WorldWideScience

Sample records for underground uranium miners

  1. Diseases of uranium miners and other underground miners exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Excess lung cancer has been demonstrated in many groups of underground miners exposed to radon, including uranium miners and those mining other substances in radon-contaminated mines. In the United States, most underground uranium mines had shut down by the late 1980s, but occupational exposure to radon progeny remains a concern for many other types of underground miners and other underground workers. Worldwide, uranium mining continues, with documented production in Canada, South Africa and other African countries, and Australia. Thus, radon in underground mines remains a significant occupational hazard as the end of the twentieth century approaches.39 references

  2. Comparison of radon-daughter exposures calculated for US- underground uranium miners based on MSHA and company records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    How accurate are past and present employee radon-daughter exposure records of underground uranium miners employed in the United States. This often-debated question is essential for future substantiation of safe exposure limits. An apparent discrepancy between company-reported exposures and Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA) projected exposures was detected in 1977. For these reasons a need for an updated comparison of these exposure data was indicated. This paper gives some of the conclusions of the earlier study and compares more recent exposure records compiled by the Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., with projected exposures based on sampling by Federal mine inspectors

  3. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  4. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  5. Uranium mineralizations in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Ch.; Gerbeaud, O.; James, O.; Le Goux, F.; Pouradier, A.; Salabert, J.; Wagani, I.; Breton, G.; Feybesse, J.L.; Parize, O.; Wattinne, A.; Flotte, N.; Brouand, M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the analysis of mineralizations located in the Tim Mersoi basin in Niger where sediments deposited between the Paleozoic and the Cretaceous era. They analyse and describe the tectonic evolution of this area during different periods, and focus on some specific uranium mineralisation sites

  6. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  7. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  8. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1982-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological) and their exposure levels that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumonconiosis and emphysema

  9. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1986-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system diseases. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies uranium mine air agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathologic data from serially sacrificed rats are reported for approximately 20- to 640- working-level-month (WLM) radon-daughter exposures delivered at one-tenth the rate of previous exposures. Exposure of male rats to radon daughters and uranium ore dust continues, along with exposure of male and female beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone

  10. Analysis of genomic instability in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.; Gilliland, F.D.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that underground uranium miners have a radon progeny exposure-dependent increased risk for developing lung cancer. The odds ratio for lung cancer in uranium miners increase for all cumulative exposures above 99 Working Level Months. In addition, there is a strong multiplicative effect of cigarette smoking on the development of lung cancer in uranium miners. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether or not early genetic changes, as indicated by genomic instability, can be detected in bronchial cells from uranium miners. Investigations of this nature may serve as a means of discovering sub-clinical disease and could lead to earlier detection of lung cancer and a better prognosis for the patient

  11. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathologic data from rats are shown for approximately 300- to 10,000-working-level-month (WLM) radon-daughter exposures. Exposure of male rats to radon daughters and uranium ore dust continues, along with exposure of male and female beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone. 4 tables

  12. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners: New information from an old source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Over 100 years have passed since Harting and Hesse first described an unusual pattern of thoracic malignancy in the underground metal miners of Schneeberg. It is now known that these miners had primary cancer of the lung, caused by exposure to radon progeny released into the air of the mines from the ore. The early case series of Harting and Hesse, based on the Schneeberg miners, and of Pirchan and Sikl, based on the Joachamisthal mines, have been followed by epidemiologic studies of more formal design of uranium and other underground miners exposed to radon throughout the world. These studies have confirmed the causal association of radon and its progeny with lung cancer and provided quantification of the risk of lung cancer in relation to exposure to radon progeny. These studies have also provided insights concerning the effect of radon progeny on smokers and on nonsmokers. The findings of the epidemiologic studies have provided a clear imperative for reducing exposures of miners to radon progeny. Consequently, exposures of underground uranium miners to radon progeny have been lowered substantially over the last 50 years in countries reporting exposures of underground miners. The epidemiologic studies have also documented the substantial burden of radon-caused lung cancers among miners of uranium and other ores. While the causal link of radon with lung cancer in underground miners is now established and unquestioned, the risk of radon in indoor air remains a highly controversial issue. During the last few decades, there has been increasing recognition that radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments, in some instances at concentrations as high as measured in underground mines. As a foundation for risk management, the epidemiologic evidence from underground miners has been the primary basis for estimating the risk of indoor radon

  13. Chapter 2. Geological setting of uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkovic, I.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians is mainly bound to the Permian sequences. The most important stratiform uranium mineralization is related either to the Permian acid volcanism of Gemericum and Tatricum, or to sandstones with abundant organic matter in Hronicum of the Kozie Chrbty Mts. Less important uranium mineralization occurs in veins and stock-works cutting the Paleozoic sequences of Gemericum and the Neogene volcanic rocks of Central Slovakia. The most important stratiform uranium-molybdenum mineralization occurs in the Permian volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks near Novoveska Huta. The important stratiform uranium mineralization occurs near Kalnica in the Permian Selec formation of Tatricum in the Povazsky Inovec Mts. The Permian acid volcanism was the important factor of primary uranium mineralization. The Permian Maluzina Formation of Hronicum contains uranium and copper mineralization in the Kozie Chrbty, Nizke Tatry and Male Karpaty Mts. The most important is the uranium mineralization in the Kozie Chrbty Mts in Vikartovce, Kravany, Svabovce and Spissky Stiavnik deposits. The Maluzina Formation is of similar character as the Kozie Chrbty Mts that continues on the northern slopes of the Nizke Tatry Mts. The stratiform uranium mineralization occurs in the lower ore-bearing horizon underlying the Kravany Beds in valleys Benkovsky Potok, Ipoltica and Nizny Chmelenec. Quartz and quartz-apatite veins with uranium mineralization occur in the eastern part of the Slovenske Rudohorie Mts. The common feature of this vein mineralization is cutting of the Early Paleozoic rocks of Gemericum in a proximity of the Gemeric granites. Quartz veins with uranium mineralization represented by uranite and brannerite are accompanied by gold in Peklisko and Zimna Voda. The oldest manifestation of uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians is occurrence of pegmatite with uraninite in antimony deposit Dubrava in the Nizke Tatry Mts. It is related to the

  14. Lung Cancer of the Uranium Miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Shandala, N.K.; Gneusheva, G.I.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Semenova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is the only world diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The paper deals with the evaluation of the occupational morbidity of the PPMCA's miners depending on their work conditions. In order to evaluate radiological risks of the malignant neoplasm incidence, we used the available medical-dosimetry data being received over the Association life. Our study covers information of 584 miners. The main part of this group includes men (87%), involved in uranium mining (sinkers, timber-men, etc.). Women accounted 13%, being involved in subsidiary works. The highest mean external doses (20 - 40 mSv/year) got those, who worked in the mines over 1980-1983, but the number of this subgroup is small - 18 persons. Generally, mean doses over next years were about 5 mSv/year. However, almost each year, maximum doses above 20 mSv/year can be observed. Internal doses to men were 42.9 mSv on average, while those to women were 23.9 mSv. When generating the medical database, we collected data of 130 mail mines, employed to the PPMCA mines. Among all cases of the malignant neoplasm incidence of miners, the highest contribution is made by the lung cancer (46%); this is well above the national data (23.3 %). The second part is digestive tract cancer (the stomach, the lower lip, and pancreas), contributing 29 % in total, and the stomach cancer contributes 16 %. Depositions of these malignancies do not exceed the national data. The problem of the further work improvement of the miners to eliminate occupational lung disease in the uranium mining operations remains important to the present. Epidemiological and radio-ecological studies will help both regulators and operators to make more objective assessment of each specific situation and to determine

  15. Retrospective chromosome aberration analysis of former uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, G.; Bognar, G.; Koeteles, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present our data collected in the period of 1981-1985 on 165 persons exposed by different radon concentrations expressed in working level month (WLM) units from 100 up to 600. Following the decommissioning of the uranium mine in Hungary in 1997 cytogenetic status of 131 persons were within a follow-up-study of their health conditions initiated by the Hungarian Academy of Science. The persons have terminated their underground activities 5 to 20 years before testing. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in large percentages of persons investigated. The frequency of chromosome aberrations of uranium miners was found increased in function of their exposure to radon. The comparison of the miner's categories 20 years ago and in the recent years demonstrated the long-term existence of aberrations for many years after completion of underground mining activities. (authors)

  16. Radiological protection in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Celia Marina

    1978-01-01

    The radiosanitary hazards that workers of an uranium ore can suffer were studied. The more used control methods for the the evaluation of doses received by the workers was studied too. It was developed a technique using the scintillation chamber method for the detection of radon. Emanation and diffusion methods were used for extraction of radon from water. A program of radiological protection based on ICRP recommendation was analysed for uranium mines. This program includes: ventilation needs calculation methods, a study of radiological protection optimization based on 'cost-benefit' analysis, a monitoring plan and a study about radioactive waste management. (author)

  17. Review of the uranium miner experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilberg, A.W.

    1973-01-01

    Mining of uranium ores on a very small scale began in the United States in 1898. In 1948 mining of uranium ores increased significantly as a result of the increasing demands of the atomic energy program, particularly, the weapons program. It was well-known that radioactivity was associated with uranium ore and potential health hazards had been identified as early as 1921. It was then suggested that the large number of lung cancers found in the Schneeberg miners could possibly be caused by ionizing radiation. Radiation exposure to the lungs of uranium ore miners comes about because of varying concentrations of radon decay products in the mine atmosphere. Measurements of the amount of radioactivity in mine atmospheres began in the United States in 1950 and between 1951 and through 1968, approximately 43,000 measurements were made in about 2,500 uranium mines. Periodic medical surveys were made starting in 1950, but it was not until 1954, that a concerted effort was made to examine all miners. At this time an epidemiological study was begun by the U.S. Public Health Service to determine the effects of uranium mining with particular emphasis on the problem of lung cancer induction. The study of the miners, the results of which have been published, revealed a distinct and somewhat dramatic increase in lung cancer. This increase has been ascribed to the radiation exposure to radon-daughters. Because of the presence of a number of other potential occupational carcinogens in the dust of underground mines, there has been some question as to whether radon and radon-daughters constitute the principal cause of increased lung cancer risk among these miners

  18. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent

  20. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine's Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of α-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease

  1. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  2. Risk of leukemia in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation epidemiological studies among uranium miners have evidenced lung cancer risk in relation to radon exposure is presented. Although leukemia is especially sensitive to induction by radiation, the assessment of leukemia risk in exposed populations is more complex as its incidence is substantially (more than 30 times) lower than that of lung cancer. So far, the significant association among uranium miners has been observed in studies of Czech uranium miners. The assessment of the risk is complex because the radiation risk in mines involves exposure to radon, external gamma radiation, and exposure to airborne long lived radionuclides arising from uranium ore dust. In contrast to radon measurements, the other two components were monitored much later in uranium mines. Recent follow-up of a Czech study of 10 000 uranium miners have resulted in 42 leukemia cases. The risk is evaluated in relation to cumulated equivalent doses from radon, long lived radionuclides, and external gamma. The mean equivalent doses to the red bone marrow in the entire study are 35 mSv from radon, 46 mSv from external gamma radiation, and 106 mSv from long lived radionuclides. Mean doses among leukemia cases are nearly twice. The excess relative risk per Sv (ERR/Sv) in this study 3.75 is statistically significant (p=0.008). This value is consistent with the leukemia risk observed in the Life Span Study among Japanese survivors of A bombing (ERR/Sv = 4). (author)

  3. Granite-related hypothermal uranium mineralization in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Wu, J.; Pan, J.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important geological types, granite-related uranium deposits account for about 29% of the total discovered natural uranium resources in China. Most of the granite-related uranium deposits located in Taoshan - Zhuguang uranium metallogenic belt, South China. In addition to the typical pitchblende vein-type uranium mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, a new type of granite-related uranium mineralization with characteristics of hypothermal matallogenic system was discovered in South China by current studies. However, hypothermal is contact thermal to epithermal mineralization, and not the conventional intrusive high temperature mineralization. Hypothermal uranium mineralization is presented by disseminated uraninite or pitchblende stockwork in fissures in granites normally with extensive alkaline alteration. The high temperature mineral assemblage of uraninite associate with scheelite and tourmaline was identified in hypothermal uranium mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies on this type mineralization indicated the middle to high temperature (>250℃) mineralization with the mixing evidence of ore forming solution derived from deep level, and the boiling and mixing of ore forming solution are regarded as the dominant mineralization mechanism for the precipitating of uranium. In contrast to the mineralization ages of 67 Ma to 87 Ma for typical pitchblende vein mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, the mineralization age is older than 100 Ma for hypothermal uranium mineralization in granite. In the Shituling deposit, Xiazhuang uranium ore field, uraninite and pitchblende micro veins with extensive potassic alteration, chloritization and sericitization are hosted in fissures of Indo-Chinese epoch granites with the uranium mineralization age of 130 Ma to 138 Ma with a mineralization temperature of 290℃ to 330℃ indicated. Other examples sharing the similar characters of hypothermal uranium mineralization have been recognized in

  4. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  5. An improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity to minimise radiation levels in underground uranium mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad

    2015-02-01

    Ventilation is the primary means of controlling radon and its daughter concentrations in an underground uranium mine environment. Therefore, prediction of air quantity is the vital component for planning and designing of ventilation systems to minimise the radiation exposure of miners in underground uranium mines. This paper comprehensively describes the derivation and verification of an improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity, based on the growth of radon daughters in terms of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), to reduce the radiation levels in uranium mines. The model also explains the prediction of air quantity depending upon the quality of intake air to the stopes. This model can be used to evaluate the contribution of different sources to radon concentration in mine atmosphere based on the measurements of radon emanation and exhalation. Moreover, a mathematical relationship has been established for quick prediction of air quantity to achieve the desired radon daughter concentration in the mines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. respirable dust exposure in underground gold miners at obuasi in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    miners are only exposed to underground silica, since there is no record of the presence of radon in the. Obuasi mine. The other toxic inorganic substances such as arsenic and sulphur which are released during processing are rendered stable. The issue of multiple exposure therefore does not exist. The virgin rock of the ...

  7. Interaction of sulphuric acid solutions with carbonates and feldspar during underground uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.A.; Klassova, N.S.; Prisyagina, N.I.; Volodina, E.A.; Rafal'skij, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of sulphuric acid solutions with calcite, dolomite and alkali feldspar at room temperature is experimentally studied. The mineral ground up to 0.63-1 mm has been mixed with crushed quartz glass and poured over by sulphate solution. The time required for sulphate solution neutralization by these minerals is determined. The interaction of sulphuric acid with calcite occurs very quickly, the solution has a neutral reaction in some days, the process with dolomite proceeds at first quickly up to total neutralization, then its rate sharply drops, the H 2 SO 4 interaction with alkali feldspars proceeds very slowly. To estimate the extent of equilibrium between the solution and carbonates the experimental data are compared with the results of computer calculations of partial equilibria at various degrees of main reaction course. The results can be used in supplement to the processes occurring at underground uranium leaching as well as processes in oxidation and cementation zones of sulphide deposits

  8. On dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of urnaium vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of contineous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis [ru

  9. Subpart B: National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subpart B sets a limit on the emission of radon-222 that ensures that no member of the public in any year receives an effective dose equivalent of more than 10 mrem/year from an underground uranium mine.

  10. Sources of Radon and its Measurement Techniques in Underground Uranium Mines – An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patitapaban Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The study portrays the important sources of radon and its measurement techniques in underground uranium mines based on an extensive literature review. The methods of measurement of radon exhalation from the ore body and backfill tailings in underground uranium mines, used by the authors of this paper, comparatively give more accurate results than previously used methods. Furthermore, the methods are more effective in terms of portability, cost and time for measuring the average radon exhalation across a large.

  11. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Progress report, September 25, 1992 - May 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    This project involves two related activities directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first activity involves a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second activity is a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives are to facilitate the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases and to develop methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and to assess the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collects multiple biologic specimens

  12. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  13. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  14. Mineralization enrichment of uranyl mineral in mid-low temperature hydrothermal of Shuanghuajiang uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi; Liang Yongdong; Tao Zhijun; Chen Weifeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on field examination and mineral study by X-ray powder diffraction, electronic probe and back scatter electronic image, uranium mineral in Shuanghuajiang uranium deposit are analyzed and the mineral are divided into two classes: uranyl phosphate and uranyl silicate. After studying the forming condition of these uranylminerals, the deposit fall into low temperature hydrothermal genesis. The metallogenic model is hence established. (authors)

  15. Women and men coal miners: coping with gender integration underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yount, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The central purpose of this research is to initiate a theoretical understanding of the integration of women into traditionally-male, physical-labor jobs. The primary sources of data consist of in depth interviews with women and men underground coal miners and company personnel, and field notes collected during participant observation work in mining communities. Part I addresses the relationship between conditions of production and modes of interaction in underground mines. Personality traits conceived as aspects of masculinity are traced to efforts to cope with the stressors of engaging in physical labor in a work setting characterized by lack of work autonomy, a high degree of threat, and a high degree of interdependence for task accomplishment. Part II focuses on situational and individual factors affecting the integration of women in the workplace. Although most women miners are satisfied with their work, a gender based division of labor has arisen in which women are concentrated in low-prestige laborer positions. The processes involved in undermining a woman's work reputation and self-concept are summarized and forms of discrimination that recreate aspects of the female sterotype and lead to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are discussed.

