; Benito-Garzon, M.; Cornwell, W.K.; Gianoli, E.; van Kleunen, M.; Naya, D.E.; Nicotra, A.B.; Poorter, H.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic

  4. [Spatiotemporal variations of natural wetland CH4 emissions over China under future climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-gong; Zhu, Qiu-an; Shen, Yan; Yang, Yan-zheng; Luo, Yun-peng; Peng, Chang-hui

    2015-11-01

    Based on a new process-based model, TRIPLEX-GHG, this paper analyzed the spatio-temporal variations of natural wetland CH4 emissions over China under different future climate change scenarios. When natural wetland distributions were fixed, the amount of CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystem over China would increase by 32.0%, 55.3% and 90.8% by the end of 21st century under three representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios, RCP2. 6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, compared with the current level. Southern China would have higher CH4 emissions compared to that from central and northern China. Besides, there would be relatively low emission fluxes in western China while relatively high emission fluxes in eastern China. Spatially, the areas with relatively high CH4 emission fluxes would be concentrated in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Northeast and the coasts of the Pearl River. In the future, most natural wetlands would emit more CH4 for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 than that of 2005. However, under RCP2.6 scenario, the increasing trend would be curbed and CH4 emissions (especially from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau) begin to decrease in the late 21st century.

  5. Study on the Variation of Groundwater Level under Time-varying Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Hsieh, Ping-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    The slopes of the suburbs come to important areas by focusing on the work of soil and water conservation in recent years. The water table inside the aquifer is affected by rainfall, geology and topography, which will result in the change of groundwater discharge and water level. Currently, the way to obtain water table information is to set up the observation wells; however, owing to that the cost of equipment and the wells excavated is too expensive, we develop a mathematical model instead, which might help us to simulate the groundwater level variation. In this study, we will discuss the groundwater level change in a sloping unconfined aquifer with impermeable bottom under time-varying rainfall events. Referring to Child (1971), we employ the Boussinesq equation as the governing equation, and apply the General Integral Transforms Method (GITM) to analyzing the groundwater level after linearizing the Boussinesq equation. After comparing the solution with Verhoest & Troch (2000) and Bansal & Das (2010), we get satisfactory results. To sum up, we have presented an alternative approach to solve the linearized Boussinesq equation for the response of groundwater level in a sloping unconfined aquifer. The present analytical results combine the effect of bottom slope and the time-varying recharge pattern on the water table fluctuations. Owing to the limitation and difficulty of measuring the groundwater level directly, we develop such a mathematical model that we can predict or simulate the variation of groundwater level affected by any rainfall events in advance.

  6. Robust group fused lasso for multisample copy number variation detection under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Noghabi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Majid; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important needs in the post-genome era is providing the researchers with reliable and efficient computational tools to extract and analyse this huge amount of biological data, in which DNA copy number variation (CNV) is a vitally important one. Array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) is a common approach in order to detect CNVs. Most of methods for this purpose were proposed for one-dimensional profiles. However, slightly this focus has moved from one- to multi-dimensional signals. In addition, since contamination of these profiles with noise is always an issue, it is highly important to have a robust method for analysing multi-sample aCGH profiles. In this study, the authors propose robust group fused lasso which utilises the robust group total variations. Instead of l 2,1 norm, the l 1 - l 2 M-estimator is used which is more robust in dealing with non-Gaussian noise and high corruption. More importantly, Correntropy (Welsch M-estimator) is also applied for fitting error. Extensive experiments indicate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the art algorithms and techniques under a wide range of scenarios with diverse noises.

  7. Acoustic Emission and Modal Frequency Variation in Concrete Specimens under Four-Point Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lacidogna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Acoustic Emission (AE and Dynamic Identification (DI techniques were applied simultaneously, in an original way, to examine the stress dependent damage progress in pre-notched concrete beams tested in four-point bending. The damage mechanisms were characterized by analyzing the AE signals registered during the tests, conducted by increasing the specimen’s vertical deflection. In particular, the dominant fracture mode was identified, and correlations between dissipated and emitted energies were investigated. Moreover, variations in the natural bending frequencies, produced by the crack advancement under loading, were detected and put in relation with the cumulated AE energy. Two different types of piezoelectric (PZT sensors, operating in well distinct frequency ranges, were used to measure AE and modal signals. This study may be of interest with an outlook on possible correlations between a multi-parameter structural monitoring and the solution of inverse problems by numerical models.

  8. An Enhanced UWB-Based Range/GPS Cooperative Positioning Approach Using Adaptive Variational Bayesian Cubature Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise position awareness is a fundamental requirement for advanced applications of emerging intelligent transportation systems, such as collision warning and speed advisory system. However, the achievable level of positioning accuracy using global navigation satellite systems does not meet the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, cooperative positioning (CP techniques can improve the performance of positioning in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET through sharing the positions between vehicles. In this paper, a novel enhanced CP technique is presented by combining additional range-ultra-wide bandwidth- (UWB- based measurements. Furthermore, an adaptive variational Bayesian cubature Kalman filtering (AVBCKF algorithm is proposed and used in the enhanced CP method, which can add robustness to the time-variant measurement noise. Based on analytical and experimental results, the proposed AVBCKF-based CP method outperforms the cubature Kalman filtering- (CKF- based CP method and extended Kalman filtering- (EKF- based CP method.

  9. On the possibility of a decay ratio jump under continuous parameter variation in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Carsten; Hennig, Dieter; Hurtado, Antonio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Wasserstoff- und Kernenergietechnik

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that specific methods of the nonlinear dynamics like bifurcation analysis are helpful to understand the temporal behavior of the nonlinear dynamical system BWR in many details. So, the stability state of the system changes discontinuously if a nonlinear dynamical system encountered a Hopf bifurcation under parameter variation. BWR stability analysis is performed in the most cases by application of system codes which provide the time evolution of the neutron flux or thermal power at a defined operational point (OP) after imposing a system parameter perturbation (like a control rod sinusoidal movement). However, in general, we are not able to understand the real stability state of the BWR at a specific OP by application of system code analysis alone. We have shown in the paper that complex dynamical states with coexisting stability modes (fixed points, stable and unstable limit cycles) could spontaneously emerge under selected system parameter variations. Hence, even in the relative simple case where stable fixed points and unstable limit cycles coexist, in the framework of a stability test the unstable dynamical mode could be overlooked because the simple stability linear indicator ''decay ratio'' does not indicate an unstable state for small amplitude perturbations. Or, e.g., both, the in-phase and the out-of-phase oscillation mode can encounter a Hopf bifurcation (everyone for itself) resulting in a change of the stability characteristics which cannot be ''detected'' by the asymptotic decay ratio. (orig.)

  10. Isotopic variation in five species of stream fishes under the influence of different land uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D R; Castro, D; Callisto, M; Moreira, M Z; Pompeu, P S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test if changes in land use alter the isotopic signature of fish species, promoting changes in the trophic position and food resource partitioning between these consumers. Three different systems were investigated: pasture streams (n = 3), streams in sugar cane plantations (n = 3) and reference streams (n = 3). Fish species Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Astyanax altiparanae, Characidium zebra, Hisonotus piracanjuba and Knodus moenkhausii were selected, and their nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions were estimated to assess changes in the trophic level and partitioning of food items consumed. The composition of δ(13) C (‰) only differed among the land use categories for A. altiparanae, H. piracanjuba and K. moenkhausii. Resource partitioning was different for all species, with changes in the sources or proportions they consumed in each land use category, but only A. altiparanae introduced new food sources in large quantity in altered land uses. It is important to note, however, that the results from the resource partitioning analysis are limited due to large overlapping of isotopic signatures between the analysed food resources. All fish species exhibited variation in δ(15) N (‰), with the highest values found in streams under sugar cane or pasture influence. Despite the variation in nitrogen isotopic values, only C. zebra and H. piracanjuba displayed changes in trophic level. Therefore, it is believed that the increase in the δ(15) N (‰) value of the individuals collected in streams under the influence of sugar cane or pasture was due to the greater influence of livestock dung and chemical and organic fertilizers. The results also highlight the importance of studying consumer species along with all forms of resources available at each location separately, because the signatures of these resources also vary within different land uses. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Kempenaers, Bart

    2017-10-01

    differential light sensitivities may explain why early singers showed more plastic behavioural responses to naturally and artificially bright nights. The maintenance of rhythmicity in the late singers during bright northern nights and under artificial night lighting may also be an adaptive response to predation risk or costs of sleep loss. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  12. The experiences and adaptations of abortion providers practicing under a new TRAP law: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Rebecca J; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy; Britton, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Abortion laws are proliferating in the United States, but little is known about their impact on abortion providers. In 2011, North Carolina instituted the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act, which mandates a 24-h waiting period and counseling with state-prescribed information prior to abortion. We performed a qualitative study to explore the experiences of abortion providers practicing under this law. We conducted semistructured interviews with 31 abortion providers (17 physicians, 9 nurses, 1 physician assistant, 1 counselor and 3 clinic administrators) in North Carolina. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We identified emergent themes, coded all transcripts and developed a thematic framework. Two major themes define provider experiences with the WRTK law: provider objections/challenges and provider adaptations. Most providers described the law in negative terms, though providers varied in the extent to which they were affected. Many providers described extensive alterations in clinic practices to balance compliance with minimization of burdens for patients. Providers indicated that biased language and inappropriate content in counseling can negatively impact the patient-physician relationship by interfering with trust and rapport. Most providers developed verbal strategies to mitigate the emotional impacts for patients. Abortion providers in North Carolina perceive WRTK to have a negative impact on their clinical practice. Compliance is burdensome, and providers perceive potential harm to patients. The overall impact of WRTK is shaped by interaction between the requirements of the law and the adaptations providers make in order to comply with the law while continuing to provide comprehensive abortion care. Laws like WRTK are burdensome for providers. Providers adapt their clinical practices not only to comply with laws but also to minimize the emotional and practical impacts on

  13. Sexually antagonistic selection on genetic variation underlying both male and female same-sex sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; You, Tao; Minano, Maravillas R; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-05-13

    Intralocus sexual conflict, arising from selection for different alleles at the same locus in males and females, imposes a constraint on sex-specific adaptation. Intralocus sexual conflict can be alleviated by the evolution of sex-limited genetic architectures and phenotypic expression, but pleiotropic constraints may hinder this process. Here, we explored putative intralocus sexual conflict and genetic (co)variance in a poorly understood behavior with near male-limited expression. Same-sex sexual behaviors (SSBs) generally do not conform to classic evolutionary models of adaptation but are common in male animals and have been hypothesized to result from perception errors and selection for high male mating rates. However, perspectives incorporating sex-specific selection on genes shared by males and females to explain the expression and evolution of SSBs have largely been neglected. We performed two parallel sex-limited artificial selection experiments on SSB in male and female seed beetles, followed by sex-specific assays of locomotor activity and male sex recognition (two traits hypothesized to be functionally related to SSB) and adult reproductive success (allowing us to assess fitness consequences of genetic variance in SSB and its correlated components). Our experiments reveal both shared and sex-limited genetic variance for SSB. Strikingly, genetically correlated responses in locomotor activity and male sex-recognition were associated with sexually antagonistic fitness effects, but these effects differed qualitatively between male and female selection lines, implicating intralocus sexual conflict at both male- and female-specific genetic components underlying SSB. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that widespread pleiotropy generates pervasive intralocus sexual conflict governing the expression of SSBs, suggesting that SSB in one sex can occur due to the expression of genes that carry benefits in the other sex.

  14. Cross-Continental Comparisons of Grain Yields Under Climate Change: Potential for Agricultural Adaptation to Offset Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Twine, T. E.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Girvetz, E. H.; Chhetri, N.; McCarthy, H. R.; Xu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in the timing and magnitude of warming and changes in precipitation patterns will have differential effects on the yields of staple grains under climate change. Modeling these changes accurately at the regional scale is important to prioritize adaptation measures to continue to provide food for a growing global population. We used climate projections from five IPCC AR4 CMIP3 climate models (BCCR-BCM2.0, CSIRO-Mk3.5, IPSL-CM4v1, CCSR-MIROC3.2-medres, and NCAR-CCSM3) and three emissions scenarios (B1, A1b, and A2) to obtain a robust estimate of future climate possibilities. Key modeled hydroclimatic variables impacting yield were compared with 20th century observational data to assess the model's representation of the mean state, seasonal cycle, and interannual to decadal variability for four sites located in Iowa, USA; Punjab, India; Free State, South Africa; and the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. We used the process-based model Agro-IBIS to project climate change impacts to annual yield and growing season net primary productivity of maize (USA and India) and winter wheat (South Africa and Australia) in these regions. Changes in productivity at each of the four sites are related to current climate variability and projected changes, taking into account model performance and limiting factors for growth in the different regions. Relative changes in maize/wheat yields in the four regions between three periods (the late 20th and mid- and late-21st century) can be attributed to progressively changing local climate conditions and linked to large-scale circulation changes. For example, India is projected to experience the greatest warming along with a decrease in mean precipitation, which might substantially decrease yields, while under some scenarios of warming and increased mean precipitation, Iowa is predicted to experience yield increases. In addition to mean changes, frequency and magnitude of high- and low-yield years are assessed for the three periods

  15. Adaptation of Propionibacterium freudenreichii to long-term survival under gradual nutritional shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburjaile, Flavia Figueira; Rohmer, Marine; Parrinello, Hugues; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Beaucher, Eric; Henry, Gwénaële; Nicolas, Aurélie; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Thierry, Anne; Parayre, Sandrine; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Le Loir, Yves; Falentin, Hélène

    2016-12-08

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an Actinobacterium widely used in the dairy industry as a ripening culture for Swiss-type cheeses, for vitamin B12 production and some strains display probiotic properties. It is reportedly a hardy bacterium, able to survive the cheese-making process and digestive stresses. During this study, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 138 (alias ITG P9), which has a generation time of five hours in Yeast Extract Lactate medium at 30 °C under microaerophilic conditions, was incubated for 11 days (9 days after entry into stationary phase) in a culture medium, without any adjunct during the incubation. The carbon and free amino acids sources available in the medium, and the organic acids produced by the strain, were monitored throughout growth and survival. Although lactate (the preferred carbon source for P. freudenreichii) was exhausted three days after inoculation, the strain sustained a high population level of 9.3 log 10 CFU/mL. Its physiological adaptation was investigated by RNA-seq analysis and revealed a complete disruption of metabolism at the entry into stationary phase as compared to exponential phase. P. freudenreichii adapts its metabolism during entry into stationary phase by down-regulating oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the Wood-Werkman cycle by exploiting new nitrogen (glutamate, glycine, alanine) sources, by down-regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of protein. Utilization of polyphosphates was suggested.

  16. Circulatory mechanisms underlying adaptive increases in thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin B; Ivy, Catherine M; Velotta, Jonathan P; Storz, Jay F; McClelland, Grant B; Cheviron, Zachary A; Scott, Graham R

    2017-10-15

    We examined the circulatory mechanisms underlying adaptive increases in thermogenic capacity in deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) native to the cold hypoxic environment at high altitudes. Deer mice from high- and low-altitude populations were born and raised in captivity to adulthood, and then acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (simulating hypoxia at ∼4300 m). Thermogenic capacity [maximal O 2 consumption ( V̇ O 2 ,max ), during cold exposure] was measured in hypoxia, along with arterial O 2 saturation ( S a O 2 ) and heart rate ( f H ). Hypoxia acclimation increased V̇ O 2 ,max by a greater magnitude in highlanders than in lowlanders. Highlanders also had higher S a O 2  and extracted more O 2 from the blood per heartbeat (O 2 pulse= V̇ O 2 ,max / f H ). Hypoxia acclimation increased f H , O 2 pulse and capillary density in the left ventricle of the heart. Our results suggest that adaptive increases in thermogenic capacity involve integrated functional changes across the O 2 cascade that augment O 2 circulation and extraction from the blood. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Decision-Making under Uncertainty for Water Sustainability and Urban Climate Change Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli L. Larson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Complexities and uncertainties surrounding urbanization and climate change complicate water resource sustainability. Although research has examined various aspects of complex water systems, including uncertainties, relatively few attempts have been made to synthesize research findings in particular contexts. We fill this gap by examining the complexities, uncertainties, and decision processes for water sustainability and urban adaptation to climate change in the case study region of Phoenix, Arizona. In doing so, we integrate over a decade of research conducted by Arizona State University’s Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC. DCDC is a boundary organization that conducts research in collaboration with policy makers, with the goal of informing decision-making under uncertainty. Our results highlight: the counterintuitive, non-linear, and competing relationships in human–environment dynamics; the myriad uncertainties in climatic, scientific, political, and other domains of knowledge and practice; and, the social learning that has occurred across science and policy spheres. Finally, we reflect on how our interdisciplinary research and boundary organization has evolved over time to enhance adaptive and sustainable governance in the face of complex system dynamics.

  18. Cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and truncated ARQ under cognitive radio resource requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-11-01

    In addressing the issue of taking full advantage of the shared spectrum under imposed limitations in a cognitive radio (CR) network, we exploit a cross-layer design for the communications of secondary users (SUs), which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer. To achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) while maintaining a target packet loss probability (PLP), switching among different transmission modes is performed to match the time-varying propagation conditions pertaining to the secondary link. Herein, by minimizing the SU\\'s packet error rate (PER) with each transmission mode subject to the spectrum-sharing constraints, we obtain the optimal power allocation at the secondary transmitter (ST) and then derive the probability density function (pdf) of the received SNR at the secondary receiver (SR). Based on these statistics, the SU\\'s packet loss rate and average SE are obtained in closed form, considering transmissions over block-fading channels with different distributions. Our results quantify the relation between the performance of a secondary link exploiting the cross-layer-designed adaptive transmission and the interference inflicted on the primary user (PU) in CR networks. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  19. Biochemical adaptations of four submerged macrophytes under combined exposure to hypoxia and hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Mahfuza; Asaeda, Takashi; Rashid, Md H

    2017-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was performed to investigate the stress responses and biochemical adaptations of four submerged macrophytes, Potamogeton crispus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Egeria densa, and Potamogeton oxyphyllus, to the combined exposure of hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, provided by NaHS). The investigated plants were subjected to a control, hypoxia, 0.1mM NaHS, 0.5 mM NaHS, 0.1 mM NaHS+hypoxia and 0.5 mM NaHS+hypoxia conditions. All experimental plants grew optimally under control, hypoxic and NaHS conditions in comparison to that grown in the combined exposure of hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide. For P. crispus and M. spicatum, significant decreases of total chlorophyll and increases in oxidative stress (measured by hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, and malondialdehyde, MDA) were observed with exposure to both sulfide concentrations. However, the decrease in catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) from exposure to 0.5 mM NaHS suggests that the function of the protective enzymes reached their limit under these conditions. In contrast, for E. densa and P. oxyphyllus, the higher activities of the three antioxidative enzymes and their anaerobic respiration abilities (ADH activity) resulted in higher tolerance and susceptibility under high sulfide concentrations.

  20. Biochemical adaptations of four submerged macrophytes under combined exposure to hypoxia and hydrogen sulphide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuza Parveen

    Full Text Available A hydroponic experiment was performed to investigate the stress responses and biochemical adaptations of four submerged macrophytes, Potamogeton crispus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Egeria densa, and Potamogeton oxyphyllus, to the combined exposure of hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, provided by NaHS. The investigated plants were subjected to a control, hypoxia, 0.1mM NaHS, 0.5 mM NaHS, 0.1 mM NaHS+hypoxia and 0.5 mM NaHS+hypoxia conditions. All experimental plants grew optimally under control, hypoxic and NaHS conditions in comparison to that grown in the combined exposure of hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide. For P. crispus and M. spicatum, significant decreases of total chlorophyll and increases in oxidative stress (measured by hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, and malondialdehyde, MDA were observed with exposure to both sulfide concentrations. However, the decrease in catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX from exposure to 0.5 mM NaHS suggests that the function of the protective enzymes reached their limit under these conditions. In contrast, for E. densa and P. oxyphyllus, the higher activities of the three antioxidative enzymes and their anaerobic respiration abilities (ADH activity resulted in higher tolerance and susceptibility under high sulfide concentrations.

  1. The maternal brain under stress: Consequences for adaptive peripartum plasticity and its potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, David A; Hillerer, Katharina M

    2016-04-01

    The peripartum period represents a time during which all mammalian species undergo substantial physiological and behavioural changes, which prepare the female for the demands of motherhood. In addition to behavioural and physiological alterations, numerous brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory bulb, medial amygdala and hippocampus are subject to substantial peripartum-associated neuronal, dendritic and synaptic plasticity. These changes, which are temporally- and spatially-distinct, are strongly influenced by gonadal and adrenal hormones, such as estrogen and cortisol/corticosterone, which undergo dramatic fluctuations across this period. In this review, we describe our current knowledge regarding these plasticity changes and describe how stress affects such normal adaptations. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms potentially underlying these neuronal, dendritic and synaptic changes and their functional relevance for the mother and her offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extended Delivery Time Analysis for Secondary Packet Transmission With Adaptive Modulation Under Interweave Cognitive Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing

    2017-05-02

    Cognitive radio communication can opportunistically access underutilized spectrum for emerging wireless applications. With interweave cognitive implementation, a secondary user (SU) transmits only if primary user does not occupy the channel and waits for transmission otherwise. Therefore, secondary packet transmission involves both transmission periods and waiting periods. The resulting extended delivery time (EDT) is critical to the throughput analysis of secondary system. In this paper, we study the EDT of secondary packet transmission with adaptive modulation under interweave implementation to facilitate the delay analysis of such cognitive radio system. In particular, we propose an analytical framework to derive the probability density functions of EDT considering random-length SU transmission and waiting periods. We also present selected numerical results to illustrate the mathematical formulations and to verify our analytical approach.

  3. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  4. Assessment of seasonal variation for air pollutant accumulation by Zizyphus tree under washing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Mohamed Abdulraheem; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy Saad; Almehmadi, Fahd Mosallam; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Al-Shareef, Abdulmohsin Rajeh

    2016-06-01

    A field study was carried out near Jeddah Industrial Zone to estimate the leaf impairment, physiological disorders, and air pollutant accumulation potential of Ziziphus tree. The experiment was triplicated in RCBD design with factorial arrangement having seasonality as the main plot and washing as subplot treatments along with the control. Accumulation of heavy metals and micronutrients in plant foliage varied significantly under the influence of seasons and washing treatments. The maximum accumulation of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were perceived in summer season while the minimum was observed in winter. Contrarily, a greater acquisition of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese was observed in autumn. Washing significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb by 58, 90, 80, and 96 %, while Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn by 89, 37, 60, and 93 %, respectively. Leaf protein and nitrogen content illustrated a greater adjustment for pollutants by presenting a minimum variation (14-18 % and 2-3 %) to seasonality. In contrast, leaf area and stomatal aperture were significantly disturbed and resulted in minimum recovery under washing. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger negative interaction of heavy metal accumulation to leaf features while non-significant interaction was perceived for microelements. In conclusion, planting of Ziziphus trees along industrial areas may impede potential threats of toxic pollutants to human and ecosystem.

  5. Proximity of signallers can maintain sexual signal variation under stabilizing selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; Heath, Jeremy; Lievers, Rik; Schal, Coby; Groot, Astrid T

    2017-12-22

    How sexual communication systems can evolve under stabilizing selection is still a paradox in evolutionary biology. In moths, females emit a species-specific sex pheromone, consisting of a blend of biochemically related components, to which males are attracted. Although males appear to exert strong stabilizing selection on female pheromone, these blends seem to have evolved rapidly, as evidenced by ~120,000 moth species. Here we propose and test a "proximity model" wherein two females that vary in their relative attractiveness to males, can both benefit from calling in close proximity to each other. In a field study, we show that (1) artificially selected unattractive females can achieve mating rates comparable to attractive females if they signal in close proximity to attractive females, and (2) attractive females benefit from higher mating rates when signalling in close proximity to unattractive females. We propose that frequency-dependent behavioural and spatial interactions can sustain signal variation within populations even when these signals are under stabilizing selection.

  6. Variations of melatonin and stress hormones under extended shifts and radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katia Koicheva; Israel, Mishel Salvador

    2005-01-01

    We studied the time-of-day variations in urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin and three stress hormones in operators working fast-rotating extended shifts under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The excretion rate of the hormones was monitored by radioimmunoassay and spectrofluorimetry at 4-hour intervals in a group of 36 male operators comprising 12 broadcasting station operators, 12 TV station operators, and a control group of 12 satellite station operators. Measuring the time-weighted average (TWA) of EMR exposure revealed a high-level of exposure in broadcasting station operators (TWAmean= 3.10 microW/ cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 microW/cm2), a low-level in TV station operators (TWAmean = 1.89 microW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 microW/cm2), and a very low level in satellite station operators. The differences among the groups remained the same after confounding factors were taken into account. Radiofrequency EMR had no effect on the typical diurnal pattern of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin. High-level radiofrequency EMR exposure significantly increased the excretion rates of cortisol (p cortisol and noradrenaline correlated with TWAmean and TWAmax. In conclusion, the excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin retained a typical diurnal pattern under fast-rotating extended shifts and radiofrequency EMR, but showed an exposure-effect relation with stress hormones.

  7. Genetic variation underlying psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis: critical review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Jeroen; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk for psychotic disorder, yet most cannabis users do not develop psychosis, suggesting that other factors are also involved. This paper reviews the available evidence suggesting that differential sensitivity to the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis may be related to underlying genetic liability. There is robust evidence that persons at psychometric risk for psychosis are most vulnerable to display psychotic symptoms subsequent to the use of cannabis. Multiple studies have also found that persons at familial risk for psychosis have an increased sensitivity to the effects of cannabis. Together, these findings support the concept of a biological interaction between cannabis use and one's underlying genetic vulnerability. At the molecular-genetic level, however, few (if any) interactions have been consistently replicated, although a reported interaction with variation in AKT1 is promising and deserves further follow-up. The apparent lack of consistent replication can be ascribed to problems of initial gene selection, statistical power, a bias towards positive results and insufficient attempts at true replication, leading to the conclusion that increased sample sizes, greater density of genetic markers and a stronger focus on true replication are necessary. The major challenge for molecular-genetic gene-environment interaction research will be to combine the agnostic detection of disorder-associated genetic variants from genome-wide studies with the hypothesis-based approach from epidemiological and neurobiological studies. Possible strategies for future cannabis interaction studies are discussed.

  8. Adaptation Pathway of Low Impact Development Planning under Climate Change for a Sustainable Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. Y.; Tung, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    The study focuses on developing the methodology of adaptation pathway for storm water management in a community scale. Following previous results on adaptation procedures including problem and goal setup, current risk assessment and analysis, future risk assessment and analysis, and adaptation options identification and evaluation, the study aims at analyzing adaptation pathway planning and implementation, namely the fifth step, for applying low impact development (LID). Based on the efficacy analyses of the feasible adaptation options, an adaptation pathway map can be build. Each pathway is a combination of the adaptation measures arranged in certain order. The developed adaptation pathway map visualizes the relative effectiveness and the connection of the adaptation measures. In addition, the tipping points of the system can be clearly identified and the triggers can be defined accordingly. There are multiple choices of pathways in an adaptation pathway map, which can be referred as pathway candidates. To ensure the applicability and operability, the methodology of adaptation pathway analysis is applied to a case study. Required information for developing an adaptation pathway map includes the scores of the adaptation options on the criteria, namely the effects, costs, immediacy, and side effect. Feasible adaptation options for the design case are dredging, pipeline expansion, pumping station, LID and detention pond. By ranking the options according to the criteria, LID is found dominating dredging and pumping station in this case. The information of the pathway candidates can be further used by the stakeholders to select the most suitable and promising pathway.

  9. Natural variation in rosette size under salt stress conditions corresponds to developmental differences between Arabidopsis accessions and allelic variation in the LRR-KISS gene

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2016-02-11

    Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions is an important genetic resource to identify mechanisms underlying plant development and stress tolerance. To evaluate the natural variation in salinity stress tolerance, two large-scale experiments were performed on two populations consisting of 160 Arabidopsis accessions each. Multiple traits, including projected rosette area, and fresh and dry weight were collected as an estimate for salinity tolerance. Our results reveal a correlation between rosette size under salt stress conditions and developmental differences between the accessions grown in control conditions, suggesting that in general larger plants were more salt tolerant. This correlation was less pronounced when plants were grown under severe salt stress conditions. Subsequent genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed associations with novel candidate genes for salinity tolerance such as LRR-KISS (At4g08850), flowering locus KH-domain containing protein and a DUF1639-containing protein. Accessions with high LRR-KISS expression developed larger rosettes under salt stress conditions. Further characterization of allelic variation in candidate genes identified in this study will provide more insight into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance due to enhanced shoot growth.

  10. Variations of Growth and Toxin Yield in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii under Different Phosphorus Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bloom-forming cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, is a producer of the cytotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN. In this study, the growth, toxin yield, and expression of CYN biosynthesis genes of C. raciborskii were examined under varying phosphorus (P concentrations. The results show the cell number at 0.00 and 0.01 mg·L−1 P was significantly lower than that at higher P concentrations (≥0.5 mg·L−1. The chlorophyll a content, filament length, heterocyst, and akinete numbers at P ≤ 0.05 mg·L−1 were also significantly reduced. The intracellular and extracellular CYN concentrations and the extracellular proportions increased during the culture period, and larger values were observed at higher P concentrations. Total CYN content reached 45.34–63.83 fg·cell−1 and extracellular CYN proportion reached 11.49%–20.44% at the stationary growth phase. A significantly positive correlation was observed between CYN production and cell growth rate. Three cyr genes were expressed constantly even at P-deficient conditions. The transcription of cyr genes at P-replete conditions or after P supplementation increased from 1.18-fold to 8.33-fold. In conclusion, C. raciborskii may rapidly reorganize metabolic processes as an adaptive response to environmental P fluctuations. CYN production and cyr gene expression were constitutive metabolic processes in toxic C. raciborskii.

  11. Variation of saponin contents and physiological status in Quillaja saponaria under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandón, Angélica S; Espinosa, B Miguel; Ríos, Darcy L; Sánchez, O Manuel; Sáez, C Katia; Hernández, S Víctor; Becerra, A José

    2013-12-01

    Quillaja saponaria (Quillay), an evergreen tree found in Chile, is one of the main sources of saponins. Quillaja saponins have hypocholesterolaemic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and pesticidal properties, and are used as adjuvants for vaccines. Samples of Quillay growing at three zones in O'Higgins Region, Chile (Coastal, Central and Mountain zones) were analyzed for content of saponins and physiological status. The results revealed differences in the content of saponins depending on the zone of sample collection. The highest contents were found in samples from the Mountain zone, where the highest saponin contents were accompanied by the lowest foliar nitrogen contents, the highest antioxidant activity and the highest carotenoid contents. The results suggest a physiological and adaptive mechanism of saponins in plants to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. The results have important implications for a theoretical basis for the design of a reasonable harvest, to avoid the cost of poor quality material, and also to provide a sustainable use and conservation of this important species. Further research on the effects of stress will improve our understanding of the saponins production and their physiological functions in plants, whereas they have generally been studied for their biological and chemical applications.

  12. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  13. Adaptive correction procedure for TVL1 image deblurring under impulse noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Minru; Zhang, Xiongjun; Shao, Qianqian

    2016-08-01

    For the problem of image restoration of observed images corrupted by blur and impulse noise, the widely used TVL1 model may deviate from both the data-acquisition model and the prior model, especially for high noise levels. In order to seek a solution of high recovery quality beyond the reach of the TVL1 model, we propose an adaptive correction procedure for TVL1 image deblurring under impulse noise. Then, a proximal alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is presented to solve the corrected TVL1 model and its convergence is also established under very mild conditions. It is verified by numerical experiments that our proposed approach outperforms the TVL1 model in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values and visual quality, especially for high noise levels: it can handle salt-and-pepper noise as high as 90% and random-valued noise as high as 70%. In addition, a comparison with a state-of-the-art method, the two-phase method, demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach.

  14. A self-adaptive thermal switch array for rapid temperature stabilization under various thermal power inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaobao; Patel, Pragnesh; Narain, Amitabh; Desheng Meng, Dennis

    2011-08-01

    A self-adaptive thermal switch array (TSA) based on actuation by low-melting-point alloy droplets is reported to stabilize the temperature of a heat-generating microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device at a predetermined range (i.e. the optimal working temperature of the device) with neither a control circuit nor electrical power consumption. When the temperature is below this range, the TSA stays off and works as a thermal insulator. Therefore, the MEMS device can quickly heat itself up to its optimal working temperature during startup. Once this temperature is reached, TSA is automatically turned on to increase the thermal conductance, working as an effective thermal spreader. As a result, the MEMS device tends to stay at its optimal working temperature without complex thermal management components and the associated parasitic power loss. A prototype TSA was fabricated and characterized to prove the concept. The stabilization temperatures under various power inputs have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Under the increment of power input from 3.8 to 5.8 W, the temperature of the device increased only by 2.5 °C due to the stabilization effect of TSA.

  15. Performance and Adaptive Surge-Preventing Acceleration Prediction of a Turboshaft Engine under Inlet Flow Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Dalu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to research the inlet flow distortion influence on overall performance of turboshaft engine and put forward a method called Distortion Factor Item (DFI to improve the fuel supply plan for surge-preventing acceleration when turboshaft engine suddenly encounters inlet flow distortion. Based on the parallel compressor theory, steady-state and transition-state numerical simulation model of turboshaft engine with sub-compressor model were established for researching the influence of inlet flow distortion on turboshaft engine. This paper made a detailed analysis on the compressor operation from the aspects of performance and stability, and then analyzed the overall performance and dynamic response of the whole engine under inlet flow distortion. Improved fuel supply plan with DFI method was applied to control the acceleration process adaptively when encountering different inlet flow distortion. Several simulation examples about extreme natural environments were calculated to testify DFI method’s environmental applicability. The result shows that the inlet flow distortion reduces the air inflow and decreases the surge margin of compressor, and increase the engine exhaust loss. Encountering inlet flow distortion has many adverse influences such as sudden rotor acceleration, turbine inlet temperature rise and power output reduction. By using improved fuel supply plan with DFI, turboshaft engine above-idle acceleration can avoid surge effectively under inlet flow distortion with environmental applicability.