  16. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  17. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  18. Uranium mineralization in tertiary volcanic rocks of the Los Frailes formation (Bolivia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Frailes Formation, a 9000 km 2 area of Miocene-Pliocene age, contains uranium mineralization in acid tuffs, ignimbrites and lavas. Uranium also occurs in sedimentary rocks of various types and ages which outcrop in adjacent areas. So far the most extensive mineralization seems to be confined in volcanic pyroclastic rocks. Although the surface mineralization varies in grade from 0.01% to more than 2.5%, the average grade in the only deposit being mined (Cotaje) is 0.05% of U 3 O 8 . On the basis of the available data it is believed that certain leaching processes, during the last erosion cycle (Pliocene-Pleistocene) and under very humid conditions, brought about the mobilization of the uranium from the volcanic rocks in aqueous alkaline and calco-alkaline solutions circulating on the surface and underground. Uranium minerals were deposited, generally by chemical reduction, in tectonic zones and/or zones of high porosity. The common metallogenetic model in the western area, defined as the 'Sevaruyo uraniferous district', is exogenic and is characterized by epigenetic uranium occurrences and deposits formed by supergene enrichment. On the basis of their mechanism of formation, control of mineralization and mineral associations, these deposits are classified according to: those with strictly tectonic control, those with sedimentary control and those of mixed genetics. Recent discoveries in the eastern area of the volcanic complex give evidence of epigenetic mineralization, apparently linked with hypogene hydrothermal processes, in addition to exogenic mineralizations contained in rocks stratigraphically subjacent to the Los Frailes Formation. There is no intention of making an evaluation of the recently discovered resources since the studies and exploration are still at too early a stage to warrant prediction of their real potential. (author)

  19. Continuous miner and friction bolts play key roles in Highland's move underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.J.; Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Exxon has added underground mining operations to the open pits at its Highland uranium mine and mill complex 60 mi northeast of Casper in the Powder River Basin and has, in the process, adopted some innovative mining techniques. A continuous shield miner is being used in conjunction with continuous ground support--thought to be the first truly successful combination of these techniques in a US uranium mine. Highland miners are also making extensive use of ''Split Sets,'' a patented friction rock bolt system invented in 1973, which has proven to be a successful cost-saving substitute for timber supports in Highland's soft, water-saturated, extremely unstable sediments. Initial mine production at Highland began in July 1972, and the mill started up the following October. Design capacity at startup was 2,000 tpd, a figure that has since been expanded to 3,000 tpd through mill modifications but without a major construction program. Current production is about 2 million lb per year of U 3 O 8

  20. Uranium in soil, forest litter and living plant material above three uranium mineralizations in Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, John

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of biogeochemical sampling media in uranium exploration, samples from the most common trees and low bushes together with forest litter were collected over the areas of three uranium mineralizations in Northern Sweden and analyzed for uranium. The results were compared with uranium content of the till and its radioactivity. The average uranium content was low for all sample types and considerably lower in the ash of the organic sample types compared to that of the till. No sample type showed any tendency of having higher uranium concentration above mineralizations compared to background areas. These results suggest that, under conditions prevailing in Sweden, the investigated sample types are not suitable for uranium exploration

  1. Metamorphic history at Lagoa Real: implications for uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatism and attendant mineralization associated with shear zones have beem recently studied in detail by several investigators. It has emerged from these studies that whereas ground preparation by shearing is essential to the percolation of mineralizing solutions, the ultimate Loci of mineralization reflect chemical controls via fluid/rock interactions. Uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real can be conveniently understood through this perspective. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for α particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels

  3. Genetic aspects of uranium mineralization in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, A.C.; Mahadevan, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Himalayan Uranium Province hosts five major types of uranium mineralization: (1) stratiform remobilized (Proterozoic), (2) structurally controlled hydrothermal (Proterozoic), (3) black shale-phosphorite (Palaeozoic-Mesozoic), (4) sandstone (Siwalik belt, Tertiary), and (5) primary disseminations in granitoids (Tertiary). Evaluation of the genetic aspects of these types has led to the identification of distinct spatial (lithostratigraphic and tectonic units) and temporal relations among them. The sandstone types are confined to the Tertiary (Middle Miocene to Pleistocene) molasse formations found south of th Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Between the MBT and the Main Central Thrust, in the Lesser Himalaya, mineralization hosted in the Chail quartzite-phyllite ± metabasic sequences is of stratiform remobilized type. The structurally controlled hydrothermal type is confined to Dalings and gneisses. Syngenetic uranium in black shale-phosphorite sequences of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic age is found on the southern fringes of the Lesser Himalaya, bordering the MBT. Disseminated uranium occurs in the Tertiary and Proterozoic(?) granitoids of the Greater Himalaya and Ladakh. Rb-Sr geochronological data on host rocks and U-Pb dates on uraninites from some areas indicate that uranium mineralization in stratiform remobilized and structurally controlled types hosted by the Chails, Dalings and gneisses is essentially Precambrian and thus existed much before the Himalayan Orogeny. The Himalayan Orogeny, however, appears to have aided in further remobilization. The sandstone type mineralization in the Siwalik, on the other hand, is directly related to the process of formation of the foredeep and molasse sedimentation and subsequent uplift and epigenesis of the uranium mineralization, all of which are directly relatable to the evolution of the Himalaya. The relevance of deep seated lineament structures to mineralization, particularly of uranium, needs to be evaluated critically, as most

  4. The determination of phosphorus in uranium minerals and resulting solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.; Parellada Bellod, R.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1964-01-01

    Interferences of several elements present in Spanish uranium minerals in the phosphorus determination by the spectrophotometrical method of the molibdovanada te phosphoric acid are studied. A method is described with a previous separation of these element by a cationic resin. This method is successfully applied to the phosphorus determination in acid or alkaline lixiviation solutions of uranium minerals, as well as in the evaluates of ion exchange resins used used technically for the concentration of solutions with a low uranium content. (Author) 11 refs

  5. Uranium mineralization in the Bohemian Massif and its exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matolin, M.; Pluskal, O.; Rene, M.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term systematic and planned uranium survey including airborne, carborne, ground, logging and laboratory radiometric measurements as well as geological and geochemical investigations have shown a difference in radioactivity of two regional geological units in Czechoslovakia. The higher regional radioactivity of the Variscan granitoid rocks of the Bohemian Massif differs from that of the West Carpathians and is associated with more frequent uranium mineralization. Endogenous vein-type uranium mineralization has a spatial association with high-radioactivity granitoids in the Bohemian Massif. Airborne prospection defined rock radioactivity features on a regional scale while surface and subsurface radiometric and geological investigations using various techniques localized important uranium deposits. Complex statistical evaluation of numerous geophysical and geological data was studied in order to delineate uranium-favourable areas. (author)

  6. Assessment of radiological status of Bagjata underground uranium mine operating in the east Singhbhum District of Jharkhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Meena, J.S.; Thakur, V.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bagjata uranium mine deposits (22 °28’ 07”N and 86°29’ 36” E) is located in Dhalmugarh subdivision of East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. This mine was commissioned in 2008 and presently it is operating with a production capacity of 500 tonne/day. The mining of uranium ores can lead to both internal and external exposures of workers. Internal exposure arises from the inhalation of radon gas and its decay products and radionuclides in ore dust. The contribution of respirable ore dust toward internal exposure has been reported to be insignificant in a low ore grade uranium mines by several authors. Radon gas is produced by the alpha decay of 226 Ra, which is a product of the long lived antecedent uranium ( 238 U), is present in the rocks, decays to a number of short-lived decay products that are themselves radioactive. Radon gas diffuses into the mine air through cracks and fissures present in the ore body, during blasting, mucking and fragmentation of ore body in mine. The short-lived daughters, 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po, are the principal contributor to internal exposure to mine workers. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard causing excess lung cancer among underground miners (NAS, 1988; ATSDR, 1990). 222 Rn concentration in the mine air was estimated by using a scintillation cell technique

  7. Sorption behavior of uranium(VI) on a biotite mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idemitsu, K.; Obata, K.; Furuya, H.; Inagaki, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Biotite has the most important role for the sorption of radionuclides in granitic rocks. Experiments on the sorption of uranium(VI) on biotite were conducted to understand the fundamental controls on uranium sorption on biotite mineral, including the effects of pH and uranium concentration in solution. Biotite powder (mesh 32--60) were washed with 1N HCl for a week and were rinsed twice with deionized water for a week. This HCl treatment was necessary to avoid the effects by other minerals. The agreement between surface adsorption coefficient, Ka, of both biotites with and without HCl treatment was within one order of magnitude. The peak Ka value was in the range of 0.1 to 0.01 cm 3 /cm 2 around pH 6. A comparison of aqueous uranium speciations and sorption results indicates that neutral uranyl hydroxide could be an important species sorbed on the biotite. Sequential desorption experiments with KCl and HCl solutions were also carried out after sorption experiments to investigate sorption forms of uranium. Approximately 20% of uranium in solution were sorbed on the biotite as an exchangeable ion. The fraction of exchangeable uranium had a little dependence on pH. The other uranium could not be extracted even by 6N HCl solution. It is possible that most of the uranium could be precipitated as U(IV) via Fe(II) reduction on the biotite surface

  8. How air quality can be monitored in an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Gangal, M.; Knight, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mining of uranium ores in underground uranium mines releases and produces a great variety of substances which readily become airborne, posing a potential health hazard to occupational workers. The substances are either released, or their 'normal' rate of release when no mining activity is present is increased as a consequence of certain mining operations, including blasting, drilling, and mucking. They may also be produced as a result of the use of tools, artifacts, and machinery utilized in mining operations. This paper reports on parallel measurements of radiation, dust and meteorological variables during several mining operations in a Canadian underground mine. Measurements were conducted at three uranium mines for a combined period of several weeks

  9. The characteristics of uranium mineralization and genesis of Nuheting uranium deposit in Erlian basin Inner Mongolian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lin; Huang Shutao; Yang Guisheng

    1995-10-01

    The Nuheting uranium deposit is located at the northern margin of Erlian basin in Inner Mongolian. Uranium mineralizations are localized in the Erlian formation of upper Cretaceous system. Main types of ore are argillite, argillaceous siltstone and argillaceous graywacke. There are 3 main mineral associations in places with uranium: uranium-gypsum-celestione; uranium-pyriteorganic matter; uranium-pyrite, marcasite and other metalliferous sulfides. Uranium is mainly adsorbed and pitchblende in minor amount can also be found. The formation of economic uranium orebody is related with migration of oil and gas, because there are organic matter of aromatic hydrocarbon and moving hydrocarbon in uranium ore. The U-Pb isotopic ages of ore and pitchblende are 85, 40 and 10 Ma, which indicate that Nuheting uranium deposit was formed in long-term geological process and principally underwent three main stages: Sedimentary diagenesis; migration of oil and gas; and stage of supergene reworking. Therefore, the deposit should be classified as polygenetic type. (9 tabs.; 3 figs)

  10. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation

  12. Uncertainty in exposure of underground miners to radon daughters and the effect of uncertainty on risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    Studies of underground miners provide the principal basis for assessing the risk from radon daughter exposure. An important problem in all epidemiological studies of underground miners is the reliability of the estimates of the miners' exposures. This study examines the various sources of uncertainty in exposure estimation for the principal epidemiologic studies reported in the literature including the temporal and spatial variability of radon sources and, with the passage of time, changes to both mining methods and ventilation conditions. Uncertainties about work histories and the role of other hard rock mining experience are also discussed. The report also describes two statistical approaches, both based on Bayesian methods, by which the effects on the estimated risk coefficient of uncertainty in exposure (WLM) can be examined. One approach requires only an estimate of the cumulative WLM exposure of a group of miners, an estimate of the number of (excess) lung cancers potentially attributable to that exposure, and a specification of the uncertainty about the cumulative exposure of the group. The second approach is based on a linear regression model which incorporates errors (uncertainty) in the independent variable (WLM) and allows the dependent variable (cases) to be Poisson distributed. The method permits the calculation of marginal probability distributions for either slope (risk coefficient) or intercept. The regression model approach is applied to several published data sets from epidemiological studies of miners. Specific results are provided for each data set and apparent differences in risk coefficients are discussed. The studies of U.S. uranium miners, Ontario uranium miners and Czechoslovakian uranium miners are argued to provide the best basis for risk estimation at this time. In general terms, none of the analyses performed are inconsistent with a linear exposure-effect relation. Based on analyses of the overall miner groups, the most likely ranges

  13. Effects of ammonium on uranium partitioning and kaolinite mineral dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Hilary P; Di Pietro, Silvina; Katsenovich, Yelena; Szecsody, Jim

    2017-02-01

    Ammonia gas injection is a promising technique for the remediation of uranium within the vadose zone. It can be used to manipulate the pH of a system and cause co-precipitation processes that are expected to remove uranium from the aqueous phase and decrease leaching from the solid phase. The work presented in this paper explores the effects of ammonium and sodium hydroxide on the partitioning of uranium and dissolution of the kaolinite mineral in simplified synthetic groundwaters using equilibrium batch sorption and sequential extraction experiments. It shows that there is a significant increase in uranium removal in systems with divalent cations present in the aqueous phase but not in sodium chloride synthetic groundwaters. Further, the initial conditions of the aqueous phase do not affect the dissolution of kaolinite. However, the type of base treatment does have an effect on mineral dissolution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Progress report on a technical evaluation of four personal alpha-dosimeters in two underground uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1981-12-01

    Four personal α-dosimeter prototypes were evaluated at several locations underground at two Elliot Lake uranium mines for periods of up to four weeks in duration. The dosimeters evaluated were: Track-etch: 16 units; H β H: 6 units; TDL/CAMPED: 6 units; α-Nuclear: 6 units. The factors evaluated were pump flow rate constancy, pump durability, reproducibility of results, agreement with grab-sampling tests, filter loading, contamination and mechanical and electrical problems, as well as preference by the miner wearing the dosimeter. No one dosimeter type was superior in all the factors evaluated, and the miners showed no preferences for a specific dosimeter

  15. Uranium mineralization in the Lower Proterozoic Moeda Formation, Brazil: a mineralogical-scale study of the uranium budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, A.J.; Parnell, J.

    2002-01-01

    Metamorphosed medium- and coarse-grained siliciclastics of the Moeda Formation, Moeda-Gandarela, Brazil, are host to variable amounts of uranium mineralization. Host rock petrography identifies three generations of quartz: recognition of these multiple generations of quartz is essential to the understanding of the uranium budget. Uranium titanates, uraninite and uranium-thorium-phosphate minerals are the main carriers of uranium: subordinate carriers include uranothorite, coffinite and crandallite-group minerals. Textural and geochemical studies indicate a complex history, during which, uranium, along with titanium, thorium and rare-earth-elements, has been mobilised and extensively redistributed. (author)

  16. Lung cancer mortality among U.S. uranium miners: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, A S; McMillan, A

    1983-09-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters [in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R = (1 + 0.31 X 10(-2) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(-3) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P = .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures.

  17. Lung cancer mortality among U.S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters [in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(- 2 ) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(- 3 ) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures

  18. Somatic cell genetics of uranium miners and plutonium workers. A biological dose-response indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandom, W.F.; Bloom, A.D.; Bistline, R.W.; Saccomanno, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two populations of underground uranium miners and plutonium workers work in the state of Colorado, United States of America. We have explored the prevalence of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a possible biological indicator of absorbed radiation late-effects in these populations. The uranium miners are divided into four exposure groups expressed in Working Level Months (WLM), the plutonium workers into six groups with estimated 239 Pu burdens expressed in nCi. Comparison of chromosome aberration frequency data between controls, miners, and plutonium workers demonstrate: (1) a cytogenetic response to occupational ionizing radiation at low estimated doses; and (2) an increasing monotonic dose-response in the prevalence of complex (all exchange) or total aberrations in all exposure groups in these populations. We also compared trends in the prevalence of aberrations per exposure unit (WLM and nCi) in each exposure subgroup for each population. In the uranium miners, the effects per WLM seem to decrease monotonically with increasing dose, whereas in the Pu workers the change per nCi appears abrupt, with all exposure groups over 1.3 nCi (minimum detectable level) having essentially similar rates. The calculations of aberrations per respective current maximum permissible dose (120 WLM and 40 nCi) for the two populations yield 4.8 X 10 -2 /100 cells for uranium miners and 90.6 X 10 -2 /100 cells for Pu workers. Factors which may have influenced this apparent 20-fold increase in the effectiveness of plutonium in the production of complex aberrations (9-fold increase in total aberrations) are discussed. (author)

  19. Hydrometallurgic treatment of a mineral containing uranium, vanadium and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, Patricia; Fruchtenicht, Fernando; Gil, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel; Bouza, Angel; Vert, Gabriela; Becquart, Elena

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary study of a mineral has been made towards the hydrometallurgy separation of uranium, vanadium and phosphorus. After the ore dressing, work on sulfuric acid with oxidation leaching has been made, to get the uranium, vanadium and phosphorus in solution. For the separation and purification of these elements, two alternative solvent extraction methods have been tested. One of them has been the extraction of uranium and vanadium and a selective stripping of both elements. The second one has been the selective extraction of uranium and vanadium at different aqueous solutions pH. In both methods, the same reagent has been used: di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, kerosene as diluent with two different synergistic agents: TOPO (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) and TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate). Batch studies have been made to determine the equilibrium isotherms for uranium and vanadium. A continuous countercurrent simulation method has been used to get the best phase ratio and to test different stripping agents. For the first method, an important loss of uranium and vanadium at the feed solution conditioning for the extraction step has been observed. For the second method, a good recovery of uranium has been reached, but there has been losses of vanadium in pH adjustment. Nevertheless, among these processes, the last seems to work better in this mineral hydrometallurgy. (Author) [es

  20. Characterization of uranium minerals from Chihuahua using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burciaga V, D. C.; Reyes C, M.; Reyes R, A.; Renteria V, M.; Esparza P, H.; Fuentes C, L.; Fuentes M, L; Silva S, M.; Herrera P, E.; Munoz, A.; Montero C, M. E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Uranium mineral deposits in the vicinity of Chihuahua City (northern Mexico) have motivated a multidisciplinary investigation due to their tech no-environmental importance. It provides a broad scope study of representative mineral samples extracted from the San Marcos deposit, located northwest of Chihuahua City. The zone of interest is the source of the Sacramento River, which runs at Chihuahua City. The high uranium content of the San Marcos deposit, which was formed by hydrothermal mineralization, has resulted in elevated levels of uranium in surface and ground water, fish, plants and sediments in this region. Mineral identification of the uranium-bearing phases was accomplished with a suite of techniques. Among these phases are those called meta tyuyamunite (Ca(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2{center_dot}}3-5 H{sub 2}O) and becquerelite [Ca(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 6{center_dot}}8(H{sub 2}O)]. It was decided to study an almost pure meta tyuyamunite sample extracted from Pena Blanca, Chihuahua uranium ore and to synthesize the becquerelite, using a modified procedure from a published one. In the current work the crystal structure of meta tyuyamunite is presented, resolved by the Rietveld refinement. Both samples were studied by X-ray absorption fine structure at beamline 2-3, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source. In the present work both the spectra and extended X-ray absorption fine structure parameters are presented. (Author)

  1. Characterization of uranium minerals from Chihuahua using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burciaga V, D. C.; Reyes C, M.; Reyes R, A.; Renteria V, M.; Esparza P, H.; Fuentes C, L.; Fuentes M, L; Silva S, M.; Herrera P, E.; Munoz, A.; Montero C, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mineral deposits in the vicinity of Chihuahua City (northern Mexico) have motivated a multidisciplinary investigation due to their tech no-environmental importance. It provides a broad scope study of representative mineral samples extracted from the San Marcos deposit, located northwest of Chihuahua City. The zone of interest is the source of the Sacramento River, which runs at Chihuahua City. The high uranium content of the San Marcos deposit, which was formed by hydrothermal mineralization, has resulted in elevated levels of uranium in surface and ground water, fish, plants and sediments in this region. Mineral identification of the uranium-bearing phases was accomplished with a suite of techniques. Among these phases are those called meta tyuyamunite (Ca(UO 2 ) 2 (VO 4 ) 2 ·3-5 H 2 O) and becquerelite [Ca(UO 2 ) 6 O 4 (OH) 6 ·8(H 2 O)]. It was decided to study an almost pure meta tyuyamunite sample extracted from Pena Blanca, Chihuahua uranium ore and to synthesize the becquerelite, using a modified procedure from a published one. In the current work the crystal structure of meta tyuyamunite is presented, resolved by the Rietveld refinement. Both samples were studied by X-ray absorption fine structure at beamline 2-3, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source. In the present work both the spectra and extended X-ray absorption fine structure parameters are presented. (Author)

  2. Acid lixiviation of phophorite minerals for uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linzama, H.; Rivas, J.

    1988-01-01

    Lixiviation studies of the phosphorite mineral, found in the north of Chile, using sulfuric acid solutions are described. These minerals contain 62.0 ppm of Uranium, 24% of Silice, 18.9% of P 2 O 5 and other metal-oxides. The influence of the acid concentration, the amount of acid used, granulometry, and the lixiviation yield as a function of the H 3 PO 4 and uranium concentrations was evaluated. In addition, the thermodinamic parameters of the lixiviation process were also evaluated. (author) [pt

  3. Some elementary concepts of radiation health and safety in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1980-02-01

    Some elementary concepts of radiation health and safety in underground uranium mines are discussed. This report reviews the main radiation sources which contribute to the contamination of mine atmospheres and hence to the exposure of mine workers. A brief discussion of the biological effects of ionizing radiation, with special reference to radon and its progeny, is followed by the introduction of the presently accepted radiation indexes for radiation hazard (WL) and radiation exposure (WLM). Finally, a succinct review of the available techniques for radiation control and monitoring in underground uranium mines is complemented by a discussion of various methods of personnel radiation protection, including the use of respirators, job rotation, personnel dosimetry and medical surveillance

  4. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  5. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, M.; Rericha, V.; Rericha, R.; Shore, D.L.; Sandler, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: → Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. → We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. → No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. → Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  6. Spatial investigation of some uranium minerals using nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valter, Anton A.; Knight, Kim B.; Eremenko, Gelij K.; Magilin, Dmitry V.; Ponomarov, Artem A.; Pisansky, Anatoly I.; Romanenko, Alexander V.; Ponomarev, Alexander G.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, several individual grains of uranium minerals—uraninite with high content of Ca, Ca-rich boltwoodite, growths of uranophane with β-uranophane, and weeksite—from different uranium deposits were studied by a scanning nuclear microprobe. Particle-induced X-ray emission technique provided by the microprobe (µ-PIXE) was carried out to obtain a concentration and 2D distribution of elements in these minerals. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) provided by a scanning electron microscope was used. The types of minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Results of this study improved the understanding of trace elemental composition of the uranium minerals depending on their origin. Obtained signatures could be linked then to the sample provenance. Such data are important for nuclear forensics to identify the ore types and even specific ore bodies, when only small samples may be available for analysis. In this study, the µ-PIXE technique was used for obtaining the 2D distribution of trace elements that are not commonly measured by SEM-EDS at the relevant concentrations. The detected levels and precisions of elements determination by µ-PIXE were also defined. Using µ-PIXE, several micro mineral inclusions such as phosphate with high level of V and Si were identified. The age of the uranium minerals was estimated due to a significant content of radiogenic Pb that provides an additional parameter for determination of the main attributive characteristics of the minerals. This work also showed that due to its high elemental sensitivity the nuclear microprobe can be a new analytical tool for creating a nuclear forensic database from the known uranium deposits and a subsequent analysis of the intercepted illicit materials.

  7. Metallogenetic condition and mineralization characteristics of uranium deposit No.114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lin; Ma Fei; Yang Wanjin

    1988-01-01

    Deposit No 114 is one of the typical carbonate-type uranium deposits, that are widely distributed in South China. In this paper formational environment of host rock, wall-rock alteration, sulfur, oxygen, carbon isotopes, mineralization temperatures, ore compsitions were studied. Based on the U-Pb isotopic research three mineralization stages in deposit No 114 were established, namely 104 Ma, 61 Ma and 11 Ma. It is suggested, that the deposit No 114 is a polygenetic deposit formed primarily by supergene leaching and hydrothermal reworked. The uranium deposit has multi-sources, the main uranium source of which is from the granite body situated nearby. According to metallogenetic characteristics the authors suggest the favourable geological exploration guides for this kind of ore deposits

  8. Mortality analysis in the French cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacquier, B.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the estimation of radiation-induced risks at low dose rates. This work is based on the cohort of uranium miners French presenting multiple exposures, contamination by internal (radon and uranium dust) and external exposure (gamma radiation). An analysis of the risk of death and the relationship risk exposure was carried out within the cohort of uranium miners after extension of the monitoring until 1999, for cancers diseases and non-cancers. In addition, an analysis taking into account multiple exposures to ionizing radiation was carried out within the framework of this thesis. This analysis has improved knowledge on the risk of mortality associated with low levels of exposure to radon. (author)

  9. Multiple relational analysis method for uranium mineral metallogenic prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping; He Xiangping; Liu Yajie

    1998-10-01

    After introduction of the basic principle of relational analysis, multiple relational analysis method for uranium mineral resources are proposed. Multiple relational analysis prediction method is especially efficient where known ore deposits or ore-bearing units are scarce. Where other prediction methods fail, multiple relational analysis method proves to work well with reliability and accuracy. It is fully illustrated with the examples presented

  10. Mutations of p53 and ras genes in radon-associated lung cancer from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaekangas, K.H.; Metcalf, R.A.; Welsh, J.A.; Bennett, W.P.; Harris, C.C. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)); Samet, J.M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). UNM Medical Center); Lane, D.P. (Dundee Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1992-03-07

    Radon increases the risk of lung cancer in smoking and non-smoking underground miners. To investigate the mutational spectrum associated with exposure to high levels of radon, the authors sequenced exons 5-9 of the p53 tumour suppressor gene and codons 12-13 of the Ki-ras protooncogene in 19 lung cancers from uranium miners exposed to radon and tobacco smoke. Mutations were not found in Ki-ras, but 9 p53 mutations, including 2 deletions, were found in 7 patients by direct DNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. In tumours from 5 patients, the mutation produced an aminoacid change and an increased nuclear content of p53 protein. (author).

  11. An investigation into radiation exposures in underground non-uranium mines in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewson, G.S.; Ralph, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the radiological conditions in underground non-uranium mines in Western Australia has been undertaken. Measurements of radon concentration by passive track etch monitors and absorbed gamma dose-rate by thermoluminescent dosimetry were undertaken in 27 mines. These mines employed 2173 workers which represented nearly 80% of the underground workforce at the time of the survey. Radon progeny concentration by both grab sampling and automatic devices were undertaken at selected mines. Radiological conditions in all surveyed underground workplaces were such that it was estimated that most underground workers should not exceed an annual effective dose of 5 mSv. The average annual effective dose across all mines was estimated to be 1.4±1.0 mSv, ranging from 0.4 mSv for a nickel mine to 4.2 mSv for a coal mine. Radon progeny exposure contributed approximately 70% of the total effective dose. The estimated average annual effective dose in three coal mines (employing 297 workers) was 2.9±1.5 mSv. On the basis of this preliminary investigation it was concluded that no regulatory controls are specifically required to limit radiation exposures in Western Australian underground mines. (author)

  12. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Pagel, M.; Leroy, J.

    1992-01-01

    First, this book presents the physico-chemical properties of Uranium and the consequences which can be deduced from the study of numerous geological process. The authors describe natural distribution of Uranium at different scales and on different supports, and main Uranium minerals. A great place in the book is assigned to description and classification of uranium deposits. The book gives also notions on prospection and exploitation of uranium deposits. Historical aspects of Uranium economical development (Uranium resources, production, supply and demand, operating costs) are given in the last chapter. 7 refs., 17 figs

  13. [Effect of underground work on cardiovascular system 
in coal miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiaoye; Tan, Hongzhuan; Huang, Yaoyu; Lu, Changcheng

    2015-10-01

    To study the effect of underground work on cardiovascular system health in coal miners.
 Male coal miners, who received electrocardiographic examinations between June, 2013 and August, 2014 in Hunan Prevention and Treatment Institute for Occupational Diseases to exclude pneumoconiosis, were enrolled for this study (n=3 134). Miners with 2 years or more underground work experience were selected as the exposed group (n=2 370), while miners without underground work experience were selected as the control group (n=764). The prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities and the influential factors were compared between the 2 groups.
 The prevalences of electrocardiographic abnormalities, hypertension, heart rate abnormalities and cardiovascular system abnormalities in the exposed group vs the control group were 37.6% vs 25.4%, 20.5% vs 13.4%, 5.7% vs 6.0%, 49.8% vs 35.2%, respectively. The cardiovascular system abnormalities were correlated with the underground work (OR=3.128, 95% CI: 1.969-4.970), the underground work experience (OR=1.205, 95% CI: 1.070-1.358) and the type of works (mining worker OR=1.820, 95% CI: 1.527-2.169; auxiliary worker OR=1.937, 95% CI: 1.511-2.482; other worker OR=3.291, 95%CI: 2.120-5.109).
 Underground work may increase the prevalence of cardiovascular system abnormalities for coal miners. The longer the coal miners work in underground, the higher the risk of the cardiovascular system abnormalities they are.

  14. Fluorimetrich determination of uranium in mineral samples and phosphoric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupo Gonzales, I.; Cuevillas, J.; Estevez, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper an analytical technique for the determination of uranium in different cuban minerals and acid leaching liquors of phosphorites is proposed. The method used for solid samples includes their disolution and further dilution of the solution obtained. For liquid samples dilution is the only intermediate step used. A study of HNO3 concentration (pH) was made in fluorimetric measurements. The method was applied to the uranium analysis in two IAEA standard reference samples (phosphate base), in natural phosphorites and a synthetic one, in clays and phosphoric liquors. The results agree with those obtained by other methods

  15. Uranium mineralization in the central region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, M.G.; Olivera, J.; Fernandez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present work shows different geological and geophysical index for uranium mineralization found at Loma Alta iron ore deposit, located in the central region of Cuba. In this deposit was carried out pull work of iron ore. The tunnels were radiometrically documented in the wall and the floor observing some anomalies of the gamma ray intensity (up to 1700 c.p.s.) associated with the poor iron ore. In those points were collected solid sample. The obtained results were very important (uranium concentrations values up to 3500 ppm)

  16. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qihua; Liu Qingcheng

    2002-01-01

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  17. Technical evaluation of a radon daughter continuous monitor in an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-07-01

    An evaluation of a radon daughter monitor was carried out in an underground uranium mine. The monitor operates on continuous sampling and time integrating principles. Experimental and theoretical data were compared. Experimental results show that the monitor underestimates the Working Level, a fact which is partly attributed to plate-out of decay products in the monitor sampling head. However, a correction factor experimentally determined by standard calibration procedures can be programmed into the monitor to take into account losses by plate-out and other losses. Although the monitor was originally designed for radon daughters, it can equally be used in thoron daughter atmospheres and radon daughter/thoron daughter mixtures such as those encountered in some Canadian uranium mines. An analytical procedure is outlined to allow the calculation of Working Levels in radon daughter/thoron daughter atmospheres from the monitor α-count rate. The memory capability of the monitor should make it quite useful and flexible in underground and surface environments in the uranium mining industry

  18. Uranium mineralizations in Niger; Les mineralisations d'uranium du Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchemin, Ch.; Gerbeaud, O.; James, O.; Le Goux, F.; Pouradier, A.; Salabert, J.; Wagani, I.; Breton, G. [AREVA NC NIGER, Base Cofitec, Akokan (Niger); Feybesse, J.L.; Parize, O.; Wattinne, A.; Flotte, N.; Brouand, M. [AREVA, BU Mines, Tour Areva, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors report the analysis of mineralizations located in the Tim Mersoi basin in Niger where sediments deposited between the Paleozoic and the Cretaceous era. They analyse and describe the tectonic evolution of this area during different periods, and focus on some specific uranium mineralisation sites

  19. 226Ra and natural uranium in egyptian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and natural uranium have been analysed bottled mineral water commercially available in egypt. 226 Ra was determined by applying a chemical procedure in which Ra was coprecipitated with Ba as sulphate. The precipitate was then dissolved with EDTA and then measured by liquid scintillation system, after mixing with a scintillation cocktail. Natural uranium was determined by applying a chemical procedure for uranium extraction using MIBK and then measured using laser fluorimeter system. The concentration values obtained were compared with concentrations reported by other countries and with reference values accepted for drinking water. Based on the consumption rate and the measured concentrations, the collective committed effective doses were calculated. In addition, Ca, Mg and Na were measured using Icp system and compared with some worldwide values

  20. Modelling of radon control and air cleaning requirements in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fawal, M.; Gadalla, A.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of a comprehensive study concerned with control workplace short-lived radon daughter concentration in underground uranium mines to safe levels, a computer program has been developed and verified, to calculate ventilation parameters e.g. local pressures, flow rates and radon daughter concentration levels. The computer program is composed of two parts, one part for mine ventilation and the other part for radon daughter levels calculations. This program has been validated in an actual case study to calculate radon concentration levels, pressure and flow rates required to maintain acceptable levels of radon concentrations in each point of the mine. The required fan static pressure and the approximate energy consumption were also estimated. The results of the calculations have been evaluated and compared with similar investigation. It was found that the calculated values are in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained using ''REDES'' standard ventilation modelling software. The developed computer model can be used as an available tool to help in the evaluation of ventilation systems proposed by mining authority, to assist the uranium mining industry in maintaining the health and safety of the workers underground while efficiently achieving economic production targets. It could be used also for regulatory inspection and radiation protection assessments of workers in the underground mining. Also with using this model, one can effectively design, assess and manage underground mine ventilation systems. Values of radon decay products concentration in units of working level, pressures drop and flow rates required to reach the acceptable radon concentration relative to the recommended levels, at different extraction points in the mine and fan static pressure could be estimated which are not available using other software. (author)

  1. The red bed period of geological history in northwest China and regional uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Zhigao; Zhou Qiaosheng; Zhang Jinbiao.

    1990-01-01

    This paper clarifies that uranium mineralization temporally occurs in the period of regional tension and red beds and spatially belongs to rich uranium geological body and overlapped area of downfaulted red basin by comprehensively analysing the geological development history in Northwest China, regional red beds and uranium mineralization

  2. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Aurelio da Silva de

    2009-01-01

    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO 2 showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H 2 O + CO 2 + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal event without a predominant fluid

  3. Predicted number of lung cancer cases in Germany among former uranium miners of the Wismut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I; Möhner, M; Wichmann, H E

    1997-01-01

    Between 1946-1990, the Wismut-Company in the former German Democratic Republic was the leading producer of uranium for the Soviet union. After the German reunification, a central welfare system for uranium miners of the Wismut Zentrale Betreuung Wismut (ZeBWiS) was initiated by the Hauptverband der Berufsgenossenschaften in 1992, and a data base of exposed employees was established. In spring 1993, data regarding 95,000 exposed persons were available from Saxony, but none from Thuringia. A sample of 3,654 persons was drawn. For 3,128 of them the working history at the Wismut could be reconstructed. Having established the age distribution and taking into account mortality of other causes, the expected age-specific mortality rates of lung cancer were calculated. Statistical risk models were applied. Assuming that for Saxony about 156,000 workers were exposed in underground mining and/or uranium processing, a total (past and future) of about 7,000-25,000 excess lung cancer cases are estimated to be due to exposure to radon and its progeny. From 1995 onwards about 1,300-4,800 additional cases are predicted in the population of exposed former Wismut workers in Saxony. The peak incidence was reached between 1985-1991. No prognosis for Thuringia can be given so far.

  4. Conditions and potential evaluation of the uranium mineralization in volcanic basins at the west section of the Yanliao mineral belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Zhao Shiqin; Luo Yi; Zhou Dean; Xiao Xiangping

    1993-03-01

    The West section of the Yanliao Mineral Belt is an important prospective uranium mineralization area in volcanic basins at North China. It has undergone three evolutionary periods and developed into six large volcanic collapse faulted basins with tri-layer structure. This leads to three times of pre-enrichment and multiple mineralization of uranium. Finally, the accumulation of uranium and superimposed reworked actions of uranium mineralization resulted in the formation of uranium deposits. After analyzing conditions of uranium mineralization, a model for uranium mineralization of mixed hydrothermal solution of multiple sources in penetrating volcanic collapse faulted basins and seven exploring criteria are suggested. On this basis the evaluation of prospect in this area is positive, and the main exploring strategy has been decided. Furthermore, five prospective areas of mineralization and three most favorable mineralization zones are selected. For exploring large size or super-large size uranium deposits in the area, the key is to strengthen the study and boring of deep layers. Thus, the mineralization in the deep layers or basement may be found. The prediction of deep blind deposits in known ore districts has been proved effectively

  5. Maximum Aerobic Capacity of Underground Coal Miners in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnadeep Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Miners fitness test was assessed in terms of determination of maximum aerobic capacity by an indirect method following a standard step test protocol before going down to mine by taking into consideration of heart rates (Telemetric recording and oxygen consumption of the subjects (Oxylog-II during exercise at different working rates. Maximal heart rate was derived as 220−age. Coal miners reported a maximum aerobic capacity within a range of 35–38.3 mL/kg/min. It also revealed that oldest miners (50–59 yrs had a lowest maximal oxygen uptake (34.2±3.38 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min the youngest group (20–29 yrs. It was found to be negatively correlated with age (r=−0.55 and −0.33 for younger and older groups respectively and directly associated with the body weight of the subjects (r=0.57 – 0.68, P≤0.001. Carriers showed maximum cardio respiratory capacity compared to other miners. Indian miners VO2max was found to be lower both compared to their abroad mining counterparts and various other non-mining occupational working groups in India.

  6. 77 FR 1359 - Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... likely amend its Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA) program regulations to correspond with the changes... radiographs or X-rays) of underground coal miners for the surveillance of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (black lung) under the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program, administered by the National Institute for...

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Underground Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents. Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI, overcommitment (OC, perceived physical environment (PPE, work-family conflict (WFC, and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99. Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers’ family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

  8. Minerals in the Ash and Slag from Oxygen-Enriched Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a promising option for the recovery of low-rank and inaccessible coal resources. Detailed mineralogical information is essential to understand underground reaction conditions far from the surface and optimize the operation parameters during the UCG process. It is also significant in identifying the environmental effects of UCG residue. In this paper, with regard to the underground gasification of lignite, UCG slag was prepared through simulation tests of oxygen-enriched gasification under different atmospheric conditions, and the minerals were identified by X-Ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Thermodynamic calculations performed using FactSage 6.4 were used to help to understand the transformation of minerals. The results indicate that an increased oxygen concentration is beneficial to the reformation of mineral crystal after ash fusion and the resulting crystal structures of minerals also tend to be more orderly. The dominant minerals in 60%-O2 and 80%-O2 UCG slag include anorthite, pyroxene, and gehlenite, while amorphous substances almost disappear. In addition, with increasing oxygen content, mullite might react with the calcium oxide existed in the slag to generate anorthite, which could then serve as a calcium source for the formation of gehlenite. In 80%-O2 UCG slag, the iron-bearing mineral is transformed from sekaninaite to pyroxene.

  9. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  10. Uranium miner lung cancer. A study about two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelrieux, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of lung cancer in uranium miners is analyzed on the basis of the two cases observed. Epidemiological studies establish conclusively the existence of increased hazards in the case of early working conditions, which gave rise to large accumulated doses of irradiation. Unfortunately these studies have their limits, the most important being inadequacy of sampling, and doubts remain about the low exposure levels prevailing nowadays and which concerns the cases investigated. The absence of certainty over long-term effects of low exposure levels is leading to the development of research to establish the exact nature of the dose-effect relationship and the possible existence of a radiotoxicity threshold on the basis of which the protective measures from the CMA angle could be revised. Biological research has proved the responsibility of α radiation from active radon deposits as a source of lung cancer in uranium miners, but other contributing factors must not be neglected: tobacco for instance, which plays an important part, but also the presence of engine exhaust gases and non-specific lung aggressions connected with dampness and ventilation. The occupational risk examined concerns only 600 miners now working at the bottom of uranium mines in France, and since extraction began a dozen cancers have been detected including 10 in heavy smokers. 2 cases correspond to exposures of 300 WLM, 3 to values between 150 and 100WLM and the rest to very slight exposures, 10 to 50 WLM. Although these figures are not conclusive the fact that exposure in French mines averages 0.3 WL means that the results of the French epidemiological study can be awaited with some optimism [fr

  11. Burnout, Depression and Proactive Coping in Underground Coal Miners in Serbia - Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Saška

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining is unsurprisingly considered a high-risk occupation because it involves continuous hard labour under highly demanding and stressful conditions. Many of these work stressors can impair individuals’ well-being in both a physiological and psychological sense. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms and to evaluate aspects of proactive coping among underground coal miners in Serbia. The study involved 46 male underground coal miners. Burnout was measured with the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and level of proactive coping was measured with the Proactive Coping Inventory. The results showed a low level of burnout syndrome among the underground coal miners (12.46±4.879. Depression was slightly above the minimum (1.2±2.094, and the majority of the participants had no symptoms of depression (93.5%. Overall, the underground coal miners’ ability to proactively cope with work stress was very good (42.17±6.567. This is in contrast to the findings of the few previous international studies and is a good basis for further research using a larger sample in Serbia.

  12. Radiation situation during underground mineral raw materials mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, B.I.