  16. Methods for quantifying the influences of pressure and temperature variation on metal hydride reaction rates measured under isochoric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuilen, Tyler G; Pourpoint, Timothée L

    2013-11-01

    Analysis techniques for determining gas-solid reaction rates from gas sorption measurements obtained under non-constant pressure and temperature conditions often neglect temporal variations in these quantities. Depending on the materials in question, this can lead to significant variations in the measured reaction rates. In this work, we present two new analysis techniques for comparison between various kinetic models and isochoric gas measurement data obtained under varying temperature and pressure conditions in a high pressure Sievert system. We introduce the integral pressure dependence method and the temperature dependence factor as means of correcting for experimental variations, improving model-measurement fidelity, and quantifying the effect that such variations can have on measured reaction rates. We use measurements of hydrogen absorption in LaNi5 and TiCrMn to demonstrate the effect of each of these methods and show that their use can provide quantitative improvements in interpretation of kinetics measurements.

  17. Early humans' egalitarian politics: runaway synergistic competition under an adapted veil of ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Marc

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a model of human uniqueness based on an unusual distinction between two contrasted kinds of political competition and political status: (1) antagonistic competition, in quest of dominance (antagonistic status), a zero-sum, self-limiting game whose stake--who takes what, when, how--summarizes a classical definition of politics (Lasswell 1936), and (2) synergistic competition, in quest of merit (synergistic status), a positive-sum, self-reinforcing game whose stake becomes "who brings what to a team's common good." In this view, Rawls's (1971) famous virtual "veil of ignorance" mainly conceals politics' antagonistic stakes so as to devise the principles of a just, egalitarian society, yet without providing any means to enforce these ideals (Sen 2009). Instead, this paper proposes that human uniqueness flourished under a real "adapted veil of ignorance" concealing the steady inflation of synergistic politics which resulted from early humans' sturdy egalitarianism. This proposition divides into four parts: (1) early humans first stumbled on a purely cultural means to enforce a unique kind of within-team antagonistic equality--dyadic balanced deterrence thanks to handheld weapons (Chapais 2008); (2) this cultural innovation is thus closely tied to humans' darkest side, but it also launched the cumulative evolution of humans' brightest qualities--egalitarian team synergy and solidarity, together with the associated synergistic intelligence, culture, and communications; (3) runaway synergistic competition for differential merit among antagonistically equal obligate teammates is the single politically selective mechanism behind the cumulative evolution of all these brighter qualities, but numerous factors to be clarified here conceal this mighty evolutionary driver; (4) this veil of ignorance persists today, which explains why humans' unique prosocial capacities are still not clearly understood by science. The purpose of this paper is to start lifting

  18. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  19. Diurnal variations in blood phenylalanine of PKU infants under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Margreet; Hoeksma, Marieke; Sauer, Pieter J J; Modderman, Pim; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, diurnal fluctuations of blood phenylalanine (Phe) are different from healthy individuals. Until now this pattern has been studied in PKU patients over one year of age. The aim of this observational study was to investigate diurnal patterns in PKU infants under one year of age receiving both the natural protein and Phe-free formula at the same time or in an alternating feeding scheme. In 7 PKU infants (aged 3-8 months), diurnal variations in blood Phe concentrations were recorded: on day A they received natural protein and Phe-free formula combined in each feeding; on day B they received these in an alternating feeding scheme. The number of feedings, total protein, and energy intake was similar on both study days. Blood samples were taken before each feeding. The means (± SD) of the difference between the individual minimum and maximum blood Phe concentrations were 81(± 50) μmol/L and 104(± 26) μmol/L on days A and B, respectively (n.s.). Fifty and 30% of the samples were below target range for age (120 μmol/L), while only 3% and 6% were above target range (360 μmol/L) on days A and B respectively (n.s.). Both feeding regimes, i.e. the natural protein and Phe-free formula combined in each feeding or alternating, resulted in comparable diurnal fluctuations of blood Phe concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ARHGEF9 mutations in epileptic encephalopathy/intellectual disability: toward understanding the mechanism underlying phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yang; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Jie; Tang, Bin; Su, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Li, Bing-Mei; Meng, Heng; Shi, Yi-Wu; Yi, Yong-Hong; He, Na; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2018-01-01

    ARHGEF9 resides on Xq11.1 and encodes collybistin, which is crucial in gephyrin clustering and GABA A receptor localization. ARHGEF9 mutations have been identified in patients with heterogeneous phenotypes, including epilepsy of variable severity and intellectual disability. However, the mechanism underlying phenotype variation is unknown. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified a novel mutation, c.868C > T/p.R290C, which co-segregated with epileptic encephalopathy, and validated its association with epileptic encephalopathy. Further analysis revealed that all ARHGEF9 mutations were associated with intellectual disability, suggesting its critical role in psychomotor development. Three missense mutations in the PH domain were not associated with epilepsy, suggesting that the co-occurrence of epilepsy depends on the affected functional domains. Missense mutations with severe molecular alteration in the DH domain, or located in the DH-gephyrin binding region, or adjacent to the SH3-NL2 binding site were associated with severe epilepsy, implying that the clinical severity was potentially determined by alteration of molecular structure and location of mutations. Male patients with ARHGEF9 mutations presented more severe phenotypes than female patients, which suggests a gene-dose effect and supports the pathogenic role of ARHGEF9 mutations. This study highlights the role of molecular alteration in phenotype expression and facilitates evaluation of the pathogenicity of ARHGEF9 mutations in clinical practice.

  1. Morphogenic and biochemical variations under different spectral lights in callus cultures of Artemisia absinthium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Umayya; Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-01-05

    Through its impact on morphogenesis, light is the key environmental factor that alters plant architectural development; however, the understanding that how light controls plant growth and developmental processes is still poor and needs further research. In this study, we monitored the effect of various monochromatic lights and plant growth regulators (PGRs) combinations on morphogenic and biochemical variation in wild grown-leaf derived callus cultures of Artemisia absinthium L. Combination of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA 1.0mg/l) and Thidiazuron (TDZ 2.0mg/l) resulted in optimum callogenic frequency (90%) when kept under fluorescent light for 4weeks (16/8h). In contrast to the control (white spectrum), red spectrum enhanced peroxidase activity, protease activity, total protein content and chlorophyll a/b ratio. Green spectrum was found to be more supportive for total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Yellow light enhanced MDA content while white and green light improved total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content. A positive correlation among callogenic response, antioxidant activities and set of antioxidative enzyme activities was also observed in the current report. This study will help in understanding the influence of light on production of commercially important secondary metabolites and their optimization in the in vitro cultures of A. absinthium L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M. [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1995-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Identification of Genes under Positive Selection Reveals Differences in Evolutionary Adaptation between Brown-Algal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Teng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae are an important taxonomic group in coastal ecosystems. The model brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica are closely related lineages. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they vary greatly in morphology and physiology. To obtain further insights into the evolutionary forces driving divergence in brown algae, we analyzed 3,909 orthologs from both species to identify Genes Under Positive Selection (GUPS. About 12% of the orthologs in each species were considered to be under positive selection. Many GUPS are involved in membrane transport, regulation of homeostasis, and sexual reproduction in the small sporophyte of E. siliculosus, which is known to have a complex life cycle and to occupy a wide range of habitats. Genes involved in photosynthesis and cell division dominated the group of GUPS in the large kelp of S. japonica, which might explain why this alga has evolved the ability to grow very rapidly and to form some of the largest sporophytes. A significant number of molecular chaperones (e.g., heat-shock proteins involved in stress responses were identified to be under positive selection in both species, potentially indicating their important roles for macroalgae to cope with the relatively variable environment of coastal ecosystems. Moreover, analysis of previously published microarray data of E. siliculosus showed that many GUPS in E. siliculosus were responsive to stress conditions, such as oxidative and hyposaline stress, whereas our RNA-seq data of S. japonica showed that GUPS in this species were most highly expressed in large sporophytes, which supports the suggestion that selection largely acts on different sets of genes in both marcoalgal species, potentially reflecting their adaptation to different ecological niches.

  4. Genetic and molecular analyses of natural variation indicate CBF2 as a candidate gene for underlying a freezing tolerance quantitative trait locus in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Blanco, C.; Gomez-Mena, C.; Llorente, F.; Koornneef, M.; Salinas, J.; Martinez-Zapater, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Natural variation for freezing tolerance is a major component of adaptation and geographic distribution of plant species. However, little is known about the genes and molecular mechanisms that determine its naturally occurring diversity. We have analyzed the intraspecific freezing tolerance

  5. Genetic adaptation of the human circadian clock to day-length latitudinal variations and relevance for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Diego; Pozzoli, Uberto; Cagliani, Rachele; Tresoldi, Claudia; Menozzi, Giorgia; Riva, Stefania; Guerini, Franca R; Comi, Giacomo P; Bolognesi, Elisabetta; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The temporal coordination of biological processes into daily cycles is a common feature of most living organisms. In humans, disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly observed in psychiatric diseases,including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and autism. Light therapy is the most effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder and circadian-related treatments sustain antidepressant response in bipolar disorder patients. Day/night cycles represent a major circadian synchronizing signal and vary widely with latitude. We apply a geographically explicit model to show that out-of-Africa migration, which led humans to occupy a wide latitudinal area, affected the evolutionary history of circadian regulatory genes. The SNPs we identify using this model display consistent signals of natural selection using tests based on population genetic differentiation and haplotype homozygosity. Signals of natural selection driven by annual photoperiod variation are detected for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and restless leg syndrome risk variants, in line with the circadian component of these conditions. Our results suggest that human populations adapted to life at different latitudes by tuning their circadian clock systems. This process also involves risk variants for neuropsychiatric conditions, suggesting possible genetic modulators for chronotherapies and candidates for interaction analysis with photoperiod-related environmental variables, such as season of birth, country of residence, shift-work or lifestyle habits.

  6. An Adaptive Measurement Report Period and Handoff Threshold Scheme Based on SINR Variation in LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenhui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of triggering handoff procedure at an appropriate point of time to reduce the ping-pong effect problem in the long-term evolution advanced (LTE-A network. In the meantime, we also have studied a dynamic handoff threshold scheme, named adaptive measurement report period and handoff threshold (AMPHT, based on the user equipment’s (UE’s reference signal received quality (RSRQ variation and the moving velocity of UE. AMPHT reduces the probability of unnecessarily premature handoff decision making and also avoids the problem of handoff failure due to too late handoff decision making when the moving velocity of UE is high. AMPHT is achieved by two critical parameters: (1 a dynamic RSRQ threshold for handoff making; (2 a dynamic interval of time for the UE’s RSRQ reporting. The performance of AMPHT is validated by comparing numerical experiments (MATLAB tool with simulation results (the ns-3 LENA module. Our experiments show that AMPHT reduces the premature handoff probability by 34% at most in a low moving velocity and reduces the handoff failure probability by 25% in a high moving velocity. Additionally, AMPHT can reduce a large number of unnecessary handoff overheads and can be easily implemented because it uses the original control messages of 3GPP E-UTRA.

  7. Lateral, radial and temporal variations in upper mantle viscosity and rheology under Scandinavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Wal, W. van der; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Drury, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The viscosity of the upper mantle has a large control on the dynamics of plate tectonic processes or the response of the Earth's crust after a period of glaciation. Temperature variations within the upper mantle, time-dependent stress changes due to glaciations, and/or variations in the

  8. Struggling to adapt: caring for older persons while under threat of organizational change and termination notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fläckman, Birgitta; Hansebo, Görel; Kihlgren, Annica

    2009-03-01

    Organizational changes are common in elder care today. Such changes affect caregivers, who are essential to providing good quality care. The aim of the present study was to illuminate caregivers' experiences of working in elder care while under threat of organizational change and termination notice. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine interview data from 11 caregivers. Interviews were conducted at three occasions during a two-year period. The findings show a transition in their experiences from 'having a professional identity and self-confidence', to 'being a professional in a threatening situation caused by someone else' and to 'struggling to adapt to a changed working environment as a person and a professional'. The caregivers experienced a loss of pride and satisfaction. Previous literature indicates that this may have consequences for the quality of care and that employees may be at risk of negative health effects. However, the caregivers continued to struggle, doing their best to complete their duties. The study has implications for high-level decision-makers, managers and caregivers in similar work-life situations in that it deals with factors that facilitate or impede similar transitions.

  9. THE ROLE OF PANCREATIC ENZYMOTHERAPY IN POSTNATAL ADAPTATION OF THE PREMATURE INFANTS UNDER ARTIFICIAL FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Dashichev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to immaturity of the digestive system of the premature children under artificial feeding there may often be effects of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions, which disturb postnatal adaptation among these newborns. The purpose of this research was to analyze a number of indices, characterizing the dynamics of the body weight and functional status of the gastrointestinal tract among the premature children, who received modern active digestive ferment at different periods of time. The authors presented the findings of the retrospective analysis of the case history among 29 premature children, who were held in the department of the premature children of the perinatal center. Children received pancreatine ferment (Creon 10000, Solvay Pharma, Germany. The ferment was introduced in the dosage of 150mg/day. This dose was orally introduced by minimicrospheres during every feeding and in some cases through the nasogastric probe. The ferment intake started in the early neonatal period among 13 children and in the late neonatal period among 16 children. During the course of the ferment therapy the frequency of the symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions drastically reduced. When the course of the ferment therapy was prescribed at an early age, the body weight increase tended to higher indices among premature children during the first month of their lives.Key words: premature children, pancreatic enzymotherapy, gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions.

  10. Adaptation to hydrological extremes through insurance: a financial fund simulation model under changing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Diego; Mohor, Guilherme; Câmara, Clarissa; Mendiondo, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Researches from around the world relate global environmental changes with the increase of vulnerability to extreme events, such as heavy and scarce precipitations - floods and droughts. Hydrological disasters have caused increasing losses in recent years. Thus, risk transfer mechanisms, such as insurance, are being implemented to mitigate impacts, finance the recovery of the affected population, and promote the reduction of hydrological risks. However, among the main problems in implementing these strategies, there are: First, the partial knowledge of natural and anthropogenic climate change in terms of intensity and frequency; Second, the efficient risk reduction policies require accurate risk assessment, with careful consideration of costs; Third, the uncertainty associated with numerical models and input data used. The objective of this document is to introduce and discuss the feasibility of the application of Hydrological Risk Transfer Models (HRTMs) as a strategy of adaptation to global climate change. The article shows the development of a methodology for the collective and multi-sectoral vulnerability management, facing the hydrological risk in the long term, under an insurance funds simulator. The methodology estimates the optimized premium as a function of willingness to pay (WTP) and the potential direct loss derived from hydrological risk. The proposed methodology structures the watershed insurance scheme in three analysis modules. First, the hazard module, which characterizes the hydrologic threat from the recorded series input or modelled series under IPCC / RCM's generated scenarios. Second, the vulnerability module calculates the potential economic loss for each sector1 evaluated as a function of the return period "TR". Finally, the finance module determines the value of the optimal aggregate premium by evaluating equiprobable scenarios of water vulnerability; taking into account variables such as the maximum limit of coverage, deductible

  11. Personal control over the cure of breast cancer : adaptiveness, underlying beliefs and correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Helgeson, Vicki S; de Vries, J; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V

    OBJECTIVES: Although cognitive adaptation theory suggests that personal control acts as a stress buffer when facing adversity, maladaptive outcomes might occur when control is disconfirmed. The moderating effect of disappointing news on the adaptiveness of personal control over cure in women with

  12. Personal control over the cure of breast cancer: adaptiveness, underlying beliefs and correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Helgeson, Vicki S.; de Vries, Jakob; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although cognitive adaptation theory suggests that personal control acts as a stress buffer when facing adversity, maladaptive outcomes might occur when control is disconfirmed. The moderating effect of disappointing news on the adaptiveness of personal control over cure in women with

  13. An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to

  14. Novel approach to evaluate the dynamic variation of wind drift and evaporation losses under moving irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Mohammad Z. Amini; Sparkle L. Malone; Hank W. Loescher

    2015-01-01

    The increased need for water and food security requires the development of new approaches to save water through irrigation management strategies, particularly for center pivot irrigation. To do so entails monitoring of the dynamic variation in wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) of irrigation systems under different weather conditions and for relatively long time...

  15. MDA and GSH-Px activity in transition dairy cows under seasonal variations and their relationship with reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colakoglu Hatice Esra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and malondialdehyde (MDA levels under seasonal variations in dairy cows during transition period, and to assess the relationship between chosen reproductive parameters, GSH-Px, and MDA.

  16. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  17. Image registration under illumination variations using region-based confidence weighted M-estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed M; Dansereau, Richard M; Whitehead, Anthony D

    2012-03-01

    We present an image registration model for image sets with arbitrarily shaped local illumination variations between images. Any nongeometric variations tend to degrade the geometric registration precision and impact subsequent processing. Traditional image registration approaches do not typically account for changes and movement of light sources, which result in interimage illumination differences with arbitrary shape. In addition, these approaches typically use a least-square estimator that is sensitive to outliers, where interimage illumination variations are often large enough to act as outliers. In this paper, we propose an image registration approach that compensates for arbitrarily shaped interimage illumination variations, which are processed using robust M -estimators tuned to that region. Each M-estimator for each illumination region has a distinct cost function by which small and large interimage residuals are unevenly penalized. Since the segmentation of the interimage illumination variations may not be perfect, a segmentation confidence weighting is also imposed to reduce the negative effect of mis-segmentation around illumination region boundaries. The proposed approach is cast in an iterative coarse-to-fine framework, which allows a convergence rate similar to competing intensity-based image registration approaches. The overall proposed approach is presented in a general framework, but experimental results use the bisquare M-estimator with region segmentation confidence weighting. A nearly tenfold improvement in subpixel registration precision is seen with the proposed technique when convergence is attained, as compared with competing techniques using both simulated and real data sets with interimage illumination variations.

  18. In Experts, underlying processes that drive visuomotor adaptation are different than in Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukel, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Processes responsible for improvements in motor performance are often contrasted in an explicit and an implicit part. Explicit learning enables task success by using strategic (declarative) knowledge. Implicit learning refers to a change in motor performance without conscious effort. In this study, we tested the contribution of explicit and implicit processes in a visuomotor adaptation task in subjects with different expertise in the task they were asked to adapt. Thirty handball players (Experts) and 30 subjects without handball experience (Novices) participated. Three experiments tested visuomotor adaptation of a free throw in team handball using prismatic glasses. The difference between experiments was that in Experiment 2 and 3, contribution of explicit processes was prevented, whereas Experiment 1 allowed contribution of explicit and implicit processes. Retention was assessed in Experiment 3. There were three main findings: (i) contribution of explicit processes to adaptation was stronger in Experts than Novices (Experiment 1); (ii) adaptation took longer in Experts when preventing contribution of explicit processes (Experiment 2); and (iii) retention was stronger in Experts (Experiment 3). This study shows that learning processes involved in visuomotor adaptation change by expertise, with more involvement of explicit processes and most likely other implicit processes to adaptation in Experts.

  19. Adaptive State Estimation for a Class of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems under Generalized Lipschitz Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiu-feng; Li, Long-suo; Yan, Xiu-ming

    2014-11-01

    This paper is concerned with adaptive observer design problem for a class of nonlinear stochastic systems. Unknown constant parameters are assumed to be norm bounded. In order to better use the structural knowledge of the nonlinear part, a generalized Lipschitz condition is introduced to the adaptive observer design for a class of nonlinear stochastic systems for the first time. Based on a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and stochastic Lyapunov stability theory, we present a new adaptive observer design condition with ultimately exponentially bounded in sense of mean square for errors systems in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). A numerical example is exploited to show the validity and feasibility of the results.

  20. Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation Underlying Adult Foraging Behavior That Is Essential for Survival of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh Chwen G; Yang, Qian; Chi, Wanhao; Turkson, Susie A; Du, Wei A; Kemkemer, Claus; Zeng, Zhao-Bang; Long, Manyuan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2017-05-01

    Foraging behavior is critical for the fitness of individuals. However, the genetic basis of variation in foraging behavior and the evolutionary forces underlying such natural variation have rarely been investigated. We developed a systematic approach to assay the variation in survival rate in a foraging environment for adult flies derived from a wild Drosophila melanogaster population. Despite being such an essential trait, there is substantial variation of foraging behavior among D. melanogaster strains. Importantly, we provided the first evaluation of the potential caveats of using inbred Drosophila strains to perform genome-wide association studies on life-history traits, and concluded that inbreeding depression is unlikely a major contributor for the observed large variation in adult foraging behavior. We found that adult foraging behavior has a strong genetic component and, unlike larval foraging behavior, depends on multiple loci. Identified candidate genes are enriched in those with high expression in adult heads and, demonstrated by expression knock down assay, are involved in maintaining normal functions of the nervous system. Our study not only identified candidate genes for foraging behavior that is relevant to individual fitness, but also shed light on the initial stage underlying the evolution of the behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Loss of variation of state detected in soybean metabolic and human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional networks under external stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Sakata, Katsumi

    2016-10-24

    Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state–space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants. Loss of variation of state was also observed in a human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional network in response to a phorbol-ester stimulus. Thus, we detected a loss of variation of state under external stimuli in two biological systems, regardless of the regulation and stimulus types. Our results suggest that a loss of robustness may occur concurrently with the loss of variation of state in biological systems. We describe the possible applications of the quantity of variation of state in plant genetic engineering and cell biology. Finally, we present a hypothetical “external stimulus-induced information loss” model of biological systems.

  2. Modelling adaptation strategies for Swedish forestry under climate and global change

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco González, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with, or take advantage of, the effects of climate change on socio-ecological systems. This is especially important in the forestry sector, which is sensitive to the ecological and economic impacts of climate change, and where the adaptive decisions of owners play out over long periods of time. These decisions are subject to experienced and expected impacts, and depend upon the temporal interactions of a range of individual and institutional acto...

  3. A Genome Scan for Genes Underlying Microgeographic-Scale Local Adaptation in a Wild Arabidopsis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shosei; Iwasaki, Takaya; Hanada, Kousuke; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sugano, Sumio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ito, Motomi; Morinaga, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive divergence at the microgeographic scale has been generally disregarded because high gene flow is expected to disrupt local adaptation. Yet, growing number of studies reporting adaptive divergence at a small spatial scale highlight the importance of this process in evolutionary biology. To investigate the genetic basis of microgeographic local adaptation, we conducted a genome-wide scan among sets of continuously distributed populations of Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera that show altitudinal phenotypic divergence despite gene flow. Genomic comparisons were independently conducted in two distinct mountains where similar highland ecotypes are observed, presumably as a result of convergent evolution. Here, we established a de novo reference genome and employed an individual-based resequencing for a total of 56 individuals. Among 527,225 reliable SNP loci, we focused on those showing a unidirectional allele frequency shift across altitudes. Statistical tests on the screened genes showed that our microgeographic population genomic approach successfully retrieve genes with functional annotations that are in line with the known phenotypic and environmental differences between altitudes. Furthermore, comparison between the two distinct mountains enabled us to screen out those genes that are neutral or adaptive only in either mountain, and identify the genes involved in the convergent evolution. Our study demonstrates that the genomic comparison among a set of genetically connected populations, instead of the commonly-performed comparison between two isolated populations, can also offer an effective screening for the genetic basis of local adaptation. PMID:26172569

  4. Quality standards for DNA sequence variation databases to improve clinical management under development in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bennetts

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the routine nature of comparing sequence variations identified during clinical testing to database records, few databases meet quality requirements for clinical diagnostics. To address this issue, The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA in collaboration with the Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA, and the Human Variome Project (HVP is developing standards for DNA sequence variation databases intended for use in the Australian clinical environment. The outputs of this project will be promoted to other health systems and accreditation bodies by the Human Variome Project to support the development of similar frameworks in other jurisdictions.

  5. Segregating YKU80 and TLC1 alleles underlying natural variation in telomere properties in wild yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Liti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In yeast, as in humans, telomere length varies among individuals and is controlled by multiple loci. In a quest to define the extent of variation in telomere length, we screened 112 wild-type Saccharomyces sensu stricto isolates. We found extensive telomere length variation in S. paradoxus isolates. This phenotype correlated with their geographic origin: European strains were observed to have extremely short telomeres (400 bp. Insertions of a URA3 gene near telomeres allowed accurate analysis of individual telomere lengths and telomere position effect (TPE. Crossing the American and European strains resulted in F1 spores with a continuum of telomere lengths consistent with what would be predicted if many quantitative trait loci (QTLs were involved in length maintenance. Variation in TPE is similarly quantitative but only weakly correlated with telomere length. Genotyping F1 segregants indicated several QTLs associated with telomere length and silencing variation. These QTLs include likely candidate genes but also map to regions where there are no known genes involved in telomeric properties. We detected transgressive segregation for both phenotypes. We validated by reciprocal hemizygosity that YKU80 and TLC1 are telomere-length QTLs in the two S. paradoxus subpopulations. Furthermore, we propose that sequence divergence within the Ku heterodimer generates negative epistasis within one of the allelic combinations (American-YKU70 and European-YKU80 resulting in very short telomeres.

  6. A non-convex variational approach to photometric stereo under inaccurate lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quéau, Yvain; Wu, Tao; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This paper tackles the photometric stereo problem in the presence of inaccurate lighting, obtained either by calibration or by an uncalibrated photometric stereo method. Based on a precise modeling of noise and outliers, a robust variational approach is introduced. It explicitly accounts for self...

  7. Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eeman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens

  8. Differential sulphur assimilation mechanism regulates response of Arabidopsis thaliana natural variation towards arsenic stress under limiting sulphur condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ria; Kumar, Smita; Shukla, Tapsi; Ranjan, Avriti; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2017-09-05

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element, which imposes threat to crops productivity and human health through contaminated food chain. As a part of detoxification mechanism, As is chelated and sequestered into the vacuoles via sulphur containing compounds glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Under limiting sulphur (LS) conditions, exposure of As leads to enhanced toxic effects in plants. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to understand molecular mechanisms involved in As stress response under sulphur deficiency conditions in plants. In recent years, natural variation has been utilized to explore the genetic determinants linked to plant development and stress response. In this study, natural variation in Arabidopsis has been utilized to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying LS and As(III) stress response. Analysis of different accession of Arabidopsis led to the identification of Koz2-2 and Ri-0 as the most tolerant and sensitive accessions, respectively, towards As(III) and LS+As(III) stress. Biochemical analysis and expression profiling of the genes responsible for sulphur transport and assimilation as well as metal detoxification and accumulation revealed significantly enhanced sulphur assimilation mechanism in Koz2-2 as compared to Ri-0. Analyses suggest that genetic variation regulates differential response of accessions towards As(III) under LS condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distributed Adaptive Finite-Time Approach for Formation-Containment Control of Networked Nonlinear Systems Under Directed Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Song, Yongduan; Ren, Wei

    2017-07-06

    This paper presents a distributed adaptive finite-time control solution to the formation-containment problem for multiple networked systems with uncertain nonlinear dynamics and directed communication constraints. By integrating the special topology feature of the new constructed symmetrical matrix, the technical difficulty in finite-time formation-containment control arising from the asymmetrical Laplacian matrix under single-way directed communication is circumvented. Based upon fractional power feedback of the local error, an adaptive distributed control scheme is established to drive the leaders into the prespecified formation configuration in finite time. Meanwhile, a distributed adaptive control scheme, independent of the unavailable inputs of the leaders, is designed to keep the followers within a bounded distance from the moving leaders and then to make the followers enter the convex hull shaped by the formation of the leaders in finite time. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is confirmed by the simulation.

  10. Security under Uncertainty: Adaptive Attackers Are More Challenging to Human Defenders than Random Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Moisan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Game Theory is a common approach used to understand attacker and defender motives, strategies, and allocation of limited security resources. For example, many defense algorithms are based on game-theoretic solutions that conclude that randomization of defense actions assures unpredictability, creating difficulties for a human attacker. However, many game-theoretic solutions often rely on idealized assumptions of decision making that underplay the role of human cognition and information uncertainty. The consequence is that we know little about how effective these algorithms are against human players. Using a simplified security game, we study the type of attack strategy and the uncertainty about an attacker's strategy in a laboratory experiment where participants play the role of defenders against a simulated attacker. Our goal is to compare a human defender's behavior in three levels of uncertainty (Information Level: Certain, Risky, Uncertain and three types of attacker's strategy (Attacker's strategy: Minimax, Random, Adaptive in a between-subjects experimental design. Best defense performance is achieved when defenders play against a minimax and a random attack strategy compared to an adaptive strategy. Furthermore, when payoffs are certain, defenders are as efficient against random attack strategy as they are against an adaptive strategy, but when payoffs are uncertain, defenders have most difficulties defending against an adaptive attacker compared to a random attacker. We conclude that given conditions of uncertainty in many security problems, defense algorithms would be more efficient if they are adaptive to the attacker actions, taking advantage of the attacker's human inefficiencies.

  11. Walking-adaptability assessments with the Interactive Walkway: Between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerse, D.J.; Coolen, H.; Roerdink, M.

    The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles)

  12. Potential energy savings using dynamically optimizing control in refrigeration systems under daily variations in ambient temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the energy saving potential for refrigeration systems by refrigeration more at the colder night time than at the warmer day time. The potential is evaluated using an optimal control policy and illustrated on a simulation example. The results show...... that the significant potential savings depends on two system parameters and the variation of the outdoor temperature. The system dependency is illustrated in a parameter study....

  13. Time resolved FTIR study of the catalytic CO oxidation under periodic variation of the reactant concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritzenberger, J.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Oxidation of CO over palladium/zirconia catalyst obtained from an amorphous Pd{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} precursor was investigated by time resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Sine wave shaped modulation of the reactant concentration, i.e. variation of CO or O{sub 2} partial pressure, was used to induce variations of the IR signals of product (CO{sub 2}) and unconverted reactant (CO), which were detected in a multi-pass absorption cell. The phase shift {phi} between external perturbation and variation of the CO{sub 2} signal was examined in dependence on temperature (100{sup o}C{<=}T{<=}350{sup o}C) and modulation frequency (1.39x10{sup -4}Hz{<=}{omega}{<=}6.67x10{sup -2}Hz). From the phase shift values, a simple Eley-Rideal mechanism is excluded, and the rate limiting step of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for the CO oxidation may be identified. Adsorption and possible surface movement of CO to the actual reaction site determine the rate of the CO oxidation on the palladium/zirconia catalyst used in our study. The introduction of an external perturbation is a first step towards the application of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to heterogeneous catalyzed reactions. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Differences in cold adaptation of .i.Bacillus subtilis./i. under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranová, J.; Mansilla, M.C.; de Mendoza, D.; Elhottová, Dana; Konopásek, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 16 (2010), s. 4164-4171 ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : cold adaptation * Bacillus subtilis * anaerobiosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.726, year: 2010

  15. Modeling Phenotypic Metabolic Adaptations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv under Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    prokaryotic bacteria . In yeast, the observed correlations Figure 6. Genes predicted to be essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv to adapt to...proteome quantification of haploid versus diploid yeast. Nature 455: 1251–1254. 64. Washburn MP, Koller A, Oshiro G, Ulaszek RR, Plouffe D, et al. (2003

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding Under Open and Closed Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S.; Call, Nathan A.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In…

  17. Are Positive Illusions about Academic Competence always Adaptive, under All Circumstances: New Results and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The papers in this special issue provide a comprehensive examination of the prevalence and implications of positive biases in perceived academic competence at different ages in different countries. Main results showed that marked positive biases were rare, were associated with performance goals, were more adaptive than negative biases, but were…

  18. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The uncertainty about climate change (CC) complicates impact adaptation and risk management evaluation at the regional level. Approaches for managing this uncertainty and for simulating and communicating climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities are required. Here we apply an ensemble of crop models for adapting rainfed winter wheat at Lleida (NE Spain), constructing adaptation response surfaces (ARS). Our methodology has been adapted from Pirttioja et al. (2015). Impact response surfaces (IRS) are plotted surfaces showing the response of an impact variable (here crop yield Y) to changes in two explanatory variables (here precipitation P and temperature T). By analyzing adaptation variables such as changes in crop yield (ΔY) when an adaptation option is simulated, these can be interpreted as the adaptation response to potential changes of P and T, i.e. ARS. To build these ARS, we explore the sensitivity of an ensemble of wheat models to changes in T and P. Baseline (1981-2010) T and P were modified using a delta change approach with changes in the seasonal patterns. Three levels of CO2 (representing future conditions until 2050) and two actual soil profiles are considered. Crop models were calibrated with field data from Abeledo et al. (2008) and Cartelle et al. (2006). Most promising adaptation options to be analyzed by the ARS approach are identified in a pilot stage with the models DSSAT4.5 and SiriusQuality v.2, subsequently simulating the selected adaptation combinations by the whole ensemble of 11 crop models. The adaptation options identified from pilot stage were: a cultivar with no vernalisation requirements, shortening or extending a 10 % the crop cycle of the standard cultivar, sowing 15 days earlier and 30 days later than the standard date, supplementary irrigation with 40 mm at flowering and full irrigation. These options and those of the standard cultivar and management resulted in 54 combinations and 450.000 runs per crop model. Our

  19. Variation of mobile carbon reserves in trees at the alpine treeline ecotone is under environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I; Pfund, Laura; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter

    2012-09-01

    In low temperature-adapted plants, including treeline trees, light-saturated photosynthesis is considerably less sensitive to temperature than growth. As a consequence, all plants tested so far show increased nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) tissue concentrations when exposed to low temperatures. Reduced carbon supply is thus an unlikely cause for low temperature range limits of plants. For altitudinal treeline trees there is, however, a possibility that high NSC genotypes have been selected. Here, we explored this possibility using afforestations with single-provenance conifers along elevational gradients in the Southern Chilean Andes and the Swiss Alps. Tree growth was measured at each of four approximately equidistant elevations at and below the treeline. Additionally, at the same elevations, needle, branch and stem sapwood tissues were collected to determine NSC concentrations. Overall, growth decreased and NSC concentrations increased with elevation. Along with previous empirical and experimental studies, the findings of this study provide no indication of NSC reduction at the treeline; NSC increased in most species (each represented by one common population) towards their upper climatic limit. The disparity between carbon acquisition and structural carbon investment at low temperature (accumulation of NSC) thus does occur even among genotypes not adapted to treeline environments. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Role of adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms forming complex patterns of genome size variation in six cytotypes of polyploid Allium oleraceum (Amaryllidaceae) on a continental scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchoslav, Martin; Šafářová, Lenka; Jandová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Although the large variation in genome size among different species is widely acknowledged, the occurrence and extent of variation below the species level are still controversial and have not yet been satisfactorily analysed. The aim of this study was to assess genome size variation in six ploidy levels (2n = 3x–8x) of the polyploid Allium oleraceum over a large geographical gradient and to search for potential interpretations of the size variation. Methods The genome sizes of 407 individuals of A. oleraceum collected from 114 populations across Europe were determined by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. The genome size variation was correlated with spatial, climatic and habitat variables. Key Results The mean holoploid genome size (2C DNA) was 42·49, 52·14, 63·34, 71·94, 85·51 and 92·12 pg at the tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta- and octoploid levels, respectively. Genome size varied from a minimum of 2·3 % in the octoploids to a maximum of 18·3 % in the tetraploids. Spatial structuring of genome size was observed within the tetra- and pentaploids, where 2C DNA significantly increased with both latitude and longitude, and correlated with several climatic variables, suggesting a gradient of continentality. Genome size in hexaploids showed low variation, weak correlation with climatic variables and no spatial structuring. Downsizing in monoploid genome size was observed between all cytotypes except for heptaploids. Splitting populations into western and eastern European groups resulted in strong differences in monoploid genome size between groups in tetra- and pentaploids but not in hexaploids. The monoploid genome sizes of the cytotypes were similar in the western group but diverged in the eastern group. Conclusions Complex patterns of holoploid and monoploid genome size variation found both within and between A. oleraceum cytotypes are most likely the result of several interacting factors, including different

  1. Evaluating groundwater recharge variations under climate change in an endorheic basin of the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, N.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.

    2017-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, where surface water and precipitations are scarce, groundwater is the main source of drinking water that sustains human and natural ecosystems. Therefore, it is very important to consider the potential impacts of climate change that threaten the availability of this resource. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variations caused by climate change on the recharge of the regional groundwater aquifer at the Huasco salt flat, located in the Chilean Andean plateau. The Huasco salt flat basin has ecosystems sustained by wetlands that depend on the groundwater levels of this aquifer. Due to this reason, the Chilean government has declared this zone as protected. Hence, the assurance of the future availability of the groundwater resource becomes extremely important. The sustainable management of this resource requires reasonable estimates of recharge and evapotranspiration, which are highly dependent on the characteristics and processes occurring in the vadose zone, i.e., topography, soil type and land use, and their temporal and spatial variations are significant in arid regions. With this aim, a three-dimensional groundwater model, implemented in SWAT-MODFLOW, was developed to couple the saturated system with the vadose zone. The model was calibrated and validated using historic data. General circulation models (GCMs) were used as scenarios inputs of recharge to the groundwater model. Future simulations were run by applying an offset to the historic air temperatures and to the precipitation. These offsets were determined using a delta hybrid approach based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble archive. The obtained results were downscaled to the 0.125º latitude x 0.125º longitude grid cell containing the basin of the Huasco salt flat. The hybrid approach considered the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the projected temperature and precipitation output as three scenarios of climate

  2. Vibration and damping characteristics of beams with active constrained layer treatments under parametric variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Navin; Singh, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid damping designs with active piezoelectric materials and passive viscoelastic materials (VEMs) combine the advantages of both active and passive constrained layer damping (ACLD/PCLD) treatments. Researchers have established the standards for the extent and placement of the PCLD treatment for common structures. However for ACLD treatment, such detailed studies are not available. This study is aimed to examine, the effect of parametric variation of active constrained layer on the vibration control of the beams treated with optimally placed active or passive constrained layer damping patches. Finite element model is developed to model the open-loop and close-loop dynamics of active/passive constrained layer damping treated beam. The placement strategies of ACLD patches are devised using the modal strain energy (MSE) approach. Extensive experimentation studies are conducted by making twenty one separate samples of ACLD/PCLD treated beams with variations in viscoelastic material layer thickness, ACLD/PCLD patch coverage and location of the patch. Effects of key parameters, such as control gain, viscoelastic material thickness, coverage and location variation of ACLD patch on the system loss factor have been investigated. The careful analysis of results from partially covered ACLD treated beam suggests that the maximum damping of the first mode can be achieved by attaching the ACLD patch only up to 50% coverage. It also reveals that with proper choice of the control voltage and thickness, the effective loss factor can be almost doubled. The present study suggests the potential use of parametric studies that establish some guide lines for the extent and placement of the ACLD patches on the cantilevered beam.

  3. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity accurately predicts fluid responsiveness in children undergoing neurosurgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morparia, Kavita G; Reddy, Srijaya K; Olivieri, Laura J; Spaeder, Michael C; Schuette, Jennifer J

    2018-04-01

    The determination of fluid responsiveness in the critically ill child is of vital importance, more so as fluid overload becomes increasingly associated with worse outcomes. Dynamic markers of volume responsiveness have shown some promise in the pediatric population, but more research is needed before they can be adopted for widespread use. Our aim was to investigate effectiveness of respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity and pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness, and determine their optimal cutoff values. We performed a prospective, observational study at a single tertiary care pediatric center. Twenty-one children with normal cardiorespiratory status undergoing general anesthesia for neurosurgery were enrolled. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity (ΔVpeak ao) was measured both before and after volume expansion using a bedside ultrasound device. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) value was obtained from the bedside monitor. All patients received a 10 ml/kg fluid bolus as volume expansion, and were qualified as responders if stroke volume increased >15% as a result. Utility of ΔVpeak ao and PPV and to predict responsiveness to volume expansion was investigated. A baseline ΔVpeak ao value of greater than or equal to 12.3% best predicted a positive response to volume expansion, with a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 89% and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90. PPV failed to demonstrate utility in this patient population. Respiratory variation in peak aortic velocity is a promising marker for optimization of perioperative fluid therapy in the pediatric population and can be accurately measured using bedside ultrasonography. More research is needed to evaluate the lack of effectiveness of pulse pressure variation for this purpose.

  4. Seasonal variations in phosphorus fractions in semiarid sandy soils under different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiong Zhao; Dehui Zeng; Zhiping Fan; Zhanyuan Yu; Yalin Hu; Jianwei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of soil phosphorus (P) fractions under five vegetation types – Ulmus macrocarpa savanna, grassland, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation, Pinus tabulaeformis plantation, and Populus simonii plantation ...

  5. Evaluating the change in fingerprint directional patterns under variation of rotation and number of regions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dorasamy, K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Directional Patterns, which are formed by grouping regions of orientation fields falling within a specific range, vary under rotation and the number of regions. For fingerprint classification schemes, this can result in missclassification due...

  6. A Mixed-Methods Trial of Broad Band Noise and Nature Sounds for Tinnitus Therapy: Group and Individual Responses Modeled under the Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; Searchfield, Grant D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband noise. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness level matches, minimum masking levels, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress. Each sound was administered using MP3 players with earbuds for 8 continuous weeks, with a 3 week wash-out period before crossing over to the other treatment sound. Measurements were undertaken for each arm at sound fitting, 4 and 8 weeks after administration. Qualitative interviews were conducted at each of these appointments. Results: From a baseline TFI score of 41.3, sound therapy resulted in TFI scores at 8 weeks of 35.6; broadband noise resulted in significantly greater reduction (8.2 points) after 8 weeks of sound therapy use than nature sounds (3.2 points). The positive effect of sound on tinnitus was supported by secondary outcome measures of tinnitus, emotion, attention, and psychological state, but not interviews. Tinnitus loudness level match was higher for BBN at 8 weeks; while there was little change in loudness level matches for nature sounds. There was no change in minimum masking levels following sound therapy administration. Self-reported preference for one sound over another did not correlate with changes in tinnitus. Conclusions: Modeled under an adaptation level theory framework of tinnitus perception, the results indicate that the introduction of broadband noise shifts internal adaptation level weighting away from the tinnitus signal, reducing tinnitus magnitude. Nature sounds may modify the affective components of tinnitus via a secondary, residual pathway, but this appears to be less important

  7. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study of Subgrade Moisture Variation and Underground Antidrainage Technique under Groundwater Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a main natural factor impacting the subgrade structure, and it plays a significant role in the stability of the subgrade. In this paper, the analytical solution of the subgrade moisture variations considering groundwater fluctuations is derived based on Richards’ equation. Laboratory subgrade model is built, and three working cases are performed in the model to study the capillary action of groundwater at different water tables. Two types of antidrainage materials are employed in the subgrade model, and their anti-drainage effects are discussed. Moreover, numerical calculation is conducted on the basis of subgrade model, and the calculate results are compared with the experimental measurements. The study results are shown. The agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is good. Capillary action is obvious when the groundwater table is rising. As the groundwater table is falling, the moisture decreases in the position of the subgrade near the water table and has no variations in the subgrade where far above the table. The anti-drainage effect of the sand cushion is associated with its thickness and material properties. New waterproofing and drainage material can prevent groundwater entering the subgrade effectively, and its anti-drainage effect is good.

  8. THE VARIATIONS OF WATER IN HUMAN TISSUE UNDER CERTAIN COMPRESSION: STUDIED WITH DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENXI LI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflectance spectrum has been widely adopted to extract diagnosis information of human tissue because it possesses the advantages of noninvasive and rapidity. The external pressure brought by fiber optic probe may influence the accuracy of measurement. In this paper, a systematic study is focused on the effects of probe pressure on intrinsic changes of water and scattering particles in tissue. According to the biphasic nonlinear mixture model, the pressure modulated reflectance spectrum of both in vitro and in vivo tissue is measured and processed with second-derivation. The results indicate that the variations of bulk and bonded water in tissue have a nonlinear relationship with the pressure. Differences in tissue structure and morphology contribute to site-specific probe pressure effects. Then the finite element (FEM and Monte Carlo (MC method is employed to simulate the deformation and reflectance spectrum variations of tissue before and after compression. The simulation results show that as the pressure of fiber optic probe applied to the detected skin increased to 80 kPa, the effective photon proportion form dermis decreases significantly from 86% to 76%. Future designs might benefit from the research of change of water volume inside the tissue to mitigate the pressure applied to skin.

  9. Variation with age of anisotropy under oceans, from great circle surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journet, B.; Jobert, N.

    1982-01-01

    Global great circle measurements of regionalized mantle Love wave phase velocities are interpreted in terms of regional models. The same study had been made by J. J. Leveque (1980) for Rayleigh waves, and the resulting models for the two oceanic regions of different ages are used as a basis for comparison: the observed Love wave dispersion cannot be explained with these models if isotropic. The models obtained by inversion of Love wave data are compared with the models mentioned; the discrepancy appearing in the 250 km depth range between the velocities β/sub H/ and β/sub V/ of respectively SH and SV waves is indicative of polarization anisotropy. Moreover, we put forward a significant variation from young to old oceans: the difference between β/sub H/, and β/sub V/ is of the order of 1% for the former, compared to 3% for the latter. This variation can bring information about the behaviour of upper mantle materials in connection with the motion of oceanic plates

  10. Circadian clock of Drosophila montana is adapted to high variation in summer day lengths and temperatures prevailing at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Hannele; Ala-Honkola, Outi; Kankare, Maaria; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2016-06-01

    Photoperiodic regulation of the circadian rhythms in insect locomotor activity has been studied in several species, but seasonal entrainment of these rhythms is still poorly understood. We have traced the entrainment of activity rhythm of northern Drosophila montana flies in a climate chamber mimicking the photoperiods and day and night temperatures that the flies encounter in northern Finland during the summer. The experiment was started by transferring freshly emerged females into the chamber in early and late summer conditions to obtain both non-diapausing and diapausing females for the studies. The locomotor activity of the females and daily changes in the expression levels of two core circadian clock genes, timeless and period, in their heads were measured at different times of summer. The study revealed several features in fly rhythmicity that are likely to help the flies to cope with high variation in the day length and temperature typical to northern summers. First, both the non-diapausing and the diapausing females showed evening activity, which decreased towards the short day length as observed in the autumn in nature. Second, timeless and period genes showed concordant daily oscillations and seasonal shifts in their expression level in both types of females. Contrary to Drosophila melanogaster, oscillation profiles of these genes were similar to each other in all conditions, including the extremely long days in early summer and the cool temperatures in late summer, and their peak expression levels were not locked to lights-off transition in any photoperiod. Third, the diapausing females were less active than the non-diapausing ones, in spite of their younger age. Overall, the study showed that D. montana clock functions well under long day conditions, and that both the photoperiod and the daily temperature cycles are important zeitgebers for seasonal changes in the circadian rhythm of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial Variation of Soil Respiration in a Cropland under Winter Wheat and Summer Maize Rotation in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Huang

    Full Text Available Spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs in cropland ecosystems must be assessed to evaluate the global terrestrial carbon budget. This study aims to explore the spatial characteristics and controlling factors of Rs in a cropland under winter wheat and summer maize rotation in the North China Plain. We collected Rs data from 23 sample plots in the cropland. At the late jointing stage, the daily mean Rs of summer maize (4.74 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 was significantly higher than that of winter wheat (3.77μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. However, the spatial variation of Rs in summer maize (coefficient of variation, CV = 12.2% was lower than that in winter wheat (CV = 18.5%. A similar trend in CV was also observed for environmental factors but not for biotic factors, such as leaf area index, aboveground biomass, and canopy chlorophyll content. Pearson's correlation analyses based on the sampling data revealed that the spatial variation of Rs was poorly explained by the spatial variations of biotic factors, environmental factors, or soil properties alone for winter wheat and summer maize. The similarly non-significant relationship was observed between Rs and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI, which was used as surrogate for plant photosynthesis. EVI was better correlated with field-measured leaf area index than the normalized difference vegetation index and red edge chlorophyll index. All the data from the 23 sample plots were categorized into three clusters based on the cluster analysis of soil carbon/nitrogen and soil organic carbon content. An apparent improvement was observed in the relationship between Rs and EVI in each cluster for both winter wheat and summer maize. The spatial variation of Rs in the cropland under winter wheat and summer maize rotation could be attributed to the differences in spatial variations of soil properties and biotic factors. The results indicate that applying cluster analysis to minimize differences in soil properties among different

  12. A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2017-01-01

    bioclimatic and socioeconomic conditions, and the ways decisions are evaluated and made. We investigate the adaptive management process and develop a framework including these three aspects, thus providing a structured way to analyze the challenges and opportunities of managing forests in the face of climate...... change. We apply the framework for a range of case studies that differ in the way climate and its impacts are projected to change, the available management options, and how decision makers develop, update, and use their beliefs about climate change scenarios to select among adaptation options, each being...... optimal for a certain climate change scenario. We describe four stylized types of decision-making processes that differ in how they (1) take into account uncertainty and new information on the state and development of the climate and (2) evaluate alternative management decisions: the “no...

  13. Effects of extended lay-off periods on performance and operator trust under adaptable automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of system reliability when operators do not use a system during an extended lay-off period. To examine threats to skill maintenance, 28 participants operated twice a simulation of a complex process control system for 2.5 h, with an 8-month retention interval between sessions. Operators were provided with an adaptable support system, which operated at one of the following reliability levels: 60%, 80% or 100%. Results showed that performance, workload, and trust remained stable at the second testing session, but operators lost self-confidence in their system management abilities. Finally, the effects of system reliability observed at the first testing session were largely found again at the second session. The findings overall suggest that adaptable automation may be a promising means to support operators in maintaining their performance at the second testing session. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive Chemical Networks under Non-Equilibrium Conditions: The Evaporating Droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armao, Joseph J; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2016-10-17

    Non-volatile solutes in an evaporating drop experience an out-of-equilibrium state due to non-linear concentration effects and complex flow patterns. Here, we demonstrate a small molecule chemical reaction network that undergoes a rapid adaptation response to the out-of-equilibrium conditions inside the droplet leading to control over the molecular constitution and spatial arrangement of the deposition pattern. Adaptation results in a pronounced coffee stain effect and coupling to chemical concentration gradients within the drop is demonstrated. Amplification and suppression of network species are readily identifiable with confocal fluorescence microscopy. We anticipate that these observations will contribute to the design and exploration of out-of-equilibrium chemical systems, as well as be useful towards the development of point-of-care medical diagnostics and controlled deposition of small molecules through inkjet printing. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Local adaptation to altitude underlies divergent thermal physiology in tropical killifishes of the genus Aphyosemion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J McKenzie

    Full Text Available In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ∼350 m or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m. We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ∼350 mg were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ∼14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ∼7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another.

  16. Octopus arm movements under constrained conditions: adaptation, modification and plasticity of motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jonas N; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The motor control of the eight highly flexible arms of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has been the focus of several recent studies. Our study is the first to manage to introduce a physical constraint to an octopus arm and investigate the adaptability of stereotypical bend propagation in reaching movements and the pseudo-limb articulation during fetching. Subjects (N=6) were placed inside a transparent Perspex box with a hole at the center that allowed the insertion of a single arm. Animals had to reach out through the hole toward a target, to retrieve a food reward and fetch it. All subjects successfully adjusted their movements to the constraint without an adaptation phase. During reaching tasks, the animals showed two movement strategies: stereotypical bend propagation reachings, which were established at the hole of the Perspex box and variant waving-like movements that showed no bend propagations. During fetching movements, no complete pseudo-joint fetching was observed outside the box and subjects pulled their arms through the hole in a pull-in like movement. Our findings show that there is some flexibility in the octopus motor system to adapt to a novel situation. However, at present, it seems that these changes are more an effect of random choices between different alternative motor programs, without showing clear learning effects in the choice between the alternatives. Interestingly, animals were able to adapt the fetching movements to the physical constraint, or as an alternative explanation, they could switch the motor primitive fetching to a different motor primitive 'arm pulling'. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and COinf2/infin a Mediterranean environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, R.; Rodríguez, A.; Lorite, I. J.; Bindi, M.; Carter, T. R.; Fronzek, S.; Palosuo, T.; Pirttioja, N. K.; Baranowski, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Chen, Y.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffmann, H.; Höhn, J.; Jurečka, František; Kersebaum, K. C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lana, M.; Mechiche-Alami, A.; Minet, J.; Montesino, M.; Nendel, C.; Porter, J. R.; Ruget, F.; Semenov, M. A.; Steinmetz, Z.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; de Wit, H. A.; Rötter, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, JAN (2018), s. 260-274 ISSN 0308-521X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : AOCK concept * Crop model ensemble * Mediterranean cropping system * Rainfed * Sensitivity analysis * Wheat adaptation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2016

  18. Ligation-mediated PCR with a back-to-back adapter reduces amplification bias resulting from variations in GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Satoru; Kotomura, Naoe; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ochiai, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) is a common technique for amplification of a pool of DNA fragments. Here, a double-stranded oligonucleotide consisting of two primer sequences in back-to-back orientation was designed as an adapter for LM-PCR. When DNA fragments were ligated with this adapter, the fragments were sandwiched between two adapters in random orientations. In the ensuing PCR, ligation products linked at each end to an opposite side of the adapter, i.e. to a distinct primer sequence, were preferentially amplified compared with products linked at each end to an identical primer sequence. The use of this adapter in LM-PCR reduced the impairment of PCR by substrate DNA with a high GC content, compared with the use of traditional LM-PCR adapters. This result suggested that our method has the potential to contribute to reduction of the amplification bias that is caused by an intrinsic property of the sequence context in substrate DNA. A DNA preparation obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using pulldown of a specific form of histone H3 was successfully amplified using the modified LM-PCR, and the amplified products could be used as probes in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation in life-history traits and their plasticities to elevational transplantation among seed families suggests potential for adaptative evolution of 15 tropical plant species to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensslin, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    • Because not all plant species will be able to move in response to global warming, adaptive evolution matters largely for plant persistence. As prerequisites for adaptive evolution, genetic variation in and selection on phenotypic traits are needed, but these aspects have not been studied in tropical species. We studied how plants respond to transplantation to different elevations on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, and whether there is quantitative genetic (among-seed family) variation in and selection on life-history traits and their phenotypic plasticity to the different environments.• We reciprocally transplanted seed families of 15 common tropical, herbaceous species of the montane and savanna vegetation zone at Mt. Kilimanjaro to a watered experimental garden in the montane (1450 m) and in the savanna (880 m) zone at the mountain's slope and measured performance, reproductive, and phenological traits.• Plants generally performed worse in the savanna garden, indicating that the savanna climate was more stressful and thus that plants may suffer from future climate warming. We found significant quantitative genetic variation in all measured performance and reproductive traits in both gardens and for several measures of phenotypic plasticity in response to elevational transplantation. Moreover, we found positive selection on traits at low and intermediate trait values levelling to neutral or negative selection at high values.• We conclude that common plants at Mt. Kilimanjaro express quantitative genetic variation in fitness-relevant traits and in their plasticities, suggesting potential to adapt evolutionarily to future climate warming and increased temperature variability. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Adaptive Flood Risk Management Under Climate Change Uncertainty Using Real Options and Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Michelle; Kapelan, Zoran; Gouldby, Ben

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that adaptive and flexible flood risk strategies are required to account for future uncertainties. Development of such strategies is, however, a challenge. Climate change alone is a significant complication, but, in addition, complexities exist trying to identify the most appropriate set of mitigation measures, or interventions. There are a range of economic and environmental performance measures that require consideration, and the spatial and temporal aspects of evaluating the performance of these is complex. All these elements pose severe difficulties to decisionmakers. This article describes a decision support methodology that has the capability to assess the most appropriate set of interventions to make in a flood system and the opportune time to make these interventions, given the future uncertainties. The flood risk strategies have been explicitly designed to allow for flexible adaptive measures by capturing the concepts of real options and multiobjective optimization to evaluate potential flood risk management opportunities. A state-of-the-art flood risk analysis tool is employed to evaluate the risk associated to each strategy over future points in time and a multiobjective genetic algorithm is utilized to search for the optimal adaptive strategies. The modeling system has been applied to a reach on the Thames Estuary (London, England), and initial results show the inclusion of flexibility is advantageous, while the outputs provide decisionmakers with supplementary knowledge that previously has not been considered. © 2013 HR Wallingford Ltd.

  1. Cavity Adaptation of Water-Based Restoratives Placed as Liners under a Resin Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela B. Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the cavity adaptation of mineral trioxide (ProRoot MTA/MT, tricalcium silicate (Biodentine/BD, and glass ionomer (Equia Fil/EF cements used as liners and the interfacial integrity between those liners and a composite resin placed as the main restorative material. Materials and Methods. Standardized class I cavities (n: 8 per group were prepared in upper premolars. Cavities were lined with a 1 mm thick layer of each of the tested materials and restored with Optibond FL adhesive and Herculite Precis composite resin. Cavity adaptation of the restorations was investigated by computerized X-ray microtomography. The regions of interest (ROI were set at the cavity-liner (CL interface and the liner-resin (LR interface. The percentage void volume fraction (%VVF in the ROI was calculated. The specimens were then sectioned and the interfaces were evaluated by reflection optical microscopy, to measure the % length (%LD of the interfacial gaps. Selected samples were further evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test (a=0.05. Results. MT showed significantly higher %VVF and %LD values in CL interfaces than BD and EF (p<0.05. No significant differences were found among the materials for the same values at the LR interfaces. Conclusions. When used as a composite liner, ProRoot MTA showed inferior cavity adaptation at dentin/liner interface when compared to Biodentine and Equia Fil.

  2. Projection of temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease in beijing under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boya; Li, Guoxing; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China. To this end, 19 global circulation models (GCMs), 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 3 socioeconomic pathways, together with generalized linear models and distributed lag non-linear models, were used to project future temperature-related CVD mortality during periods centered around the years 2050 and 2070. The number of temperature-related CVD deaths in Beijing is projected to increase by 3.5-10.2% under different RCP scenarios compared with that during the baseline period. Using the same GCM, the future daily maximum temperatures projected using the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios showed a gradually increasing trend. When population change is considered, the annual rate of increase in temperature-related CVD deaths was up to fivefold greater than that under no-population-change scenarios. The decrease in the number of cold-related deaths did not compensate for the increase in that of heat-related deaths, leading to a general increase in the number of temperature-related deaths due to CVD in Beijing. In addition, adaptation to climate change may enhance rather than ameliorate the effect of climate change, as the increase in cold-related CVD mortality greater than the decrease in heat-related CVD mortality in the adaptation scenarios will result in an increase in the total number of temperature-related CVD mortalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing of eight goat populations for the detection of selection signatures underlying production and adaptive traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Guangxian; Guo, Jiazhong; Yan, Hailong; Niu, Yiyuan; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Geng, Rongqing; Lan, Xianyong; An, Xiaopeng; Tian, Xingui; Zhou, Huangkai; Song, Jiuzhou; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The goat (Capra hircus) is one of the first farm animals that have undergone domestication and extensive natural and artificial selection by adapting to various environments, which in turn has resulted in its high level of phenotypic diversity. Here, we generated medium-coverage (9–13×) sequences from eight domesticated goat breeds, representing morphologically or geographically specific populations, to identify genomic regions representing selection signatures. We discovered ~10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each breed. By combining two approaches, ZHp and di values, we identified 22 genomic regions that may have contributed to the phenotypes in coat color patterns, body size, cashmere traits, as well as high altitude adaptation in goat populations. Candidate genes underlying strong selection signatures including coloration (ASIP, KITLG, HTT, GNA11, and OSTM1), body size (TBX15, DGCR8, CDC25A, and RDH16), cashmere traits (LHX2, FGF9, and WNT2), and hypoxia adaptation (CDK2, SOCS2, NOXA1, and ENPEP) were identified. We also identified candidate functional SNPs within selected genes that may be important for each trait. Our results demonstrated the potential of using sequence data in identifying genomic regions that are responsible for agriculturally significant phenotypes in goats, which in turn can be used in the selection of goat breeds for environmental adaptation and domestication. PMID:27941843

  4. Comparative ionomics and metabolomics in extremophile and glycophytic Lotus species under salt stress challenge the metabolic pre-adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego H; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Escaray, Francisco; Erban, Alexander; Kraemer, Ute; Udvardi, Michael K; Kopka, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    The legume genus Lotus includes glycophytic forage crops and other species adapted to extreme environments, such as saline soils. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms will contribute to the discovery of new traits which may enhance the breeding efforts towards improved performance of legumes in marginal agricultural environments. Here, we used a combination of ionomic and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profilings of complete shoots (pooling leaves, petioles and stems) to compare the extremophile Lotus creticus, adapted to highly saline coastal regions, and two cultivated glycophytic grassland forage species, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis. L. creticus exhibited better survival after exposure to long-term lethal salinity and was more efficient at excluding Cl⁻ from the shoots than the glycophytes. In contrast, Na+ levels were higher in the extremophile under both control and salt stress, a trait often observed in halophytes. Ionomics demonstrated a differential rearrangement of shoot nutrient levels in the extremophile upon salt exposure. Metabolite profiling showed that responses to NaCl in L. creticus shoots were globally similar to those of the glycophytes, providing little evidence for metabolic pre-adaptation to salinity. This study is the first comparing salt acclimation responses between extremophile and non-extremophile legumes, and challenges the generalization of the metabolic salt pre-adaptation hypothesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Investigating tissue respiration and skin microhaemocirculation under adaptive changes and the synchronization of blood flow and oxygen saturation rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaev, A V; Palmer, S G; Stewart, N A; Sokolovski, S G; Rafailov, E U; Sidorov, V V; Krupatkin, A I; Rafailov, I E

    2014-01-01

    Multi-functional laser non-invasive diagnostic systems allow the study of a number of microcirculatory parameters, including index of blood microcirculation (I m ) (by laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF) and oxygen saturation (S t O 2 ) of skin tissue (by tissue reflectance oximetry, TRO). This research aimed to use such a system to investigate the synchronization of microvascular blood flow and oxygen saturation rhythms under normal and adaptive change conditions. Studies were conducted on eight healthy volunteers of 21–49 years. These volunteers were observed between one and six months, totalling 422 basic tests (3 min each). Measurements were performed on the palmar surface of the right middle finger and the lower forearm's medial surface. Rhythmic oscillations of LDF and TRO were studied using wavelet analysis. Combined tissue oxygen consumption data for all volunteers during ‘adaptive changes’ increased relative to normal conditions with and without arteriovenous anastomoses. Data analysis revealed resonance and synchronized rhythms in microvascular blood flow and oxygen saturation as an adaptive change in myogenic oscillation (vasomotion) resulting from exercise and possibly psychoemotional stress. Synchronization of myogenic rhythms during adaptive changes may lead to increased oxygen consumption as a result of increased microvascular blood flow velocity. (paper)

  6. Sewage-treatment under substantial load variations in winter tourism areas--a full case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S; Matsché, N; Gamperer, T; Dum, M

    2004-01-01

    The sewage-load variations in winter tourism areas are characterized by sudden increases--in the range of a factor two to three--within only a few days at the start and the end of the tourist season, especially at Christmas. The sudden load increases occur during periods of low wastewater temperatures, which is an additional demanding factor with respect to nitrogen removal. A full case study was carried out at WWTP Saalfelden, which is located near one of Austria's largest skiing resorts. The plant is designed for 80,000 PE and built according to the HYBRID-concept, which is a special two stage activated sludge process for extensive nutrient removal.

  7. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Marceau; Martin-Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg

    2018-01-01

    the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7-year experiment in central New Mexico with three watering treatments (irrigated, normal, and rain exclusion). We analyzed how variation in evaporative structure...... (d), defining the yearly ratios SA:LA and SA:LA/d. Needle length (l) increased with increasing winter and monsoon water supply, and showed more interannual variability when the soil was drier. Stomatal density increased with dryness, while stomatal diameter was reduced. As a result, anatomical...... maximal stomatal conductance was relatively invariant across treatments. SA:LA and SA:LA/d showed significant differences across treatments and contrary to our expectation were lower with reduced water input. Within average precipitation ranges, the response of these ratios to soil moisture was similar...

  8. Frequency of mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes underlies natural variation in heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michaela; Barske, Lindsey; Van Handel, Ben; Rau, Christoph D; Gan, Peiheng; Sharma, Avneesh; Parikh, Shan; Denholtz, Matt; Huang, Ying; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Shen, Hua; Allayee, Hooman; Crump, J Gage; Force, Thomas I; Lien, Ching-Ling; Makita, Takako; Lusis, Aldons J; Kumar, S Ram; Sucov, Henry M

    2017-09-01

    Adult mammalian cardiomyocyte regeneration after injury is thought to be minimal. Mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes (MNDCMs), a relatively small subpopulation in the adult heart, may account for the observed degree of regeneration, but this has not been tested. We surveyed 120 inbred mouse strains and found that the frequency of adult mononuclear cardiomyocytes was surprisingly variable (>7-fold). Cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart functional recovery after coronary artery ligation both correlated with pre-injury MNDCM content. Using genome-wide association, we identified Tnni3k as one gene that influences variation in this composition and demonstrated that Tnni3k knockout resulted in elevated MNDCM content and increased cardiomyocyte proliferation after injury. Reciprocally, overexpression of Tnni3k in zebrafish promoted cardiomyocyte polyploidization and compromised heart regeneration. Our results corroborate the relevance of MNDCMs in heart regeneration. Moreover, they imply that intrinsic heart regeneration is not limited nor uniform in all individuals, but rather is a variable trait influenced by multiple genes.

  9. Variation in Hospital Length of Stay : Do Physicians Adapt Their Length of Stay Decisions to What Is Usual in the Hospital Where They Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Judith D. de; Westert, Gert P.; Lagoe, Ronald; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To test the hypothesis that physicianswho work in different hospitals adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital under consideration. Data Sources. Secondary data were used, originating from the Statewide Planning and ResearchCooperative System (SPARCS). SPARCS

  10. Variation in hospital length of stay: do physicians adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital where they work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.D. de; Westert, G.P.; Lagoe, R.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that physicians who work in different hospitals adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital under consideration. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data were used, originating from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS).

  11. Compliance variations in the fatigue thresold regime of a low alloy ferritic steel under closure-free testing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Compliance variations in the threshold regime of a high strength ferritic steel tested under closure-free conditions at room temperature and in air are reported. In contrast to the Paris regime, and irrespective of whether the data during load shedding, at threshold or after postthreshold load increase are considered, it is found that comparatively compliance varies inconsistently in the threshold regime. Therefore, a 1:1 correlation between the averaged optical crack length and that inferred from compliance was not observed. This discrepancy is analyzed. The variations in compliance are utilized to infer the crack front behavior, and the results are discussed in terms of the microstructural impedance. (orig.) With 22 figs., 2 appendices [de

  12. Variation in total sugars and reductive sugars in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (hylocomiaceae) under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Ruiz, Luis Carlos; Melgarejo Munoz, Luz Marina.