    2007-01-01

    One studied the content and the ratio of 4 0 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U natural radionuclides in the ores mined in Egypt, Iran, China and Turkey. It is shown that in some ores, for example, in the carbonaceous shale mined in China, in the Iranian bauxite and turquoise Ra eq is higher than 370 Bq/kg, that is, it is higher than the value recommended by the International Scientific Committee on Radiation Effect. The Chinese bituminous shale shows high content of 226 Ra, while 226 Ra/ 232 Th concentration ratio varies between 10 and 60 in contrast to that of other numerous mineral raw materials being close to 1-3. In a number of mines one recorded high concentrations of radon (higher than 300 Bq/m 3 ). Inhalation of such an air results in the essential internal irradiation. The average annual dose equivalents for miners may be higher than the maximum permissible value equal to 20 mSv/g [ru

  13. Optimization long hole blast fragmentation techniques and detonating circuit underground uranium mine stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Yang Lizhi; Song Lixia; Qin De'en; Xue Yongshe; Wang Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Aim at high rate of large blast fragmentation, a big difficulty in long hole drilling and blasting underground uranium mine stope, it is pointed out at the same time of taking integrated technical management measures, the key is to optimize the drilling and blasting parameters and insure safety the act of one that primes, adopt 'minimum burden' blasting technique, renew the stope fragmentation process, and use new process of hole bottom indirect initiation fragmentation; optimize the detonating circuit and use safe, reliable and economically rational duplex non-electric detonating circuit. The production practice shows that under the guarantee of strictly controlled construction quality, the application of optimized blast fragmentation technique has enhanced the reliability of safety detonation and preferably solved the problem of high rate of large blast fragments. (authors)

  14. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  15. Indigenous development and networking of online radon monitors in the underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaware, J.J.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: There has been a long standing demand for online monitoring of radon level in various locations of underground uranium mine for taking care of radiological protection to workers. Nowadays, radon ( 222 Rn) monitors, based on semiconductor detector are increasingly employed for radon monitoring in environment. However, such instruments have some limitations such as (i) requirement of additional dryer in the sampling path, (ii) cannot be connected to a online data logging and monitoring network, (iii) not cost effective for large number of installations. Due to need for dryer, unattended continuous operation of such instruments is not possible particularly in underground uranium mine with humidity in the range of 80 to 98 %. So it is required to develop radon monitors which overcome the above limitations so that large number of monitors can be deployed in the uranium mine. Often radon progeny is electrostatically collected on the detector surface to increase the sensitivity. However, the collection efficiency is highly dependent upon the humidity and trace gas concentration in the sample gas due to charge neutralization effect. This effect can be minimized by applying a high electric field throughout the detector's chamber volume. This cannot be achieved using planner silicon PIN diode (area ∼ 4 cm 2 ) due to its inherent size limitations. This is because the electric field, in case of small inner electrode, falls off rapidly towards the outer electrode. Hence, an instrument has been indigenously developed by designing an annular cylindrical chamber with larger inner cathode (area = 140 cm 2 ) by employing flexible ZnS:Ag sheet (scintillation detector). With this design, the high sensitivity of 2.8 cph/Bqm -3 has been accomplished with the nominal deviation within 15% for vast change in humidity of 5% to 95%. In this instrument, although the alpha spectroscopy is not possible, the high sensitivity of the instruments makes it possible to achieve the MDL as

  16. Contribution of uranium in natural mineral waters to the uranium daily intake of humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durecova, A.; Durec, F.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive and toxic heavy metal, accumulated preferably in kidneys, liver and bones. The daily intake with solid food ranges from 2 to 4 μg of U]. The total U intake is mostly dependent on the U content of the natural mineral water consumed daily. U-238, U-234 were determined in the natural mineral waters sold in markets of the Slovak Republic. The activity ratio of U-234/U-238 was calculated, and disequilibrium of these isotopes was found. The excess of U-234 was found. This excess can be interpreted by higher mobility of U-234, which more readily forms the soluble (UO 2 ) 2+ ions in comparison with U-238, most of which remains in the insoluble 4+ state]. The committed effective doses for U-234 and U-238 intake via ingestion of the natural mineral waters for members of the public were calculated. (authors)

  17. Assessment of occupational risk in underground uranium mining and measures for its reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Todorov, A.

    1993-01-01

    A prolonged monitoring of the occupational environmental hazards in uranium mines and of the health state of miners has provided the following evidence: 1) Cumulative radon exposure is increased several times as a result of 10- to 100-fold elevation of radon 222 contents at work places. 2) Occupationally related lung cancer incidence is 20 times higher than those of the general Bulgarian population. 3) General morbidity rate with temporary disability is increased. The following curative and preventive measures are developed and introduced: 1) Shortening the length of service needed for retirement by 5 years in order to reduce the cumulative exposure. 2) Rehabilitative inhalation methods for chronic respiratory diseases. 3) A set of balneological methods for decontamination of natural radionuclides. 4) A health monitoring methodology for persons working in uranium industry. (author)

  18. Laboratory investigations of refractory uranium minerals from the Kvanefjeld uranium deposit, Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose-Hansen, J.; Soerensen, H.; Makovicky, M.; Konnerup-Madsen, J.; Holm, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The project described in this report is a contribution to a large project on the beneficiation of the Kvanefjeld uranium deposit in the Ilimaussaq intrusion in South Greenland. The main object of our project has been to undertake laboratory experiments on steenstrupine in order to define the optimum extraction conditions. A pressurized carbonate leaching method was introduced. The Risoe experiments are carried out on bulk samples of the ore while we decided to study the minerals, first of all steenstrupine, and carbonate solutions as leaching media. Our experiments demonstrated that the leaching conditions arrived at by the Risoe group give the highest recovery and thus may be termed the optimum conditions using sodium carbonate leaching methods. Studies of the solid products left after the leaching experiments by means of the electron microprobe show that the grains of steenstrupine remain and that the leaching of uranium proceeds from the margins of the grains and towards their interior. We decided also to study the effect of applying ammonium sulphate solutions. These gave significantly higher recoveries. We consider the results of the experiments using ammonium sulphate solutions as an essential new information on the extractability of the Kvanefjeld ore and as a main result of our study. It is demonstrated that in the 13 types of rocks examined, including lujavrites, 25-75 % of the thorium and 2-58 % of the uranium contained in the rocks can be leached out and are thus not firmly bound in the minerals. (author)

  19. Radiation monitoring for uranium miners: evaluation and optimization. Final report 9 Sep 79-9 Oct 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiager, K.J.; Borak, T.B.; Johnson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological health risks to uranium miners are reviewed. Radiation measurement methods and monitoring systems that are now, or soon could be, available are reviewed with respect to their reliability and cost for determining annual exposures. Criteria for optimization of radiation monitoring programs are presented and applied to the current exposure conditions and available monitoring methods. The following recommendations are offered: (1) Personal thermoluminescent dosimeters for gamma exposures should be provided to all underground employees in uranium mines. (2) exposures to long-lived radionuclides in respirable dust and to airborne radon progency should be measured by randomized grab sampling. (3) regulations of the Mine Safety and Health Administration should place greater emphasis on exposure reduction, as opposed to documentation

  20. BfR recommends the establishment of a European maximum level for uranium in drinking and mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is a widespread, radioactive heavy metal on earth. It is to be found in varying concentrations and states in various rocks and minerals as well as in water, soil and air. Uranium may also reach the environment anthropogenically for instance in mineral phosphate fertilisers. Because of its widespread presence traces of uranium can also be detected in foods like drinking and mineral water. Uranium is not essential for humans. The ongoing intake of higher uranium concentration...

  1. Uranium minerals from the San Marcos District, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortés, Manuel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Torres-Moye, Enrique; Esparza-Ponce, Hilda; Montero-Cabrera, María Elena

    2010-05-01

    The mineralogy of the two uranium deposits (Victorino and San Marcos I) of Sierra San Marcos, located 30 km northwest of Chihuahua City, Mexico, was studied by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry. At the San Marcos I deposit, uranophane Ca(UO2)2Si2O7·6(H2O) (the dominant mineral at both deposits) and metatyuyamunite Ca(UO2)(V2O8)·3(H2O) were observed. Uranophane, uraninite (UO2+x), masuyite Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)·3(H2O), and becquerelite Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 ·(8H2O) are present at the Victorino deposit. Field observations, coupled with analytical data, suggest the following sequence of mineralization: (1) deposition of uraninite, (2) alteration of uraninite to masuyite, (3) deposition of uranophane, (4) micro-fracturing, (5) calcite deposition in the micro-fractures, and (6) formation of becquerelite. The investigated deposits were formed by high-to low-temperature hydrothermal activity during post-orogenic evolution of Sierra San Marcos. The secondary mineralization occurred through a combination of hydrothermal and supergene alteration events. Becquerelite was formed in situ by reaction of uraninite with geothermal carbonated solutions, which led to almost complete dissolution of the precursor uraninite. The Victorino deposit represents the second known occurrence of becquerelite in Mexico, the other being the uranium deposits at Peña Blanca in Chihuahua State.

  2. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  3. Combined SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of uranium minerals from a former uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Elzbieta A; Alsecz, Anita; Frost, Ray; Máthé, Zoltán; Sajó, István E; Török, Szabina; Worobiec, Anna; Van Grieken, René

    2009-08-30

    Samples of the secondary uranium minerals collected in the abandoned uranium mine at Pecs (Hungary) were investigated by two micro-techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS). They were applied to locate U-rich particles and identify the chemical form and oxidation state of the uranium compounds. The most abundant mineral was a K and/or Na uranyl sulphate (zippeite group). U(VI) was also present in the form showing intensive Raman scattering at 860 cm(-1) which can be attributed to uranium trioxide. This research has shown the successful application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of uranyl mineral species on the level of individual particles.

  4. Uranium mineralization associated with late Palaeozoic acid magmatism in northeast Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, J.H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The late Palaeozoic acid igneous petrographic province, covering some 120,000 km 2 in the Cairns-Townsville hinterland, has associated uranium mineralization characterized by various combinations of uranium, fluorine, and molybdenum. Mineralization of this type has been described from other parts of the world, but is best known in the USSR. Information about the Australian deposits and occurrences is very limited, but it is apparent that the mineralization is mainly of hydrothermal origin and genetically related to extensive late Palaeozoic magmatism. A detailed description of the mineralization and the prospect of additional discoveries of uranium deposits of similar and related types in other parts of Australia are discussed. (J.R.)

  5. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  6. Preliminary study of the uranium mineralization in the Eastern Belt, San Ramon, Oxapampa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    Permotriasic intrusive magmatic rocks of the eastern belt, consisting of San Ramon and Oxapampa granites, have a good favorability as fertile uranium rocks, one facie of red granite called monzo-granite; this condition is the result of the execution the cooperation project IPEN IAEA PER 2/16, ‘Improving the uranium potential of Peru’. The field work consisted of geological and radiometric review, with sampling of outcrop intrusive. The field radiometry and chemical analysis of the rock samples indicate the presence of radiometric and uranium anomalies, the petro-mineragraphyc study identified the presence of uranium ore, a phosphate hydrated uranium and copper, torbernite type, secondary mineral formed from leaching of primary uranium minerals in granite, the mineralization is found both in the granite and sedimentary rock contact. (author).

  7. Monitoring of uranium levels intake in some uranium-miners in egypt. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.M.; Abdelmonem, A.A.; Aly, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium extraction results in conditions of intake of amounts of soluble uranium (U) salts and may reflect internal exposure levels. Proteinuria and albuminuria were also determined which reflect effect of U salts on kidney. These parameters can be used for checking the intake conditions and identifying the effect of absorbed U compounds on kidney. The U l eve in urine was evaluated in twenty male volunteers not involved in U mining processes, it ranged from 0.09 to 0.21 g/L. Twenty U miners were subjected to full clinical examination and urine analysis for estimation of U with six month interval. Significant differences were shown between the two groups. The same results were obtained for proteinuria and albuminuria, and only six workers appeared to have the signs of high U dust intake at the beginning of the experiment and decreased after six month by about 50% periodic estimation of the total annual effective dose equivalent in miners is determined to keep it always the annual limit of 20 mSv through improvement of the ventilation system and applying other effective precautions. 3 tabs

  8. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  9. Occupational exposure and mortality in the German uranium miner cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnelzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Grosche, B.; Sogl, M.; Tschense, A.; Walsh, L.; Kreuzer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The German uranium miners cohort study comprises 58,982 men employed in the GDR by the Wismut company for at least six months between 1946 and 1989. Particularly in the early years, miners were exposed to high levels of radon, silica and other harmful substances. The aim of the cohort study is to investigate the health effects of occupational exposures. The cohort was established in 1998 with mortality follow-ups every five years, i.e. vital status and cause of death are ascertained. Annual exposures to radon progeny, external gamma-radiation, long-lived radionuclides, fine dust, silica and arsenic dust were individually assessed by means of a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. For data analyses Poisson regression models were used. By end of 2008, 25,438 (43 %) cohort members were deceased with known cause of death in 94 %. In total 7,780 cancer mortalities were observed, including 3,500 from lung cancer. Lung cancer mortality is twice as high as in the general population largely due to occupational radon progeny and silica exposure. Also 975 silicosis deaths were observed and there is some evidence for a relationship between radon progeny exposure and cancers of the extra-thoracic airways. Circulatory diseases and non-malignant diseases of the airways were also investigated, but no relationship to occupational exposure was found. Up to now health effects of uranium mining in the Wismut cohort primarily manifest themselves as increases in lung cancer and silicosis mortality due to high radon progeny and silica exposure. With increasing duration of follow-up, further findings regarding more rare causes of death and levels of exposure relevant today are expected.

  10. Factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit in underground uranium mines and preventive measures of misfiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of non-electric detonating circuit are introduced. The main factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit are described. Taking an underground blasting of a uranium mine for example, the reliability of various kinds of detonating network system is calculated using the reliability theory and numerical analysis method. The reasons that cause the misfiring in non-electric detonating circuit system are analyzed, and preventive measures are put forward.(authors)

  11. Uranium mineralization in the Rum Jungle-Alligator Rivers Province, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.G.; Needham, R.S.; Wilkes, P.G.; Page, R.W.; Smart, P.G.; Watchman, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    Renewed interest in uranium exploration in northern Australia in the late 1960s led to the discovery of one of the most important uranium fields in the world. To obtain an understanding of the geological setting of the uranium deposits, and to provide guidelines for future exploration, the Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) undertook an investigation which included semi-detailed mapping, aided by geophysical surveys, isotopic dating, and stratigraphic drilling. From the results so far obtained and from the important data made available by mining companies engaged in exploration in the region, a pattern of uranium mineralization can be recognized, particularly in relation to the Lower Proterozoic sedimentation of the region. (author)

  12. Uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil: the role of fluids in its genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Sonia Pinto; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Fuzikawa, Kazuo, E-mail: pratess@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium province is situated in the central-south of Bahia state . Brazil and it is presently by far the most important and best known uranium occurrence in Brazil. Nowadays 34 anomalies are known in a 30 Km long and 5 km wide area. An open pit mine was open in Cachoeira Mine, in the north portion of the area, and it is the only uranium mine in operation in Brazil and even in South America as well. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real uranium province occurs in metamorphic rocks named albitites, due to their albite content (over 70%). Uraninite is the main uranium mineral, followed by pechblende, uranophane, torbernite and other uranyl minerals. Uraninite occurs as tiny round and irregular crystals (20 a 30 mum) included or associated to mafic minerals, mainly pyroxene and garnet, and also to amphibole and biotite and sometimes to albite. Some secondary minerals such as, for instance, uranophane, torbernite and tyuyamunite are also found. The main albitites minerals from the Cachoeira mine (plagioclase, garnet, biotite, pyroxene, amphibole and titanite) were studied by means of Infrared Spectroscopy Techniques. Good results were obtained from small quantities of material (around 2 mg) and allowed the minerals identification, and also to know their composition (from the peak position) and to detect the presence of water molecules, which indicates an aqueous phase during the uranium formation, probably rich in Fluorine. (author)

  13. Methodology of simulation of underground working in metal mines. Application to a uranium deposit in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deraisme, J.; de Fouquet, C.; Fraisse, H.

    1983-01-01

    For the Ben Lomond (Northern Queensland Australia) underground uranium mining project, studies were carried out to compare the feasibility of different mining methods according to their cost per ton and selectivity, i.e. cut and fill, sublevel stopping and both mixed. First, a geostatistical orebody model was built. The ore grade variability of this model results from the drillhole structural analysis. Working on two dimensional vertical cross sections, the usual hand drawing stope reserve estimate obtained with computer assisted design for each of the three different mining methods is compared with the results obtained with automatic algorithms allocated to the characteristics of each mining method. These algorithms use mathematical morphology to reproduce the geometrical constraints connected with each mining method and/or dynamic programmation. These techniques lead to fully automatic of optimal economical stope design. Comparison is positive: automatic stopes designs are in agreement with hand made drawings, but they can be defined faster through interactive questionning of the computer, and the total maximum profit obtained is a least as high as the best profit found through hand designed projects [fr

  14. Primary uranium mineralization in paleochannels of the Um Bogma formation at Allouga Southwestern Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisher, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Um Bogama formation in the Allouga area is within a major Graben trending NNW-SSE. The formation is composed mainly of sandy dolostone. Lactomicin marl, siltstone and carbonaceous shale with a high content of organic matter. The black carbonaceous shale represents the redox-front (reduced facies) at which hexavalent uranium can reduce to the presence state, resulting in the redeposition of uranium mineral. The presence of uranium minerals are increased with an increasing amount of carbonaceous matter in the paleochannels of the Allouga area. Small-scale fault planes also show an increase in the uranium content. The present study reveals the presence of the primary uranium contents, uranium, pitch blends and coffinite, which are recorded for the first time in the area. (Author)

  15. Early lung cancer detection in uranium miners with abnormal sputum cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1992-08-01

    This work supported by the United States of Energy, continues to add data on the health affects of cigarette smoking and radon exposure on uranium miners. Since the last Technical Progress Report in July or 1991, 537 sputum cytology samples have been collected on the 300 uranium workers in the surveillance study. To date there are 436 lung cancer cases in the Uranium Miner Tumor Registry with diagnostic slides from surgery and/or autopsy; an additional 40 cases have been diagnosed with sputum cytology only. In March of 1991 the Geno Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive was established at St. Mary's Hospital and Medical Center as a depository for biological specimens and epidemiological data from the 17,700 uranium miners who have been a part or the study

  16. Association of DNA repair gene polymorphisms with genotoxic stress in underground coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Maxim Yu; Minina, Varvara I; Asanov, Maxim A; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Druzhinin, Vladimir G

    2017-10-17

    In underground coal mining, numerous harmful substances and ionising radiation pose a major threat to the occupational safety and health of workers. Because cell DNA repair machinery eliminates genotoxic stress conferred by these agents, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in hOGG1 (rs1052133), XRCC1 (rs25487), ADPRT (rs1136410), XRCC4 (rs6869366) and LIG4 (rs1805388) genes modulate the genotoxic damage assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in lymphocytes from 143 underground coal miners and 127 healthy non-exposed males. We also analyzed models of gene-gene interactions associated with increased cytogenetic damage in coal miners and determined 'protective' and 'risk' combinations of alleles. We showed that miners with the G/G genotype of the hOGG1 (rs1052133) gene had a significantly increased frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (13.17‰, 95% CI = 10.78-15.56) compared to the C/C genotype carriers (10.35‰, 95% CI = 9.59-11.18). In addition, in the exposed group this indicator was significantly increased in carriers of the T/T genotype of the LIG4 (rs1805388) gene compared to miners harbouring the C/T genotype (13.00‰, 95% CI = 10.96-15.04 and 9.69‰, 95% CI = 8.32-11.06, respectively). Using the multifactor dimensionality reduction method, we found the three-locus model of gene-gene interactions hOGG1 (rs1052133) × ADPRT (rs1136410) × XRCC4 (rs6869366) associated with high genotoxic risk in coal miners. These results indicate that the studied polymorphisms and their combinations are associated with cytogenetic status in miners and may be used as molecular predictors of occupational risks in underground coal mines. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal, E.

    1986-01-01

    After the increase in oil prices in 1973, several European countries increased their power programs. As a result some uranium mining companies from the FRG, Spain and France invested in exploration of radioactive minerals in Colombia hoping to find uranium resources needed to fuel European reactors. In the article a historic review of foreign investment in uranium in Colombia is made; some recommendations about joint-venture contracts used to regulate the work of the foreign companies are included. The four companies involved in exploration left the country in the early eighties, due to the difficulties in finding a large deposit and the difficult world situation of nuclear power

  18. NW-trending fault structures. A key factor to uranium mineralization in Egongshan volcanic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang

    1996-01-01

    Influenced by the Tancheng-Lujiang fault system, the NW-trending fault structures in Egongshan basin are characterized by tensile-shearing, NE-dipping and dextrorotaty down slipping, having an obvious control over three uranium deposits and the overwhelming majority of uranium occurrences, and are the key factors to uranium mineralization. The study on the NW-trending fault structures is of practical significance in ore prospecting in Egongshan basin and other areas

  19. Irradiation defects in clayey minerals in association with discordance-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morichon, E.; Beaufort, D.; Morichon, E.; Allard, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity generates defects in minerals and these defects are the witnesses of the presence of radio-elements, and therefore represent an interesting potential for uranium prospecting. Investigations made in the Athabasca basin in Canada reveal irradiation defects in very old clays (kaolinite, illite and sudoite) in the alteration halo of discordance-type uranium deposits. The authors comment the defect concentration variation among the different drillings. These differences show that hexavalent uranium circulated in the whole geological system

  20. Study on Kalimantan uranium province: The assessment on uranium mineralization of metamorphic and granitic rocks at Schwaner mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, Soeprapto

    2002-01-01

    Uranium exploration activities done by CEA-BATAN had discovered uranium occurrences as the radiometric and uranium content anomalies at metamorphic and granite rocks of Schwaner Mountains, Kalimantan. A part of the occurrences on metamorphic rocks at Kalan basin has been evaluated and be developed onto follow-up step of prospecting by construction of some drilling holes and an exploration adit. In order to increase the national uranium resources, it is necessarily to extent the exploration activity to out side or nearby of Kalan basin. The goal of this assessment is to understand the uranium accumulation mechanism at Pinoh metamorphic rocks of Kalan Kalimantan and to delineate areas that uranium may exist. The assessment was based on the aspect of geology, anomaly of radioactivity and uranium contents, tectonics and alterations. Pinoh metamorphic rocks which is influenced by Sukadana granite intrusion are the high potential rocks for the uranium accumulation, because the intrusion contains a relatively high of U, Th, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mn, and W. The potential rock distributions are in between G. Ransa granite intrusion at the east and Kotabaru granite intrusions at the west. The mineralizations are categorized as vein type deposits of granitic association

  1. Sulphatising roasting of a Greenlandic uranium ore, reactivity of minerals and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamborg Hansen, J.K.