    2012-01-01

    The structural simplicity of the bryophytes exposed them easily to water stress, forcing them to have physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable them to survive. This study evaluated the variation of total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in relation to relative water content, in Pleurozium schreberi when faced with low water content in the Paramo de Chingaza (Colombia) and under simulated conditions of water deficit in the laboratory. we found that total sugars increase when the plant is dehydrated and returned to their normal content when re-hydrated moss, this could be interpreted as a possible mechanism of osmotic adjustment and osmoprotection of the cell content and cellular structure. Reducing sugars showed no significant variation, showing that monosaccharides do not have a protective role during dehydration.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Type-3 PLLs Under Wide Variation in Input Voltage and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aravind, C. K.; Rani, B.Indu; Chakkarapani, M.

    2017-01-01

    bandwidth, both the single loop and dual loop Type-3 PLL exhibit similar dynamics provided the supply voltage is balanced. However, under voltage sag conditions, dual loop PLL shows improved dynamic response without affecting its stability. Further, the tracking time is reduced as the feed forward frequency...

  14. Adaptation of Korean rice cultivars under PhilRice, Nueva Ecija Central Experiment Station's agro-climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, L.B.; Marcelo, P.N.; Barroga, W.V.; Kim, J.D.; Lee, S.G.; Lee, J.T.; Yang, W.H.; Manigbas, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-climatic conditions are very vital for growth and development of rice plants. Rice cultivars that were not bred and developed in the Philippines must be properly screened and tested to identify genotypes that will adapt to its new environment. Nine Korean and 3 Philippine rice cultivars were planted at the Philippine Rice Research Institute Central Experiment Station from 2011 dry season to 2013 wet season. The main objective is to test, identify, and recommend Korean rice cultivars adapted to Philippine conditions. Weather data such as solar duration and radiation, relative humidity, rainfall, and temperature generated from Automatic Weather Station (AWS) were used to study the response of Korean and Philippine cultivars. Other data includes plant height, days to 50% flowering and yield. Results showed that there were differences among the cultivars in plant height which ranged from 2.4-14.9 cm. Variation in days to 50% flowering were also observed. Yield also varied but was greater during dry season compared to wet season. Plant height was affected by relative humidity and rainfall especially during sowing and transplanting. During panicle initiation, relative humidity had greater influence on plant height. Other weather parameters such as temperature, solar radiation and duration had negative correlation with plant height. On the other hand, flowering was delayed due to low solar radiation and high rainfall. High correlation was observed between maturity and relative humidity especially during sowing and transplanting. Yield was correlated with solar duration and radiation. Dasanbyeo, Milyang 23, Hanareumbyeo, Hangangchai 1, and Saegyejinmi were identified most adapted Korean cultivars under Nueva Ecija climatic conditions

  15. Compositional sorting dynamics in coexisting lipid bilayer phases with variations in underlying e-beam formed curvature pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyankin, Maria O; Longo, Marjorie L

    2013-07-07

    Nanometer-scale curvature patterns of an underlying substrate are imposed on lipid multibilayers with each pattern imparting distinctly different sorting dynamics to a metastable pixelation pattern of coexisting liquid ordered (Lo)-liquid disordered (Ld) lipid phases. Therefore, this work provides pathways toward mechanical energy-based separations for analysis of biomembrane-associate species. The central design concept of the patterned sections of the silica substrate is a square lattice pattern of 100 nm projected radius poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hemispherical features formed by electron beam lithography which pixelates the coexisting phases in order to balance membrane bending and line energy. In one variation, we surround this pattern with three PMMA walls/fences 100 nm in height which substantially slows the loss of the high line energy pixelated Lo phase by altering the balance of two competing mechanism (Ostwald ripening vs. vesiculation). In another walled variation, we form a gradient of the spacing of the 100 nm features which forces partitioning of the Lo phase toward the end of the gradient with the most open (400 nm spacing) lattice pattern where a single vesicle could grow from the Lo phase. We show that two other variations distinctly impact the dynamics, demonstrating locally slowed loss of the high line energy pixelated Lo phase and spontaneous switching of the pixel location on the unit cell, respectively. Moreover, we show that the pixelation patterns can be regenerated and sharpened by a heating and cooling cycle. We argue that localized variations in the underlying curvature pattern have rather complex consequences because of the coupling and/or competition of dynamic processes to optimize mechanical energy such as lipid diffusion, vesiculation and growth, and phase/compositional partitioning.

  16. An unbiased adaptive sampling algorithm for the exploration of RNA mutational landscapes under evolutionary pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldispühl, Jérôme; Ponty, Yann

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of the relationship between sequences and structures (i.e., how mutations affect structures and reciprocally how structures influence mutations) is essential to decipher the principles driving molecular evolution, to infer the origins of genetic diseases, and to develop bioengineering applications such as the design of artificial molecules. Because their structures can be predicted from the sequence data only, RNA molecules provide a good framework to study this sequence-structure relationship. We recently introduced a suite of algorithms called RNAmutants which allows a complete exploration of RNA sequence-structure maps in polynomial time and space. Formally, RNAmutants takes an input sequence (or seed) to compute the Boltzmann-weighted ensembles of mutants with exactly k mutations, and sample mutations from these ensembles. However, this approach suffers from major limitations. Indeed, since the Boltzmann probabilities of the mutations depend of the free energy of the structures, RNAmutants has difficulties to sample mutant sequences with low G+C-contents. In this article, we introduce an unbiased adaptive sampling algorithm that enables RNAmutants to sample regions of the mutational landscape poorly covered by classical algorithms. We applied these methods to sample mutations with low G+C-contents. These adaptive sampling techniques can be easily adapted to explore other regions of the sequence and structural landscapes which are difficult to sample. Importantly, these algorithms come at a minimal computational cost. We demonstrate the insights offered by these techniques on studies of complete RNA sequence structures maps of sizes up to 40 nucleotides. Our results indicate that the G+C-content has a strong influence on the size and shape of the evolutionary accessible sequence and structural spaces. In particular, we show that low G+C-contents favor the apparition of internal loops and thus possibly the synthesis of tertiary structure motifs. On

  17. Variation in oxidative stress indices of two green seaweeds growing under different heavy metal stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gehan A; Ismail, Mona M

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined in the green seaweed species Cladophora glomerata and Ulva compressa collected from El-Mex and Sidi Kirayr locations. The heavy metal concentrations in algal tissues were in direct correlation with their soluble concentrations in seawater with the descending order: Femetal contamination led to apparent alternation in algal thalli morphology. The results showed that C. glomerata had a superior adaptation to metal stress than U. compressa, due to its ability to produce non-enzymatic and enzymatic compounds for scavenging of the produced reactive oxygen species. The recorded contents of the oxidative stress indices (phenols, antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and ascorbic acid) and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were higher in both tested seaweeds from El-Mex bay. Additionally, the estimated metal pollution index and pollution load index for the tested algae and seawaters ensured their ability as metal pollution bioindicators for monitoring marine environment quality and as biomarkers for oxidative damage assessment.

  18. Hologenomic adaptations underlying the evolution of sanguivory in the common vampire bat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zepeda Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary...... integrated viral elements, a dietary and phylogenetic influence on gut microbiome taxonomic and functional profiles, and that both genetic elements harbour key traits related to the nutritional (for example, vitamin and lipid shortage) and non-nutritional (for example, nitrogen waste and osmotic homeostasis...

  19. Adaptive and Energy Efficient Walking in a Hexapod Robot under Neuromechanical Control and Sensorimotor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2016-01-01

    feedback and for online tuning the VAAMs' stiffness parameters. The control and learning mechanisms enable the hexapod robot advanced mobility sensor driven-walking device (AMOS) to achieve variable compliant walking that accommodates different gaits and surfaces. As a consequence, AMOS can perform more...... energy efficient walking, compared to other small legged robots. In addition, this paper also shows that the tight combination of neural control with tunable muscle-like functions, guided by sensory feedback and coupled with sensorimotor learning, is a way forward to better understand and solve adaptive...

  20. [Variation of soil organic carbon under different vegetation types in Karst Mountain areas of Guizhou Province, southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong-kai; Long, Jian

    2011-09-01

    This paper studied the variation characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and different particle sizes soil particulate organic carbon (POC) in normal soil and in micro-habitats under different vegetation types in typical Karst mountain areas of southwest Guizhou. Under different vegetation types, the SOC content in normal soil and in micro-habitats was all in the order of bare land forest, with the variation range being 7.18-43.42 g x kg(-1) in normal soil and being 6.62-46.47 g x kg(-1) and 9.01-52.07 g x kg(-1) in earth surface and stone pit, respectively. The POC/MOC (mineral-associated organic carbon) ratio under different vegetation types was in the order of bare land forest stone pit was the highest, as compared to that in normal soil and in earth surface. In the process of bare land-grass-shrub-forest, the contents of different particle sizes soil POC increased, while the SOC mainly existed in the forms of sand- and silt organic carbon, indicating that in Karst region, soil carbon sequestration and SOC stability were weak, soil was easily subjected to outside interference and led to organic carbon running off, and thus, soil quality had the risk of decline or degradation.

  1. DGAT1 underlies large genetic variation in milk-fat composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schennink, A; Stoop, W M; Visker, M H P W; Heck, J M L; Bovenhuis, H; van der Poel, J J; van Valenberg, H J F; van Arendonk, J A M

    2007-10-01

    Dietary fat may play a role in the aetiology of many chronic diseases. Milk and milk-derived foods contribute substantially to dietary fat, but have a fat composition that is not optimal for human health. We measured the fat composition of milk samples in 1918 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation and estimated genetic parameters for fatty acids. Substantial genetic variation in milk-fat composition was found: heritabilities were high for short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C4:0-C16:0) and moderate for long-chain fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated C18). We genotyped 1762 cows for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, which is known to affect milk-fat percentage, to study the effect of the polymorphism on milk-fat composition. We found that the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism has a clear influence on milk-fat composition. The DGAT1 allele that encodes lysine (K) at position 232 (232K) is associated with more saturated fat; a larger fraction of C16:0; and smaller fractions of C14:0, unsaturated C18 and conjugated linoleic acid (P < 0.001). We conclude that selective breeding can make a significant contribution to change the fat composition of cow's milk.

  2. Seed Bank Variation under Contrasting Site Quality Conditions in Mixed Oak Forests of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Small

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed bank composition was sampled in 192–2.5 m2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years and six second-growth (∼125 years mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sørensen's coefficient <10%, emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (P<.01 higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%–60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on postharvest forest development.

  3. Seed Bank Variation under Contrasting Site Quality Conditions in Mixed Oak Forests of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Ch.J.; McCarthy, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Seed bank composition was sampled in 192-2.5 m 2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years) and six second-growth ((∼125 years) mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sorensen's coefficient <10%), emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (ρ<.01) higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%-60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect) strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on post harvest forest development.

  4. VARIATION IN GRAIN YIELD, BIOMASS AND GRAIN NUMBER OF BARLEY UNDER DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido López-Castañeda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variability in grain yield (GY, aerial biomass (BM and number of grains m-2 (G M-2 in F6 lines and commercial varieties of barley was studied, and the relationship among these characters in full-irrigation (FI, drought (D and rain-fed (RF conditions was determined. Variation in GY, BM and G M-2 among all genotypes, between F6 lines and varieties, and among genotypes of F6 lines and varieties was significant in all the three soil moisture environments. GY, BM and G M-2 in FI were 23, 14 and 21 % greater than the average of the three soil moisture environments; GY, BM and G M-2 in RF were 21, 16 y 24 % lower than this average. F6 lines produced greater GY (380 g m-2, BM (1027 g m-2 and G M-2 (8641 than the commercial varieties (GY=290 g m-2; BM=726 g m-2 y G M-2=7463 in average of the three environments. GY was positive and significantly associated with BM and G M-2; BM and G M-2 were also associated. GY could be improved in either FI, D or RF environments by selecting genotypes with a greater BM and G M-2 or both of them.

  5. Natural variation in a single amino acid substitution underlies physiological responses to topoisomerase II poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdraljevic, Stefan; Strand, Christine; Seidel, Hannah S; Cook, Daniel E; Doench, John G; Andersen, Erik C

    2017-07-01

    Many chemotherapeutic drugs are differentially effective from one patient to the next. Understanding the causes of this variability is a critical step towards the development of personalized treatments and improvements to existing medications. Here, we investigate sensitivity to a group of anti-neoplastic drugs that target topoisomerase II using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that wild strains of C. elegans vary in their sensitivity to these drugs, and we use an unbiased genetic approach to demonstrate that this natural variation is explained by a methionine-to-glutamine substitution in topoisomerase II (TOP-2). The presence of a non-polar methionine at this residue increases hydrophobic interactions between TOP-2 and its poison etoposide, as compared to a polar glutamine. We hypothesize that this stabilizing interaction results in increased genomic instability in strains that contain a methionine residue. The residue affected by this substitution is conserved from yeast to humans and is one of the few differences between the two human topoisomerase II isoforms (methionine in hTOPIIα and glutamine in hTOPIIβ). We go on to show that this amino acid difference between the two human topoisomerase isoforms influences cytotoxicity of topoisomerase II poisons in human cell lines. These results explain why hTOPIIα and hTOPIIβ are differentially affected by various poisons and demonstrate the utility of C. elegans in understanding the genetics of drug responses.

  6. Nonlinear modeling of adaptive magnetorheological landing gear dampers under impact conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuré Powell, Louise A.; Choi, Young T.; Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.

    2016-11-01

    Adaptive landing gear dampers that can continuously adjust their stroking load in response to various operating conditions have been investigated for improving the landing performance of a lightweight helicopter. In prior work, adaptive magnetorheological (MR) landing gear dampers that maintained a constant peak stroking force of 4000 lbf across sink rates ranging from 6 to 12 ft s-1 were designed, fabricated and successfully tested. In this follow-on effort, it is desired to expand the high end of the sink rate range to hold the peak stroking load constant for sink rates ranging from 6 to 26 ft s-1, thus extending the high end of the speed range from 12 (in the first study) to 26 ft s-1. To achieve this increase, a spring-based relief valve MR landing gear damper was developed. In order to better understand the MR landing gear damper behavior, a modified nonlinear Bingham Plastic model was formulated, and it incorporates Darcy friction, viscous forces across the MR and relief valves to better account for the damper force behavior at higher speeds. In addition, gas pressure inside the MR damper piston is considered so the total damper force includes a gas force. The MR landing gear damper performance is characterized using drop tests, and the experiments are used to validate model predictions data at low and high nominal impact speeds up to 26 ft s-1 (shaft velocity of 9.6 ft s-1).

  7. A High-Precision Adaptive Thermal Network Model for Monitoring of Temperature Variations in Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for optimizing the Cauer-type thermal network model considering both the temperature influence on the extraction of parameters and the errors caused by the physical structure. In terms of prediction of the transient junction temperature and the steady-state junction temperature, the conventional Cauer-type parameters are modified, and the general method for estimating junction temperature is studied by using the adaptive thermal network model. The results show that junction temperature estimated by our adaptive Cauer-type thermal network model is more accurate than that of the conventional model.

  8. A comparative analysis between FinFET Semi-Dynamic Flip-Flop topologies under process variations

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Mohamed A.

    2011-11-01

    Semi-Dynamic Flip-Flops are widely used in state-of-art microprocessors. Moreover, scaling down traditional CMOS technology faces major challenges which rises the need for new devices for replacement. FinFET technology is a potential replacement due to similarity in both fabrication process and theory of operation to current CMOS technology. Hence, this paper presents the study of Semi Dynamic Flip Flops using both Independent gate and Tied gate FinFET devices in 32nm technology node. Furthermore, it studies the performance of these new circuits under process variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in soil derived nitrous oxide emissions under sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Grace, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Weier, Keith

    2011-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a significant greenhouse gas with a global warming potential that is 300 times than that of carbon dioxide. Soil derived N(2)O emissions usually display a high degree of spatial and temporal variability because of their dependence on soil chemical and physical properties, and climate dependent environmental factors. However, there is little research that incorporates spatial dependence in the estimation of N(2)O emissions allowing for environmental factors in the same model. This study aims to examine the impact of two environmental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) on N(2)O emissions and explore the spatial structure of N(2)O in the sub-tropical South East Queensland region of Australia. The replicated data on N(2)O emissions and soil properties were collected at a typical sugarcane land site covering 25 uniform grid points across 3600 m(2) between October 2007 and September 2008. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to model spatial dependence. Results showed that soil moisture and soil temperature appeared to have substantially different effects on N(2)O emissions after taking spatial dependence into account in the four seasons. There was a substantial variation in the spatial distribution of N(2)O emission in the different seasons. The high N(2)O emission regions were accompanied by high uncertainty and changed in varying seasons in this study site. Spatial CAR models might be more plausible to elucidate and account for the uncertainty arising from unclear variables and spatial variability in the assessment of N(2)O emissions in soils, and more accurately identify relationships with key environmental factors and help to reduce the uncertainty of the soil parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping Heat-related Risks for Community-based Adaptation Planning under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingjiu; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Kurihara, Kazuo; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takayabu, Izuru

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is leading to more frequent and intense heat waves. Recently, epidemiologic findings on heat-related health impacts have reinforced our understanding of the mortality impacts of extreme heat. This research has several aims: 1) to promote climate prediction services with spatial and temporal information on heat-related risks, using GIS (Geographical Information System), and digital mapping techniques; 2) to propose a visualization approach to articulating the evolution of local heat-health responses over time and the evaluation of new interventions for the implementation of valid community-based adaptation strategies and reliable actionable planning; and 3) to provide an appropriate and simple method of adjusting bias and quantifying the uncertainty in future outcomes, so that regional climate projections may be transcribed into useful forms for a wide variety of different users. Following the 2003 European heat wave, climatologists, medical specialists, and social scientists expedited efforts to revise and integrate risk governance frameworks for communities to take appropriate and effective actions themselves. Recently, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) methodology has made projections possible for anyone wanting to openly access state-of-the-art climate model outputs and climate data to provide the backbone for decisions. Furthermore, the latest high-solution regional climate model (RCM) has been a huge increase in the volumes of data available. In this study, we used high-quality hourly projections (5-km resolution) from the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM-5km), following the SRES-A1B scenario developed by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and observational data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The NHRCM-5km is a dynamic downscaling of results from the MRI-AGCM3.2S (20-km resolution), an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) driven by the

  11. Design and conduct of Caudwell Xtreme Everest: an observational cohort study of variation in human adaptation to progressive environmental hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levett, Denny Z. H.; Martin, Daniel S.; Wilson, Mark H.; Mitchell, Kay; Dhillon, Sundeep; Rigat, Fabio; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Mythen, Monty G.; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.; Plant, T.; Pun, M.; Richards, P.; Richardson, A.; Rodway, G.; Simpson, J.; Stroud, C.; Stroud, M.; Stygal, J.; Symons, B.; Szawarski, P.; van Tulleken, A.; van Tulleken, C.; Vercueil, A.; Wandrag, L.; Wilson, M.; Windsor, J.; Basnyat, B.; Clarke, C.; Hornbein, T.; Milledge, J.; West, J.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological responses to hypoxaemia and cellular hypoxia are poorly understood, and inter-individual differences in performance at altitude and outcome in critical illness remain unexplained. We propose a model for exploring adaptation to hypoxia in the critically ill: the study of healthy

  12. Gene flow versus local adaptation in the northern acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides: insights from mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A F; Kann, L M; Rand, D M

    2001-10-01

    In reciprocal transplant experiments, Bertness and Gaines (1993) found that Semibalanus balanoides juveniles that had settled in an upper Narragansett Bay estuary survived better in that estuary that did juveniles from coastal localities. The observed pattern of survivorship led to the claim that local adaptation may result from a combination of limited gene flow between and strong selection within these habitats. Here we test the hypothesis that limited gene flow has led to habitat-specific population differentiation using sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of S. balanoides. Samples were analyzed from replicated coastal and estuary localities in both Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and Damariscotta River, Maine. The patterns of F(ST) indicate that gene flow between coast and estuary is extensive (Nm > 100) and is not lower in the estuary with lower flushing rates (Narragansett Bay). Given the high estimate of genetic exchange, adaptations for unpredictable environments seem more likely than local adaptation in this species because loci that respond to selection in one generation are essentially homogenized by the next seasons' settlement. Nevertheless, these estimates of neutral gene flow can help identify the strength of selection necessary for local adaptation to accumulate in Semibalanus.

  13. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of Ring Configured Uncertain Chaotic FitzHugh–Nagumo Neurons under Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper exploits the dynamical modeling, behavior analysis, and synchronization of a network of four different FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN neurons with unknown parameters linked in a ring configuration under direction-dependent coupling. The main purpose is to investigate a robust adaptive control law for the synchronization of uncertain and perturbed neurons, communicating in a medium of bidirectional coupling. The neurons are assumed to be different and interconnected in a ring structure. The strength of the gap junctions is taken to be different for each link in the network, owing to the inter-neuronal coupling medium properties. Robust adaptive control mechanism based on Lyapunov stability analysis is employed and theoretical criteria are derived to realize the synchronization of the network of four FHN neurons in a ring form with unknown parameters under direction-dependent coupling and disturbances. The proposed scheme for synchronization of dissimilar neurons, under external electrical stimuli, coupled in a ring communication topology, having all parameters unknown, and subject to directional coupling medium and perturbations, is addressed for the first time as per our knowledge. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, simulation results are provided.

  14. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of Ring Configured Uncertain Chaotic FitzHugh–Nagumo Neurons under Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2018-01-01

    This paper exploits the dynamical modeling, behavior analysis, and synchronization of a network of four different FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) neurons with unknown parameters linked in a ring configuration under direction-dependent coupling. The main purpose is to investigate a robust adaptive control law for the synchronization of uncertain and perturbed neurons, communicating in a medium of bidirectional coupling. The neurons are assumed to be different and interconnected in a ring structure. The strength of the gap junctions is taken to be different for each link in the network, owing to the inter-neuronal coupling medium properties. Robust adaptive control mechanism based on Lyapunov stability analysis is employed and theoretical criteria are derived to realize the synchronization of the network of four FHN neurons in a ring form with unknown parameters under direction-dependent coupling and disturbances. The proposed scheme for synchronization of dissimilar neurons, under external electrical stimuli, coupled in a ring communication topology, having all parameters unknown, and subject to directional coupling medium and perturbations, is addressed for the first time as per our knowledge. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, simulation results are provided. PMID:29535622

  15. Children after Chernobyl: immune cells adaptive changes and stable alterations under low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazyka, D.A.; Chumak, A.A.; Bebeshko, V.G.; Beliaeva, N.V.

    1997-01-01

    Early changes of immune parameters in children evacuated from 30-km zone were characterized by E-rossette forming cells decrease and E-receptor non-stability in theophylline assay, surface Ig changes. Immunological follow-up of children inhabitants of territories contaminated with radionuclides after Chernobyl accident revealed TCR/CD3, CD4 and MHC CD3+, CD4+, CD57+ subsets, RIL-2, TrT expression and calcium channel activity. PMNC percentage with cortical thymocyte phenotype (CD1+, CD4+8+) was elevated during the first years after the accident and seemed to be of a compensatory origin. Combination of heterogenic activation and suppression subset reactions and changes in fine subset (Th1/Th2) organization were suggested. Adaptive and compensatory reactions were supposed and delayed hypersensitivity reactions increase as well. (author)

  16. [Variation characteristics of soil carbon sequestration under long-term different fertilization in red paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yang-zhu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Zhang, Wen-ju; Liu, Shu-jun

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the saturation capacity of soil carbon sequestration and its cooperation with carbon input (crop source and organic fertilizer source carbon) under long-term (1982-2012) different fertilization in red paddy soil. The results showed that fertilization could increase SOC content. The SOC content of all the fertilization treatments demonstrated a trend of stabilization after applying fertilizer for 30 years. The SOC content in the treatments applying organic manure with mineral fertilizers was between 21.02 and 21.24 g · kg(-1), and the increase rate ranged from 0.41 to 0.59 g · kg(-1) · a(-1). The SOC content in the treatments applying mineral fertilizers only was 15.48 g · kg(-1). The average soil carbon sequestration in the treatments that applied organic manure with mineral fertilizers ranged from 43.61 to 48.43 t C · hm(-2), and the average SOC storage over the years in these treatments was significantly greater than those applying mineral fertilizers only. There was an exponentially positive correlation between C sequestration efficiency and annual average organic C input. It must input exogenous organic carbon at least at 0. 12 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1) to maintain the balance of soil organic carbon under the experimental conditions.

  17. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  18. Monitoring Training Adaptation With a Submaximal Running Test Under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Ayramo, Sami; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-04-01

    Regular monitoring of adaptation to training is important for optimizing training load and recovery, which is the main factor in successful training. To investigate the usefulness of a novel submaximal running test (SRT) in field conditions in predicting and tracking changes of endurance performance. Thirty-five endurance-trained men and women (age 20-55 y) completed the 18-wk endurance-training program. A maximal incremental running test was performed at weeks 0, 9, and 18 for determination of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and running speed (RS) at exhaustion (RSpeak) and lactate thresholds (LTs). In addition, the subjects performed weekly a 3-stage SRT including a postexercise heart-rate-recovery (HRR) measurement. The subjects were retrospectively grouped into 4 clusters according to changes in SRT results. Large correlations (r = .60-.89) were observed between RS during all stages of SRT and all endurance-performance variables (VO2max, RSpeak, RS at LT2, and RS at LT1). HRR correlated only with VO2max (r = .46). Large relationships were also found between changes in RS during 80% and 90% HRmax stages of SRT and a change of RSpeak (r = .57, r = .79). In addition, the cluster analysis revealed the different trends in RS during 80% and 90% stages during the training between the clusters, which showed different improvements in VO2max and RSpeak. The current SRT showed great potential as a practical tool for regular monitoring of individual adaptation to endurance training without time-consuming and expensive laboratory tests.

  19. Adaptive, fast walking in a biped robot under neuronal control and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Geng, Tao; Kulvicius, Tomas; Porr, Bernd; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2007-07-01

    Human walking is a dynamic, partly self-stabilizing process relying on the interaction of the biomechanical design with its neuronal control. The coordination of this process is a very difficult problem, and it has been suggested that it involves a hierarchy of levels, where the lower ones, e.g., interactions between muscles and the spinal cord, are largely autonomous, and where higher level control (e.g., cortical) arises only pointwise, as needed. This requires an architecture of several nested, sensori-motor loops where the walking process provides feedback signals to the walker's sensory systems, which can be used to coordinate its movements. To complicate the situation, at a maximal walking speed of more than four leg-lengths per second, the cycle period available to coordinate all these loops is rather short. In this study we present a planar biped robot, which uses the design principle of nested loops to combine the self-stabilizing properties of its biomechanical design with several levels of neuronal control. Specifically, we show how to adapt control by including online learning mechanisms based on simulated synaptic plasticity. This robot can walk with a high speed (>3.0 leg length/s), self-adapting to minor disturbances, and reacting in a robust way to abruptly induced gait changes. At the same time, it can learn walking on different terrains, requiring only few learning experiences. This study shows that the tight coupling of physical with neuronal control, guided by sensory feedback from the walking pattern itself, combined with synaptic learning may be a way forward to better understand and solve coordination problems in other complex motor tasks.

  20. Adaptive, fast walking in a biped robot under neuronal control and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poramate Manoonpong

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Human walking is a dynamic, partly self-stabilizing process relying on the interaction of the biomechanical design with its neuronal control. The coordination of this process is a very difficult problem, and it has been suggested that it involves a hierarchy of levels, where the lower ones, e.g., interactions between muscles and the spinal cord, are largely autonomous, and where higher level control (e.g., cortical arises only pointwise, as needed. This requires an architecture of several nested, sensori-motor loops where the walking process provides feedback signals to the walker's sensory systems, which can be used to coordinate its movements. To complicate the situation, at a maximal walking speed of more than four leg-lengths per second, the cycle period available to coordinate all these loops is rather short. In this study we present a planar biped robot, which uses the design principle of nested loops to combine the self-stabilizing properties of its biomechanical design with several levels of neuronal control. Specifically, we show how to adapt control by including online learning mechanisms based on simulated synaptic plasticity. This robot can walk with a high speed (>3.0 leg length/s, self-adapting to minor disturbances, and reacting in a robust way to abruptly induced gait changes. At the same time, it can learn walking on different terrains, requiring only few learning experiences. This study shows that the tight coupling of physical with neuronal control, guided by sensory feedback from the walking pattern itself, combined with synaptic learning may be a way forward to better understand and solve coordination problems in other complex motor tasks.

  1. Adaptive influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on variation of incubation periods among tropical and temperate passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Oteyza, Juan C.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding intrinsic (physiological) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature) causes of variation in embryonic development time (incubation period) is important because they can have different impacts on individual quality. Robert Ricklefs and colleagues have argued that longer incubation periods result primarily from intrinsic physiological programs that increase individual quality and adult survival. They claim that incubation periods are largely invariant and that extrinsic factors like temperature have little impact. We have argued that adult survival may be a cause rather than a consequence of much of the variation in embryonic development time. A reduction in extrinsic sources of annual adult mortality (e.g., migration, predation, nonbreeding-season mortality) favors reduced parental effort during incubation to minimize costs to future reproduction and survival. Reduced parental effort, in turn, manifests as cooler average egg temperatures that yield longer incubation periods. Ricklefs and colleagues mischaracterized our hypothesis and deconstructed their own incorrect version, while also making some incorrect statements. We show that reevaluation of previous evidence provided by this group actually supports a role of egg temperature for the variation in incubation periods. We also summarize other observational and experimental evidence that incubation periods are not invariant and that egg temperature has a strong causal influence on variation within and among species. In fact, egg temperature explains ∼60% of the difference in incubation periods among species. The remaining ∼40% reflects intrinsic physiological programs and other factors, potentially providing intrinsic benefits. Ultimately, annual adult mortality explains substantial variation in parental effort and egg temperature, and the latter strongly explains variation in incubation periods. Both intrinsic programs and extrinsic temperature effects need to be considered in attempts to understand

  2. Genotypic Variation of Early Maturing Soybean Genotypes for Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency under Field Grown Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaidoo, R.C.; Opoku, A.; Boahen, S.; Dare, M.O.

    2013-01-01

    Variability in the utilization of phosphorus (P) by 64 early-maturing soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genotypes under low-P soil conditions were evaluated in 2009 and 2010 at Shika, Nigeria. Fifteen phenotypic variables; number of nodules, nodule dry weight, grain yield, plant biomass, total biomass, biomass N and P content, Phosphorus Utilization Index (PUI), shoot P Utilization efficiency (PUIS), grain P Utilization efficiency (PUIG), Harvest Index (HI), Biological N fixed (BNF), total N fixed and N and P uptake were measured. The four clusters revealed by cluster analysis were basically divided along (1) plant biomass and uptake, (2) nutrient acquisition and utilization and (3) nodulation components. Three early maturing genotypes, TGx1842-14E, TGx1912-11F and TGx1913-5F, were identified as having high P utilization index and low P uptake. These genotypes could be a potential source for breeding for P use efficiency in early maturing soybean genotypes. (author)

  3. Detection of structural damage using novelty detection algorithm under variational environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mountassir, M.; Yaacoubi, S.; Dahmene, F.

    2015-07-01

    Novelty detection is a widely used algorithm in different fields of study due to its capabilities to recognize any kind of abnormalities in a specific process in order to ensure better working in normal conditions. In the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), this method is utilized as damage detection technique because the presence of defects can be considered as abnormal to the structure. Nevertheless, the performance of such a method could be jeopardized if the structure is operating in harsh environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). In this paper, novelty detection statistical technique is used to investigate the detection of damages under various EOCs. Experiments were conducted with different scenarios: damage sizes and shapes. EOCs effects were simulated by adding stochastic noise to the collected experimental data. Different levels of noise were studied to determine the accuracy and the performance of the proposed method.

  4. Detection of structural damage using novelty detection algorithm under variational environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountassir, M El; Yaacoubi, S; Dahmene, F

    2015-01-01

    Novelty detection is a widely used algorithm in different fields of study due to its capabilities to recognize any kind of abnormalities in a specific process in order to ensure better working in normal conditions. In the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), this method is utilized as damage detection technique because the presence of defects can be considered as abnormal to the structure. Nevertheless, the performance of such a method could be jeopardized if the structure is operating in harsh environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). In this paper, novelty detection statistical technique is used to investigate the detection of damages under various EOCs. Experiments were conducted with different scenarios: damage sizes and shapes. EOCs effects were simulated by adding stochastic noise to the collected experimental data. Different levels of noise were studied to determine the accuracy and the performance of the proposed method. (paper)

  5. An optical flow-based approach to robust face recognition under expression variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chao-Kuei; Lai, Shang-Hong; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Face recognition is one of the most intensively studied topics in computer vision and pattern recognition, but few are focused on how to robustly recognize faces with expressions under the restriction of one single training sample per class. A constrained optical flow algorithm, which combines the advantages of the unambiguous correspondence of feature point labeling and the flexible representation of optical flow computation, has been developed for face recognition from expressional face images. In this paper, we propose an integrated face recognition system that is robust against facial expressions by combining information from the computed intraperson optical flow and the synthesized face image in a probabilistic framework. Our experimental results show that the proposed system improves the accuracy of face recognition from expressional face images.

  6. Variation of biometric parameters in corn cobs under the influence of nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigel, Prisecaru; Florin, Sala

    2017-07-01

    Biometric parameters as elements of productivity on corn cobs, along with plant density per unit area (ha) are essential in achieving production. The influence of differentiated fertilization with nitrogen was evaluated at the level of productivity elements on corn cobs, Andreea hybrid. Biometric parameters of the corn cobs (total length - L; usable length - l; uncoated length with corn kernels - lu; diameter at the base - Db, middle - Dm, and top of the corn cobs - Dt; corn cob weight - Cw, grain weight - Gw) were directly influenced by the doses of nitrogen. Regression analysis has facilitated the prediction of grain weight as the main element of productivity under different statistical certainty based on nitrogen doses (R2 = 0.962, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.985, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.996, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.824, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.807, pcorn kernels (R2 = 0.624, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.384, p=0.015).

  7. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Marceau; Martin-Benito, Dario; Von Arx, Georg; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L.; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G.; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William T.; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-01-31

    In recent years, widespread forest mortality in response to drought has been documented worldwide (Allen, Breshears & McDowell 2015). An example of widespread and rapid increase in drought-induced mortality, or die-off, was observed for Pinus edulis Engelm. across the Southwestern USA in response to several years of reduced rainfall and high vapor pressure deficits (VPD) (Breshears et al. 2009; Allen et al. 2010; Williams et al. 2013). Although stomatal closure under drought has been hypothesized to increase mortality through carbon starvation (McDowell et al. 2008; Breshears et al. 2009), more evidences exist for mortality being caused by hydraulic failure (Plaut et al. 2012; McDowell et al. 2013; Sevanto et al. 2014; Garcia-Forner et al. 2016). Regardless of the mechanism of drought-induced decline, maintaining a positive supply of water to the foliage is critical for tree functioning and survival.

  8. Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Jaberi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT. The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria. Material and methods : Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan. Results : A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in ‘organs-applicators’, while maintaining target dose at the original level. Conclusions : There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients’ plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.

  9. Variations in the U-Value Measurement of a Whole Dwelling Using Infrared Thermography under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Marshall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available U-values of building elements are often determined using point measurements, where infrared imagery may be used to identify a suitable location for these measurements. Current methods identify that surface areas exhibiting a homogeneous temperature—away from regions of thermal bridging—can be used to obtain U-values. In doing so, however, the resulting U-value is assumed to represent that entire building element, contrary to the information given by the initial infrared inspection. This can be problematic when applying these measured U-values to models for predicting energy performance. Three techniques have been used to measure the U-values of external building elements of a full-scale replica of a pre-1920s U.K. home under controlled conditions: point measurements, using heat flux meters, and two variations of infrared thermography at high and low resolutions. U-values determined from each technique were used to calibrate a model of that building and predictions of the heat transfer coefficient, annual energy consumption, and fuel cost were made. Point measurements and low-resolution infrared thermography were found to represent a relatively small proportion of the overall U-value distribution. By propagating the variation of U-values found using high-resolution thermography, the predicted heat transfer coefficient (HTC was found to vary between 183 W/K to 235 W/K (±12%. This also led to subsequent variations in the predictions for annual energy consumption for heating (between 4923 kWh and 5481 kWh, ±11%; and in the predicted cost of that energy consumption (between £227 and £281, ±24%. This variation is indicative of the sensitivity of energy simulations to sensor placement when carrying out point measurements for U-values.

  10. Sustainability of forest management under changing climatic conditions in the southern United States: adaptation strategies, economic rents and carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Carter, Douglas R; Adams, Damian C

    2014-06-15

    The impacts of climate change on profitability and carbon storage in even-aged forest stands of two dominant commercial pine species, loblolly and slash pine, in the southern United States were assessed under alternative assumptions about the impact of climate change on forest productivity and catastrophic disturbance rates. Potential adaptation strategies to reduce losses from disturbance included: 1) alternative planting densities, and 2) planting slash pine instead of loblolly pine. In addition, the amount of sequestered carbon was used to develop an index of economic efficiency for carbon sequestration, which further helps rank the suitability of alternative adaptation strategies. Our results indicate that greater economic rents from forests occur with lower planting densities and the substitution of slash pine for high density loblolly pine. However, less carbon is sequestered by low density loblolly pine compared to slash pine and high density loblolly pine. Both adaptation strategies are economically more effective in terms of carbon sequestration compared to the baseline since they generate more economic revenues per Mg of sequestered carbon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  12. Inferring local adaptation from QST–FST comparisons: neutral genetic and quantitative trait variation in European populations of great snipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saether, S.A.; Fiske, P.; Kålås, J.A.; Kuresoo, A.; Luigujõe, L.; Piertney, S.; Sahlman, T.; Höglund, J.

    2007-01-01

    We applied a phenotypic QST (PST) vs. FST approach to study spatial variation in selection among great snipe (Gallinago media) populations in two regions of northern Europe. Morphological divergence between regions was high despite low differentiation in selectively neutral genetic markers, whereas

  13. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald

    2013-01-01

    -aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest...

  14. Proteomic analysis of Brucella suis under oxygen deficiency reveals flexibility in adaptive expression of various pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Loisel-Meyer, Séverine; Scholz, Holger C; Tomaso, Herbert; Kersten, Michael; Harder, Alois; Neubauer, Heinrich; Köhler, Stephan; Jubier-Maurin, Véronique

    2009-06-01

    Low oxygen tension was proposed to be one of the environmental parameters characteristic of the patho-physiological conditions of natural infections by Brucella suis. We previously showed that various respiratory pathways may be used by B. suis in response to microaerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Here, we compare the whole proteome of B. suis exposed to such low-oxygenated conditions to that obtained from bacteria grown under ambient air using 2-D DIGE. Data showed that the reduction of basal metabolism was in line with low or absence of growth of B. suis. Under both microaerobiosis and anaerobiosis, glycolysis and denitrification were favored. In addition, fatty acid oxidation and possibly citrate fermentation could also contribute to energy production sufficient for survival under anaerobiosis. When oxygen availability changed and became limiting, basic metabolic processes were still functional and variability of respiratory pathways was observed to a degree unexpected for a strictly aerobic microorganism. This highly flexible respiration probably constitutes an advantage for the survival of Brucella under the restricted oxygenation conditions encountered within host tissue.

  15. Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorba Szilveszter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS, while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S. The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET, potential evaporation (PE and total amount of water (TSW in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

  16. The geostatistic-based spatial distribution variations of soil salts under long-term wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyong; Yin, Shiyang; Liu, Honglu; Niu, Yong; Bao, Zhe

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the spatial changes in soil salinity by using geostatistical methods. The study focused on the suburb area of Beijing, where urban development led to water shortage and accelerated wastewater reuse to farm irrigation for more than 30 years. The data were then processed by GIS using three different interpolation techniques of ordinary kriging (OK), disjunctive kriging (DK), and universal kriging (UK). The normality test and overall trend analysis were applied for each interpolation technique to select the best fitted model for soil parameters. Results showed that OK was suitable for soil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and Na(+) interpolation; UK was suitable for soil Cl(-) and pH; DK was suitable for soil Ca(2+). The nugget-to-sill ratio was applied to evaluate the effects of structural and stochastic factors. The maps showed that the areas of non-saline soil and slight salinity soil accounted for 6.39 and 93.61%, respectively. The spatial distribution and accumulation of soil salt were significantly affected by the irrigation probabilities and drainage situation under long-term wastewater irrigation.

  17. Detection of Variations of Local Irregularity of Traffic under DDOS Flood Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of distributed denial-of-service (DDOS flood attacks is to overwhelm the attacked site or to make its service performance deterioration considerably by sending flood packets to the target from the machines distributed all over the world. This is a kind of local behavior of traffic at the protected site because the attacked site can be recovered to its normal service state sooner or later even though it is in reality overwhelmed during attack. From a view of mathematics, it can be taken as a kind of short-range phenomenon in computer networks. In this paper, we use the Hurst parameter (H to measure the local irregularity or self-similarity of traffic under DDOS flood attack provided that fractional Gaussian noise (fGn is used as the traffic model. As flood attack packets of DDOS make the H value of arrival traffic vary significantly away from that of traffic normally arriving at the protected site, we discuss a method to statistically detect signs of DDOS flood attacks with predetermined detection probability and false alarm probability.

  18. Adaptive observer-based control for an IPMC actuator under varying humidity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Jakub; Kolota, Jakub

    2018-05-01

    As ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) are increasingly applied to mechatronic systems, many new IPMC modeling efforts have been reported in the literature. The demands of rapidly growing technology has generated interest in advancing the intrinsic actuation and sensing capabilities of IPMC. Classical IPMC applications need constant hydration to operate. On the other hand, for IPMCs operating in air, the water content of the polymer varies with the humidity level of the ambient environment, which leads to its strong humidity-dependent behavior. Furthermore, decreasing water content over time plays a crucial role in the effectiveness of IPMC. Therefore, the primary challenge of this work is to accurately model this phenomenon. The principal contribution of the paper is a new IPMC model, which considers the change of moisture content. A novel nonlinear adaptive observer is designed to determine the unknown electric potential and humidity level in the polymer membrane. This approach effectively determines the moisture content of the IPMC during long-term continuous operation in air. This subsequently allows us to develop an effective back-stepping control algorithm that considers varying moisture content. Data from experiments are presented to support the effectiveness of the observation process, which is shown in illustrative examples.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying the Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Christakos, Sylvia

    2015-09-24

    Non-classical actions of vitamin D were first suggested over 30 years ago when receptors for the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), were detected in various tissues and cells that are not associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis, including activated human inflammatory cells. The question that remained was the biological significance of the presence of vitamin D receptors in the different tissues and cells and, with regard to the immune system, whether or not vitamin D plays a role in the normal immune response and in modifying immune mediated diseases. In this article findings indicating that vitamin D is a key factor regulating both innate and adaptive immunity are reviewed with a focus on the molecular mechanisms involved. In addition, the physiological significance of vitamin D action, as suggested by in vivo studies in mouse models is discussed. Together, the findings indicate the importance of 1,25(OH)2D3 as a regulator of key components of the immune system. An understanding of the mechanisms involved will lead to potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of immune mediated diseases.

  20. Adaptability and stability in rubber tree progenies under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cese Arantes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to select progenies with high adaptability and stability from the dry rubber yield (PBS, of genotypes from a three-year-old rubber tree population, installed in three different locations (Selvíria, MS, Votuporanga, SP and Colina, SP, by the MHPRVG (harmonic average performance relative breeding values method predicted by BLUP. The progenies were installed in a randomized block design with 30 treatments (progenies, three replications and 10 plants per plot, with spacing of 3.00 x 3.00 m (Selvíria, MS and 1.50 x 1.50 m (Colina, SP and Votuporanga, SP. The PBS presented considerable genetic coefficient variability, ranging from 23.03 to 27.82% and average heritability ranging from 0.47 to 0.99, indicating the high value of the progeny tests in rubber tree breeding programs. The MHPRVG method provided a genetic gain ranging from 11 to 38% in 10 progenies to the PBS and allowed the selection of progenies with high predicted yield potential.

  1. Facing different predators: adaptiveness of behavioral and morphological traits under predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen, Martina; Bunnefeld, Nils; Borcherding, Jost

    2017-06-01

    Predation is thought to be one of the main structuring forces in animal communities. However, selective predation is often measured on isolated traits in response to a single predatory species, but only rarely are selective forces on several traits quantified or even compared between different predators naturally occurring in the same system. In the present study, we therefore measured behavioral and morphological traits in young-of-the-year Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and compared their selective values in response to the 2 most common predators, adult perch and pike Esox lucius . Using mixed effects models and model averaging to analyze our data, we quantified and compared the selectivity of the 2 predators on the different morphological and behavioral traits. We found that selection on the behavioral traits was higher than on morphological traits and perch predators preyed overall more selectively than pike predators. Pike tended to positively select shallow bodied and nonvigilant individuals (i.e. individuals not performing predator inspection). In contrast, perch predators selected mainly for bolder juvenile perch (i.e. individuals spending more time in the open, more active), which was most important. Our results are to the best of our knowledge the first that analyzed behavioral and morphological adaptations of juvenile perch facing 2 different predation strategies. We found that relative specific predation intensity for the divergent traits differed between the predators, providing some additional ideas why juvenile perch display such a high degree of phenotypic plasticity.

  2. Evolution of age-dependent sex-reversal under adaptive dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsina, Angel; Ripoll, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of the age (or size) at sex-reversal in a model of sequential hermaphroditism, by means of the function-valued adaptive dynamics. The trait is the probability law of the age at sex-reversal considered as a random variable. Our analysis starts with the ecological model which was first introduced and analyzed by Calsina and Ripoll (Math Biosci 208(2), 393-418, 2007). The structure of the population is extended to a genotype class and a new model for an invading/mutant population is introduced. The invasion fitness functional is derived from the ecological setting, and it turns out to be controlled by a formula of Shaw-Mohler type. The problem of finding evolutionarily stable strategies is solved by means of infinite-dimensional linear optimization. We have found that these strategies correspond to sex-reversal at a single particular age (or size) even if the set of feasible strategies is considerably broader and allows for a probabilistic sex-reversal. Several examples, including in addition the population-dynamical stability, are illustrated. For a special case, we can show that an unbeatable size at sex-reversal must be larger than 69.3% of the expected size at death.

  3. Controlled Environments Enable Adaptive Management in Aquatic Ecosystems Under Altered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are impacted by altered environment conditions resulting from climate, drought, and land use changes. Gaps in the science knowledge base regarding plant community response to these novel and rapid changes limit both science understanding and management of ecosystems. We describe how CE Technologies have enabled the rapid supply of gap-filling science, development of ecosystem simulation models, and remote sensing assessment tools to provide science-informed, adaptive management methods in the impacted aquatic ecosystem of the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The Delta is the hub for California's water, supplying Southern California agriculture and urban communities as well as the San Francisco Bay area. The changes in environmental conditions including temperature, light, and water quality and associated expansion of invasive aquatic plants negatively impact water distribution and ecology of the San Francisco Bay/Delta complex. CE technologies define changes in resource use efficiencies, photosynthetic productivity, evapotranspiration, phenology, reproductive strategies, and spectral reflectance modifications in native and invasive species in response to altered conditions. We will discuss how the CE technologies play an enabling role in filling knowledge gaps regarding plant response to altered environments, parameterization and validation of ecosystem models, development of satellite-based, remote sensing tools, and operational management strategies.

  4. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P salinization condition. The crude oil pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  5. Adaptive Reactive Power Control of PV Power Plants for Improved Power Transfer Capability under Ultra-Weak Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Liu, Fangcheng

    2018-01-01

    with the unity power factor. Then, considering the reactive power compensation from PV inverters, the minimum SCR in respect to Power Factor (PF) is derived, and the optimized coordination of the active and reactive power is exploited. It is revealed that the power transfer capability of PV power plant under......This paper analyzes the power transfer limitation of the PV power plant under the ultra-weak grid condition, i.e., when the Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) is close to 1. It explicitly identifies that a minimum SCR of 2 is required for the PV power plant to deliver the rated active power when operating...... the ultra-weak grid is significantly improved with the low PF operation. An adaptive reactive power droop control is next proposed to effectively distribute the reactive power demands to the individual inverters, and meanwhile maximize the power transfer capacity of the PV power plant. Simulation results...

  6. Rate Adaptation for Cognitive Radio under Interference from Primary Spectrum User

    OpenAIRE

    Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki; Nishimori, Kentaro; Di Taranto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    A cognitive radio can operate as a secondary system in a given spectrum. This operation should use limited power in order not to disturb the communication by primary spectrum user. Under such conditions, in this paper we investigate how to maximize the spectral efficiency in the secondary system. A secondary receiver observes a multiple access channel of two users, the secondary and the primary transmitter, respectively. We show that, for spectrally-efficient operation, the secondary system s...

  7. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Paul G; Washburn, Libe; Martz, Todd R; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula) and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor). Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only), tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor), and water mass properties (temperature and salinity) during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1) pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007) and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036), and (2) pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities) to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  8. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Matson

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor. Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only, tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor, and water mass properties (temperature and salinity during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1 pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007 and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036, and (2 pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  9. Control of grid integrated voltage source converters under unbalanced conditions: development of an on-line frequency-adaptive virtual flux-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suul, Jon Are

    2012-03-15

    Three-Phase Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are finding widespread applications in grid integrated power conversion systems. The control systems of such VSCs are in an increasing number of these applications required to operate during voltage disturbances and unbalanced conditions. Control systems designed for grid side voltagesensor-less operation are at the same time becoming attractive due to the continuous drive for cost reduction and increased reliability of VSCs, but are not commonly applied for operation during unbalanced conditions. Methods for voltage-sensor-less grid synchronization and control of VSCs under unbalanced grid voltage conditions will therefore be the main focus of this Thesis. Estimation methods based on the concept of Virtual Flux, considering the integral of the converter voltage in analogy to the flux of an electric machine, are among the simplest and most well known techniques for achieving voltage-sensor-less grid synchronization. Most of the established techniques for Virtual Flux estimation are, however, either sensitive to grid frequency variations or they are not easily adaptable for operation under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. This Thesis addresses both these issues by proposing a simple approach for Virtual Flux estimation by utilizing a frequency-adaptive filter based on a Second Order Generalized Integrator (SOGI). The proposed approach can be used to achieve on-line frequency-adaptive varieties of conventional strategies for Virtual Flux estimation. The main advantage is, however, that the SOGI-based Virtual Flux estimation can be arranged in a structure that achieves inherent symmetrical component sequence separation under unbalanced conditions. The proposed method for Virtual Flux estimation can be used as a general basis for voltage-sensor-less grid synchronization and control during unbalanced conditions. In this Thesis, the estimated Virtual Flux signals are used to develop a flexible strategy for control of active

  10. Locomotor Adaptation by Transtibial Amputees Walking With an Experimental Powered Prosthesis Under Continuous Myoelectric Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stephanie; Wensman, Jeffrey P; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-05-01

    Lower limb amputees can use electrical activity from their residual muscles for myoelectric control of a powered prosthesis. The most common approach for myoelectric control is a finite state controller that identifies behavioral states and discrete changes in motor tasks. An alternative approach to state-based myoelectric control is continuous proportional myoelectric control where ongoing electrical activity has a proportional relationship to the prosthetic joint torque or power. To test the potential of continuous proportional myoelectric control for powered lower limb prostheses, we recruited five unilateral transtibial amputees to walk on a treadmill with an experimental powered prosthesis. Subjects walked using the powered prosthesis with and without visual feedback of their control signal in real time. Amputee subjects were able to adapt their residual muscle activation patterns to alter prosthetic ankle mechanics when we provided visual feedback of their myoelectric control signal in real time. During walking with visual feedback, subjects significantly increased their peak prosthetic ankle power ( p = 0.02, ANOVA) and positive work ( p = 0.02, ANOVA) during gait above their prescribed prosthesis values. However, without visual feedback, the subjects did not increase their peak ankle power during push off. These results show that amputee users were able to volitionally alter their prosthesis mechanics during walking, but only when given an explicit goal for their residual muscle motor commands. Future studies that examine the motor and learning capabilities of lower limb amputees using their residual muscles for continuous proportional myoelectric control are needed to determine the viability of integrating continuous high-level control with existing finite state prosthetic controllers.

  11. Nitrogen Metabolism in Adaptation of Photosynthesis to Water Stress in Rice Grown under Different Nitrogen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of nitrogen (N metabolism in the adaptation of photosynthesis to water stress in rice, a hydroponic experiment supplying with low N (0.72 mM, moderate N (2.86 mM, and high N (7.15 mM followed by 150 g⋅L-1 PEG-6000 induced water stress was conducted in a rainout shelter. Water stress induced stomatal limitation to photosynthesis at low N, but no significant effect was observed at moderate and high N. Non-photochemical quenching was higher at moderate and high N. In contrast, relative excessive energy at PSII level (EXC was declined with increasing N level. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents were in parallel with EXC. Water stress decreased catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities at low N, resulting in increased H2O2 content and severer membrane lipid peroxidation; whereas the activities of antioxidative enzymes were increased at high N. In accordance with photosynthetic rate and antioxidative enzymes, water stress decreased the activities of key enzymes involving in N metabolism such as glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and photorespiratory key enzyme glycolate oxidase at low N. Concurrently, water stress increased nitrate content significantly at low N, but decreased nitrate content at moderate and high N. Contrary to nitrate, water stress increased proline content at moderate and high N. Our results suggest that N metabolism appears to be associated with the tolerance of photosynthesis to water stress in rice via affecting CO2 diffusion, antioxidant capacity, and osmotic adjustment.

  12. [Adaptive adjustment of rhizome and root system on morphology, biomass and nutrient in Phyllostachys rivalis under long-term waterlogged condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-fang; Chen, Shuang-lin; Li Ying-chun; Guo, Zi-wu; Li, Ying-chun; Yang, Qing-ping

    2015-12-01

    The research was to approach the growth strategy of rhizome and roots based on the morphology, biomass and nutrient in Phyllostachys rivalis under long-term waterlogged conditions, and provided a theoretical basis for its application for vegetation restoration in wetland and water-level fluctuation belts. The morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical indexes of annual bamboo rhizome and roots were investigated with an experiment using individually potted P. rivalis which was treated by artificial water-logging for 3, 6, and 12 months. Accordingly the morphological characteristics, biomass allocation, nutrient absorption and balance in rhizome and roots of P. rivalis were analyzed. The results showed that there was no obvious impact of long-term water-logging on the length and diameter of rhizomes, diameter of roots in P. rivalis. The morphological characteristics of rhizome had been less affected generally under water-logging for 3 months. And less rhizomes were submerged, while the growth of roots was inhibited to some extent. Furthermore, with waterlogging time extended, submerged roots and rhizomes grew abundantly, and the roots and rhizomes in soil were promoted. Moreover for ratios of rhizome biomass in soil and water, there were no obvious variations, the same for the root biomass in soil to total biomass. The ratio of root biomass in water to total biomass and the ratio of root biomass in water to root biomass in soil both increased significantly. The results indicated that P. rivalis could adapt to waterlogged conditions gradually through growth regulation and reasonable biomass distribution. However, the activity of rhizome roots in soil decreased and the nutrient absorption was inhibited by long-term water-logging, although it had no effect on stoichiometric ratios of root nutrient in soil. The activity of rhizome root in water increased and the stoichiometric ratios adjusted adaptively to waterlogged conditions, the ratio of N

  13. A Study on the Model of Detecting the Variation of Geomagnetic Intensity Based on an Adapted Motion Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By simulating the geomagnetic fields and analyzing thevariation of intensities, this paper presents a model for calculating the objective function ofan Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUVgeomagnetic navigation task. By investigating the biologically inspired strategies, the AUV successfullyreachesthe destination duringgeomagnetic navigation without using the priori geomagnetic map. Similar to the pattern of a flatworm, the proposed algorithm relies on a motion pattern to trigger a local searching strategy by detecting the real-time geomagnetic intensity. An adapted strategy is then implemented, which is biased on the specific target. The results show thereliabilityandeffectivenessofthe proposed algorithm.

  14. Chinese Adaptation of the Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire for Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Under Brace Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ximing; Wang, Fei; Yang, Mingyuan; Huang, Qikai; Chang, Yifan; Wei, Xianzhao; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ)-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace are the most widely used instruments for evaluating stress levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under brace treatment, and good reliability and validity have been demonstrated across different cultures. Great stress has been found among many adolescents, becoming a major concern for professionals. However, no previous research has addressed the cultural adaptations and psychometric testing of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace in China or the stress levels in AIS patients. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace and to investigate stress levels in Chinese (AIS) patients under brace treatment.The original (German) versions of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace were cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines. Psychometric properties such as reliability and construct validity were tested. Eighty-six AIS patients were included in our study, and 50 patients paid a second visit 3 to 7 days later to test reproducibility. Cronbach α and the intraclass coefficient were determined to assess internal consistency and reproducibility. Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) was applied to evaluate construct validity.The mean BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace scores were 15.3 and 13.4 points, respectively. Severe stress was observed in 12% of patients due to brace treatment. Item analysis demonstrated that each item was scored under a normal distribution with no redundancy. Psychometric analysis revealed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.85 and 0.80, respectively) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and 0.90, respectively) for BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace. The correlation coefficients of BSSQ-Deformity, BSSQ-Brace and SRS-22 were 0.48 and 0.63, respectively.In conclusion, BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace have been successfully

  15. Genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies in four closely related bromeliads adapted to neotropical 'inselbergs': Alcantarea glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbará, Thelma; Martinelli, Gustavo; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Fay, Michael F; Mayo, Simon; Lexer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) adapted to rock outcrops or 'inselbergs' in neotropical rain forests have been identified as suitable plant models for studying population divergence and speciation during continental plant radiations. Little is known about genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies within and among inselberg-adapted species, yet knowledge of these parameters is important for understanding divergence processes and for conservation planning. Nuclear microsatellites were used to assess the role of clonal reproduction, estimate genetic diversity and explore genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies for a total of 15 populations of four closely related Alcantarea inselberg species in south-eastern Brazil: A. glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Clonal propagation is frequent in coastal populations of A. glaziouana and A. regina, but absent in the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Considerable variation in clonal diversity, gene diversity (H(e)), allelic richness, and Wright's inbreeding coefficient (F(IS)) exists within and between species of Alcantarea. A Bayesian analysis of coastal inselberg species indicated pronounced genetic structure. A neighbor-joining analysis grouped populations of each species together with moderate bootstrap support, except for the high altitude species A. imperialis. The coastal inselberg species A. glaziouana and A. regina tend to propagate asexually via vegetative clonal growth, and both reproductive strategies and breeding systems vary greatly between populations and species of Alcantarea. The microsatellite data indicate a history of hybridization and reticulation involving the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis in areas of co-occurrence. The results highlight the need to understand similarities and differences in reproductive strategies both within and between related species for conservation planning and as a basis for

  16. Genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies in four closely related bromeliads adapted to neotropical ‘inselbergs’: Alcantarea glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis (Bromeliaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbará, Thelma; Martinelli, Gustavo; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Fay, Michael F.; Mayo, Simon; Lexer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) adapted to rock outcrops or ‘inselbergs’ in neotropical rain forests have been identified as suitable plant models for studying population divergence and speciation during continental plant radiations. Little is known about genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies within and among inselberg-adapted species, yet knowledge of these parameters is important for understanding divergence processes and for conservation planning. Methods Nuclear microsatellites were used to assess the role of clonal reproduction, estimate genetic diversity and explore genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies for a total of 15 populations of four closely related Alcantarea inselberg species in south-eastern Brazil: A. glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Key Results Clonal propagation is frequent in coastal populations of A. glaziouana and A. regina, but absent in the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Considerable variation in clonal diversity, gene diversity (He), allelic richness, and Wright's inbreeding coefficient (FIS) exists within and between species of Alcantarea. A Bayesian analysis of coastal inselberg species indicated pronounced genetic structure. A neighbor-joining analysis grouped populations of each species together with moderate bootstrap support, except for the high altitude species A. imperialis. Conclusions The coastal inselberg species A. glaziouana and A. regina tend to propagate asexually via vegetative clonal growth, and both reproductive strategies and breeding systems vary greatly between populations and species of Alcantarea. The microsatellite data indicate a history of hybridization and reticulation involving the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis in areas of co-occurrence. The results highlight the need to understand similarities and differences in reproductive strategies both within and between related species

  17. Examining the short term effects of emotion under an Adaptation Level Theory model of tinnitus perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; O'Keeffe, Mary G; Searchfield, Grant D

    2017-03-01

    Existing evidence suggests a strong relationship between tinnitus and emotion. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short-term emotional changes along valence and arousal dimensions on tinnitus outcomes. Emotional stimuli were presented in two different modalities: auditory and visual. The authors hypothesized that (1) negative valence (unpleasant) stimuli and/or high arousal stimuli will lead to greater tinnitus loudness and annoyance than positive valence and/or low arousal stimuli, and (2) auditory emotional stimuli, which are in the same modality as the tinnitus, will exhibit a greater effect on tinnitus outcome measures than visual stimuli. Auditory and visual emotive stimuli were administered to 22 participants (12 females and 10 males) with chronic tinnitus, recruited via email invitations send out to the University of Auckland Tinnitus Research Volunteer Database. Emotional stimuli used were taken from the International Affective Digital Sounds- Version 2 (IADS-2) and the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Bradley and Lang, 2007a, 2007b). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John, 2003) was administered alongside subjective ratings of tinnitus loudness and annoyance, and psychoacoustic sensation level matches to external sounds. Males had significantly different emotional regulation scores than females. Negative valence emotional auditory stimuli led to higher tinnitus loudness ratings in males and females and higher annoyance ratings in males only; loudness matches of tinnitus remained unchanged. The visual stimuli did not have an effect on tinnitus ratings. The results are discussed relative to the Adaptation Level Theory Model of Tinnitus. The results indicate that the negative valence dimension of emotion is associated with increased tinnitus magnitude judgements and gender effects may also be present, but only when the emotional stimulus is in the auditory modality. Sounds with emotional associations may be

  18. An integrated linkage map reveals candidate genes underlying adaptive variation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mckinney, G. J.; Seeb, L. W.; Larson, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonids are an important cultural and ecological resource exhibiting near worldwide distribution between their native and introduced range. Previous research has generated linkage maps and genomic resources for several species as well as genome assemblies for two species. We first leveraged imp...... traits such as stress response, growth and behaviour. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of combining genomic resources with linkage maps to enhance evolutionary inferences....

  19. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    formed a real foundation for endogenous, and, therefore, sustainable, strategies for adaptation to climate change. The stories reinforce what we already knew: that successful adaptation must come from the people who are living on the front lines, facing the many problems caused by climate change and climate variation.

  20. Nitrate-nitrogen contamination in groundwater: Spatiotemporal variation and driving factors under cropland in Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Jiang, L. H.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, P.; Zhao, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    High groundwater nitrate-N is a serious problem especially in highly active agricultural areas. In study, the concentration and spatialtemporal distribution of groundwater nitrate-N under cropland in Shandong province were assessed by statistical and geostatistical techniques. Nitrate-N concentration reached a maximum of 184.60 mg L-1 and 29.5% of samples had levels in excess of safety threshold concentration (20 mg L-1). The median nitrate-N contents after rainy season were significantly higher than those before rainy season, and decreased with increasing groundwater depth. Nitrate-N under vegetable and orchard area are significantly higher than ones under grain. The kriging map shows that groundwater nitrate-N has a strong spatial variability. Many districts, such as Weifang, Linyi in Shandong province are heavily contaminated with nitrate-N. However, there are no significant trends of NO3 --N for most cities. Stepwise regression analysis showed influencing factors are different for the groundwater in different depth. But overall, vegetable yield per unit area, percentages of orchard area, per capita agricultural production, unit-area nitrogen fertilizer, livestock per unit area, percentages of irrigation areas, population per unit area and annual mean temperature are significant variables for groundwater nitrate-N variation.

  1. Dilatometer for measurements of linear dimension variations under the effects of temperature, magnetic field and mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepin, V. T.; Glavatska, N. I.; Glavatsky, I. N.; Gavriljuk, V. G.

    2002-02-01

    A multi-purpose automated dilatometer has been developed for simultaneous measurements of the expansion/contraction under the effects of magnetic field and/or mechanical stress and/or temperature. The differential capacitive position sensor, operating together with the microprocessor controlled digital transformer bridge, is used as a displacement transducer with the resolution of several tens of nanometres. Measurements are accomplished in the temperature range from -150 to 200 °C. The automatically controlled variation of the applied magnetic field is provided by the electromagnet with the field homogeneity of 0.5×10-5 of the magnetic field strength (maximum 1.1 T). A special controlling system is developed for the automated mechanical loading of the sample under investigation. Some examples of the measurements completed on the magnetic shape memory alloy Ni2MnGa are presented for three cases: (i) strain as a function of the applied magnetic field; (ii) creep under constant magnetic field or mechanical stress; and (iii) phase transformations during heating/cooling with and without the applied magnetic field.

  2. An improved model for predicting performance of finned tube heat exchanger under frosting condition, with frost thickness variation along fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, C.P. [Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, Melaka (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering and Technology; Cheng, Y.C.; Lai, A.C.K. [Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2006-01-15

    Frost accumulation on a heat exchanger, a direct result of combined heat and mass transfer between the moist air flowing across a cold surface, causes heat transfer performance degradation due to the insulating effect of frost layer and the coil blockage as the frost grows. The complex geometry of finned tube heat exchangers leads to uneven wall and air temperature distribution inside the coil, and causes variations of frost growth rate and densification along the coil. In this study, a general distributed model with frost formation was developed. The equations for finned tube heat exchanger were derived in non-steady-state manner and quasi-steady state in the frost model. In order to make the model more realistic, the variation of frost along fin due to uneven temperature distribution was included. The presented model is able to predict the dynamic behavior of an air cooler both under non-frost and frost condition. Comparisons were made based on the frost mass accumulation, pressure drop across coil and energy transfer coefficient, and results were found to agree well with reported experimental results. (author)

  3. Intersubject local SAR variation for 7T prostate MR imaging with an eight-channel single-side adapted dipole antenna array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Ozlem; Raaijmakers, Alexander J; Lagendijk, Jan J; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2014-04-01

    Surface transmit arrays used in ultra-high field body MRI require local specific absorption rate (SAR) assessment. As local SAR cannot be measured directly, local SAR is determined by simulations using dielectric patient models. In this study, the inter-patient local SAR variation is investigated for 7T prostate imaging with the single-side adapted dipole antenna array. Four-dedicated dielectric models were created by segmenting Dixon water-fat separated images that were obtained from four subjects with a 1.5T scanner and the surface array in place. Electromagnetic simulations were performed to calculate the SAR distribution for each model. Radio frequency (RF) exposure variations were determined by analyzing the SAR(10g) distributions (1) with one element active, (2) using a Q-matrix eigenvalue/eigenvector approach, (3) with the maximum potential SAR in each voxel, and (4) for a phase shimmed prostate measurement. Maximum potential local SAR levels for 1 W time-averaged accepted power per transmit channel range from 4.1 to 7.1 W/kg. These variations show that one model is not sufficient to determine safe scan settings. For the operation of the surface array conservative power settings were derived based on a worst-case SAR evaluation and the most SAR-sensitive body model. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pollination ecology of two species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae): novel mechanisms and underlying adaptations to hummingbird pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C E P; Amorim, F W; Mayer, J L S; Sazima, M

    2016-01-01

    Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such a form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit set in hand-pollination experiments was more than twice that under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these sympatric co-flowering species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinarium to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to our knowledge of orchid pollination. In E. crinipes, pollinarium attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around it. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. A novel method for determining and improving the quality of a quadrupolar fiber gyro coil under temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Yao, X Steve

    2013-01-28

    We introduce a parameter called pointing error thermal sensitivity (PETS) for quantitatively determining the quality of a quadrupolar (QAD) fiber coil under radial temperature variations. We show both analytically and experimentally that the pointing error of a fiber gyro incorporating the fiber coil is linearly proportional to the final radial thermal gradient on the coil, with PETS as the proportional constant. We further show that PETS is linearly proportional to another parameter called effective asymmetric length of the coil. By thermally inducing different radial thermal gradients on the fiber coil and measuring the corresponding pointing errors in a gyroscopic measurement setup, we can confidently determine the PETS of the fiber coil and its associated effective asymmetric length caused by imperfections in coil winding. Consequently, we are able to precisely trim the coil to achieve best thermal performance.