    1977-03-01

    Uranium in the lujavrite ore from Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, can be solubilised by sulphatising roasting at 700degC. The reactivity of various lujavrite minerals in the roasting process and the mechanism of the reaction were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, electron microprobe, thermal analysis, Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy. Soluble sulphates are formed on the surface of the grains; an outer zone of the grains is transformed; usually a core remains unchanged. Variations in uranium recovery can be explained by variations in the contents of the uranium-bearing minerals, steenstrupine and uranium-containing pigmentary material (altered Zr containing silicate minerals), and in the degree of alteration os steenstrupine. Characterization of these minerals required many qualitative and a few quantitative electron microprobe analyses. (author)

  2. The three-dimensional shapes of underground coal miners' feet do not match the internal dimensions of their work boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-04-01

    Mining work boots provide an interface between the foot and the ground, protecting and supporting miners' feet during lengthy coal mining shifts. Although underground coal miners report the fit of their work boots as reasonable to good, they frequently rate their boots as uncomfortable, suggesting that there is a mismatch between the shape of their feet and their boots. This study aimed to identify whether dimensions derived from the three-dimensional scans of 208 underground coal miners' feet (age 38.3 ± 9.8 years) differed from the internal dimensions of their work boots. The results revealed underground coal miners wore boots that were substantially longer than their feet, possibly because boots available in their correct length were too narrow. It is recommended boot manufacturers reassess the algorithms used to create boot lasts, focusing on adjusting boot circumference at the instep and heel relative to increases in foot length. Practitioner Summary: Fit and comfort ratings suggest a mismatch between the shape of underground coal miners' feet and their boots exists. This study examined whether three-dimensional scans of 208 miners' feet differed from their boot internal dimensions. Miners wore boots substantially longer than their feet, possibly due to inadequate width.

  3. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  4. Geology and uranium mineralization in Sarana sector, Kalan, West Kalimantan based on drilling data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartapa; I Gde Sukadana

    2011-01-01

    Favourable zone of uranium mineralization in Sarana sector with NE-SW direction are contained in metapelite rock and some in muscovite quartzite. Mineralization of uranium is occurred fill in the fields of parallel fractures with stochasticity by ENE-WSW direction, and moderate to strong inclination to the north. Three points drilling with the depth of 126.6, 174.50, and 150.90 meter has been conducted. This study is aimed to obtain the knowledge of geology, and geometry of sub-surface uranium mineralization. Geologically, research area are consists of metapelite, muscovite quartzite and biotite quartzite with milli metric - centi metric thicknesses. Uranium mineralization are in forms of veins or tabular as uraninite and pitchblende associated with pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, ilmenite and molybdenite. Uranium Mineralization on the surface could be correlated with sub-surface from bore-hole data, with the result that zone of uranium mineralization in lenses or tabular form with sub-vertical dip may be identified. (author)

  5. Rare earths from uranium mineralization occurrences in the Permian of the Gemericum, the Western Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkovic, I.; Medved, J.; Walzel, E.; Posta, S.; Sulovsky, P.

    1989-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in the Permian of the Gemericium is accompanied by apatite, monazite and xenotime. The study of rare earth elements distribution is based on the results of instrumental neutron activation analysis and optical emission spectroscopy analysis of rocks and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses of minerals. The main light rare earth elements bearing mineral is monazite; for heavy rare earth elements it is xenotime. The rocks accompanying uranium mineralization have increased rare earth elements contents. The mobilization and concentration of uranium mineralization took place during the Alpine metallogenic processes. These processes were also associated with rare earth elements mobilization is which total and selective enrichment in light rare earth elements and heavy rare earth elements was observed. (author). 12 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  6. Uranium mineralization possibilities in metamorphic Massif of Isla de Juventud, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora Dominguez, L.E.; Llanes Castro, A.I.; Pena Fortes, B.; Capote Rodriguez, G.

    1996-01-01

    The geologic and metallogenic characteristic of the metamorphic Massif shows the presence of possible uranium vein type mineralization as a result of a hidrotermal genetic process. Metalliferous fluids rising along the fault system were responsible for the deposition of the uranium in the reduction zones, i.e. presence of pyrite, organic matter and others. This type of uranium minerization is proposed for the Bibijagua area and for the Revolucion and Lela area the same type is expected. The gamma spectrometric analysis was used to evaluate the geological samples

  7. Depositional environments as a guide to uranium mineralization in the Chinle formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sedimentary textures resulting from depositional processes operating in low-energy environments appear to have influenced uranium mineralization. The Chinle consists of three fining-upward, fluvial-lacustrine sequences. Uranium minerals are concentrated in the lower part of the lowest sequence in areas where sediments of low-energy environment are complexly interbedded with sediments of other environments. Areas favorable for uranium exploration exist in the subsurface to the north, west, and south of the Chinle outcrop in the Swell. This determination is based on the spatial distribution of depositional environments and the pattern of Chinle deposition through time. 8 refs

  8. Characteristics of uranium mineralization and prospecting direction in the northeast of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xide

    2012-01-01

    With greenness considered a kind of symbol of ancient interformational oxidation in under subsegment of Zhiluo Group in the northeast of Ordos Basin, Zaohuohao Uranium deposit , Husiliang, Hantaimiao, and Chaidenghao Uranium mines have been founded one after the other in the exploration process of Sandstone-type uranium deposits and achieved results. The thickness in different sections of the ore bearing sand bodies, Output features in space of ancient interformational oxidation, ore body scales, and configuration are more difference. In the paper some characteristics of Uranium mineralization are summarized, and preliminary proposals are given on prospecting direction in different sections. (author)

  9. Development of advanced methods for early detection of lung cancer in the uranium miner/worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profio, A.E.; Balchum, O.J.; Saccomanno, G.; Huth, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage. 14 references, 6 figures

  10. Origin of uranium and rare earth minerals in bone detritus from rare metal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, G. N.; Dubinchuk, V. T.

    2011-06-01

    In order to ascertain the forms in which uranium is present in ores of the Melovoe rare metal sedimentary deposit of uranium and rare earth minerals (South Mangyshlak), we investigated a series of typical ore samples that were collected earlier; both the uranium content and the total content of rare earth metals in them lay within 0.1-0.3%. The study was carried out by analytical electron microscopy using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, electron microdiffraction, and microprobing. It was ascertained that both uranium and rare earth elements are present in ore mostly associated with biogenic phosphate in the form of natural minerals, such as uraninite, ningyoite, coffinite, autenite, and churchite. Iron hydroxides and graphitized organic matter are present in some samples. It is assumed that the co-occurrence of uranium and rare earth elements, which is nontypical for the sedimentary process, resulted from secondary epigenetic processes and alternation of reducing and oxidizing environmental conditions.

  11. VEIN-TYPE URANIUM MINERALIZATION IN THE EASTERN DESERT OF EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ghoneim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vein type uranium deposits where uranium minerals fill cavities veins, fractures, fissures, pore spaces, shear zone, breccia and stockworks in igneous, meta-sediments and metamorphic rocks are common source of uranium mineralization all over the wold. In Egypt, El-Erediya, El-Missikat and El Sela uranium mineralization occur in younger granite plutons in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These plutons are considered as good examples of intra-granitic vein-type uranium mineralization. The goal of this review article is to study the characteristics of granites and Th-U vein mineralization El Sela area. Main tasks are characteristics of vein type uranium mineralization in the world and Egypt, characteristics of ore-bearing intrusive rocks in the El Sela area, mineralogy of Th-U vein-type mineralization in El Sela area and secondary U and Th minerals in granites. Results. The article revealed that El Sela granite is a peraluminous, high-K Calc-Alkaline (HKCA granite. Two-mica leucogranitic pluton is considered the source rock of U-mineralization at El-Sela area, while the altered microgranite and dolerite dikes are good traps for these mineralizations. The reactivated faults system trending ENE-WSW and NNW-SSE make favorable condition to form uranium mineralization associated with polymetallic mineralization that are redeposited in the two mica granite, microgranite and dolerite dikes. The metallic mineral assemblages in the veins mainly consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and fluorite that are associated with primary (uraninite, coffinite and secondary U-mineralization (uranophane and autunite that occur either as disseminated clusters or as microfracture filling and coating joint surface. Five types of thorite-group minerals can be distinguished: thorite, Zr-rich thorite, phosphothorite, uranothorite and Zr-rich uranothorite. ThO2 content of uraninite vary from (1.1 to 3 wt.%, for PbO contents from 1.16 to 2.35 wt.%, P2O5 contents from

  12. Some aspects of Witwatersrand mineralization, with special reference to uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feather, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented that suggests that temperatures of metamorphic activity in the vicinity of 400 to 600 0 C have been achieved in the Witwatersrand gold-bearing reefs, based on the chemical composition of mixed crystals of gersdorffite and cobaltite that are undoubtedly of authigenic origin, being deposited at the same time as the gold was redistributed and uraninite was probably recrystallized. Sedimentological studies support the view that uraninite is of detrital origin, but it has been suggested that the mineral resulted also from precipitation from solution, since the lichenlike plant, which is seen today as carbon (thucholite) possibly also absorbed uranium from solution during its growth. However, the UO 2 /ThO 2 ratio varies over a wide range in the grains from single reef samples, suggesting a multiple granitic or pegmatitic detrital source. All original features of the uraninite grains have been destroyed by subsequent partial chemical dissolution and alteration to the uranium titanate mineral brannerite (confirmed by electron microprobe and x-ray diffraction studies). Age determination by ion microprobe on minute volumes within the metamict crystals gives the same age (about 1800 million years) for both uraninite and brannerite, suggesting that recrystallization and alteration took place at the same time. This is younger than results obtained on whole grains as determined by other investigators (about 2000 million years), possibly because whole grains may be contaminated with some radiogenic lead of a greater age, which occurs in pits and cracks in the grains and thus was not completely purged from the grains at the time of recrystallization

  13. Uranium minerals and radioactive equilibrium in the Jordan phosphate deposit of Ruseifa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zereini, F.; Urban, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the open pit of Ruseifa (Jordan) a marine sedimentary succession is mined, which belongs to the Maastrichian stage (Upper Cretacious). This up to 28 m thick succession is composed of an alternated stratification of phosphorites, limestones, clay marls and cherts with gradations between these main rock types. As all these rocks contain apatite in varying amounts the whole succession is designed by the term 'phoshate layer'. In the 'phosphate layer' 4 workable phosphorite bearing beds with thicknesses between 1.15 and 3.45 m are present, giving an eminent economical importance to the deposit. Especially the stratigraphically youngest, the fourth phosphorite bed, shows remarkably increased gamma-activities. In the phoshorite the average uranium content amounts up to 110 ppm U. The mineral apatite has been identified to be the main carrier of the uranium. In veins and fissures yellow secondary uranium minerals occur, which have been determined as carnotite and metatuyamunite. The discovery, that uranium is in a state of preponderant radioactive equilibrium with its daughter products, is important for the genesis of the uranium enrichments as well as for practical means of mining. The detected radioactive disequilibria are restricted to the formation of secondary uranium minerals on fissures and joints demonstrating distinct migration of uranium and its daughter product in the last 800 000 years (quaternary until recent weathering). These young geochemical weathering processes did not essentially change the syngenetic distribution of uranium in the phosphorite. With the determined mean uranium content of 110 ppm the whole uranium reserves of Ruseifa evaluates approximately 8580 t of uranium metal out of total phosphate reserves of 78 mio. t. (orig.) [de

  14. Uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real, BA-Brazil: some contributions to understand its genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Sonia Pinto; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Fuzikawa, Kazuo [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: pratess@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium province is situated in the central-south of Bahia state - Brazil. It was found in 1977 by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras - NUCLEBRAS and nowadays 34 anomalies are known in a 30 Km length and 5 km wide area. An open pit mine was open in Cachoeira Mine, in the north portion of the area. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real uranium province occurs in metamorphic rocks named albitites, due to their albite content (over 70%). The albitites are enclosed in the gneisses and granites of the Lagoa Real Complex. Uraninite is the main uranium mineral, followed by pechblende, uranophane, torbernite and other uranyl minerals. Uraninite occurs as tiny round and irregular crystals (20 a 30 {mu}m) included or associated to mafic minerals, mainly pyroxene and garnet, and also to amphibole and biotite and sometimes to albite. X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy and thermal analysis preliminary data (structures, crystalline degree, water loss temperature, thermochemical events) obtained from these minerals provide information which enables the understanding of metallogenesis of the uranium mineralization. (author)

  15. Study geology and uranium mineralization of ririt-amir engkala - tiga dara sector West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Soetopo

    2009-01-01

    The results of previous research from Ririt, Amir Engkala, Tiga Dara sector which consist of geology, geophysics and drilling data show that all of the areas has similar in geology and Uranium mineralization. The purpose of this study is to know the relationship between geological condition and Uranium mineralization in Ririt, Amir Engkala and Tiga Dara sector. In general the geology of Ririt and Amir Engkala is similar with Tiga Dara sector. Those areas consist of tourmaline quartzite, muscovite quartzite, meta ignimbrite, biotite quartz schist, muscovite quartz schist, and micro diorite. The direction of the stratification is NE - SW and dipping to SE and the direction of the stochasticity is W - E and dipping to N. The dextral faults have WNW-ESE and NNE - SSW trends, while the sinistral one is WSW - ENE direction. There are also a thrust fault and a normal fault with WSW-ESE and NW-SE striking respectively. Uranium mineralization as a uraninite fill in the stochasticity and fracture N2600-30° E37°-59° in orientation which associated with magnetite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite,. rutile, ilmenite, tourmaline and quartz. Radiometric value of Uranium mineralization is in the range of 500-15.000 c/s. The mineral association and the present of calcite, gypsum and quartz veins suggest that Uranium mineralization was resulted by hydrothermal magmatic processes. (author)

  16. Uranium miners poised for big leap in competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost uranium producers in Australia, Canada and South Africa expect to secure long term contracts over the next three to five decades as the recession in world industrial growth and stagnation of the American nuclear industry end. The demand for uranium from 1985 onwards will accelerate and by 1990 should surpass production

  17. Recuperation of uranium and gold in mineral pulps by adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.B.; Amorim, L.O.

    1985-06-01

    The technological routes for the treatment of the gold and uranium ores are presented. The results obtained during the continuous tests with the uraniferous Ores of Wabo in Somalia are presented. The utilization of 99% of the uranium content in the alkaline pulp is obtained. (C.B.) [pt

  18. Studies of Grants, New Mexico, uranium miners: status as of December, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Morgan, M.V.; Buechley, R.W.; Key, C.R.; Valdivia, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The report summarizes the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico which was initiated in 1977 with the objective of examining mortality among uranium miners in the Grants mineral belt. Adequate historical information has been obtained on exposure for most subjects, and the dose range complements levels in the literature on health effects of radon daughters. Two separate cohorts are being developed to capitalize on this research opportunity. A prevalence survey of respiratory abnormalities has been completed. Future activities for the cohort of earlier miners will include estimation of exposures, completion of follow-up, and an analysis of lung cancer mortality in relation to WLM

  19. Study on pH conditions in deep underground by using isotopic analysis of carbonate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Hama, Katsuhiro; Metcalfe, R.

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a method for evaluating geochemical environments in deep granitic basement rocks. The method involves analyzing fracture-filling minerals to determine their isotopic compositions. A preliminary isotopic investigation (δ 13 C, δ 18 O, 14 C activity) of the groundwater and fracture-filling calcite in granite at the Tono research site, central Japan, was conducted. The isotopic compositions were used, together with geological evidence for the history of the Tono area, to infer the origins of the waters from which the calcite precipitated. These waters were:1. hydrothermal solutions, 2. relatively 'old' fresh water, 3. seawater, and 4. present groundwater. The investigation methods were very valuable for evaluating the temporal variations of geochemical conditions deep underground. The isotopic evidence for seawater is so far the most direct evidence that seawater penetrated into the granite in this area in the past. (author)

  20. On the possibility of occurrence of uranium mineralization in some sedimentary formations of the Sudety Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miecznik, J.B.; Strzelecki, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Sudety Mts represent a part of the Bohemian Massif which is one of the richest uranium-bearing regions in Europe. The possibilities of occurrence of uranium in most interesting sedimentary formations of the Sudety Mts are analysed. The sedimentary formations which originated during the platform stage of evolution of these Mountains, after formation of Variscan endogenic mineralization, were recognized as perspective here. Sandstone-type uranium deposits and uraniferous black shales were assumed to be the most important in that area. Sandstone-type uranium deposits are related to continental uppermost Carboniferous (Glinik Beds - Westphalian C-D and, possibly, lowermost Stephanian) of the Central Sudety (Intra-Sudetic Depression). They closely resemble uranium deposits known from continental clastic Permo-Carboniferous sections of several parts of Europe. Westphalian D and Stephanian rocks developed in similar lithofacies in the western Sudety Mts (North-Sudetic Depression) may be also characterized by increased content of uranium. Attention is also paid to the possibilities of occurrence of uranium mineralization in shallow-marine sandstones and continental deposits of the Cenomanian as uranium deposits are known from similarly developed Cenomanian in the North Czech Upper Cretaceous Table area, i.e. in the direct neighbourhood of the Sudety Mts. Traces of uranium mineralization were found in black shales of the Lower Silurian section in the Kaczawa Mts (western Sudety Mts) and Bardo Mts (Central Sudety). The recorded concentrations (up to several hundred ppm) may be compared with uranium occurrences known from Lower Silurian sections of the Barrandian (CSSR) and Thuringia (GDR). (author)

  1. Estimation of radon daughter levels in the ventilation planning of an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, T.H.; Wise, K.N.; Leach, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion parameters determined by laboratory measurements can be utilized for predictions of radon daughter exposures in underground mining environments, as well as providing data for ventilation planning purposes. Wherever possible field measured data for the various diffusion parameters should be used. Underground mining methods, the tunnel model and diffusion theory are considered

  2. Methodological Study on Dose Reconstruction for Uranium Miners in China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, J.; Ma, J.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Yang, M.; Wang, W.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposure of uranium miners is very important in the nuclear industry. The individual dose to the miners in the earlier times in China suffers from a lack of information. To reconstruct the individual doses of uranium miners, a retrospective method was developed, the integration of annual effective working time and annual average alpha potential energy in working areas is used to calculate the individual dose to the miner by this method. In order to verify the validation of the method, some experiments were carried out in a uranium mine. Both internal and external individual doses received by the selected miners were monitored with individual dosemeters, area monitoring was also conducted: meanwhile, the working time and working places of the selected miners were recorded clearly. The result shows that the retrospective method can be used to estimate the collective dose and the dose level of miners with an unfixed working area in the mine, but there is a large difference between the results of the retrospective method and the monitoring result when the method is used to estimate the individual dose of miners with a relatively fixed working area. On the other hand, the collective dose and individual dose estimated according to the clearly recorded working history of the miners and alpha potential energy closely agree with the individual monitoring result. Based on the result, the importance of clearly recording the working history of the miners and area monitoring has been indicated when the individual monitoring of miners is inadequate. A simplified method with acceptable uncertainty has also been suggested to estimate the individual dose of uranium miners. (author)

  3. The effect of time-dependent ventilation and radon (thoron) gas emanation rates in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical radiation mine model, suitable for underground uranium mines, has been investigated. In this model, the rate of ventilation and/or the radon (thoron) gas emanation from mine walls are time-dependent. Several cases of practical interest have been investigated including sinusoidal, linear, exponential, stepwise, or a combination of two or more of the above. Analytical solutions were obtained for the time-dependent radon (thoron) gas emanation rate. However, because of the extreme analytical complexity of the solutions corresponding to the time-dependent ventilation rate case, numerical solutions were found using a special Runge-Kutta procedure and the Hamming's modified predictor-corrector method for the solution of linear initial-value problems. The mine model makes provisions for losses of radioactivity, other than by ventilation and radioactive decay, by, say, plate-out on mine walls, and by other mechanisms. Radioactivity data, i.e., radon, thoron, and their progeny, obtained with the above mine model for a number of ventilation and emanation conditions, are presented. Experimental data obtained in an inactive stope of an underground uranium mine for a time-dependent air flow case are shown. Air flow conditions (ventilation rate) were determined by tracer gas techniques using SF 6

  4. Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccomanno, G.