  6. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  7. SEM Evaluation of Internal Adaptation of Bases and Liners under Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial microgaps generating between different materials and between materials and dentin after polymerization of the composite restorations, using SEM. Methods: The materials investigated were a composite, an adhesive, a RMGI, and a calcium hydroxide. Thirty third molars were selected and two circular class V cavities (5 mm × 3 mm for each tooth were made. The teeth were randomly assigned into six groups and restored with a combination of the materials. The specimens were subjected to thermocycling and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in two halves. Each half was sectioned along the longitudinal axis through the center of the restorations to obtain a slice of 2 mm. The specimens were examined under SEM. The interfaces between the liners, the liners and dentin, and between the liners and the composite were examined for microgaps. Results: The results showed that there was not any significant difference in the mean width of microgaps in the interfaces between Dycal-dentin and Vitrebond-dentin (p>0.05. However, the width of microgaps in the interfaces between dentin-Clearfil Tri-S Bond was significantly smaller (p<0.05. The use of Clearfil Tri-S Bond reduced the possibility of microgap formation between the bonded interface and the materials tested.

  8. The value of seasonal forecasting and crop mix adaptation to climate variability for agriculture under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. S.; Schneider, U.; Schmid, E.; Held, H.

    2012-04-01

    Changes to climate variability and frequency of extreme weather events are expected to impose damages to the agricultural sector. Seasonal forecasting and long range prediction skills have received attention as an option to adapt to climate change because seasonal climate and yield predictions could improve farmers' management decisions. The value of seasonal forecasting skill is assessed with a crop mix adaptation option in Spain where drought conditions are prevalent. Yield impacts of climate are simulated for six crops (wheat, barely, cotton, potato, corn and rice) with the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model. Daily weather data over the period 1961 to 1990 are used and are generated by the regional climate model REMO as reference period for climate projection. Climate information and its consequent yield variability information are given to the stochastic agricultural sector model to calculate the value of climate information in the agricultural market. Expected consumers' market surplus and producers' revenue is compared with and without employing climate forecast information. We find that seasonal forecasting benefits not only consumers but also producers if the latter adopt a strategic crop mix. This mix differs from historical crop mixes by having higher shares of crops which fare relatively well under climate change. The corresponding value of information is highly sensitive to farmers' crop mix choices.

  9. The Origin of Mutants Under Selection: How Natural Selection Mimics Mutagenesis (Adaptive Mutation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisnier-Patin, Sophie; Roth, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Selection detects mutants but does not cause mutations. Contrary to this dictum, Cairns and Foster plated a leaky lac mutant of Escherichia coli on lactose medium and saw revertant (Lac+) colonies accumulate with time above a nongrowing lawn. This result suggested that bacteria might mutagenize their own genome when growth is blocked. However, this conclusion is suspect in the light of recent evidence that revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells with multiple copies the conjugative F′lac plasmid, which carries the lac mutation. Some plated cells have multiple copies of the simple F′lac plasmid. This provides sufficient LacZ activity to support plasmid replication but not cell division. In nongrowing cells, repeated plasmid replication increases the likelihood of a reversion event. Reversion to lac+ triggers exponential cell growth leading to a stable Lac+ revertant colony. In 10% of these plated cells, the high-copy plasmid includes an internal tandem lac duplication, which provides even more LacZ activity—sufficient to support slow growth and formation of an unstable Lac+ colony. Cells with multiple copies of the F′lac plasmid have an increased mutation rate, because the plasmid encodes the error-prone (mutagenic) DNA polymerase, DinB. Without DinB, unstable and stable Lac+ revertant types form in equal numbers and both types arise with no mutagenesis. Amplification and selection are central to behavior of the Cairns–Foster system, whereas mutagenesis is a system-specific side effect or artifact caused by coamplification of dinB with lac. Study of this system has revealed several broadly applicable principles. In all populations, gene duplications are frequent stable genetic polymorphisms, common near-neutral mutant alleles can gain a positive phenotype when amplified under selection, and natural selection can operate without cell division when variability is generated by overreplication of local genome subregions. PMID:26134316

  10. The Origin of Mutants Under Selection: How Natural Selection Mimics Mutagenesis (Adaptive Mutation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisnier-Patin, Sophie; Roth, John R

    2015-07-01

    Selection detects mutants but does not cause mutations. Contrary to this dictum, Cairns and Foster plated a leaky lac mutant of Escherichia coli on lactose medium and saw revertant (Lac(+)) colonies accumulate with time above a nongrowing lawn. This result suggested that bacteria might mutagenize their own genome when growth is blocked. However, this conclusion is suspect in the light of recent evidence that revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells with multiple copies the conjugative F'lac plasmid, which carries the lac mutation. Some plated cells have multiple copies of the simple F'lac plasmid. This provides sufficient LacZ activity to support plasmid replication but not cell division. In nongrowing cells, repeated plasmid replication increases the likelihood of a reversion event. Reversion to lac(+) triggers exponential cell growth leading to a stable Lac(+) revertant colony. In 10% of these plated cells, the high-copy plasmid includes an internal tandem lac duplication, which provides even more LacZ activity—sufficient to support slow growth and formation of an unstable Lac(+) colony. Cells with multiple copies of the F'lac plasmid have an increased mutation rate, because the plasmid encodes the error-prone (mutagenic) DNA polymerase, DinB. Without DinB, unstable and stable Lac(+) revertant types form in equal numbers and both types arise with no mutagenesis. Amplification and selection are central to behavior of the Cairns-Foster system, whereas mutagenesis is a system-specific side effect or artifact caused by coamplification of dinB with lac. Study of this system has revealed several broadly applicable principles. In all populations, gene duplications are frequent stable genetic polymorphisms, common near-neutral mutant alleles can gain a positive phenotype when amplified under selection, and natural selection can operate without cell division when variability is generated by overreplication of local genome subregions. Copyright © 2015 Cold

  11. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for solving the reliable multiple allocation hub location problem under hub disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Chaharsooghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem (HLP is one of the strategic planning problems encountered in different contexts such as supply chain management, passenger and cargo transportation industries, and telecommunications. In this paper, we consider a reliable uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem under hub disruptions. It is assumed that every open hub facility can fail during its use and in such a case, the customers originally assigned to that hub, are either reassigned to other operational hubs or they do not receive service in which case a penalty must be paid. The problem is modeled as two-stage stochastic program and a metaheuristic algorithm based on the adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS is proposed. Extensive computational experiments based on the CAB and TR data sets are conducted. Results show the high efficiency of the proposed solution method.

  12. Modified Covariance Matrix Adaptation – Evolution Strategy algorithm for constrained optimization under uncertainty, application to rocket design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chocat Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of complex systems often induces a constrained optimization problem under uncertainty. An adaptation of CMA-ES(λ, μ optimization algorithm is proposed in order to efficiently handle the constraints in the presence of noise. The update mechanisms of the parametrized distribution used to generate the candidate solutions are modified. The constraint handling method allows to reduce the semi-principal axes of the probable research ellipsoid in the directions violating the constraints. The proposed approach is compared to existing approaches on three analytic optimization problems to highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the algorithm. The proposed method is used to design a two stage solid propulsion launch vehicle.

  13. Variation in size frequency distribution of coral populations under different fishing pressures in two contrasting locations in the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsditch, G; Pisapia, C; Huck, M; Karisa, J; Obura, D; Sweet, M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess how the size-frequency distributions of coral genera varied between reefs under different fishing pressures in two contrasting Indian Ocean locations (the Maldives and East Africa). Using generalized linear mixed models, we were able to demonstrate that complex interactions occurred between coral genera, coral size class and fishing pressure. In both locations, we found Acropora coral species to be more abundant in non-fished compared to fished sites (a pattern which was consistent for nearly all the assessed size classes). Coral genera classified as 'stress tolerant' showed a contrasting pattern i.e. were higher in abundance in fished compared to non-fished sites. Site specific variations were also observed. For example, Maldivian reefs exhibited a significantly higher abundance in all size classes of 'competitive' corals compared to East Africa. This possibly indicates that East African reefs have already been subjected to higher levels of stress and are therefore less suitable environments for 'competitive' corals. This study also highlights the potential structure and composition of reefs under future degradation scenarios, for example with a loss of Acropora corals and an increase in dominance of 'stress tolerant' and 'generalist' coral genera. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Axially perpendicular offset Raman scheme for reproducible measurement of housed samples in a noncircular container under variation of container orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Pham K; Chang, Kyeol; Sriphong, Lawan; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-03-17

    An axially perpendicular offset (APO) scheme that is able to directly acquire reproducible Raman spectra of samples contained in an oval container under variation of container orientation has been demonstrated. This scheme utilized an axially perpendicular geometry between the laser illumination and the Raman photon detection, namely, irradiation through a sidewall of the container and gathering of the Raman photon just beneath the container. In the case of either backscattering or transmission measurements, Raman sampling volumes for an internal sample vary when the orientation of an oval container changes; therefore, the Raman intensities of acquired spectra are inconsistent. The generated Raman photons traverse the same bottom of the container in the APO scheme; the Raman sampling volumes can be relatively more consistent under the same situation. For evaluation, the backscattering, transmission, and APO schemes were simultaneously employed to measure alcohol gel samples contained in an oval polypropylene container at five different orientations and then the accuracies of the determination of the alcohol concentrations were compared. The APO scheme provided the most reproducible spectra, yielding the best accuracy when the axial offset distance was 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the characteristics of photon propagation in the APO scheme and to explain the origin of the optimal offset distance that was observed. In addition, the utility of the APO scheme was further demonstrated by analyzing samples in a circular glass container.

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  16. The potential for adaptation in a natural Daphnia magna population: broad and narrow-sense heritability of net reproductive rate under Cd stress at two temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiaen, M; Janssen, C R; Thas, O; De Schamphelaere, K A C

    2012-10-01

    The existence of genetic variability is a key element of the adaptive potential of a natural population to stress. In this study we estimated the additive and non-additive components of the genetic variability of net reproductive rate (R(0)) in a natural Daphnia magna population exposed to Cd stress at two different temperatures. To this end, life-table experiments were conducted with 20 parental and 39 offspring clonal lineages following a 2 × 2 design with Cd concentration (control vs. 3.7 μg Cd/L) and temperature (20 vs. 24 °C) as factors. Offspring lineages were obtained through inter-clonal crossing of the different parental lineages. The population mean, additive and non-additive genetic components of variation in each treatment were estimated by fitting an Animal Model to the observed R(0) values using restricted maximum likelihood estimation. From those estimates broad-sense heritabilities (H(2)), narrow-sense heritabilities (h(2)), total (CV(G)) and additive genetic coefficients of variation (CV(A)) of R(0) were calculated. The exposure to Cd imposed a considerable level of stress to the population, as shown by the fact that the population mean of R(0) exposed to Cd was significantly lower than in the control at the corresponding temperature, i.e. by 23 % at 20 °C and by 88 % at 24 °C. The latter difference indicates that increasing temperature increased the stress level imposed by Cd. The H² and CV(G) were significantly greater than 0 in all treatments, suggesting that there is a considerable degree of genetic determination of R(0) in this population and that clonal selection could rapidly lead to increasing population mean fitness under all investigated conditions. More specifically, the H² was 0.392 at 20 °C+Cd and 0.563 at 24 °C+Cd; the CV(G) was 30.0 % at 20 °C+Cd and was significantly higher (147.6 %) in the 24 °C+Cd treatment. Significant values of h(2) (= 0.23) and CV(A) (= 89.7 %) were only found in the 24 °C+Cd treatment, suggesting

  17. SU-E-J-102: Performance Variations Among Clinically Available Deformable Image Registration Tools in Adaptive Radiotherapy: How Should We Evaluate and Interpret the Result?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, K; Pouliot, J; Smith, E; Chuang, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance variations in commercial deformable image registration (DIR) tools for adaptive radiation therapy. Methods: Representative plans from three different anatomical sites, prostate, head-and-neck (HN) and cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) with L-spine boost, were included. Computerized deformed CT images were first generated using virtual DIR QA software (ImSimQA) for each case. The corresponding transformations served as the “reference”. Three commercial software packages MIMVista v5.5 and MIMMaestro v6.0, VelocityAI v2.6.2, and OnQ rts v2.1.15 were tested. The warped contours and doses were compared with the “reference” and among each other. Results: The performance in transferring contours was comparable among all three tools with an average DICE coefficient of 0.81 for all the organs. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy appeared to rely on the evaluation end points. Volume based DVH comparisons were not sensitive enough to illustrate all the detailed variations while isodose assessment on a slice-by-slice basis could be tedious. Point-based evaluation was over-sensitive by having up to 30% hot/cold-spot differences. If adapting the 3mm/3% gamma analysis into the evaluation of dose warping, all three algorithms presented a reasonable level of equivalency. One algorithm had over 10% of the voxels not meeting this criterion for the HN case while another showed disagreement for the CSI case. Conclusion: Overall, our results demonstrated that evaluation based only on the performance of contour transformation could not guarantee the accuracy in dose warping. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy relied on the evaluation methodologies. Nevertheless, as more DIR tools are available for clinical use, the performance could vary at certain degrees. A standard quality assurance criterion with clinical meaning should be established for DIR QA, similar to the gamma index concept, in the near future

  18. Anatomical robust optimization to account for nasal cavity filling variation during intensity-modulated proton therapy: a comparison with conventional and adaptive planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Steven; Albertini, Francesca; Weber, Damien C; Heijmen, Ben J M; Hoogeman, Mischa S; Lomax, Antony J

    2018-01-11

    The aim of this study is to develop an anatomical robust optimization method for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that accounts for interfraction variations in nasal cavity filling, and to compare it with conventional single-field uniform dose (SFUD) optimization and online plan adaptation. We included CT data of five patients with tumors in the sinonasal region. Using the planning CT, we generated for each patient 25 'synthetic' CTs with varying nasal cavity filling. The robust optimization method available in our treatment planning system 'Erasmus-iCycle' was extended to also account for anatomical uncertainties by including (synthetic) CTs with varying patient anatomy as error scenarios in the inverse optimization. For each patient, we generated treatment plans using anatomical robust optimization and, for benchmarking, using SFUD optimization and online plan adaptation. Clinical target volume (CTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) doses were assessed by recalculating the treatment plans on the synthetic CTs, evaluating dose distributions individually and accumulated over an entire fractionated 50 Gy RBE treatment, assuming each synthetic CT to correspond to a 2 Gy RBE fraction. Treatment plans were also evaluated using actual repeat CTs. Anatomical robust optimization resulted in adequate CTV doses (V 95%   ⩾  98% and V 107%   ⩽  2%) if at least three synthetic CTs were included in addition to the planning CT. These CTV requirements were also fulfilled for online plan adaptation, but not for the SFUD approach, even when applying a margin of 5 mm. Compared with anatomical robust optimization, OAR dose parameters for the accumulated dose distributions were on average 5.9 Gy RBE (20%) higher when using SFUD optimization and on average 3.6 Gy RBE (18%) lower for online plan adaptation. In conclusion, anatomical robust optimization effectively accounted for changes in nasal cavity filling during IMPT, providing substantially improved CTV and

  19. Anatomical robust optimization to account for nasal cavity filling variation during intensity-modulated proton therapy: a comparison with conventional and adaptive planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Steven; Albertini, Francesca; Weber, Damien C.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lomax, Antony J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an anatomical robust optimization method for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that accounts for interfraction variations in nasal cavity filling, and to compare it with conventional single-field uniform dose (SFUD) optimization and online plan adaptation. We included CT data of five patients with tumors in the sinonasal region. Using the planning CT, we generated for each patient 25 ‘synthetic’ CTs with varying nasal cavity filling. The robust optimization method available in our treatment planning system ‘Erasmus-iCycle’ was extended to also account for anatomical uncertainties by including (synthetic) CTs with varying patient anatomy as error scenarios in the inverse optimization. For each patient, we generated treatment plans using anatomical robust optimization and, for benchmarking, using SFUD optimization and online plan adaptation. Clinical target volume (CTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) doses were assessed by recalculating the treatment plans on the synthetic CTs, evaluating dose distributions individually and accumulated over an entire fractionated 50 GyRBE treatment, assuming each synthetic CT to correspond to a 2 GyRBE fraction. Treatment plans were also evaluated using actual repeat CTs. Anatomical robust optimization resulted in adequate CTV doses (V95%  ⩾  98% and V107%  ⩽  2%) if at least three synthetic CTs were included in addition to the planning CT. These CTV requirements were also fulfilled for online plan adaptation, but not for the SFUD approach, even when applying a margin of 5 mm. Compared with anatomical robust optimization, OAR dose parameters for the accumulated dose distributions were on average 5.9 GyRBE (20%) higher when using SFUD optimization and on average 3.6 GyRBE (18%) lower for online plan adaptation. In conclusion, anatomical robust optimization effectively accounted for changes in nasal cavity filling during IMPT, providing substantially improved CTV and

  20. Aerosol composition and properties variation at the ground and over the column under different air masses advection in South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, G; Lettino, A; Calvello, M; Esposito, F; Fiore, S

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol composition and properties variation under the advection of different air masses were investigated, as case studies, by contemporary measurements over the atmospheric column and at the ground in a semi-rural site in South Italy. The absence of local strong sources in this area allowed to characterize background aerosol and to compare particle mixing effects under various atmospheric circulation conditions. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ǻngström parameters from radiometric measurements allowed the detection and identification of polluted, dust, and volcanic atmospheric conditions. AODs were the input for a suitable model to evaluate the columnar aerosol composition, according to six main atmospheric components (water-soluble, soot, sea salt accumulation, sea salt coarse, mineral dus,t and biological). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of particulate sampled with a 13-stage impactor at the ground showed not only fingerprints typical of the different air masses but also the effects of transport and aging on atmospheric particles, suggesting processes that changed their chemical and optical properties. Background columnar aerosol was characterized by 72% of water-soluble and soot, in agreement with ground-based findings that highlighted 60% of contribution from anthropogenic carbonate particles and soot. In general, a good agreement between ground-based and columnar results was observed. Under the advection of trans-boundary air masses, water-soluble and soot were always present in columnar aerosol, whereas, in variable percentages, sea salt and mineral particles characterized both dust and volcanic conditions. At the ground, sulfates characterized the amorphous matrix produced in finer stages by the evaporation of solutions of organic and inorganic aerosols. Sulfates were also one of the key players involved in heterogeneous chemical reactions, producing complex secondary aerosol, as such clay-sulfate internally mixed particle externally mixed

  1. Parasite fitness traits under environmental variation: disentangling the roles of a chytrid's immediate host and external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Vanholsbeeck, Olivier; Spaak, Piet; Ibelings, Bas W

    2014-10-01

    Parasite environments are heterogeneous at different levels. The first level of variability is the host itself. The second level represents the external environment for the hosts, to which parasites may be exposed during part of their life cycle. Both levels are expected to affect parasite fitness traits. We disentangle the main and interaction effects of variation in the immediate host environment, here the diatom Asterionella formosa (variables host cell volume and host condition through herbicide pre-exposure) and variation in the external environment (variables host density and acute herbicide exposure) on three fitness traits (infection success, development time and reproductive output) of a chytrid parasite. Herbicide exposure only decreased infection success in a low host density environment. This result reinforces the hypothesis that chytrid zoospores use photosynthesis-dependent chemical cues to locate its host. At high host densities, chemotaxis becomes less relevant due to increasing chance contact rates between host and parasite, thereby following the mass-action principle in epidemiology. Theoretical support for this finding is provided by an agent-based simulation model. The immediate host environment (cell volume) substantially affected parasite reproductive output and also interacted with the external herbicide exposed environment. On the contrary, changes in the immediate host environment through herbicide pre-exposure did not increase infection success, though it had subtle effects on zoospore development time and reproductive output. This study shows that both immediate host and external environment as well as their interaction have significant effects on parasite fitness. Disentangling these effects improves our understanding of the processes underlying parasite spread and disease dynamics.

  2. The dependence of the magnitude of induced adaptive responseon on the dose of pre-irradiation of cultured human lymphocytes under the optimum irradiation time scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mozdarani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Human lymphocytes exposed to low doses of X-rays, become less susceptible to the induction of chromosome aberrations by subsequent exposure to high doses of X-rays. This has been termed the radioadaptive response. One of the most important questions in the adaptive response studies was that of the possible existence of an optimum adapting dose. Early experiments indicated that this response could be induced by low doses of X-rays from 1 cGy to 20 cGy. Recently, it has been interestingly shown that the time scheme of exposure to adapting and challenge doses plays an important role in determination of the magnitude of the induced adaptive response. In this study, using the optimum irradiation time scheme (24-48), we have monitored the cytogenetic endpoint of chromosome aberrations to assess the magnitude of adaptation to ionizing radiation in the cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were pre-exposed to an adapting dose of 1-20 cGy at 24 hours, before an acute challenge dose of 1 or 2 Gy at 48 hours. Cells were fixed at 54 hours. Lymphocytes, which were pretreated with 5 as well as 10 cGy adapting doses, had significantly fewer chromosome aberrations. In spite of the fact that lymphocytes of some of our blood donors which were pre-treated with 1 or 20 cGy adapting doses, showed an adaptive response, the pooled data (all donors) indicated that such an induction of adaptive response can not be observed in these lymphocytes. The overall pattern of the induced adaptive response, indicated that in human lymphocyte (at least under the above mentioned irradiation scheme), 5 cGy and 10 cGy adapting doses are the optimum doses. (author)

  3. A high‐throughput FTIR spectroscopy approach to assess adaptive variation in the chemical composition of pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Boris; Bağcıoğlu, Murat; Tafinstseva, Valeria; Kohler, Achim; Ohlson, Mikael; Fjellheim, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The two factors defining male reproductive success in plants are pollen quantity and quality, but our knowledge about the importance of pollen quality is limited due to methodological constraints. Pollen quality in terms of chemical composition may be either genetically fixed for high performance independent of environmental conditions, or it may be plastic to maximize reproductive output under different environmental conditions. In this study, we validated a new approach for studyin...

  4. Preceding Vehicle Detection and Tracking Adaptive to Illumination Variation in Night Traffic Scenes Based on Relevance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junbin; Wang, Jianqiang; Guo, Xiaosong; Yu, Chuanqiang; Sun, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Preceding vehicle detection and tracking at nighttime are challenging problems due to the disturbance of other extraneous illuminant sources coexisting with the vehicle lights. To improve the detection accuracy and robustness of vehicle detection, a novel method for vehicle detection and tracking at nighttime is proposed in this paper. The characteristics of taillights in the gray level are applied to determine the lower boundary of the threshold for taillights segmentation, and the optimal threshold for taillight segmentation is calculated using the OTSU algorithm between the lower boundary and the highest grayscale of the region of interest. The candidate taillight pairs are extracted based on the similarity between left and right taillights, and the non-vehicle taillight pairs are removed based on the relevance analysis of vehicle location between frames. To reduce the false negative rate of vehicle detection, a vehicle tracking method based on taillights estimation is applied. The taillight spot candidate is sought in the region predicted by Kalman filtering, and the disturbed taillight is estimated based on the symmetry and location of the other taillight of the same vehicle. Vehicle tracking is completed after estimating its location according to the two taillight spots. The results of experiments on a vehicle platform indicate that the proposed method could detect vehicles quickly, correctly and robustly in the actual traffic environments with illumination variation. PMID:25195855

  5. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 9, Water System Resilience and Security under Hydrologic Variability and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  6. A carryover effect of migration underlies individual variation in reproductive readiness and extreme egg size dimorphism in macaroni penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Dawson, Alistair; Le Bouard, Fabrice; Williams, Tony D

    2010-09-01

    Where life-history stages overlap, there is the potential for physiological conflicts that might be important in mediating carryover effects. However, our knowledge of the specific physiological mechanisms underlying carryover effects remains rudimentary, and specific examples remain rare. Here we show that female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) initiate vitellogenesis and yolk formation while at sea during return migrations to breeding colonies; yolk formation takes approximately 16 days, but females lay only 7-14 days after their return. Once on land, Eudyptes penguins show a unique reproductive pattern of extreme egg size dimorphism in which the smaller, first-laid A-egg is 55%-75% of the size of the larger B-egg. We show that the degree of egg size dimorphism is inversely correlated with time between arrival and laying; that is, females that begin reproductive development well in advance of their return produce more dimorphic eggs. Furthermore, late-arriving females that produce the most dimorphic eggs have lower plasma levels of the yolk precursor vitellogenin on arrival; that is, they show lower reproductive "readiness." These data support the hypothesis that extreme egg size dimorphism in Eudyptes penguins is due to a physiological constraint imposed by a migratory carryover effect and argue against small A-eggs having a specific, adaptive function.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in fatty acid composition and sensory parameters in European bovine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, Natalia; Levéziel, Hubert; Nute, Geoffrey R; Sañudo, Carlos; Valentini, Alessio; Williams, John; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Consuming moderate amounts of lean red meat as part of a balanced diet valuably contributes to intakes of essential nutrients. In this study, we merged phenotypic and genotypic information to characterize the variation in lipid profile and sensory parameters and to represent the diversity among 15 cattle populations. Correlations between fat content, organoleptic characteristics and lipid profiles were also investigated. A sample of 436 largely unrelated purebred bulls belonging to 15 breeds and reared under comparable management conditions was analyzed. Phenotypic data -including fatness score, fat percentage, individual fatty acids (FA) profiles and sensory panel tests- and genotypic information from 11 polymorphisms was used. The correlation coefficients between muscle total lipid measurements and absolute vs. relative amounts of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were in opposite directions. Increasing carcass fat leads to an increasing amount of FAs in triglycerides, but at the same time the relative amount of PUFAs is decreasing, which is in concordance with the negative correlation obtained here between the percentage of PUFA and fat measurements, as well as the weaker correlation between total phospholipids and total lipid muscle content compared with neutral lipids. Concerning organoleptic characteristics, a negative correlation between flavour scores and the percentage of total PUFA, particularly to n-6 fraction, was found. The correlation between juiciness and texture is higher than with flavour scores. The distribution of SNPs plotted by principal components analysis (PCA) mainly reflects their known trait associations, although influenced by their specific breed allele frequencies. The results presented here help to understand the phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in FA composition and sensory parameters between breeds. The wide range of traits and breeds studied, along with the genotypic information on polymorphisms previously

  8. Species characteristics and intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica under elevated O3 and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Yuichiro; Iki, Taiichi; Nose, Mine; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Yoshitake; Kitao, Mitsutoshi

    2017-06-01

    In order to predict the effects of future atmospheric conditions on forest productivity, it is necessary to clarify the physiological responses of major forest tree species to high concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, intraspecific variation of these responses should also be examined in order to predict productivity gains through tree improvements in the future. We investigated intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, a major silviculture species in Japan, in response to elevated concentrations of O3 (eO3) and CO2 (eCO2), separately and in combination. Cuttings of C. japonica were grown and exposed to two levels of O3 (ambient and twice-ambient levels) in combination with two levels of CO2 (ambient and 550 µmol mol-1 in the daytime) for two growing seasons in a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. There was no obvious negative effect of eO3 on growth or photosynthetic traits of the C. japonica clones, but a positive effect was observed for annual height increments in the first growing season. Dry mass production and the photosynthetic rate increased under eCO2 conditions, while the maximum carboxylation rate decreased. Significant interaction effects of eO3 and eCO2 on growth and photosynthetic traits were not observed. Clonal effects on growth and photosynthetic traits were significant, but the interactions between clones and O3 and/or CO2 treatments were not. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between growth traits under ambient conditions and for each treatment were significantly positive, implying that clonal ranking in growth abilities might not be affected by either eO3 or eCO2. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for species selection in afforestation programs, to continue and to improve current programs involving this species, and to accurately predict the CO2 fixation capacity of Japanese forests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  9. Using stable isotopes to determine seasonal variations in water uptake of summer maize under different fertilization treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ying, E-mail: maying@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China); State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    Fertilization and water both affect root water uptake in the nutrient and water cycle of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC). In this study, dual stable isotopes (D and {sup 18}O) were used to determine seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of summer maize under different fertilization treatments in Beijing, China during 2013–2014. The contributions of soil water at different depths to water uptake were quantified by the MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model. Water uptake was mainly sourced from soil water in the 0–20 cm depth at the seeding (67.7%), jointing (60.5%), tasseling (47.5%), dough (41.4%), and harvest (43.9%) stages, and the 20–50 cm depth at the milk stage (32.8%). Different levels of fertilization application led to considerable differences in the proportional contribution of soil water at 0–20 cm (6.0–58.5%) and 20–50 cm (6.1–26.3%). There was little difference of contributions in the deep layers (50–200 cm) among treatments in 2013, whereas differences were observed in 50–90 cm at the milk stage and 50–200 cm at the dough stage during 2014. The main water uptake depth was concentrated in the upper soil layers (0–50 cm) during the wet season (2013), whereas a seasonal drought in 2014 promoted the contribution of soil water in deep layers. The contribution of soil water was significantly and positively correlated with the proportions of root length (r = 0.753, p < 0.01). The changes of soil water distribution were consistent with the seasonal variation in water uptake patterns. The present study identified water sources for summer maize under varying fertilization treatments and provided scientific implications for fertilization and irrigation management. - Highlights: • Dual stable isotopes and MixSIAR were coupled to quantify water uptake of maize. • Maize mainly used soil water in 20–50 cm at milk stage and 0–20 cm at other stages. • Fertilization treatments led to distinct water uptake pattern at 0–50 cm

  10. [Effects of silicon supply on diurnal variations of physiological properties at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Lou, Yun-sheng; Meng, Yan; Wang, Wei-qing; Cui, He-yang

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) supply on diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B. (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B (elevated by 20%, E), and four Si supply levels, i.e. Sio (control, 0 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si, (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 . hm2), Si3 (slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results showed that, compared with ambient UV-B radiation, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) , intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3%, 5.5%, 10.4%, 20.3% and 6.3%, respectively, in the treatment without Si supply (Si, level), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8%-5.5%, 0.7%-4.8%, 4.0%-8.7%, 7.4%-20.2% and 0.7%-5.9% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1, Si2 and Si3 levels) , respectively. Namely, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters, but silicon supply could obviously mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, compared with control (Si0 level), silicon supply increased Pn, Ci, gs and WUE by 16.9%-28.0%, 3.5%-14.3%, 16.8% - 38.7% and 29.0% - 51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9% - 10.8% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1 , Si2 and Si3 levels). That is, silicon supply could mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation through significantly increasingnP., CigsgK and WUE, but decreasing T,. However, the difference existed in ameliorating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among the treatments of silicon supply, with the sequence of Si3>Si2>1i >Si0. This study suggested that fertilizing slag was

  11. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. We considered three locations representing different pest status and climatic conditions: Montpellier (France), Seville (Spain), and Beit-Jamal (Israel). We produced ensembles of local daily temperature realizations representing current and future (mid-21st century) climatic conditions under two emission scenarios for the three locations. Our simulations predicted a significant increase in the average number of annual generations and in population size, and a significant lengthening of the growing season in all three locations. A negative effect was found only in Seville for the summer season, where future temperatures lead to a reduction in population size. High variability in population size was observed between years with similar annual mean temperatures, suggesting a strong effect of intra-annual temperature variation. Critical periods were from late spring to late summer in Montpellier and from late winter to early summer in Seville and Beit-Jamal. Although our analysis suggested that earlier seasonal activity does not necessarily lead to increased populations load unless an additional generation is produced, it is highly likely that the insect will become a significant pest of open-fields at Mediterranean latitudes above 40° during the next 50 years. Our simulations also implied that current

  12. Using stable isotopes to determine seasonal variations in water uptake of summer maize under different fertilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying; Song, Xianfang

    2016-01-01

    Fertilization and water both affect root water uptake in the nutrient and water cycle of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC). In this study, dual stable isotopes (D and 18 O) were used to determine seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of summer maize under different fertilization treatments in Beijing, China during 2013–2014. The contributions of soil water at different depths to water uptake were quantified by the MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model. Water uptake was mainly sourced from soil water in the 0–20 cm depth at the seeding (67.7%), jointing (60.5%), tasseling (47.5%), dough (41.4%), and harvest (43.9%) stages, and the 20–50 cm depth at the milk stage (32.8%). Different levels of fertilization application led to considerable differences in the proportional contribution of soil water at 0–20 cm (6.0–58.5%) and 20–50 cm (6.1–26.3%). There was little difference of contributions in the deep layers (50–200 cm) among treatments in 2013, whereas differences were observed in 50–90 cm at the milk stage and 50–200 cm at the dough stage during 2014. The main water uptake depth was concentrated in the upper soil layers (0–50 cm) during the wet season (2013), whereas a seasonal drought in 2014 promoted the contribution of soil water in deep layers. The contribution of soil water was significantly and positively correlated with the proportions of root length (r = 0.753, p < 0.01). The changes of soil water distribution were consistent with the seasonal variation in water uptake patterns. The present study identified water sources for summer maize under varying fertilization treatments and provided scientific implications for fertilization and irrigation management. - Highlights: • Dual stable isotopes and MixSIAR were coupled to quantify water uptake of maize. • Maize mainly used soil water in 20–50 cm at milk stage and 0–20 cm at other stages. • Fertilization treatments led to distinct water uptake pattern at 0–50 cm depth.