    2000-06-30

    ''Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology'' was funded by the Department of Energy to monitor the health effects of radon exposure and/or cigarette smoke on uranium workers from the Colorado Plateau. The resulting Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive and data base has been used as a source of information to prove eligibility for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act and as the source of primary data tissue for a subcontract and other collaborations with outside investigators. The latter includes a study of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in a non-smoking cohort of uranium miners (subcontract); a study of genetic markers for lung cancer susceptibility; and a study of {sup 210}Pb accumulation in the skull as a biomarker of radon exposure.

  5. Uranium mineralization characteristics and metallogenic conditions in Simen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunjie

    2012-01-01

    Jinbiansi deposit is located in the southwest of Qinshanbu, east of Longshou mountain. It has a series of uranium occurrences, which has a good metallogenic setting. The text systemic analyses the magmatic condition, structure condition, hydrothermal condition, subsequent transformation condition, especially the alkali metasomatism, which has a osculant connection with alkali metasomatism in the area. It has certain practical significant for the next uranium deposit prospecting. (author)

  6. Study on the utilization of a sodium-sulfuric acid solution for the uranium minerals' leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, Patricia; Fruchtenicht, Fernando; Gil, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel; Bouza, Angel; Vert, Gabriela; Becquart, Elena

    1988-01-01

    Argentine uranium minerals have been leached at bench scale with a different agent trying to reduce sulfuric acid consumption. The leaching agent was a sodium sulfate-sulfuric acid solution and the ore was from Sierra Pintada (San Rafael - Mendoza). The work was performed in stirred vessel at atmospheric pressure. The influence of different variables, pH, temperature, oxidant agent, sodium sulfate concentration and time, in the sulfuric acid consumption and the uranium yield was studied. (Author) [es

  7. Geology and evaluation of the uranium mineral occurrence at Igdlorssuit, South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.

    1986-05-01

    Geological and radiometric mapping, and petrological and mineralogical investigations were made of a uranium mineral occurrence at Igdlorssuit, South Greenland during 1984 and 1985. The results have been evaluated in terms of the uranium potential and genesis the showing. The work was part of the South Greenland Exploration Programme (Sydex) carried out by the Geological Survey of Greenland (GGU) in cooperation with Risoe National Laboratory (Risoe). It was financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. Igdlorssuit is located at the northerly limit of the fjord system about 60 km north of Kap Farvel (60 deg. 23 min.; 46 deg. 06 min.). The main uranium mineral showing is on a small alp on the eastern side, 500 m vertically above the fjord. Detailed plane table mapping (1:1000), and radiometric measurements with a lead collimated scintillometer calibrated for uranium delineated this occurrence: Regional mapping (1:10 000), however, showed that it was only one of many similar uranium occurrences in the area albeit the largest and richest. Over 35 uranium mineral occurences have been found scattered over the hillside. Textural and paragenetic relationships, and isotopic data show that the uranium was present in the supracrustal units before the folding, metamorphism and intrusion of the granite. The largest, highest grade uranium mineralised zone is about 50m long and up to 5m wide with an average grade of 0.31% with highs up to 7%. The results of the mapping and sampling has established that this type of mineral occurence can reach economic grades, and its surface expression suggests a size which could approach economic proportions. 3 maps, 30 refs. (EG)

  8. McArthur River underground exploration program: report of the joint Federal-Provincial panel on uranium mining developments in Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A report of the joint federal-provincial panel on uranium mining developments in northern Saskatchewan, on the McArthur River underground exploration program. The proposal to construct the surface and underground facilities required for the exploration and delineation of the McArthur River ore body, and any necessary additional infrastructure has been examined and public hearings have been held. The panel recommends that the underground exploration program as described by Cameco in its Environmental Impact Statement, and as clarified in its written and oral responses to the panel, be allowed to proceed under the conditions described within the report

  9. Evaluation of fifteen epidemiologic studies examining the lung cancer mortality of underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A group of 15 epidemiologic studies was identified in which researchers reported excess lung cancer deaths among underground miners who worked in mines where radon (10043922) progeny were present. Several other studies demonstrated a dose response relationship existing between radon progeny exposure and mortality from lung cancer. Two recent studies indicated excess numbers of cases of lung cancer deaths resulting from mean cumulative radon progeny exposures below 100 Working Level Months (WLM). In the mining environment exposure can also occur to other substances such as arsenic (1332214), diesel exhaust, smoking, chromium (7440473), nickel (7440020), and radiation, which can affect the lung cancer risk resulting from exposure to radon progeny. Not much was available in the literature which deals with the results of these combined exposures except the finding that a combined exposure to radon progeny and cigarette smoke resulted in a higher risk than exposure to either substance alone. X-ray surveillance and sputum cytology appeared to be ineffective in preventing radon progeny induced lung cancers in individual miners. There does not appear to be any particular association between one specific lung cancer cell type and radon progeny exposure

  10. Uranium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenthe, Ingmar; Drożdżyński, Janusz; Fujino, Takeo; Buck, Edgar C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wolf, Stephen F.

    Uranium compounds have been used as colorants since Roman times (Caley, 1948). Uranium was discovered as a chemical element in a pitchblende specimen by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who published the results of his work in 1789. Pitchblende is an impure uranium oxide, consisting partly of the most reduced oxide uraninite (UO2) and partly of U3O8. Earlier mineralogists had considered this mineral to be a complex oxide of iron and tungsten or of iron and zinc, but Klaproth showed by dissolving it partially in strong acid that the solutions yielded precipitates that were different from those of known elements. Therefore he concluded that it contained a new element (Mellor, 1932); he named it after the planet Uranus, which had been discovered in 1781 by William Herschel, who named it after the ancient Greek deity of the Heavens.

  11. Synthesis on Biology and Uranium Mineralization of Rabau Hulu Sector Kalan, Kalimantan Barat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Soetopo; Retno-Witjahyanti; Yanu-Wusana

    2004-01-01

    The results of previous research on Rabau Hulu sector consist of geology, geophysics and drilling data show that the area prospect for finding U mineralization. Goal of this synthesis is to know geological and U mineralization of Rabau sector in order to develop further followup program. In general geology the area consists of biotite micro quartzite, muscovite micro quartzite, muscovite quartzite, leopard quartzite, horn fels and granite. The directions of stratification is NE-SW of the dipping is NW. Prominent fault is NE-SW sinistral fault, NNE-SSW and NW-SE dextral fault. Uranium mineralization as a uraninite fill in the space between minerals and fractures system ENE-WSW, its associated with pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, sphalerite, magnetite, tourmaline and quartz. With radiometric anomalies values are about 1.000-15.000 c/s. Uranium mineralization process is connected with the granite intrusion as the hydrothermal magnetic process. (author)

  12. Resource characterization for uranium mineralization in the Montrose 10 x 20 quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Balog, S.H.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    A data-classification scheme was developed to detect potential uranium mineralization in the Montrose 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle, Colorado. The methodology developed is a rapid and efficient method of resource evaluation on a reconnaissance scale. The necessary techniques were developed and refined to digitize, integrate, and register various large geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets for the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado, using a grid resolution of 1 km. All data sets for the Montrose quadrangle were registered to the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The data sets include hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses for 23 elements, uranium-to-thorium ratios, airborne geophysical survey data, the locations of 90 uranium occurrences, and a geologic map (scale 1:250 000). Geochemical samples were collected from 3965 locations in the 19 200 km 2 quadrangle; aerial data were collected on flight lines flown with 3 to 5 km spacings. These data sets were smoothed by universal kriging and interpolated to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid (each grid block is 1 km 2 ). A mylar transparency of the geologic map was prepared and digitized. All possible combinations of three, for all data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. Subsets of data were further examined for selected test areas. A classification scheme for uranium mineralization, based on selected test areas in the Cochetopa uranium district, is presented. Areas favorable for uranium mineralization, based on this scheme, were identified and are discussed

  13. 238U/235U Systematics in terrestrial uranium-bearing minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiess, Joe; Condon, Daniel J; McLean, Noah; Noble, Stephen R

    2012-03-30

    The present-day (238)U/(235)U ratio has fundamental implications for uranium-lead geochronology and cosmochronology. A value of 137.88 has previously been considered invariant and has been used without uncertainty to calculate terrestrial mineral ages. We report high-precision (238)U/(235)U measurements for a suite of uranium-bearing minerals from 58 samples representing a diverse range of lithologies. This data set exhibits a range in (238)U/(235)U values of >5 per mil, with no clear relation to any petrogenetic, secular, or regional trends. Variation between comagmatic minerals suggests that (238)U/(235)U fractionation processes operate at magmatic temperatures. A mean (238)U/(235)U value of 137.818 ± 0.045 (2σ) in zircon samples reflects the average uranium isotopic composition and variability of terrestrial zircon. This distribution is broadly representative of the average crustal and "bulk Earth" (238)U/(235)U composition.

  14. Analysis on uranium mineralization-formation condition and prospecting potential in Xidamingshan metallogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhixing; Qi Fucheng; He Zhongbo; Zhang Zilong

    2012-01-01

    There are many different opinions about the source of uranium and metallogenic mechanism in Xidamingshan metallogenic belt. therefore it blocked uranium resources potential evaluation and ore exploration. Through absorb in- formation and investigate Daxin deposit and systematic analysis on samples. It is believed that uranium source mainly came from Cambrian System, a little came from the deep. The Devonian System is favorable room for saving ores in addition to be pre-concentrated room for uranium. Also, there are new cognition about uranium metallogenic mechanism, establish ore-forming series of Xidamingshan metallogenic belt, It is proposed that uranium mineralization have experienced 4 stages; It is cleared that hydrothermal fluid superposition transform type uranium deposit is main genetic type, ancient karst accumulate type is secondary genetic type, the later is formed by leaching the former and then precipitate, enrichment in ancient karst congeries, which is formed nearby faults and with the movement of Xishan structural movement. It is proven that metallogenic potential of Xidamingshan metallogenic belt is good. Tectonic rock controlled by subsidiary fracture nearby regional main fault, which connected with the Cambrian System and the Devonian System, and the deep of the deposit is guideline of mineral prospecting next stage. (authors)

  15. Environmental restoration. Stabilization of mining tailing and uranium mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Carboneras, P.

    1998-01-01

    ENRESA has dismantling a uranium mill facility and restored the site since 1991 to 1994. Since 1997, 19 uranium mines are being re mediated. The Andujar uranium mill was operational since 1959 to 1981. The remedial action plan performed in the Andujar mill site involved stabilizing and consolidating the uranium mill tailings and contaminated materials in place. Mill equipment, building and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris have been placed in the pile. The tailings mass has been reshape by flattening the side slopes and cover system was placed over the pile. The uranium mines are located in Extremadura and Andalucia. There is a great diversity among the mines in terms of the magnitude of the disturbed areas by mining work and the effects on the environment, including excavations, waste rock piles, abandoned shafts and galleries, and remaining of surface structures and facilities. Remedial measures include the sealing for shafts and openings to prevent collapse of mine workings and subsidence, the dewatering and the open-pit excavation and the treatment of the contaminated waters, the disposal and the stabilization of mining debris piles to prevent dispersion, the placement of a re vegetated cover over the piles to control dust and erosion, and the restoration of the site. (Author)

  16. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Progress report, March 15, 1974--March 15, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1975-01-01

    The three projects supported by Atomic Energy Commission are of utmost importance and consist of: collection of material from uranium miners known to have cancer of the lung into a tumor registry; regression study of sputum cytological findings in uranium miners who showed marked atypical squamous cell metaplasia and have quit smoking cigarettes, mining, or both. This study was active for the last six years and some interesting information is being accumulated. Manual of Pulmonary Cytology. Approximately 60,000 sputum samples have been examined over the last 17 years in cases that showed normal cytology at the inception of study and subsequently developed carcinoma of the lung. (U.S.)

  17. French uranium mines and miners from 1945 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.

    2009-04-01

    The author proposes an historical review of the French uranium mining activity, and more particularly of its actors from 1945 to 1975 with the creation of the CEA and of its different departments, and their successive managers. CEA teams explored several countries but also exploit uranium ores in France (275 tons in 1956). After a continuous development until 1962, an important discovery in Niger, the activity in France faced great difficulties between 1970 and 1973, just before knowing great time due to the French electronuclear program (1974-1980), and to the strong increase of the uranium market. The first oil crisis was still a benefit, but the third oil crisis (1980) caused a reduction of power plant commissioning

  18. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, Toya N; Gallagher, Neal B; Myers, Tanya L; Szecsody, James E; Tonkyn, Russell G; Su, Yin-Fong; Sweet, Lucas E; Lewallen, Tricia A; Johnson, Timothy J

    2018-02-01

    The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing species, is often a labor-intensive process using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase or wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field applications, handheld infrared (IR) reflectance spectrometers can now also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, nondestructive identification possible via analysis of the solid's reflectance spectrum providing information not found in other techniques. In this paper, we report the use of laboratory methods that measure the IR hemispherical reflectance of solids using an integrating sphere and have applied it to the identification of mineral mixtures (i.e., rocks), with widely varying percentages of uranium mineral content. We then apply classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods to better discriminate the minerals (along with two pure uranium chemicals U 3 O 8 and UO 2 ) against many common natural and anthropogenic background materials (e.g., silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) with good success. Ground truth as to mineral content was attained primarily by XRD. Identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g., boltwoodite, tyuyamunite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The characteristic IR bands generate unique (or class-specific) bands, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: uranyls, phosphates, silicates, etc. In some cases, the chemical groups that provide spectral discrimination in the longwave IR reflectance by generating upward-going (reststrahlen) bands can provide discrimination in the midwave and shortwave IR via downward-going absorption features, i.e., weaker overtone or combination bands arising from the same chemical moieties.

  19. Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riese, A.C.; Propp, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Modern methods of uranium solution mining are typically accompanied by gains and losses of mass through reagent consumption by rock-forming minerals, with subsequent formation of clay minerals, gypsum, carbonates, and iron oxyhydroxides. A systematic approach to alleviate such problems involves the application of leach solutions that are in equilibrium with the host-rock minerals but in disequilibrium with the ore-forming minerals. This partial equilibrium can be approximated by solution-composition adjustments within the systems K 2 O-Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 -H 2 O and Na 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 -H 2 O. Uranium ore containing 0.15 percent U 3 O 8 from the Gulf Mineral Resources Corporation's Mariano Lake mine, the Smith Lake district of the Grants mineral belt, was collected for investigation. Presented are a theoretical evaluation of leachate data and an experimental treatment of the ore, which contained mainly K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, and quartz (with lesser amounts of micas, clay minerals, and organic carbonaceous material). Small-scale (less than or equal to 1 kg) column-leaching experiments were conducted to model the results of conventional leaching operations and to provide leachate solutions that could be compared with solutions calculated to be in equilibrium with the matrix minerals. Leach solutions employed include: 1) sulfuric acid, 2) sodium bicarbonate, and 3) sulfuric acid with 1.0 molal potassium chloride. The uranium concentrations in the sodium-bicarbonate leach solution and the acid-leach solution were about a gram per liter at the termination of the tests. However, the permeability of the ore in the acid leach was greatly reduced, owing to the formation of clay minerals. Uranium solubility in the leach column stabilized with the potassium-chloride solution was calculated from leachate compositions to be limited by the solubility of carnotite

  20. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswenger, Toya N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Gallagher, Neal B. [Eigenvector Research, Inc., Manson, WA, USA; Myers, Tanya L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Tonkyn, Russell G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Su, Yin-Fong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Lewallen, Tricia A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Johnson, Timothy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

    2017-10-24

    The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing minerals, is traditionally a labor-intensive-process using x-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase and wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field identification, handheld infrared reflectance spectrometers can also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, non-destructive identification possible via spectral analysis of the solid’s reflectance spectrum. We have recently developed standard laboratory measurement methods for the infrared (IR) reflectance of solids and have investigated using these techniques for the identification of uranium-bearing minerals, using XRD methods for ground-truth. Due to the rich colors of such species, including distinctive spectroscopic signatures in the infrared, identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g. boltwoodite, schoepite, tyuyamunite, carnotite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The method can be used to detect not only pure and partial minerals, but is quite sensitive to chemical change such as hydration (e.g. schoepite). We have further applied statistical methods, in particular classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) for discrimination of such uranium minerals and two uranium pure chemicals (U3O8 and UO2) against common background materials (e.g. silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) with good success. Each mineral contains unique infrared spectral features; some of the IR features are similar or common to entire classes of minerals, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: phosphates, sulfates, carbonates, etc. These characteristic 2 infrared bands generate the unique (or class-specific) bands that distinguish the mineral from the interferents or backgrounds. We have observed several cases where the chemical moieties that provide the

  1. Detection and evaluation of uranium in different minerals by gamma spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergani, F.M.; Khedr, M.A.; Harith, M.A. [National Inst. of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo Univ. (Egypt); El Mongy, S.A. [National Center for Nuclear Safety, Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Analysis, detection and evaluation of source nuclear materials (e.g. uranium) in different minerals by sensitive techniques are a vital objective for uranium exploration, nuclear materials extraction, processing and verification. In this work, uranium in different geological formations was determined using gamma spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The investigated samples were collected from different regions distributed all over Egypt. The samples were then prepared for non-destructive analysis. A hyper pure germanium detector was used to measure the emitted gamma rays of uranium and its daughters in the samples. The concentrations of uranium in ppm ({mu}g/g) in the investigated samples are given and discussed in this work. The highest uranium concentration (4354.9 ppm) was found in uranophane samples of Gattar rocks. In Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, plasma was formed by irradiating the rock surface with focused Q-switched Nd:Yag laser pulses of 7 ns pulse duration at the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm). Atoms and ions originating from the rock surface are excited and ionized in the laser produced hot plasma ({proportional_to}10 000 K). The plasma emission spectral line is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma and allows identification of the uranium in the uranophane mineral. The strong atomic line at 424.2 nm is used for the qualitative identification of uranium. It can be mentioned that the elevated levels of uranium in some of the investigated uranophane samples are of great economic feasibility to be extracted. (orig.)

  2. Reconnaissance geochemical survey for uranium and related industrial minerals in Cebu Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.Y.; Ramos, A.F.; Magsambol, W.N.; Hernandez, E.