  13. Chimpanzee population structure in Cameroon and Nigeria is associated with habitat variation that may be lost under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesink Clee, Paul R; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Ambahe, Ruffin D; Anthony, Nicola M; Fotso, Roger; Locatelli, Sabrina; Maisels, Fiona; Mitchell, Matthew W; Morgan, Bethan J; Pokempner, Amy A; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2015-01-21

    The Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) is found in the Gulf of Guinea biodiversity hotspot located in western equatorial Africa. This subspecies is threatened by habitat fragmentation due to logging and agricultural development, hunting for the bushmeat trade, and possibly climate change. Although P. t. ellioti appears to be geographically separated from the neighboring central chimpanzee (P. t. troglodytes) by the Sanaga River, recent population genetics studies of chimpanzees from across this region suggest that additional factors may also be important in their separation. The main aims of this study were: 1) to model the distribution of suitable habitat for P. t. ellioti across Cameroon and Nigeria, and P. t. troglodytes in southern Cameroon, 2) to determine which environmental factors best predict their optimal habitats, and 3) to compare modeled niches and test for their levels of divergence from one another. A final aim of this study was to examine the ways that climate change might impact suitable chimpanzee habitat across the region under various scenarios. Ecological niche models (ENMs) were created using the software package Maxent for the three populations of chimpanzees that have been inferred to exist in Cameroon and eastern Nigeria: (i) P. t. troglodytes in southern Cameroon, (ii) P. t. ellioti in northwestern Cameroon, and (iii) P. t. ellioti in central Cameroon. ENMs for each population were compared using the niche comparison test in ENMtools, which revealed complete niche divergence with very little geographic overlap of suitable habitat between populations. These findings suggest that a positive relationship may exist between environmental variation and the partitioning of genetic variation found in chimpanzees across this region. ENMs for each population were also projected under three different climate change scenarios for years 2020, 2050, and 2080. Suitable habitat of P. t. ellioti in northwest Cameroon / eastern Nigeria is

  14. Characterization of the adaptive response of grapevine (cv. Tempranillo) to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomès, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2015-03-01

    This work aims to characterize the physiological response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to three levels of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)day(-1)) and two water regimes (well watered and water deficit), in a factorial design, from fruit-set to maturity under glasshouse-controlled conditions. UV-B induced a transient decrease in net photosynthesis (Anet), actual and maximum potential efficiency of photosystem II, particularly on well watered plants. Methanol extractable UV-B absorbing compounds (MEUVAC) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity increased with UV-B. Water deficit effected decrease in Anet and stomatal conductance, and did not change non-photochemical quenching and the de-epoxidation state of xanthophylls, dark respiration and photorespiration being alternative ways to dissipate the excess of energy. Little interactive effects between UV-B and drought were detected on photosynthesis performance, where the impact of UV-B was overshadowed by the effects of water deficit. Grape berry ripening was strongly delayed when UV-B and water deficit were applied in combination. In summary, deficit irrigation did not modify the adaptive response of grapevine to UV-B, through the accumulation of MEUVAC. However, combined treatments caused additive effects on berry ripening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low Impact Development Planning and Adaptation Decision-Making under Climate Change for a Community against Pluvial Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yuan Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study integrates and develops methods, namely low impact development (LID selection method and an LID spatial planning model, to enable decision-making to minimize pluvial flooding for a community. The objective is to minimize the flood risk under the worst case of the design storm within the budget constraints. Design storms in current and future climate scenarios are analyzed as input to the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM. Then, LID practices are selected based on the proposed procedure and a spatial planning model is built to identify the optimal LID layouts using the simulated annealing (SA algorithm. The lower and upper bounds of the generated rainfall intensities of a five-year 1-h duration design storms for the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 for the atmosphere and oceans (HadGEM2-AO, the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-ME, and the CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 Atmosphere-Ocean GCM (CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 during 2021–2040 are derived. The LID selection helps efficiently identify appropriate LID. Results show that nearly no flood occurs under the optimal LID layouts found by the LID spatial planning model. Moreover, it is more optimal to invest in LID in the lower sub-catchments in LID planning when the budget is limited. These methods are generally applicable for a community using LIDs as adaptation measures against pluvial flooding.

  16. An Indel Polymorphism in the MtnA 3' Untranslated Region Is Associated with Gene Expression Variation and Local Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catalán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Insertions and deletions (indels are a major source of genetic variation within species and may result in functional changes to coding or regulatory sequences. In this study we report that an indel polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region (UTR of the metallothionein gene MtnA is associated with gene expression variation in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. A derived allele of MtnA with a 49-bp deletion in the 3' UTR segregates at high frequency in populations outside of sub-Saharan Africa. The frequency of the deletion increases with latitude across multiple continents and approaches 100% in northern Europe. Flies with the deletion have more than 4-fold higher MtnA expression than flies with the ancestral sequence. Using reporter gene constructs in transgenic flies, we show that the 3' UTR deletion significantly contributes to the observed expression difference. Population genetic analyses uncovered signatures of a selective sweep in the MtnA region within populations from northern Europe. We also find that the 3' UTR deletion is associated with increased oxidative stress tolerance. These results suggest that the 3' UTR deletion has been a target of selection for its ability to confer increased levels of MtnA expression in northern European populations, likely due to a local adaptive advantage of increased oxidative stress tolerance.

  17. Robust dynamic myocardial perfusion CT deconvolution for accurate residue function estimation via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation regularization: a preclinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong; Gong, Changfei; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Lijun; Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Zhang; Liang, Zhengrong; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) is a promising technique for quick diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. However, one major drawback of dynamic MPCT imaging is the heavy radiation dose to patients due to its dynamic image acquisition protocol. In this work, to address this issue, we present a robust dynamic MPCT deconvolution algorithm via adaptive-weighted tensor total variation (AwTTV) regularization for accurate residue function estimation with low-mA s data acquisitions. For simplicity, the presented method is termed ‘MPD-AwTTV’. More specifically, the gains of the AwTTV regularization over the original tensor total variation regularization are from the anisotropic edge property of the sequential MPCT images. To minimize the associative objective function we propose an efficient iterative optimization strategy with fast convergence rate in the framework of an iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm. We validate and evaluate the presented algorithm using both digital XCAT phantom and preclinical porcine data. The preliminary experimental results have demonstrated that the presented MPD-AwTTV deconvolution algorithm can achieve remarkable gains in noise-induced artifact suppression, edge detail preservation, and accurate flow-scaled residue function and MPHM estimation as compared with the other existing deconvolution algorithms in digital phantom studies, and similar gains can be obtained in the porcine data experiment.

  18. Leaf Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate Silicon Induced Adaptive Response under Salt Stress in Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Ko, Chung Ho; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2017-08-14

    Beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire' were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM), NaCl (50 mM), and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed. Scorching of leaf edges and stomatal damages occurred due to salt stress was ameliorated under Si supplementation. Similarly, reduction of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, higher lipid peroxidation rate, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species under salinity stress were mitigated in Si treatment. Lesser oxidative stress observed was correlated with the enhanced activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in Si+NaCl treatment. Importantly, sodium transportation was synergistically restricted with the stimulated counter-uptake of potassium in Si+NaCl treatment. Furthermore, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results showed that out of 40 identified proteins, on comparison with control 34 proteins were down-accumulated and six proteins were up-accumulated due to salinity stress. Meanwhile, addition of Si with NaCl treatment enhanced the abundance of 30 proteins and downregulated five proteins. Differentially-expressed proteins were functionally classified into six groups, such as photosynthesis (22%), carbohydrate/energy metabolism (20%), transcription/translation (20%), stress/redox homeostasis (12%), ion binding (13%), and ubiquitination (8%). Hence, the findings reported in this work could facilitate a deeper

  19. Wood density variations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. under contrasting climate conditions in southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed inter-annual variations in ring width and maximumwood density of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. at different altitudes in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany, to determine the climate response of these parameters under contrasting climate conditions. In addition, we compared maximum, average and minimum wood density between sites. Bootstrapped correlation coefficients of ring width and maximum wood density with monthly temperature and precipitation, revealed a different climate sensitivity of both parameters. Ring width showed strong correlations with climate variables in the previous year and in the first half of the growingseason. Further, a negative relationship with summer temperature was observed at the low-altitude sites. Maximum wood density correlated best with temperature during the growing season, whereby strongest correlations were found between September temperature and maximum wood density at the high-altitude sites. Observed differences in maximum, average and minimum wood density are suggested to relate to the local climate; with lower temperature and higher water availability having a negative effect on wood density.

  20. Wood density variations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. under contrasting climate conditions in southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed inter-annual variations in ring width and maximum wood density of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. at different altitudes in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany, to determine the climate response of these parameters under contrasting climate conditions. In addition, we compared maximum, average and minimum wood density between sites. Bootstrapped correlation coefficients of ring width and maximum wood density with monthly temperature and precipitation, revealed a different climate sensitivity of both parameters. Ring width showed strong correlations with climate variables in the previous year and in the first half of the growing season. Further, a negative relationship with summer temperature was observed at the low-altitude sites. Maximum wood density correlated best with temperature during the growing season, whereby strongest correlations were found between September temperature and maximum wood density at the high-altitude sites. Observed differences in maximum, average and minimum wood density are suggested to relate to the local climate; with lower temperatures and higher water availability having a negative effect on wood density. 

  1. Refractive variation under accommodative demand: curvital and scaled torsional variances and covariance across the meridians of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, R D; Harris, W F

    1997-06-01

    Autorefractor measurements were taken on the right eye of 10 students with an external target at vergences -1.00 and -3.00 D. The refractive errors in the form of sphere, cylinder, and axis were converted to vectors h and variance-covariance matrices calculated for different reference meridians. Scatter plots are drawn in symmetric dioptric power space. The profiles of curvital and scaled torsional variances, the scaled torsional fraction, and the scaled torsional-curvital correlation are shown using a polar representation. This form of representation provides a meridional pattern of variation under accommodative demand. The profile for scaled torsional variance is characteristically in the form of a pair of rabbit ears. At both target vergences curvital variance is larger than scaled torsional variance in all the meridians of the eye: the relative magnitudes are quantified by the scaled torsional fraction. An increase in accommodative demand generally results in an increase in variance. The rabbit ears usually become larger but less well divided. The correlation between curvital and torsional powers is usually positive in the first quadrant and negative in the second quadrant. Typical, atypical, and mean typical responses are discussed.

  2. A Heuristic Algorithm for Constrained Multi-Source Location Problem with Closest Distance under Gauge: The Variational Inequality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Lin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the locations of multiple facilities in the space , with the aim of minimizing the sum of weighted distances between facilities and regional customers, where the proximity between a facility and a regional customer is evaluated by the closest distance. Due to the fact that facilities are usually allowed to be sited in certain restricted areas, some locational constraints are imposed to the facilities of our problem. In addition, since the symmetry of distances is sometimes violated in practical situations, the gauge is employed in this paper instead of the frequently used norms for measuring both the symmetric and asymmetric distances. In the spirit of the Cooper algorithm (Cooper, 1964, a new location-allocation heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. In the location phase, the single-source subproblem with regional demands is reformulated into an equivalent linear variational inequality (LVI, and then, a projection-contraction (PC method is adopted to find the optimal locations of facilities, whereas in the allocation phase, the regional customers are allocated to facilities according to the nearest center reclassification (NCR. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is proved under mild assumptions. Some preliminary numerical results are reported to show the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  4. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  5. Quantitative trait loci in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) reveal complex genetic architecture underlying variation in sex, yield and cone chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Erin L; Freeman, Jules S; Whittock, Simon P; Buck, Emily J; Jakse, Jernej; Cerenak, Andreja; Javornik, Branka; Kilian, Andrzej; Wang, Cai-Hong; Andersen, Dave; Vaillancourt, René E; Carling, Jason; Beatson, Ron; Graham, Lawrence; Graham, Donna; Darby, Peter; Koutoulis, Anthony

    2013-05-30

    genetic control of traits of current economic and breeding significance in hop and demonstrate the complex genetic architecture underlying variation in these traits. The linkage information obtained in this study, based on transferable markers, can be used to facilitate the validation of QTL, crucial to the success of MAS.

  6. Adaptive interference-aware multichannel assignment for shared overloaded small-cell access points under limited feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a reduced-complexity multichannel assignment scheme for short-range cellular systems. It treats the scenario when a number of small-cell (e.g., femtocell) access points (APs) can be shared to serve active scheduled users. The APs employ isotropic antenna arrays and operate using an open-access control strategy. To improve the reuse ratio of physical resources, the APs are assumed to occupy a single physical channel, wherein coordination among them is infeasible. On the other hand, to improve the spatial coverage, a scheduled user can be served by a single transmit channel from an AP at a time. For the case of overloaded APs and when the feedback links are capacity limited, the scheme attempts to identify the suitable transmit channels from the deployed APs in an adaptive manner such that certain performance and/or processing load limits are satisfied. The effects of some system and design parameters on the outcomes of the scheme are thoroughly discussed. Novel results for the statistics of the resulting interference power are presented, from which results for some performance measures and processing loads are obtained. Numerical and simulations results are provided to clarify the achieved gains, as compared with related models under different operating conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Experimental Evolution of UV-C Radiation Tolerance: Emergence of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Traits in Escherichia coli Under Differing Flux Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, A.; Okansinski, A.; Sloan, C.; Grace, J. M.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L. J.; Camps, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation is a significant challenge to life in environments such as high altitude areas, the early Earth, the Martian surface, and space. As UV-C exposure is both a selection pressure and a mutagen, adaptation dynamics in such environments include a high rate of change in both tolerance-related and non-tolerance-related genes, as well changes in linkages between the resulting traits. Determining the relationship between the intensity and duration of the UV-C exposure, mutation rate, and emergence of UV-C resistance will inform our understanding of both the emergence of radiation-related extremophily in natural environments and the optimal strategies for generating artificial extremophiles. In this study, we iteratively exposed an Escherichia colistrain to UV-C radiation of two different fluxes, 3.3 J/m^2/s for 6 seconds and 0.5 J/m^2/s for 40 seconds, with the same overall fluence of 20 J/m^2. After each iteration, cells from each exposure regime were assayed for increased UV-C tolerance as an adaptive trait. The exposed cells carried a plasmid bearing a TEM beta-lactamase gene, which in the absence of antibiotic treatment is a neutral reporter for mutagenesis. Sequencing of this gene allowed us to determine the baseline mutation frequency for each flux. As an additional readout for adaptation, the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase mutations was tested by plating UV-exposed cultures in cefotaxime plates. We observed an increase of approximately one-million-fold in UV-C tolerance over seven iterations; no significant difference between the two fluxes was found. Future work will focus on identifying the genomic changes responsible for the change in UV-C tolerance; determining the mechanisms of the emerged UV-C tolerance; and performing competition experiments between the iteration strains to quantify fitness tradeoffs resulting from UV-C adaptation.

  8. Ligand partitioning into lipid bilayer membranes under high pressure: Implication of variation in phase-transition temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Hitoshi; Kato, Kentaro; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Goto, Masaki; Tamai, Nobutake; Kaneshina, Shoji

    2017-12-01

    The variation in phase-transition temperatures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membrane by adding two membrane-active ligands, a long-chain fatty acid (palmitic acid (PA)) and an inhalation anesthetic (halothane (HAL)), was investigated by light-transmittance measurements and fluorometry. By assuming the thermodynamic colligative property for the bilayer membrane at low ligand concentrations, the partitioning behavior of these ligands into the DPPC bilayer membrane was considered. It was proved from the differential partition coefficients between two phases that PA has strong affinity with the gel (lamellar gel) phase in a micro-molal concentration range and makes the bilayer membrane more ordered, while HAL has strong affinity with the liquid crystalline phase in a milli-molal concentration range and does the bilayer membrane more disordered. The transfer volumes of both ligands from the aqueous solution to each phase of the DPPC bilayer membrane showed that the preferential partitioning of the PA molecule into the gel (lamellar gel) produces about 20% decrease in transfer volume as compared with the liquid crystalline phase, whereas that of the HAL molecule into the liquid crystalline phase does about twice increase in transfer volume as compared with the gel (ripple gel) phase. Furthermore, changes in thermotropic and barotropic phase behavior of the DPPC bilayer membrane by adding the ligand was discussed from the viewpoint of the ligand partitioning. Reflecting the contrastive partitioning of PA and HAL into the pressure-induced interdigitated gel phase among the gel phases, it was revealed that PA suppresses the formation of the interdigitated gel phase under high pressure while HAL promotes it. These results clearly indicate that each phase of the DPPC bilayer membrane has a potential to recognize various ligand molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in spread of Heterobasidion annosum in clones of Picea abies grown at different vegetation phases under greenhouse conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedjemark, G.; Stenlid, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1996-06-01

    Forty-nine Picea abies (L.) Karst clones were inoculated under greenhouse conditions with a Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. isolate of the S intersterility group. The cuttings were inoculated at the following vegetation stages; bud-flushing stage, vegetative stage and after bud-set. Fungal growth in sapwood and leison length in the inner bark were measured after 34 days. The susceptibility of the various clones to H. annosum was strongly correlated among the three vegetation stages, both in terms of mean growth and mean growth ranking. Partitioning of variance components showed that variation in growth was explained by physiological stages and clone to 4% and 24%, respectively, and for interaction between clone and physiological stage to 9%. Corresponding values for leison length in the inner bark were 3%, 14% and 5%, respectively. Fungal growth in wood and leison length in the inner bark were strongly correlated (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.23 and 0.36). When cuttings were inoculated during bud-flushing, leison length and fungal growth in wood were both strongly correlated with bud-flushing index of the cuttings (r{sup 2} = 0.03 and 0.04 respectively) but that was not the case for the other stages. The number of active fine-roots and the degree of wilting of the cuttings were negatively correlated with leison length and fungal growth (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.01 and 0.13). Height and diameter varied greatly between the clones and both were negatively correlated with fungal extension (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.01 and 0.09). 33 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  10. How prevention curricula are taught under real-world conditions: Types of and reasons for teacher curriculum adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John; Krieger, Janice

    As interventions are disseminated widely, issues of fidelity and adaptation become increasingly critical to understand. This study aims to describe the types of adaptations made by teachers delivering a school-based substance use prevention curriculum and their reasons for adapting program content. To determine the degree to which implementers adhere to a prevention curriculum, naturally adapt the curriculum, and the reasons implementers give for making adaptations, the study examined lesson adaptations made by the 31 teachers who implemented the keepin' it REAL drug prevention curriculum in 7th grade classrooms ( n = 25 schools). Data were collected from teacher self-reports after each lesson and observer coding of videotaped lessons. From the total sample, 276 lesson videos were randomly selected for observational analysis. Teachers self-reported adapting more than 68 percent of prevention lessons, while independent observers reported more than 97 percent of the observed lessons were adapted in some way. Types of adaptations included: altering the delivery of the lesson by revising the delivery timetable or delivery context; changing content of the lesson by removing, partially covering, revising, or adding content; and altering the designated format of the lesson (such as assigning small group activities to students as individual work). Reasons for adaptation included responding to constraints (time, institutional, personal, and technical), and responding to student needs (students' abilities to process curriculum content, to enhance student engagement with material). The study sample was limited to rural schools in the US mid-Atlantic; however, the results suggest that if programs are to be effectively implemented, program developers need a better understanding of the types of adaptations and reasons implementers provide for adapting curricula. These descriptive data suggest that prevention curricula be developed in shorter teaching modules, developers

  11. SU-C-202-03: A Tool for Automatic Calculation of Delivered Dose Variation for Off-Line Adaptive Therapy Using Cone Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B; Lee, S; Chen, S; Zhou, J; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monitoring the delivered dose is an important task for the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) and for determining time to re-plan. A software tool which enables automatic delivered dose calculation using cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been developed and tested. Methods: The tool consists of four components: a CBCT Colleting Module (CCM), a Plan Registration Moduel (PRM), a Dose Calculation Module (DCM), and an Evaluation and Action Module (EAM). The CCM is triggered periodically (e.g. every 1:00 AM) to search for newly acquired CBCTs of patients of interest and then export the DICOM files of the images and related registrations defined in ARIA followed by triggering the PRM. The PRM imports the DICOM images and registrations, links the CBCTs to the related treatment plan of the patient in the planning system (RayStation V4.5, RaySearch, Stockholm, Sweden). A pre-determined CT-to-density table is automatically generated for dose calculation. Current version of the DCM uses a rigid registration which regards the treatment isocenter of the CBCT to be the isocenter of the treatment plan. Then it starts the dose calculation automatically. The AEM evaluates the plan using pre-determined plan evaluation parameters: PTV dose-volume metrics and critical organ doses. The tool has been tested for 10 patients. Results: Automatic plans are generated and saved in the order of the treatment dates of the Adaptive Planning module of the RayStation planning system, without any manual intervention. Once the CTV dose deviates more than 3%, both email and page alerts are sent to the physician and the physicist of the patient so that one can look the case closely. Conclusion: The tool is capable to perform automatic dose tracking and to alert clinicians when an action is needed. It is clinically useful for off-line adaptive therapy to catch any gross error. Practical way of determining alarming level for OAR is under development.

  12. The Genetics Underlying Natural Variation in the Biotic Interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana: The Challenges of Linking Evolutionary Genetics and Community Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F; Bergelson, J

    2016-01-01

    In the context of global change, predicting the responses of plant communities in an ever-changing biotic environment calls for a multipronged approach at the interface of evolutionary genetics and community ecology. However, our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation involved in mediating biotic interactions, and associated adaptive dynamics of focal plants in their natural communities, is still in its infancy. Here, we review the genetic and molecular bases of natural variation in the response to biotic interactions (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, herbivores, and plants) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as the adaptive value of these bases. Among the 60 identified genes are a number that encode nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type proteins, consistent with early examples of plant defense genes. However, recent studies have revealed an extensive diversity in the molecular mechanisms of defense. Many types of genetic variants associate with phenotypic variation in biotic interactions, even among the genes of large effect that tend to be identified. In general, we found that (i) balancing selection rather than directional selection explains the observed patterns of genetic diversity within A. thaliana and (ii) the cost/benefit tradeoffs of adaptive alleles can be strongly dependent on both genomic and environmental contexts. Finally, because A. thaliana rarely interacts with only one biotic partner in nature, we highlight the benefit of exploring diffuse biotic interactions rather than tightly associated host-enemy pairs. This challenge would help to improve our understanding of coevolutionary quantitative genetics within the context of realistic community complexity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genotypic Variation in Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus Under Contrasting N Supply in Pot and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus characteristically has high N uptake efficiency and low N utilization efficiency (NUtE, seed yield/shoot N accumulation. Determining the NUtE phenotype of various genotypes in different growth conditions is a way of finding target traits to improve oilseed rape NUtE. The aim of this study was to compare oilseed rape genotypes grown on contrasting N supply rates in pot and field experiments to investigate the genotypic variations of NUtE and to identify indicators of N efficient genotypes. For 50 oilseed rape genotypes, NUtE, dry matter and N partitioning, morphological characteristics, and the yield components were investigated under high and low N supplies in a greenhouse pot experiment and a field trial. Although the genotype rankings of NUtE were different between the pot experiment and the field trial, some genotypes performed consistently in both two environments. N-responder, N-nonresponder, N-efficient and N-inefficient genotypes were identified from these genotypes with consistent NUtE. The correlations between the pot experiment and the field trial in NUtE were only 0.34 at high N supplies and no significant correlations were found at low N supplies. However, Pearson coefficient correlation (r and principal component analysis showed NUtE had similar genetic correlations with other traits across the pot and field experiment. Among the yield components, only seeds per silique showed strong and positive correlations with NUtE under varying N supply in both experiments (r = 0.47**; 0.49**; 0.47**; 0.54**. At high and low N supply, NUtE was positively correlated with seed yield (r = 0.45**; 0.53**; 0.39**; 0.87**, nitrogen harvest index (NHI, r = 0.68**; 0.82**; 0.99**; 0.89**, and harvest index (HI, r = 0.79**; 0.83**; 0.90**; 0.78** and negatively correlated with biomass distribution to stem and leaf (r = −0.34**; −0.45**; −0.37**; 0.62**, all aboveground plant section N concentration (r from −0.30* to

  14. Fuzzy adaptive speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Han Ho; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Rae-Young

    2012-05-01

    A fuzzy adaptive speed controller is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The proposed fuzzy adaptive speed regulator is insensitive to model parameter and load torque variations because it does not need any accurate knowledge about the motor parameter and load torque values. The stability of the proposed control system is also proven. The proposed adaptive speed regulator system is implemented by using a TMS320F28335 floating point DSP. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy adaptive speed controller under uncertainties such as motor parameter and load torque variations using a prototype PMSM drive system.

  15. Empirical analysis of skin friction under variations of temperature; Variacion de la resistencia al corte con temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Alvarez, A. R. de la; Groot Viana, M. de

    2014-07-01

    In soil geotechnical characterization, strength parameters, cohesion (c) and internal friction angle (Φ) has been traditional measured without taking into account temperature, been a very important issue in energy geostructures. The present document analyzes the variation of these parameters in soil-concrete interface at different temperatures. A traditional shear strength case with a forced plane of failure was used. Several tests were carried out to determine the variation of skin friction in granular and cohesive oils with temperature. (Author)

  16. Physiological basis of genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis among rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression lines under drought and well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou

    2012-01-01

    To understand the physiological basis of genetic variation and resulting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for photosynthesis in a rice (Oryza sativa L.) introgression line population, 13 lines were studied under drought and well-watered conditions, at flowering and grain filling. Simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted at various levels of incident irradiance and ambient CO2 to estimate parameters of a model that dissects photosynthesis into stomatal conductance (g s), mesophyll conductance (g m), electron transport capacity (J max), and Rubisco carboxylation capacity (V cmax). Significant genetic variation in these parameters was found, although drought and leaf age accounted for larger proportions of the total variation. Genetic variation in light-saturated photosynthesis and transpiration efficiency (TE) were mainly associated with variation in g s and g m. One previously mapped major QTL of photosynthesis was associated with variation in g s and g m, but also in J max and V cmax at flowering. Thus, g s and g m, which were demonstrated in the literature to be responsible for environmental variation in photosynthesis, were found also to be associated with genetic variation in photosynthesis. Furthermore, relationships between these parameters and leaf nitrogen or dry matter per unit area, which were previously found across environmental treatments, were shown to be valid for variation across genotypes. Finally, the extent to which photosynthesis rate and TE can be improved was evaluated. Virtual ideotypes were estimated to have 17.0% higher photosynthesis and 25.1% higher TE compared with the best genotype investigated. This analysis using introgression lines highlights possibilities of improving both photosynthesis and TE within the same genetic background. PMID:22888131

  17. Herbage intake and behavioural adaptation of grazing dairy cows by restricting time at pasture under two feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Delagarde, R; Delaby, L

    2008-09-01

    The time at pasture of dairy cows is often restricted in the context of extending the grazing season in autumn or at the end of winter. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of a restriction of time at pasture on milk production, herbage intake and feeding behaviour in dairy cows according to feeding regime. The four treatments consisted of 4 h or 8 h of time at pasture per day tested under two feeding regimes combining rate of supplementation and herbage allowance: either a high rate of supplementation (10 kg dry matter (DM) of a maize silage-soya bean meal mixture in the ratio 87 : 13 on a % DM basis) with a low herbage allowance (6 kg DM/cow per day above 5 cm), or a low rate of supplementation (5 kg DM of the same supplement) with a high herbage allowance (11 kg DM/cow per day). The study was carried out according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 2-week periods, with 48 mid-lactation Holstein cows. The cows in the 4-h treatment had access to pasture from 0900 h to 1300 h and those in the 8-h treatment from 0900 h to 1700 h. The supplement was given at 1830 h. When time at pasture was reduced from 8 h to 4 h per day, herbage intake decreased (9.9 v. 8.1 kg DM, P grazing time (327 v. 209 min, P grazing (0.68 v. 0.87, P grazing when receiving the low-supplement feeding regime. In conclusion, we showed that reducing time at pasture from 8 to 4 h for cows receiving 5 to 10 kg DM of a maize silage-based supplement decreased moderately milk production and herbage intake, because of the capacity for behavioural adaptation by the grazing dairy cows.

  18. Adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors under the influence of Bacillus strains in Western Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Anatoly A; Shternshis, Margarita V; Chechenina, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2017-03-01

    In geographical locations with a short vegetative season and continental climate that include Western Siberia, growing primocane fruiting raspberry varieties becomes very important. However, it is necessary to help the plants to overcome the environmental stress factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pre-planting treatment of primocane fruiting raspberry root system with Bacillus strains on the following plant development under variable environmental conditions. In 2012, Bacillus subtilis RCAM В-10641, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RCAM В-10642, and Bacillus licheniformis RCAM В-10562 were used for inoculating the root system of primocane fruiting raspberry cultivar Nedosyagaemaya before planting. The test suspensions were 10 5  CFU/ml for each bacterial strains. The effects of this treatment on plant growth and crop productivity were estimated in 2012-2015 growing seasons differed by environmental conditions. The pre-planting treatment by the bacterial strains increased the number of new raspberry canes and the number of plant generative organs as well as crop productivity compared to control. In addition, these bacilli acted as the standard humic fertilizer. Variable environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and winter and spring frosts seriously influenced the plant biological parameters and crop productivity of control plants. At the same time, the pre-planting primocane fruiting root treatment by Bacillus strains decreased the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plants in all years of the research. Of the three strains studied, B. subtilis was shown to reveal the best results in adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors in Western Siberia. For the first time, the role of Bacillus strains in enhancing frost resistance in primocane fruiting raspberry plants was shown. These bacilli are capable of being the basis of multifunctional biological formulations for effective plant and

  19. Influence of swirl ratio on fuel distribution and cyclic variation under flash boiling conditions in a spark ignition direct injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Min; Hung, David L.S.; Wu, Qiang; Dong, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of swirl on fuel distribution studied using laser induced fluorescence. • Gradient is sufficient for fuel spatial distribution variation analysis. • Close relation between fuel distribution and flame initiation/development. • Quantitative analysis shows high swirl suppresses variation of fuel distribution. • High order modes capable of identifying the distribution fluctuation patterns. - Abstract: One effective way of suppressing the cycle-to-cycle variation in engine is to design a combustion system that is robust to the root causes of engine variation over the entire engine working process. Flash boiling has been demonstrated as an ideal technique to produce stable fuel spray. But the generation of stable intake flow and fuel mixture remains challenging. In this study, to evaluate the capability of enhanced swirl flow to produce repeatable fuel mixture formation, the fuel distribution inside a single cylinder optical engine under two swirl ratios were measured using laser induced fluorescence technique. The swirl ratio was regulated by a swirl control valve installed in one of the intake ports. A 266 nm wavelength laser sheet from a frequency-quadrupled laser was directed into the optical engine through the quartz liner 15 mm below the tip of the spark plug. The fluorescence signal from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in gasoline was collected by applying a 320–420 nm band pass filter mounted in front of an intensified charge coupled device camera. Test results show that the in-cylinder fuel distribution is strongly influenced by the swirl ratio. Specifically, under high swirl condition, the fuel is mainly concentrated on the left side of the combustion chamber. While under the low swirl flow, fuel is distributed more randomly over the observing plane. This agrees well with the measurements of the stable flame location. Additionally, the cycle-to-cycle variation of the fuel distribution were analyzed. Results show that well

  20. Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Zhu, N.; Juvik, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of

  1. In situ visualization and detection of surface potential variation of mono and multilayer MoS2 under different humidities using Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yulin; Zhang, Kailiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Baozeng; Fang, Mingxu; Wang, Weichao; Wei, Jun; Wong, H S Philip

    2017-06-30

    The surface potential (SP) variations in mono and multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) are visualized in situ and detected using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in different humidity conditions for the first time. N-type doping, which originates from the SiO 2 substrate, is discovered in the exfoliated MoS 2 and is accompanied by a screening length of five layers. The influence of water, which serves as an environmental gating for MoS 2 , is investigated by controlling the relative humidities (RHs) in the environmental chamber. A monotonic decrease in the SP is observed when the threshold concentration is achieved. This corresponds to the Fermi level variation, which is dominated by different processes. The results also indicate that water adsorption could result in MoS 2 p-type doping and provide compensation that partially counteracts the substrate effect. Under this condition, the interlayer screening effect is influenced because of the water dipole-induced electric field. Density functional theory calculations are performed to determine the band structure variations and the interactions between water molecules and between water molecules and the MoS 2 surface in mono and trilayer MoS 2 under different RHs. The calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. We propose that in situ measurements of the SP using KPFM under different environmental regimes is a noninvasive and effective method to provide real-time visualization and detection of electronic property variations in two-dimensional materials.