    1989-03-01

    Consistent with the program of evaluating the nuclear mineral resource potential and related industrial minerals of the Philippines, a reconnaissance geochemical survey was conducted in Cebu with considerable success. The total area covered by the survey was about 5,088 sq. kms. The survey consisted of systematic collection of 857 geochemical stream and water and heavy mineral samples, and measurement of radioactivity in over 352 stations. The average sampling density was about one set of samples per 15 to 30 sq. kms. All solid samples were analyzed for U, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ag, Co and Ni. Uranium, radon and conductivity were measured on most water samples collected. A total of 4,518 elemental determinations were involved. All field and analytical data were treated by statistics, and the computed parameters data were correlated with the geology of the area to establish anomalous zones. Four areas were delineated for possible uranium mineralization. Of the areas, the Mandaue river area is the most interesting for uranium. The contact zone between the diorite and the sedimentary rocks in this area appears to be a favorable geological environment for uranium mineralization. The other anomalous uranium values were found to be related with the guano and phosphate deposits. Uranium was also shown to be independent of the other seven elements in the geologic environment of Cebu. No definite elemental association could be established at present. This study also marks the thorough utilization of Q'GAS, Cadplot and Autocad, all microcomputer-based programs/systems, in the evaluation and interpretation of exploration-oriented geochemical and geological data, and with more significance in the sense that computer generated quality geochemical maps were produced, a first in the country. (Author). Appendices (23); 23 figs; 13 refs.; 4 tabs

  3. Okelobondo Uranium deposit: Regional context, stratigraphy, sedimentology, tectonic and mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ango, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the geology of Okelobondo uranium deposit (Gabon) and gives the study prospects of natural reactor phenomenon which depends of the operating progress state. Oklo phenomenon is considered as the best natural analogue for the study of radionuclide migration. 3 figs

  4. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners: Third annual report for the period 1 April 1985-15 December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    This Technical Progress Report for the first 32 months of the contract ''Lung Cancer Epidemiology in New Mexico Uranium Miners''describes by task the activities finished or begun since April, 1983. For the retrospective cohort study of miners with first underground experience before 1971, abstracting and entering of all the Grants Clinic smoking and mining histories has been completed, and editing is under way. All company-reported Working Level Months (WLM) data for 1967 to 1982 have been abstracted, keyed, and edited. For earlier years, the data base of working level measurements obtained from state agencies is also completed. Further follow-up of the cohort has been accomplished through the Social Security Administration and the National Death Index. Death certificates have been received for 345 deceased cohort members. For feasibility evaluation of a prospective cohort study of miners with first underground experience after 1970, refinements of previous projections of available subjects have been made. An estimated 10,447 persons are available but with low mean cumulative exposures. Grants Clinic information for all miners has been collected on microfilm. Finally, planning for analysis has continued. To calculate comparison mortality rates, it is necessary to derive population estimates for New Mexico from 1957 through 1982. This task has been completed, and racial/ethnic group-specific rates have been computed for 1958 to 1982. Alternative statistical approaches for data analysis are being considered. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  5. Geology and potency of Uranium mineralization occurrences in Harau area, West Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Background of this study is due to the geological setting of Harau area and its surrounding, West Sumatera, that is identified as a favourable area for uranium accumulation which is indicated by the presence of anomalous radioactivity in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited on the terrestrial environment and the presence of anomalous uranium contents in Pre-Tertiary granites in several places in West Sumatera, and the presence of radioactivity anomalous in the Pre Tertiary metamorphic rocks. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential formation of uranium mineralization in the Harau area, to be used as a basis to conduct more detailed research in order to inventory the potential of uranium resources in Indonesia. The scope of the discussion in this review includes a discussion of geology, geochemistry and radioactivity of the outcrops. The composition of regional stratigraphic from old to young is quartzite unit, phyllite unit, conglomerate unit, sandstone unit, tuff unit and alluvium river. The main fault that developed in the study area are normal faults trending southwest – northeast. The study area is splitted into two sections where the southeastern part relatives fall down of the northwest. Based on geological setting, radioactivity and uranium data then is assumed that Harau is a potential area for the formation of uranium mineralization in sandstone and its vein type. Sandstone type is expected occur in sandstone conglomerate unit of The Brani Formation and vein type is expected occur in the quartzite unit of The Kuantan Formation. (author)

  6. Prospect analysis for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the northern margin of Qaidam basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Song Xiansheng; Feng Wei; Song Zhe; Li Wei

    2010-01-01

    Affected by the regional geological structural evolution, a set of sedimentary structure, i.e. the construction of coal-bearing classic rocks which is in favor of the sandstone-type uranium mineralization has deposited in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin since Meso-Cenozoic. A NWW thrust nappe tectonic belt, i.e. the ancient tectonic belt which is the basis for the development of ancient interlayer oxidation zone formed by the tectonic reverse in late Jurassic and Cretaceous. The Mid and late Jurassic layer was buried by the weak extension in Paleogene and the depression in early Neogene. The extrusion reversal from late Neogene to Quaternary made the basin into the development era of the modern interlayer oxidation zone. It can be concluded that the layer of the northern margin of Qaidam Basin has the premise for the formation of sandstone-type uranium ore. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the thrust belt, the structure of the purpose layer, the sand body, the hydrogeology, the interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization, the results indicated that the ancient interlayer oxidation zone is the prospecting type of sandstone-type uranium ore. Beidatan and the east of Yuqia are the favorable prospective area of sandstone-type uranium mineralization. (authors)

  7. Discussion on geochemical characteristics, mechanism and prospecting model of gluey type sandstone uranium mineralization--taking Redwell uranium deposit as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping

    1998-01-01

    Redwell uranium deposit hosted in the red clastic rock formation, is a typical example of gluey type uranium mineralization, which has not been reported so far in China. Based on the study of geochemical characteristics of Redwell deposit, the author discusses the genetic mechanism of this type deposits, and proposes the prospecting model of 4 in 1 of red bed-fault-oil gas-uranium source

  8. Geophysical features of uranium mineralization in Wadi Bahiya area, southern Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang; Liang Shanming; Deng Xiaowei; Li Shengxiang; Wang Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Based on comprehensive study of geologic survey, sample analysis and ground gamma spectral survey, it is concluded that the uranium mineralization in Wadi Bahiya area, southern Jordan occurs near surface and is mostly hosted in weathered gray-brown chalk marl of Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene, and belongs to surficial calcrete-type which is related to modern oxidation. The ground gamma spectral survey shows that surface anomaly area is small and big gradient change of the anomalies. The trenches reveal that uranium content of the anomalies falls down from near-surface to the deep. The analytical results of the samples from the area correspond with the gamma spectral measurements, demonstrating that uranium mineralization is mainly located within the depth between 0.5 and 1.5 m. (authors)

  9. Ianthinite: A rare hydrous uranium oxide mineral from Akkavaram ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ianthinite is the only known uranyl oxide hydrate mineral that contains both U6+ and U4+. For the first time, we report ianthinite from India (at Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh), which is hosted in basement granitoids. The mineral occurs in the form of tiny grains, encrustations and coatings in intimate association with uraninite ...

  10. Multisource data set integration and characterization of uranium mineralization for the Montrose Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Balog, S.H.; Campbell, K.; Fugelso, L.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Wecksung, G.W.

    1981-04-01

    Several data-classification schemes were developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to detect potential uranium mineralization in the Montrose 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle, Colorado. A first step was to develop and refine the techniques necessary to digitize, integrate, and register various large geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets, including Landsat 2 imagery, for the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado, using a grid resolution of 1 km. All data sets for the Montrose quadrangle were registered to the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The data sets include hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses for 23 elements, uranium-to-thorium ratios, airborne geophysical survey data, the locations of 90 uranium occurrences, a geologic map and Landsat 2 (bands 4 through 7) imagery. Geochemical samples were collected from 3965 locations in the 19 200 km 2 quadrangle; aerial data were collected on flight lines flown with 3 to 5 km spacings. These data sets were smoothed by universal kriging and interpolated to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid. A mylar transparency of the geologic map was prepared and digitized. Locations for the known uranium occurrences were also digitized. The Landsat 2 imagery was digitally manipulated and rubber-sheet transformed to quadrangle boundaries and bands 4 through 7 were resampled to both a 1-km and 100-m resolution. All possible combinations of three, for all data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. Subsets of data were further examined for selected test areas. Two classification schemes for uranium mineralization, based on selected test areas in both the Cochetopa and Marshall Pass uranium districts, are presented. Areas favorable for uranium mineralization, based on these schemes, were identified and are discussed

  11. Agricolaite, a new mineral of uranium from Jáchymov, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Ondruš, P.; Veselovský, F.; Císařová, I.; Hloušek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, 1/4 (2011), s. 169-175 ISSN 0930-0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : agricolaite * uranyl carbonate * uranium * new mineral * Jáchymov Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2011

  12. Structural changes in amber due to uranium mineralization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, Ivana; René, Miloš; Borecká, Lenka; Lapčák, L.; Bičáková, Olga; Janeček, O.; Dvořák, Z.

    158-159, JUL (2016), s. 89-101 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : fossil resin * amber * uranium * radiolytic alteration * micro-FTIR * mapping * SEM/EDX Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  13. Structural changes in amber due to uranium mineralization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, M.; Machovič, V.; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, I.; Rene, M.; Borecká, L.; Lapčák, L.; Bičáková, O.; Janeček, O.; Dvořák, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, JUL (2016), s. 89-101 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fossil resin * amber * Uranium * radiolytic alteration * micro-FTIR * mapping * SEM/EDX Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  14. Geology and mineral technology of the grants uranium region 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Forty six papers which were presented at the 1979 Symposium on the Geology of the Grants Uranium Region plus three more are included in this Proceedings. The papers cover the geology of the Grants region with discussions of exploration history and methods, individual deposits, petrographic investigations, field studies mining and experimental studies. Other topics such as ground water hydrology and severence taxes are also included. All papers have been abstracted and all but four have been indexed

  15. Aspects of uranium mineralization in Figueira-PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, S.

    1974-01-01

    CNEN has been drilling in the Parana Basin since 1970. The data in the form of eletric, gama ray and stratigrafic logs and chemical analysis or core and cutting samples have been studied. These data show that the uranium deposition is in a paleochannel in the lower part of the Rio Bonito Formation and is due to an epigenetic process. The concentrations encountered indicate the possibility of an economic deposit

  16. Study of the total uranium in underground water in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria V, M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of water of wells in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua were analyzed, and its were determined the content of total uranium. It was used the technique of extraction of uranium from water adding Bis ( 2- ethylexyl) phosphate and scintillating Beta plate Hi safe, and the measures of the activities were carried out in the portable scintillation detector Thiathler- O Y HIDEX. The obtained interval of concentrations was 0.12 to 0.26 Bq/l that it is finds below the maximum permissible limits that it manages the Mexican regulation. It was found a significant correlation among the concentration of uranium and those total solid dissolved present in the samples. (Author)

  17. Nuclear minerals prospect ion activity report Period 1985-1987-Uranium prospect ion in Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In framework of Mineral Inventory and Nuclear minerals program in the article has been carried out the following aims: strategic level, synthesis and results reached, evaluation conclusions and trends

  18. Geochemical and isotopic investigations on the thermal and mineral underground waters from the Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisi, Barbara; Bogdevich, Oleg; Vaselli, Orlando; Nicoara, Igor; Tassi, Franco; Culighin, Elena; Mogorici, Cristina; Jeleapov, Victor; Mussi, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Republic of Moldova (RM) has a large spectrum of underground mineral waters (16 reservoirs) of eight principal aquifers, most of which affected by contaminants originated by natural sources and anthropogenic activities. Inorganic natural tracers and stable isotopes are useful tools to fingerprint the water source and solutes, respectively. The aim of this investigation was to determine the geochemical and isotopic features of the most important thermo- and mineral waters from RM to trace their flow pathways and evaluate the presence of deep fluid sources discharging from fault systems, developed in response to the structural setting of the area. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic geochemical investigations were previously carried out in this area. RM has an area of 33,840 km2 and lies within the East European Precambrian Platform, two structural and/or stratigraphic layers, which are distinguishable in basement and sedimentary cover in the northern and central part of country. The basement rocks include granites, gneisses and gabbros. The sedimentary cover, overlying the crystalline basement, is almost undeformed and consists of Upper Proterozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. The geological structure is like a matrix formed from different layers of rocks consisting of permeable and impermeable strata. The deep aquifers are situated down to 1,000 m depth from the bottom to the top: Vendian (Ediocariam) and crystalline basement rocks, Silurian crystalline limestone, Cretaceous limestone, Baden-Sarmatian limestone and clay-sand deposits, middle Sarmatian limestone and clay-sand layers. Other younger aquifers were not investigated. In this framework, 54 samples from the most important underground reservoirs of RM were collected and analyzed for major, trace species and dissolved gases. An inventory of isotopic (18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios in water and 13C/12C in dissolved CO2) features (including tritium units in selected samples) was also provided. By a

  19. Appraisal of selected epidemiologic issues from studies of lung cancer among uranium and hard rock miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, G.R.; Sever, L.E.

    1982-04-01

    An extensive body of published information about lung cancer among uranium miners was reviewed and diverse information, useful in identifying important issues but not in resolving them was found. Measuring exposure and response; thresholds of exposure; latency or the period from first mining experience to death; effort to predict excess risk of death, using a model; effects of smoking and radon daughter exposure on the histology of lung tumors; and the interplay of factors on the overall risk of death were all examined. The general concept of thresholds; that is, an exposure level below which risk does not increase was considered. The conclusion is that it should be possible to detect and estimate an epidemiologic threshold when the cohorts have been followed to the death of all members. Issues concerning latency in the studies of uranium miners published to date were examined. It is believed that the induction-latent period for lung cancer among uranium miners may be: as little as 10 to more than 40 years; dependent on age at which exposure begins; exposure rate; and ethnicity or smoking habits. Although suggested as factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been confirmed. The median induction-latent period appears to be in excess of the 15 years frequently cited for US uranium miner. A distinct pattern of shorter induction-latent periods with increasing age at first mining exposure is reported. The evidence for and against an unusual histologic pattern of lung cancers among uranium miners was examined. The ratio of epidermoid to small cell types was close to 1:2; the ratio in the general population is nearer 2:1. The histologic pattern warrants closer attention of pathologists and epidemiologists. (ERB)

  20. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo; Yamazaki, Ione Makiko

    2011-01-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO 3 (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 μL of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm 2 area) together with 5 μL of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95±0.19) μg.L -1 to (25.60±3.3) μg.L -1 . These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  1. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo [Centro Universitario da Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB), (SP) (Brazil); Yamazaki, Ione Makiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO{sub 3} (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 {mu}L of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm{sup 2} area) together with 5 {mu}L of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95{+-}0.19) {mu}g.L{sup -1} to (25.60{+-}3.3) {mu}g.L{sup -1}. These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  2. EXPOSURE LEVELS FOR PERSONNEL OF NON-URANIUM UNDERGROUND ENTERPRISES FROM NATURAL IRRADIATION SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Koroljova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the results of radiation survey at more than 100 non-uranium mining enterprises fulfilled by the Institute over the last 20 years. The article considers radiation situation formation appropriateness, demonstrates the evaluation of effective exposure doses of mining enterprises personnel from natural irradiation sources in working conditions, the dose structure is given.

  3. Study of uranium mineralization in rock samples from marwat range bannu basin by fission track analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.Z.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Akram, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Geophysics Division, Atomic Energy Minerals Centre (AEMC), Lahore has planned a uranium exploration program in Marwat Range, Bannu Basin. In this connection 30 thin sections of rock samples, collected from four areas; namely, Darra Tang, Simukili, Karkanwal and Sheikhillah from Marwat Range, and one from Salt Range were provided to Nuclear Geology Group of Physics Research Division, PINSTECH for the study of nature and mechanism of uranium mineralization These studies are aimed to help in designing uranium exploration strategy by providing the loci of uranium sources in the Marwat and Salt Ranges. The samples have been studied using fission track analysis technique. (author)

  4. Preservation and concentration of uranium mineralization in the crust of weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikhmin, A.A.; Kuznetsov, S.V.; Shmarovich, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Inprecision of the concept on indispensable evacuation of U from ores during formation of the crust of weathering of lateritic or kaolinitic profile due to the existence of oxidative situation in the crusts is established. At hydrothermal uranium deposit in Eocambrian sandy-shaly and Paleozoic volcanogenous-sedimentary rocks a high degree of mineralization preservation in lower and medium horizons of Mesozoic-Cenozoic hydro-micaceous-kaolinitic crust of weathering, characterized by reductive situation, presence of carbonaceous substance, pyrite and siderite, is established. Mineralization attained there black composition and was additionally enriched with uranium. A supposition is made that the case is specific for the development of lateritic and kaolinitic crust formation according to ore-bearing rocks, rich in reducing agents-carbonaceous substances, sulfides and minerals of protoxidic iron. The data obtained should be taken into account during prediction and prospecting activities

  5. Clay minerals suitable for overpack in waste repositories: evidence from uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Various clay minerals have been proposed for overpack around radioactive waste canisters. The laboratory studies of the migration of elements from the nuclear waste through proposed overpack have resulted in some disagreement. As an alternative approach to the laboratory studies, a review of data for the uranium deposits of the Grants, New Mexico, mineral belt has been undertaken. This paper reviews the evidence from the clay mineralogy, the Rb-Sr systematics and the trace element analyses of the clay size (<2μ) fraction of rocks from the uranium ore zones and the barren host rocks. The <2μ fraction is dominated by clay minerals, but small amounts of other minerals and organic matter are present as well. The information from uranium deposits suggests that chlorite will form during the mineralization process from pre-existing montmorillonite or illite or mixed-layered illite-montmorillonite accompanied by fixation of V, Mo, Se, As, REE, Th. Based on this fact coupled with the observation that the barren rocks are magnetite-rich under low Eh conditions, then an argument for the use of the very abundant sand-poor shales of the Morrison Formation as material suitable for overpack can be made. In the event of canister failure, any escaping actinides, actinide daughters or fission products should react efficiently with the intermediate cation exchange capacity (CEA) montmorillonite-illite-rich material and promote low CEC chlorite formation and sorption of actinides and lanthanides. Formation of such low CEC chlorite would not only scavenge the earliest radioactive elements released but would also retard fluid flow through the surrounding overpack by fissure filling which in turn would further impede radionuclide escape. The distribution of trace elements around uranium deposits of the Grants mineral belt is entirely compatible with such a scenario

  6. Uranium in underground water public supply of the metropolitan region of Recife; Uranio em aguas subterraneas de abastecimento publico da regiao metropolitana do Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.M.; Sousa, G.H.; Vasconcelos, W.E.; Hazin, C.A.; Amaral, R.S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, R.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The geologic formation of the metropolitan region of Recife is of sedimentary origin. In the coast area, where the phosphate deposits are located, it is sufficiently rich in underground hydric features. In the superposed layers of the sedimentary basin exists three underground aquifers and 80% of the underground hydric features of public supplying of the metropolitan region of Recife are located in the phosphate deposits, which are rich in uranium. Physiologically the uranian are in the steady state (6+) with bivalent cations U{sup 2+}{sub 2}. The ingestion of uranium by man occurs through foods and water ingestion. The places of the human body where it has greater clamping of this radionuclides are the bones. The uranium is deposited slowly from surface of the bone, redistributing itself in route to the marrow. An important competition between Ca{sup 2+}{sub 2} and the UO{sup 2+}{sub 2} exists in the kidneys, where the Ca{sup 2+}{sub 2} efficiently is absorbed. This work was carried through aiming to determine the concentrations of uranium in waters of the wells of public supplying of the metropolitan region of Recife, collating them with the limits established for the Health Department, that establishes the level of 0.1 Bq/L referring to the total alpha radioactivity in drinking waters.

  7. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  8. Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Tanah Merah and Dendang Arai Sectors, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Soetopo

    2004-01-01

    Tanah Merah and Dendang Arai sectors are one of the mineralized sectors at Kalan. Goal of this study is to understand the relationship between geology and uranium mineralization character of Tanah Merah and Dendang Arai sectors. In general geology of Tanah Merah is similar with Dendang Arai which consist of biotite quartzite, leopard quartzite, muscovite quartzite, biotite muscovite quartzite, metasilt, metapelite, and granite. The folding is anticline with axel N45F in direction. The prominent fault is NE-SW sinistral fault, NW-SE dextral fault and N-S normal faults. U mineralization fills in the area space between minerals and also as the vein that fill in the fracture system W-E to WNW-ESE in direction. The thickness of mineralization is milimetric to centrimetric. Uranium minerals are uraninite, monazite, autunite and gummite associated with feldspar, tourmaline, zircon, biotite, quartz, pyrite, pyrhotite, hematite, rutile, chalcopyrite, magnenite ilmenite and molybdenite. Radiometric value is in the range of 1.000 to 15.000 c/s and the total grade of U are 12.6 to 2661.25 ppm. U mineralization process connected with intrusion of granite and in the secondary phase. (author)

  9. Unexpected rates of chromosomal instabilities and alterations of hormone levels in Namibian uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaire, R; Notter, M; Riedel, W; Thiel, E

    1997-05-01

    A common problem in determining the health consequences of radiation exposure is factoring out other carcinogenic influences. The conditions in Namibia provide a test case for distinguishing the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to uranium from the other environmental factors because of good air quality and the lack of other industries with negative health effects. Present records indicate a much higher prevalence of cancer among male workers in the open-pit uranium mine in Namibia compared with the general population. The objective of the present study was to determine whether long-term exposure to low doses of uranium increases the risk of a biological radiation damage which would lead to malignant diseases and to derive a dose-response model for these miners. To investigate this risk, we measured uranium excretion in urine, neutrophil counts and the serum level of FSH, LH and testosterone and analyzed chromosome aberrations in whole blood cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A representative cohort of 75 non-smoking, HIV-negative miners was compared to a control group of 31 individuals with no occupational history in mining. A sixfold increase in uranium excretion among the miners compared to the controls was recorded (P uranium are at an increased risk to acquire various degrees of genetic damage, and that the damage may be associated with an increased risk for malignant transformation. As expected, the chronic radiation injury of the hematopoietic system resulted in low neutrophil counts. Also, low hormone levels probably reflect damage to the gonadal endocrine system.