  2. An adaptive recurrent neural-network controller using a stabilization matrix and predictive inputs to solve a tracking problem under disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, Michael; Li, Shuhui; Fu, Xingang; Alonso, Eduardo; Wunsch, Donald

    2014-01-01

    We present a recurrent neural-network (RNN) controller designed to solve the tracking problem for control systems. We demonstrate that a major difficulty in training any RNN is the problem of exploding gradients, and we propose a solution to this in the case of tracking problems, by introducing a stabilization matrix and by using carefully constrained context units. This solution allows us to achieve consistently lower training errors, and hence allows us to more easily introduce adaptive capabilities. The resulting RNN is one that has been trained off-line to be rapidly adaptive to changing plant conditions and changing tracking targets. The case study we use is a renewable-energy generator application; that of producing an efficient controller for a three-phase grid-connected converter. The controller we produce can cope with the random variation of system parameters and fluctuating grid voltages. It produces tracking control with almost instantaneous response to changing reference states, and virtually zero oscillation. This compares very favorably to the classical proportional integrator (PI) controllers, which we show produce a much slower response and settling time. In addition, the RNN we propose exhibits better learning stability and convergence properties, and can exhibit faster adaptation, than has been achieved with adaptive critic designs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    by the improved threshold algorithm. The possibility of determination of significant wave height (SWH) in the lakes through a two-step adaptive retracking is also studied. Calculation of the parameter SWH for Gorky Reservoir from May 2010 to March 2014 showed the anomalously high values of SWH, derived from altimetry data [15], which means that the calibration of this SWH for inland waters is required. Calibration ground measurements were performed at Gorky reservoir in 2011-2013, when wave height, wind speed and air temperature were collected by equipment placed on a buoy [15] collocated with Jason-1 and Jason-2 altimetry data acquisition. The results obtained on the basis of standard algorithm and method for adaptive re-tracking at Rybinsk , Gorky , Kuibyshev , Saratov and Volgograd reservoirs and middle-sized lakes of Russia: Chany, Segozero, Hanko, Oneko, Beloye, water areas of which are intersected by the Jason-1,2 tracks, were compared and their correlation with the observed data of hydrological stations in reservoirs and lakes was investigated. It was noted that the Volgograd reservoir regional re-tracking to determine the water level , while the standard GDR data are practically absent. REFERENCES [1] AVISO/Altimetry. User Handbook. Merged TOPEX/ POSEIDON Products. Edition 3.0. AVISO. Toulouse., 1996. [2] C.M. Birkett et al., “Surface water dynamics in the Amazon Basin: Application of satellite radar altimetry,” J. Geophys. Res., vol. 107, pp. 8059, 2002. [3] G. Brown, “The average impulse response of a rough surface and its applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 25, pp. 67-74, 1977. [4] I.O. Campos et al., “Temporal variations of river basin waters from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry. Application to the Amazon basin,” Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol. 333, pp. 633-643, 2001. [5] A.V. Kouraev et al., “Ob’ river discharge from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry (1992-2002),” Rem. Sens. Environ., vol. 93, pp. 238-245, 2004

  4. Shaping forest safety nets with markets: Adaptation to climate change under changing roles of tropical forests in Congo Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkem, Johnson; Kalame, Fobissie B.; Idinoba, Monica; Somorin, Olufunso A.; Ndoye, Ousseynou; Awono, Abdon

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests hold several goods and services used by forest-dependent people as safety nets to traverse difficult periods of resource supply. These same goods and services are constantly surrounded by emerging markets linking remote communities with major urban centers nationally and internationally. How these markets affect adaptation remains unclear. This paper examines the roles of markets in non-timber forest products that normally serve as safety nets for forest communities, and the implications for climate change adaptation in the Congo Basin. Following the identification and prioritization of forest-based development sectors for adaptation by stakeholders, the types of markets and trades surrounding the identified sectors were examined in two provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a case study in order to evaluate revenue flows and their potential contribution to adaptation by local communities. The distribution of the market revenue leaves local people with returns much lower than the worth of the commodity, while wholesalers and retailers reap most of the benefits and profit from the high variability in volume and market earnings for the same commodity across provinces. Markets may increase the value of a commodity as observed in this study, but their contributions to adaptation appear highly limited for local communities following their distribution among the stakeholders in the market chain. This is likely to be worse in free market settings, especially when it diminishes the safety net roles of forest goods and services. Markets should therefore complement rather than substitute forests roles for adaptation to climate change in tropical forest countries. Capturing the benefits of trade for adaptation is crucial but will require policy reforms and further research that addresses the complexity in benefit sharing.

  5. Adaptive selection of diurnal minimum variation: a statistical strategy to obtain representative atmospheric CO2 data and its application to European elevated mountain stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Ries, Ludwig; Petermeier, Hannes; Steinbacher, Martin; Gómez-Peláez, Angel J.; Leuenberger, Markus C.; Schumacher, Marcus; Trickl, Thomas; Couret, Cedric; Meinhardt, Frank; Menzel, Annette

    2018-03-01

    Critical data selection is essential for determining representative baseline levels of atmospheric trace gases even at remote measurement sites. Different data selection techniques have been used around the world, which could potentially lead to reduced compatibility when comparing data from different stations. This paper presents a novel statistical data selection method named adaptive diurnal minimum variation selection (ADVS) based on CO2 diurnal patterns typically occurring at elevated mountain stations. Its capability and applicability were studied on records of atmospheric CO2 observations at six Global Atmosphere Watch stations in Europe, namely, Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (Germany), Sonnblick (Austria), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Izaña (Spain), Schauinsland (Germany), and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany). Three other frequently applied statistical data selection methods were included for comparison. Among the studied methods, our ADVS method resulted in a lower fraction of data selected as a baseline with lower maxima during winter and higher minima during summer in the selected data. The measured time series were analyzed for long-term trends and seasonality by a seasonal-trend decomposition technique. In contrast to unselected data, mean annual growth rates of all selected datasets were not significantly different among the sites, except for the data recorded at Schauinsland. However, clear differences were found in the annual amplitudes as well as the seasonal time structure. Based on a pairwise analysis of correlations between stations on the seasonal-trend decomposed components by statistical data selection, we conclude that the baseline identified by the ADVS method is a better representation of lower free tropospheric (LFT) conditions than baselines identified by the other methods.

  6. Adaptive selection of diurnal minimum variation: a statistical strategy to obtain representative atmospheric CO2 data and its application to European elevated mountain stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical data selection is essential for determining representative baseline levels of atmospheric trace gases even at remote measurement sites. Different data selection techniques have been used around the world, which could potentially lead to reduced compatibility when comparing data from different stations. This paper presents a novel statistical data selection method named adaptive diurnal minimum variation selection (ADVS based on CO2 diurnal patterns typically occurring at elevated mountain stations. Its capability and applicability were studied on records of atmospheric CO2 observations at six Global Atmosphere Watch stations in Europe, namely, Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (Germany, Sonnblick (Austria, Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, Izaña (Spain, Schauinsland (Germany, and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany. Three other frequently applied statistical data selection methods were included for comparison. Among the studied methods, our ADVS method resulted in a lower fraction of data selected as a baseline with lower maxima during winter and higher minima during summer in the selected data. The measured time series were analyzed for long-term trends and seasonality by a seasonal-trend decomposition technique. In contrast to unselected data, mean annual growth rates of all selected datasets were not significantly different among the sites, except for the data recorded at Schauinsland. However, clear differences were found in the annual amplitudes as well as the seasonal time structure. Based on a pairwise analysis of correlations between stations on the seasonal-trend decomposed components by statistical data selection, we conclude that the baseline identified by the ADVS method is a better representation of lower free tropospheric (LFT conditions than baselines identified by the other methods.

  7. Contrast adaptive total p-norm variation minimization approach to CT reconstruction for artifact reduction in reduced-view brain perfusion CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hyo

    2011-03-01

    Perfusion CT (PCT) examinations are getting more frequently used for diagnosis of acute brain diseases such as hemorrhage and infarction, because the functional map images it produces such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and mean transit time (MTT) may provide critical information in the emergency work-up of patient care. However, a typical PCT scans the same slices several tens of times after injection of contrast agent, which leads to much increased radiation dose and is inevitability of growing concern for radiation-induced cancer risk. Reducing the number of views in projection in combination of TV minimization reconstruction technique is being regarded as an option for radiation reduction. However, reconstruction artifacts due to insufficient number of X-ray projections become problematic especially when high contrast enhancement signals are present or patient's motion occurred. In this study, we present a novel reconstruction technique using contrast-adaptive TpV minimization that can reduce reconstruction artifacts effectively by using different p-norms in high contrast and low contrast objects. In the proposed method, high contrast components are first reconstructed using thresholded projection data and low p-norm total variation to reflect sparseness in both projection and reconstruction spaces. Next, projection data are modified to contain only low contrast objects by creating projection data of reconstructed high contrast components and subtracting them from original projection data. Then, the low contrast projection data are reconstructed by using relatively high p-norm TV minimization technique, and are combined with the reconstructed high contrast component images to produce final reconstructed images. The proposed algorithm was applied to numerical phantom and a clinical data set of brain PCT exam, and the resultant images were compared with those using filtered back projection (FBP) and conventional TV

  8. Toll-like receptor variation in the bottlenecked population of the endangered Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilroy, D. L.; van Oosterhout, C.; Komdeur, J.; Richardson, D. S.

    In small populations, drift results in a loss of genetic variation, which reduces adaptive evolutionary potential. Furthermore, the probability of consanguineous mating increases which may result in inbreeding depression. Under certain circumstances, balancing selection can counteract drift and

  9. ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS UNDER THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE CURVE THEORY "U" AND "W"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Stallivieri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Students from around the world are increasingly interested in learning new languages and be inserted in different cultures, increasing the numbers of international mobility. However, when traveling to another country, cultural differences are strongly perceived, even if in different ways, influencing the adaptation process. Given the importance and growth of the international academic mobility, this study analyzes the process of cultural adaptation of students in mobility, considering the assumptions of the theory of curves "U" and "W". As for the methodology, it is a descriptive research with quantitative approach. Data collection was conducted through closed questionnaires sent to international students from different countries who have studied or are still studying in a Brazilian Institution of Higher Education. The results showed that after the stage of culture shock, students feel more connected to local culture, make more friends and feel more confident. It was confirmed also that almost all international students managed to adapt well to local customs.

  10. Modulation of the heat shock response is associated with acclimation to novel temperatures but not adaptation to climatic variation in the ants Aphaenogaster picea and A. rudis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms Cahan, Sara; Nguyen, Andrew D; Stanton-Geddes, John; Penick, Clint A; Hernáiz-Hernández, Yainna; DeMarco, Bernice B; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    Ecological diversification into thermally divergent habitats can push species toward their physiological limits, requiring them to accommodate temperature extremes through plastic or evolutionary changes that increase persistence under the local thermal regime. One way to withstand thermal stress is to increase production of heat shock proteins, either by maintaining higher baseline abundance within cells or by increasing the magnitude of induction in response to heat stress. We evaluated whether environmental variation was associated with expression of three heat shock protein genes in two closely-related species of woodland ant, Aphaenogaster picea and A. rudis. We compared adult workers from colonies collected from 25 sites across their geographic ranges. Colonies were maintained at two different laboratory temperatures, and tested for the independent effects of environment, phylogeny, and acclimation temperature on baseline and heat-induced gene expression. The annual maximum temperature at each collection site (Tmax) was not a significant predictor of either baseline expression or magnitude of induction of any of the heat shock protein genes tested. A phylogenetic effect was detected only for basal expression of Hsp40, which was lower in the most southern populations of A. rudis and higher in a mid-range population of possible hybrid ancestry. In contrast, a higher acclimation temperature significantly increased baseline expression of Hsc70-4, and increased induction of Hsp40 and Hsp83. Thus, physiological acclimation to temperature variation appears to involve modulation of the heat shock response, whereas other mechanisms are likely to be responsible for evolutionary shifts in thermal performance associated with large-scale climate gradients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide association implicates numerous genes and pleiotropy underlying ecological trait variation in natural populations of Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKown, Athena [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Klapste, Jaroslav [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Guy, Robert [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Geraldes, Armando [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Porth, Ilga [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Hannemann, Jan [University of Victoria, Canada; Friedmann, Michael [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Ehlting, Juergen [University of Victoria, Canada; Cronk, Quentin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; El-Kassaby, Yousry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mansfield, Shawn [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2014-01-01

    To uncover the genetic basis of phenotypic trait variation, we used 448 unrelated wild accessions of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) from natural populations throughout western North America. Extensive information from large-scale trait phenotyping (with spatial and temporal replications within a common garden) and genotyping (with a 34K Populus SNP array) of all accessions were used for gene discovery in a genome-wide association study (GWAS).

  12. The variation of cloud amount and light rainy days under heavy pollution over South China during 1960-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanbo; Dan, Li

    2018-01-01

    The ground observation data was used to analyze the variation of cloud amount and light precipitation over South China during 1960-2009. The total cloud cover (TCC) decreases in this period, whereas the low cloud cover (LCC) shows the obvious opposite change with increasing trends. LCP defined as low cloud cover/total cloud cover has increased, and small rainy days (cloud amount and light precipitation over South China.

  13. A control approach for the operation of DG units under variations of interfacing impedance in grid-connected mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseini, S. Kazem; Pouresmaeil, E.; Hosseinnia, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    converter is highly sensitive to the impacts of this impedance changes; then, DG unit cannot inject appropriate currents. To deal with the instability problem, a control method based on fractional order active sliding mode is proposed in this paper, which is less sensitive to variations of interfacing...... to confirm the performance and feasibility of the proposed control method in DG technology. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  14. Response of tree growth to climatic variation and stand dynamics: Implications for modeling stand dynamics under varying climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graumlich, L.J.; Holmes, R.L. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1994-06-01

    We used tree-ring data to assess the relative importance of regional climate vs. stand-level processes in controlling tree growth for seven forest dominants of the mixed conifer forest of the Sierra Nevada. For each species, increment cores were collected from at least 20 canopy dominants at several sites arrayed along elevational gradients extending from lower to upper elevational limits. Species sampled include ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), sugar pine (P. lambertina), white fir (Abies concolor), red fir (A. magnifica), incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), and black oak (Quercus keloggii). Stand-level processes generate low to medium frequency variation in growth that is not held in common among trees within a site or between sites. Stand-level processes are most important for white and red fir and least important for ponderosa pine. Regional climatic variation generates medium to high frequency variation that is coherent among trees of the same species (and often same genera). Results such as these have utility for parameterizing and validating stand simulation models, especially for use in climatic change scenarios.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of the Mutation Underlying Fleece Variation and Discriminating Ancestral Hairy Species from Modern Woolly Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demars, Julie; Cano, Margarita; Drouilhet, Laurence; Plisson-Petit, Florence; Bardou, Philippe; Fabre, Stéphane; Servin, Bertrand; Sarry, Julien; Woloszyn, Florent; Mulsant, Philippe; Foulquier, Didier; Carrière, Fabien; Aletru, Mathias; Rodde, Nathalie; Cauet, Stéphane; Bouchez, Olivier; Pirson, Maarten; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Allain, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    The composition and structure of fleece variation observed in mammals is a consequence of a strong selective pressure for fiber production after domestication. In sheep, fleece variation discriminates ancestral species carrying a long and hairy fleece from modern domestic sheep (Ovis aries) owning a short and woolly fleece. Here, we report that the "woolly" allele results from the insertion of an antisense EIF2S2 retrogene (called asEIF2S2) into the 3' UTR of the IRF2BP2 gene leading to an abnormal IRF2BP2 transcript. We provide evidence that this chimeric IRF2BP2/asEIF2S2 messenger 1) targets the genuine sense EIF2S2 RNA and 2) creates a long endogenous double-stranded RNA which alters the expression of both EIF2S2 and IRF2BP2 mRNA. This represents a unique example of a phenotype arising via a RNA-RNA hybrid, itself generated through a retroposition mechanism. Our results bring new insights on the sheep population history thanks to the identification of the molecular origin of an evolutionary phenotypic variation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Analysis of farm performance in Europe under different climate and management conditions to improve understanding of adaptive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Oude Lansink, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of European agriculture to climate change. Extensive data on farm characteristics of individual farms from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) have been combined with climatic and socio-economic data to analyze the

  17. The masticatory system under varying functional load. Part 1: structural adaptation of rabbit jaw muscles to reduced masticatory load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeke, M.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Korfage, J.A.M.; Zentner, A.; Grünheid, T.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibres can change their myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform and cross-sectional area, which determine their contraction velocity and maximum force generation, respectively, to adapt to varying functional loads. In general, reduced muscle activity induces transition towards faster

  18. ROCK2 and MYLK variants under hypobaric hypoxic environment of high altitude associate with high altitude pulmonary edema and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Pandey,1,2 Ghulam Mohammad,1,3 Yogendra Singh,1,2 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1Functional Genomics Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra, 3Department of Medicine, SNM Hospital, Leh, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, IndiaObjective: To date, a major class of kinases, serine–threonine kinase, has been scantly investigated in stress-induced rare, fatal (if not treated early, and morbid disorder, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. This study examined three major serine–threonine kinases, ROCK2, MYLK, and JNK1, along with six other genes, tyrosine hydroxylase, G-protein subunits GNA11 and GNB3, and alpha1 adrenergic receptor isoforms 1A, 1B, and 1D as candidate gene markers of HAPE and adaptation.Methods: For this, 57 variants across these nine genes were genotyped in HAPE patients (n=225, HAPE controls (n=210, and highlanders (n=259 by Sequenom MS (TOF-based MassARRAY® platform using iPLEX™ Gold technology. In addition, to study the gene expression, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the three study groups.Results: A significant association was observed for C allele (ROCK2 single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs10929728 with HAPE (P=0.03 and C, T, and A alleles (MYLK single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs11717814, rs40305, and rs820336 with both HAPE and adaptation (P=0.001, P=0.006, and P=0.02, respectively. ROCK2 88 kb GGGTTGGT haplotype was associated with lower risk of HAPE (P=0.0009. MYLK 7 kb haplotype CTA, composed of variant alleles, was associated with higher risk of HAPE (P=0.0006 and lower association with adaptation (P=1E–06, whereas haplotype GCG, composed of wild-type alleles, was associated with lower risk of HAPE (P=0.001 and higher association with adaptation (P=1E–06. Haplotype–haplotype and gene–gene interactions demonstrated a correlation in working

  19. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, under half of the adaptive growth-irradiance, for high-throughput sensing of leaf-water deficit in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud B. Mishra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive and high-throughput monitoring of drought in plants from its initiation to visible symptoms is essential to quest drought tolerant varieties. Among the existing methods, chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF imaging has the potential to probe systematic changes in photosynthetic reactions; however, prerequisite of dark-adaptation limits its use for high-throughput screening. Results To improve the throughput monitoring of plants, we have exploited their light-adaptive strategy, and investigated possibilities of measuring ChlF transients under low ambient irradiance. We found that the ChlF transients and associated parameters of two contrasting Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Rsch and Co, give almost similar information, when measured either after ~20 min dark-adaptation or in the presence of half of the adaptive growth-irradiance. The fluorescence parameters, effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII and fluorescence decrease ratio (R FD resulting from this approach enabled us to differentiate accessions that is often not possible by well-established dark-adapted fluorescence parameter maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F V/F M. Further, we screened ChlF transients in rosettes of well-watered and drought-stressed six A. thaliana accessions, under half of the adaptive growth-irradiance, without any prior dark-adaptation. Relative water content (RWC in leaves was also assayed and compared to the ChlF parameters. As expected, the RWC was significantly different in drought-stressed from that in well-watered plants in all the six investigated accessions on day-10 of induced drought; the maximum reduction in the RWC was obtained for Rsch (16%, whereas the minimum reduction was for Co (~7%. Drought induced changes were reflected in several features of ChlF transients; combinatorial images obtained from pattern recognition algorithms, trained on pixels of image sequence, improved the contrast

  20. Spatially distinct response of rice yield to autonomous adaptation under the CMIP5 multi-model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Im, Eun-Soon; Jung, Il-Won

    2017-02-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is a very important staple crop, as it feeds more than half of the world's population. Numerous studies have focused on the negative impacts of climate change on rice production. However, there is little debate on which region of the world is more vulnerable to climate change and how adaptation to this change can mitigate the negative impacts on rice production. We investigated the impacts of climate change on rice yield, based on simulations combining a global crop model, M-GAZE, and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model projections. Our focus was the impact of mitigating emission forcings (representative concentration pathway RCP 4.5 vs. RCP 8.5) and autonomous adaptation (i.e., changing crop variety and planting date) on rice yield. In general, our results showed that climate change due to anthropogenic warming leads to a significant reduction in rice yield. However, autonomous adaptation provides the potential to reduce the negative impact of global warming on rice yields in a spatially distinct manner. The adaptation was less beneficial for countries located at a low latitude (e.g., Cambodia, Thailand, Brazil) compared to mid-latitude countries (e.g., USA, China, Pakistan), as regional climates at the lower latitudes are already near the upper temperature thresholds for acceptable rice growth. These findings suggest that the socioeconomic effects from rice production in lowlatitude countries can be highly vulnerable to anthropogenic global warming. Therefore, these countries need to be accountable to develop transformative adaptation strategies, such as adopting (or developing) heat-tolerant varieties, and/or improve irrigation systems and fertilizer use efficiency.

  1. Resolution VII International Conference Working Group on Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia “Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia: Problems and Adaptation Under Modern Conditions”

    OpenAIRE

    Igor V. Karyakin; Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2017-01-01

    From 19 to 24 September, 2016 VII International Conference of the Working Group on Raptors of Northern Eurasia “Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia: problems and adaptation under modern conditions” was held on the basis of the Sochi National Park. Materials for the conference were presented by 198 ornithologists from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Austria, Great Britain, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Estonia and the USA, who published 148 articles in two collections “...

  2. Dengue virus genomic variation associated with mosquito adaptation defines the pattern of viral non-coding RNAs and fitness in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Filomatori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus includes a large number of medically relevant pathogens that cycle between humans and arthropods. This host alternation imposes a selective pressure on the viral population. Here, we found that dengue virus, the most important viral human pathogen transmitted by insects, evolved a mechanism to differentially regulate the production of viral non-coding RNAs in mosquitos and humans, with a significant impact on viral fitness in each host. Flavivirus infections accumulate non-coding RNAs derived from the viral 3'UTRs (known as sfRNAs, relevant in viral pathogenesis and immune evasion. We found that dengue virus host adaptation leads to the accumulation of different species of sfRNAs in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. This process does not depend on differences in the host machinery; but it was found to be dependent on the selection of specific mutations in the viral 3'UTR. Dissecting the viral population and studying phenotypes of cloned variants, the molecular determinants for the switch in the sfRNA pattern during host change were mapped to a single RNA structure. Point mutations selected in mosquito cells were sufficient to change the pattern of sfRNAs, induce higher type I interferon responses and reduce viral fitness in human cells, explaining the rapid clearance of certain viral variants after host change. In addition, using epidemic and pre-epidemic Zika viruses, similar patterns of sfRNAs were observed in mosquito and human infected cells, but they were different from those observed during dengue virus infections, indicating that distinct selective pressures act on the 3'UTR of these closely related viruses. In summary, we present a novel mechanism by which dengue virus evolved an RNA structure that is under strong selective pressure in the two hosts, as regulator of non-coding RNA accumulation and viral fitness. This work provides new ideas about the impact of host adaptation on the variability and evolution of

  3. Activation of autophagy via Ca(2+)-dependent AMPK/mTOR pathway in rat notochordal cells is a cellular adaptation under hyperosmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Bo; Cao, Lu; Yin, Xiao-Fan; Yasen, Miersalijiang; Yishake, Mumingjiang; Dong, Jian; Li, Xi-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells experience hyperosmotic stress in spinal discs; however, how these cells can survive in the hostile microenvironment remains unclear. Autophagy has been suggested to maintain cellular homeostasis under different stresses by degrading the cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. Here, we explored whether autophagy is a cellular adaptation in rat notochordal cells under hyperosmotic stress. Hyperosmotic stress was found to activate autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SQSTM1/P62 expression was decreased as the autophagy level increased. Transient Ca(2+) influx from intracellular stores and extracellular space was stimulated by hyperosmotic stress. Activation of AMPK and inhibition of p70S6K were observed under hyperosmotic conditions. However, intercellular Ca(2+) chelation inhibited the increase of LC3-II and partly reversed the decrease of p70S6K. Hyperosmotic stress decreased cell viability and promoted apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy led to SQSTM1/P62 accumulation, reduced cell viability, and accelerated apoptosis in notochordal cells under this condition. These evidences suggest that autophagy induction via the Ca(2+)-dependent AMPK/mTOR pathway might occur as an adaptation mechanism for notochordal cells under hyperosmotic stress. Thus, activating autophagy might be a promising approach to improve viability of notochordal cells in intervertebral discs.

  4. A detailed view of Listeria monocytogenes’ adaptation and survival under cold temperature stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, P.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Wang, S.

    stress adaptation methods is needed. In this study, RNA-seq (strand specific Illumina libraries;22-39 million 2x100bp reads) and cell membrane fatty acid profiling were used to analyze adaptation mechanisms used by a fast growing, serotype 1/2a, Lm food plant isolate at 4°C. Brain heart infusion (BHI......) broth pre-tempered to 20 or 4°C, was inoculated with 107 CFU/ml of stationary phase (SP) cells grownat 20°C in BHI, and incubated at 20 and 4°C. RNA and lipids were extracted at T1– early lag phase (LP),T2 – end of LP, T3 – mid-exponential, T4 – transition to SP, and T5 – late SP (T5+4 h or 2 days...

  5. Analysis on the adaptive countermeasures to ecological management under changing environment in the Tarim River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Luochen; Chen, Xinfang; Chi, Yixia

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to explore the adaptive utilization strategies of flow regime versus traditional practices in the context of climate change and human activities in the arid area. The study presents quantitative analysis of climatic and anthropogenic factors to streamflow alteration in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) using the Budyko method and adaptive utilization strategies to eco-hydrological regime by comparing the applicability between autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) model and combined regression model. Our results suggest that human activities played a dominant role in streamflow deduction in the mainstream with contribution of 120.7%~190.1%. While in the headstreams, climatic variables were the primary determinant of streamflow by 56.5~152.6% of the increase. The comparison revealed that combined regression model performed better than ARMA model with the qualified rate of 80.49~90.24%. Based on the forecasts of streamflow for different purposes, the adaptive utilization scheme of water flow is established from the perspective of time and space. Our study presents an effective water resources scheduling scheme for the ecological environment and provides references for ecological protection and water allocation in the arid area.

  6. Plant diversity maintains long-term ecosystem productivity under frequent drought by increasing short-term variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Cameron; O'Brien, Michael J; Vogel, Anja; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico; Schmid, Bernhard; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Increasing frequency of extreme climatic events can disrupt ecosystem processes and destabilize ecosystem functioning. Biodiversity may dampen these negative effects of environmental perturbations to provide greater ecosystem stability. We assessed the effects of plant diversity on the resistance, recovery and stability of experimental grassland ecosystems in response to recurring summer drought over 7 yr. Plant biomass production was reduced during the summer drought treatment compared with control plots. However, the negative effect of drought was relatively less pronounced at high than at low plant diversity, demonstrating that biodiversity increased ecosystem resistance to environmental perturbation. Furthermore, more diverse plant communities compensated for the reduced productivity during drought by increasing spring productivity compared to control plots. The drought-induced compensatory recovery led to increased short-term variations in productivity across growing seasons in more diverse communities that stabilized the longer-term productivity across years. Our findings show that short-term variation between seasons in the face of environmental perturbation can lead to longer-term stability of annual productivity in diverse ecosystems compared to less diverse ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Long-term diffuse phosphorus pollution dynamics under the combined influence of land use and soil property variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haobo; Ouyang, Wei; Wu, Haotian; Liu, Hongbin; Andrea, Critto

    2017-02-01

    Analyses of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse pollution in agricultural regions are essential to the sustained management of water resources. Although nutrients, such as phosphorus fertilizers, can promote crop growth while improving soil fertility, excessive nutrient inputs can produce diffuse pollution, which may results in water quality degradation. The objective of this paper is to employ the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to estimate diffuse P effects on temporal and spatial distributions for a typical agricultural watershed and to identify the conjunct and independent influences of long-term land use and soil properties variation on diffuse P. With the validated model, the four-period simulation results (from 1979 to 2009) indicate that land use changes from agricultural development increased diffuse P yields. However, regarding updated soil properties, no significant differences of P yield were found between 1979 and 2009, demonstrating that impact of the cropland expansion were naturalized with soil property variations. An F-test was employed to assess the essentiality of all of the variables examined during the simulation period, and the test results indicated that diffuse P loading was more sensitive to soil properties than to land use. Before the P pollution control project about the land use optimization planning, it is more effective to distinguish the impacts of land use and soil properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary rescue and local adaptation under different rates of temperature increase: a combined analysis of changes in phenotype expression and genotype frequency in Paramecium microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Joshua; Gougat-Barbera, Claire; Krenek, Sascha; Kaltz, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Evolutionary rescue (ER) occurs when populations, which have declined due to rapid environmental change, recover through genetic adaptation. The success of this process and the evolutionary trajectory of the population strongly depend on the rate of environmental change. Here we investigated how different rates of temperature increase (from 23 to 32 °C) affect population persistence and evolutionary change in experimental microcosms of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Consistent with theory on ER, we found that those populations experiencing the slowest rate of temperature increase were the least likely to become extinct and tended to be the best adapted to the new temperature environment. All high-temperature populations were more tolerant to severe heat stress (35, 37 °C), indicating a common mechanism of heat protection. High-temperature populations also had superior growth rates at optimum temperatures, leading to the absence of a pattern of local adaptation to control (23 °C) and high-temperature (32 °C) environments. However, high-temperature populations had reduced growth at low temperatures (5-9 °C), causing a shift in the temperature niche. In part, the observed evolutionary change can be explained by selection from standing variation. Using mitochondrial markers, we found complete divergence between control and high-temperature populations in the frequencies of six initial founder genotypes. Our results confirm basic predictions of ER and illustrate how adaptation to an extreme local environment can produce positive as well as negative correlated responses to selection over the entire range of the ecological niche. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K.; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Change in color and loss of marginal adaptation of tooth colored restorative materials is not acceptable. Bleaching is commonly used for treating discolored teeth. However, the literature is scanty regarding its effect on color and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite laminate veneers (CLVs) under in vivo conditions. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the effect of bleaching on color change and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect CLVs over a period of time when exposed to the oral environment. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a total of 14 subjects irrespective of age and sex indicated for CLV restorations on maxillary anterior teeth were selected following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For each subject, indirect CLVs were fabricated and looted in the first quadrant (Group 1) and direct CLV's (Group 2), were given in the second quadrant. Color change was assessed clinically using intra-oral digital spectrophotometer and marginal adaptation was assessed on epoxy resin replica of the tooth-restoration interface under scanning electron microscope. After 6 months, the subjects underwent a home bleaching regimen for 14 days using 10% carbamide peroxide. The assessment of color change and marginal adaptation was done at 6 months after veneering (0–180 days), immediately after the bleaching regimen (0–194 days) and 3 months after the bleaching regimen (0–284 days). Results: The difference in median color change (ΔE) between the groups was tested using Wilcoxon rank sum test while the median color change with time within the groups was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The difference in the rates of marginal adaptation was tested between the groups using Chi-square/Fisher's exact test. Bleaching led to statistically significant color change at cervical (CE), middle and incisal (IE) regions when direct and indirect composites were compared (P veneering materials as they have better color

  10. Climate change impact and potential adaptation strategies under alternate realizations of climate scenarios for three major crops in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donatelli, Marcello; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Duveiller, Gregory; Niemeyer, Stefan; Fumagalli, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables and CO 2 on three major crops, namely wheat, rapeseed and sunflower, in EU27 Member States. We also investigated some technical adaptation options which could offset climate change impacts. The time-slices 2000, 2020 and 2030 were chosen to represent the baseline and future climate, respectively. Furthermore, two realizations within the A1B emission scenario proposed by the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), from the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 GCM, were selected. A time series of 30 years for each GCM and time slice were used as input weather data for simulation. The time series were generated with a stochastic weather generator trained over GCM-RCM time series (downscaled simulations from the ENSEMBLES project which were statistically bias-corrected prior to the use of the weather generator). GCM-RCM simulations differed primarily for rainfall patterns across Europe, whereas the temperature increase was similar in the time horizons considered. Simulations based on the model CropSyst v. 3 were used to estimate crop responses; CropSyst was re-implemented in the modelling framework BioMA. The results presented in this paper refer to abstraction of crop growth with respect to its production system, and consider growth as limited by weather and soil water. How crop growth responds to CO 2 concentrations; pests, diseases, and nutrients limitations were not accounted for in simulations. The results show primarily that different realization of the emission scenario lead to noticeably different crop performance projections in the same time slice. Simple adaptation techniques such as changing sowing dates and the use of different varieties, the latter in terms of duration of the crop cycle, may be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of climate change in most areas, although response to best adaptation (within the techniques tested) differed across crops. Although a negative impact of climate

  11. Climate change impact and potential adaptation strategies under alternate realizations of climate scenarios for three major crops in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Marcello; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Duveiller, Gregory; Niemeyer, Stefan; Fumagalli, Davide

    2015-07-01

    This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables and CO2 on three major crops, namely wheat, rapeseed and sunflower, in EU27 Member States. We also investigated some technical adaptation options which could offset climate change impacts. The time-slices 2000, 2020 and 2030 were chosen to represent the baseline and future climate, respectively. Furthermore, two realizations within the A1B emission scenario proposed by the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), from the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 GCM, were selected. A time series of 30 years for each GCM and time slice were used as input weather data for simulation. The time series were generated with a stochastic weather generator trained over GCM-RCM time series (downscaled simulations from the ENSEMBLES project which were statistically bias-corrected prior to the use of the weather generator). GCM-RCM simulations differed primarily for rainfall patterns across Europe, whereas the temperature increase was similar in the time horizons considered. Simulations based on the model CropSyst v. 3 were used to estimate crop responses; CropSyst was re-implemented in the modelling framework BioMA. The results presented in this paper refer to abstraction of crop growth with respect to its production system, and consider growth as limited by weather and soil water. How crop growth responds to CO2 concentrations; pests, diseases, and nutrients limitations were not accounted for in simulations. The results show primarily that different realization of the emission scenario lead to noticeably different crop performance projections in the same time slice. Simple adaptation techniques such as changing sowing dates and the use of different varieties, the latter in terms of duration of the crop cycle, may be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of climate change in most areas, although response to best adaptation (within the techniques tested) differed across crops. Although a negative impact of climate

  12. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.