  10. The study of logistic regression of risk factor on the death cause of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jinai; Yuan Liyun; Jiang Ruyi

    1999-01-01

    Logistic regression model has widely been used in the field of medicine. The computer software on this model is popular, but it is worth to discuss how to use this model correctly. Using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software, unconditional logistic regression method was adopted to carry out multi-factor analyses on the cause of total death, cancer death and lung cancer death of uranium miners. The data is from radioepidemiological database of one uranium mine. The result show that attained age is a risk factor in the logistic regression analyses of total death, cancer death and lung cancer death. In the logistic regression analysis of cancer death, there is a negative correlation between the age of exposure and cancer death. This shows that the younger the age at exposure, the bigger the risk of cancer death. In the logistic regression analysis of lung cancer death, there is a positive correlation between the cumulated exposure and lung cancer death, this show that cumulated exposure is a most important risk factor of lung cancer death on uranium miners. It has been documented by many foreign reports that the lung cancer death rate is higher in uranium miners

  11. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  12. Cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation, shiftwork, and heat exposure for underground miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Glenn; Clement, Alexandra; Kenny, Glen P; Hardcastle, Stephen; Keller, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation, abnormal sleep patterns arising from working rotating shifts, and exposure to high ambient temperatures contribute to physical and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the effects of these on 19 (41.5 ± 5.1 years) male underground miners. Data were collected for 28 to 30 consecutive days such that the participants experienced their full rotating shift schedule, including days off. Objective measures of sleep quality (actigraphy), attentional capacity (psychomotor vigilance task), core body temperature (visceral pill), executive function (BRIEF-A) and subjective measures of fatigue (Karolinska and Epworth Sleepiness scales) were obtained over the 28-30 day period. Non-parametric analyses (χ(2), Wilcoxen Signed ranks) were used to determine differences between shift types and days off. Z-tests were used to compare sample data to population norms. These revealed that the participants experienced poor quality of sleep relative to age-matched norms irrespective of the shift being worked or if the participant was on a scheduled day off [30-39 year olds: z = -14.62, p sleep prior to beginning work compared to their days off or night shift; however, no differences in total sleep time between when participants worked day or night shifts were observed [χ(2) (2, n = 18) = 13.44, p attentional capacity showed best performance at the beginning of night shifts in contrast to any other time that the task was completed; however, performance degraded dramatically over the course of the night shift [χ(2) (2, n = 12) = 6.50, p sleep deprived. The cognitive consequences of this poor sleep were most pronounced during night shift when their attentional capacity declined rapidly over the course of the night shift. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on tertiary in-situ leachable uranium mineralization conditions in South Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenqiang; Li Guokuan; Zhao Zonghua; Zhang Jingxun

    2001-01-01

    Tertiary in-situ leachable mineralization in Songliao Basin was analyzed in theory in the past. Since 1998, regional investigation at 1:200000 scale has been done with about 120 holes drilled. Based on drill holes recording, section compiling and sample analysis, the authors investigate into the Tertiary in-situ leachable conditions including rock character, sedimentary facies, rock chemistry, organic substances, uranium content, sandstone porosity, sandstone bodies, interlayer oxidation, and hydro-dynamic value. The study would play important role in prospecting for in-situ leachable uranium in South Songliao basin

  14. Predictive analysis of shaft station radon concentrations in underground uranium mine: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoyan; Hong, Changshou; Li, Xiangyang; Lin, Chunping; Hu, Penghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented a method for predicting shaft station radon concentrations in a uranium mine of China through theoretical analysis, mathematical derivation and Monte-Carlo simulation. Based upon the queuing model for tramcars, the average waiting time of tramcars and average number of waiting tramcars were determined, which were further used in developing the predictive model for calculating shaft station radon concentrations. The results exhibit that the extent of variation of shaft station radon concentration in the case study mine is not significantly affected by the queuing process of tramcars, and is always within the allowable limit of 200 Bq m(-3). Thus, the empirical limit of 100,000 T annual ore-hoisting yields has no value in ensuring radiation safety for this mine. Moreover, the developed model has been validated and proved useful in assessing shaft station radon levels for any uranium mine with similar situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of 226Ra body burden of workers in an underground uranium mine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, R L; Jha, V N; Kumar, R; Srivastava, V S; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2014-11-01

    Uranium mine workers are exposed to ore dust containing uranium and its daughter products during different mining operations. These radionuclides may pose inhalation hazards to workers during the course of their occupation. The most significant among these radionuclides is (226)Ra. The measurement of radium body burden of uranium mine workers is important to assess their internal exposure. For this purpose, the radon-in-breath measurement technique has been used in the present paper. Workers at the Jaduguda mine, India, associated with different categories of mining operations were monitored between 2001 and 2007. The measurement results indicate that workers--depending on mining operation category--show (226)Ra body burdens ranging from 0.15 to 2.85 kBq. The maximum body burden was found for workers associated with timbering operations, with an average (226)Ra body burden of 0.85 ± 0.54 kBq. Overall, the average value observed for 800 workers was 0.76 ± 0.51 kBq, which gives rise to an average effective dose of 1.67 mSv per year for inhalation and 0.21 mSv per year for ingestion.

  16. Ianthinite: A rare hydrous uranium oxide mineral from Akkavaram ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , RMO-563, 198p. Guillemin C and Protas J 1959 Ianthinite et. Wyartite; Bull. Soc. fr. Miner. Cristallogr. 82 80–86. Heinrich E Wm 1958 Mineralogy and geology of radioac- tive raw materials; McGraw Hill Book Company Inc,. New York, 654p.

  17. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Progress report, July 1, 1975--July 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1976-01-01

    This study on the rate of lung cancer development in uranium miners was initiated in 1957 by the U. S. Public Health and many facets of this project are reaching final objectives. Many new studies have developed in the course of this study and will continue. The projects supported by The Energy Research and Development Administration are of utmost importance and consist of: collection of material from uranium miners known to have cancer of the lung into a tumor registry; manual on pulmonary cytology; regression study of sputum cytological findings in uranium miners who showed marked atypical squamous cell metaplasia and have quit smoking cigarettes, mining, or both; continuation of sputum collection and collection of lungs from deceased miners, and the development of instruments such as uv fiber-optic bronchoscopes for localization of carcinoma in situ of the lung. Approximately 75,000 sputum samples were examined over the last 19 years in cases that showed normal cytology at the inception of study and subsequently developed carcinoma of the lung and resulted in an accumulation of material that is worthy of study

  18. Pulsed neutron gama ray logging for minerals associated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.H.; Humphreys, D.R.; Stephenson, W.A.; Weinlein, J.H.; Bivens, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The tool uses a pulsed neutron generator to irradiate the nuclei in the formation surrounding the borehole, and N type, high purity, germanium detector to observe the returning gamma rays. The presence or absence of particular elements, in conjunction with information gained from other logs, is expected to predict the location of uranium deposits away from the borehole. The Proof of Principle probe has been assembled. Tests have been run using an external power supply with a resolution better than 2.6 keV. Experiments in a simulated borehole configuration with a pulsed neutron generator have established an output level of 1 x 10 5 neutrons/pulse for the detection of inelastic, capture, and activation gamma rays. Gating of the ADC was shown to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for specific gamma ray lines

  19. Mortality analyses in the updated French cohort of uranium miners (1946-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Drubay, D.; Ancelet, S.; Laurier, D. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France). Direction Sante

    2015-08-15

    The objectives are to analyze mortality risks in the extended follow-up of the French uranium miners' cohort and to examine their potential relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The total cohort includes 5,086 uranium miners employed in the CEA-COGEMA group and followed up from 1946 to 2007. Vital status, causes of death, and cumulative radon exposures were recorded. The post-55 subcohort includes 3,377 miners first employed after 1955, for whom long-lived radionuclides (LLR) and external gamma-ray exposure were also recorded. External mortality analyses were performed by computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERRs) due to IR exposures were estimated from Poisson regression models. The miners included in the total cohort were followed up for 35.4 years and exposed to 36.6 working level months (WLM) on average. There was no evidence of a difference in overall mortality between miners and the general French male population. Miners had a statistically significant excess mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR = 1.34 [95 % CI 1.16-1.53]) and from kidney cancer (SMR = 1.60 [1.03-2.39]). Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.71 [0.31-1.30]) and cerebrovascular risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.41 [0.04-1.03]). In the post-55 subcohort, this excess mortality from lung cancer remained associated with exposure to radon, and also with exposure to LLR and external gamma rays. Conclusions The analyses in the extended follow-up strengthen the results previously observed among French uranium miners about their excess risk of mortality and its association with their occupational IR exposure.

  20. Geology of uranium and associated ore deposits, central part of the Front Range mineral belt, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul Kibler; ,

    1959-01-01

    The Central City district and adjoining mining areas in the central part of the Front Range mineral belt have supplied small quantities of uranium ore intermittently since the discovery of pitchblende at Central City in 1871. During the early years of development the uranium production form the region was of national importance, and until 1951 the region was this country's principal domestic source of pitchblende. In recent years, however, the production has been insignificant although the search for uranium has been greater than at any previous time. The pitchblende occurs as a local minor constituent of gold- and silver-bearing base-metal sulfide veins, chiefly valuable for their gold content, which have yielded ores valued at about $200 million.

  1. Chemical process for recovery of uranium values contained in phosphoric mineral lixivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, E.L.H. da; Awwal, M.A.; Coelho, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    A recovery process of uranium values from phosporic mineral lixivia for obtaining uranio oxide concentrate adjusted to specifications of purity for its commercialization the process consists of the adjustment of electromotive force of lixiviem to suitable values for uranium extraction, extraction with organic solvent containing phosphoric acid ester and oxidant reextraction from this solvent with phosphoric acid solution, suggesting a new solvent extraction containing synergetic mixture of di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid and tri-octyl phosphine, leaching this solvent with water and re-extraction/precipitation with ammonium carbonate solution, resulting in the formation of uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium, that by drying and calcination gives the uranium oxide with purity degree for commercialization. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Geophysical Investigations of the Uranium Mineralized Formation in the Coaly Black Shale Deposits in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Son, J.; Yoon, H.; Park, S.

    2011-12-01

    Geophysical investigations using electrical resistivity, Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) methods, and laboratory measurements of the rock physical properties were conducted for uranium exploration in the Okchoen Metamorphic Belt in Korea. The geology of the study site consists of age-unknown slate formations such as coaly black and dark gray slates, limestone interbedded in the slates, and intrusion of cretaceous quartz porphyry of the acidic dikes. The slate formations shows the strike of N40~60E and dip 50~60 toward northwest direction in the site. It has been reported that the low grade concentration of uranium minerals were found in the coaly black slate formations in the site. The main objective of the study is to investigate the geological structures of the slate formations including uranium-bearing black slates. The resistivity of the dark gray slate was measured to be 1,800-10,000 Ohm-M, while that of the coaly black slate to be 17-200 Ohm-M. The conceptual geophysical model of the uranium-bearing black coal slates was constructed for geologic structure of the site, consisting of very high-angled formation with low resistivity and with high IP response due to the presences of coal and pyrite components. On the contrary, the dark gray slates show the geophysical properties of relatively high resistivity, and low IP response due to the absence of sulfide minerals. The results of the geophysical surveys showed high IP response was detected in the coal-bearing slate formation due to sulfide minerals such as pyrite. In addition, the low resistivity anomalies with very high angles were also detected due to coal component in the black slates on both numerical resistivity modeling using conceptual model and on the field resistivity data. The results of the geophysical investigation are in good agreement with the geological and geochemical study results, and were employed for drilling investigations in the site. In order to probe the uranium-bearing formation

  3. Uranium mineralization in the ring complex of Taperuaba, CE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The study of the uraniferous deposit in the Northeast has been increased in last year, because of the discovery of many anomalies containing phosphate uraniferous mineralization. The anomalies in vila de Taperuaba at Ceara were examined. The petrografic, structural and geochemical study of the Taperuaba Ring complex, is made, in an attempt to estabilish the ore genesis and its probable controls. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  4. Ianthinite: A rare hydrous uranium oxide mineral from Akkavaram ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quelques mineraux uraniferes; Bull. Soc. fr. Miner. Cristallogr. 78 1–26. Burns P C, Finch R J, Hawthorne F C, Miller M L and. Ewing R C 1997 The crystal structure of ianthinite,. [U4+. 2 (UO2)4O6(OH)4(H2O)4](H2O)5: A possible phase for Pu4+ incorporation during the oxidation of spent nuclear fuel; J. Nucl. Mater.

  5. Study on Regional Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Schwaner Mountains West and Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Djoko-Soetarno; MS; Liliek-Subiantoro; Retno-Witjahyati

    2004-01-01

    Uranium occurrences indication in Kalimantan has been discovered at metamorphic and granites rocks of Schwaner Mountains as the radioactivity and geochemical anomalies. A regional geology of Schwaner Mountains show a watershed of West and East Kalimantan consist of Pinoh metamorphic rocks that was intruded by tonalitic and granitic batholite. The goal of this study is to observe the mechanism of the Uranium occurrences related to the regional tectonic, metamorphic rocks, tonalite and granitic batholite. Permokarbonaferrous metamorphic rocks as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally derived from sedimentary process that produce a high content of uranium as well as a fine grained volcanic material. This uranium is deposited within neritic facies. Those sediments have been metamorphosed by low grade Abukuma regional metamorphism at the condition about 540 o C and 2000 bar. In early Cretaceous Tonalite of Sep auk intruded the rock and both metamorphics and tonalites. Those rocks were intruded by Late Cretaceous alkalin granite of Sukadana. Those crystalline rocks overlaid by an unconformity-related Kampari and Tebidah Formations that including within Melawi Group of Tertiary age. Uranium mineralization as the centimetric-metric veins related to tectonic N 100 o -110 o E and N 50 o E lineaments. Uranium was interpreted as a volcanic sedimentary origin, than it re mobilized by low grade regional metamorphism process. This enuchment process was carried out by fluor, boron and other metalliferous mineral within hydrothermal solutions of Sukadana granite. (author)

  6. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  7. Epidemiological studies of lung carcinoma incidence in uranium miners (accumulation and retrospective use of diagnostic data)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšínská, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2009), s. 165-172 ISSN 1214-6994. [Retrospective diagnosis workshop. Praha, 04.11.2008 -] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA409/07/1422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : history of science * lung carcinoma incidence in uranium miners * Jáchymov (Joachimsthal) in Bohemia Subject RIV: AB - History

  8. Uranium in stream and mineral water of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Manfred; Rauch, Uwe; Lorenz, Hans

    2009-12-01

    The concentration of uranium was determined in 944 samples from stream water by the inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) method and represented on a color-shaded contour map. Uranium concentrations in surface water were determined to be between 0.007 μg/l and 43.7 μg/l with median of 0.33 μg/l. The regional distribution of uranium is influenced primarily by lithological and anthropogenic factors. In Mecklenburg, northern Brandenburg, and eastern Schleswig-Holstein, elevated uranium concentrations coincide with the extent of the last Weichselian ice sheet. The maximum concentrations are observed in the surface waters of the old mining districts in the western part of the Ore Mountains and in eastern Thuringia. Elevated concentrations are found in areas of agriculturally used loess soils. These concentrations correlate with the use of phosphate fertilizers. There is a zone of elevated concentrations up to 10.0 μg U/l in the Keuper Sandstone area south of the Thuringian Forest and from northwest of Stuttgart as far as Coburg. The distribution of elevated values in mineral water shows a clear correlation with the elevated values in surface water and the geology of those locations. Bunter and Keuper strata are the most important uranium source.

  9. Spectral discrimination of uranium-mineralized breccia pipes in northwestern Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwarteng, A.Y.; Goodell, P.C.; Pingitore, N.E. Jr.; Wenich, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The price of uranium is currently the lowest in more than a decade. The only type of uranium deposit that is economically viable in the depressed uranium market is such high-grade ore as the unconformity type found in Canada and Australia. Exploration for uranium-bearing breccia pipes in northwestern Arizona by both domestic and foreign companies is currently active because of the relatively high-grade ore they contain and their tendency to be polymetallic. In the US, uranium-mineralized breccia pipes are one of the few deposits that can compete in the current market. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed on spectral data acquired from the field, laboratory, and Landsat thematic mapper (TM). The principal objectives were (1) to investigate the fundamental differences in the spectral properties of outcrops on the surface of breccia pipes and the background, (2) to choose TM bandpasses that were statistically optimum for distinguishing between breccia pipes and the background, and (3) to compare the results of the field, laboratory, and TM digital data which were acquired by different instruments having different spatial and spectral resolutions

  10. Uranium mineralization distribution sounding at ANO CRN.1-ANO CG.6 Mentawa sector using radon gas measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paimin; Sartapa; Darmono, S.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation was based on Systematic Prospection (1996,1997) at Mentawa River and Ampola up stream which were found radiometry anomalous about 750-15.000 c/s on the metasilt outcrop. Form of uranium mineralization is uraninite which associate with tourmaline, quartz, and sulphide and fills WNW-ESE fracture. The aims of investigation were to know uranium mineralization in sub surface by radon gas measurement, surface radiometry, and topographical mapping. (author)

  11. Phurcalite: a rare secondary calcium uranium phosphate mineral from Putholi, Chittaurgarh District, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Singh, K.D.P.; Bhatt, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction data are presented for phurcalite [Ca 2 (UO 2 ) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 4 , 4H 2 O], with orthorhombic symmetry, a very rare, yellow coloured, secondary uranium mineral, from Putholi (24 o 57' 45 : 74 o 38' 30). The host rock is quartzite which contains fluoroapatite, pyrite, goethite, hematite, magnetite, chlorite and mica as accessory minerals. Measured cell parameters of the phurcalite are : a = 17.3416 A, b=16.1138 A and c =13.5491 A, with a cell volume of 3786.16 A. (author)

  12. Trace uranium determination in beverages and mineral water using fission track techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.L.; Lin, J.Y.; Hao, X.H.

    1993-01-01

    The uranium contents of beverages and mineral water have been estimated using the technique of fission track analysis with polycarbonate detector. The U contents in beverages have been found to vary from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 1.65 ± 0.07 ppb, the average value is 0.93 ± 0.05 ppb. The mean U content in mineral water is 9.20 ± 0.16 ppb, which is ∼ 10 times higher than the mean U content of beverages. The present study shows the high U content in mineral water, indicating need for further investigation of U content in mineral water for the studies of radiation health hazards. (Author)

  13. Studies on radioactivity distribution and radioactive mineral identification in uranium ores from Espinharas (PB), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.N.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    Studies about the identification of radioactive minerals in uranium bearing rocks from Espinharas (PB), Brazil are presented. Autoradiography with α-sensitive nuclear emulsions was utilized for determining radioctivity distributions and for localizing radioactive minerals, in combination with microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, PIXE and eletron microprobe analysis for its identification. Mineralized gneisse and feldspatic rock, the two principal samples studied, show distinct differences in radioactive distribution patterns, however the main carriers for U and Th seem to be the same. Microanalysis shows that elements are associated with Si, Ca, Fe and Al an some trace elements like Y, Zr, Ti, etc. U and Th are distributed uniformly in feldspatic rock and inhomogeneously in mineralized gneisse, indicating that the zonary structure of the radioactive cristals, frequently observed in gneisse, could be due to variable U:Th ratios. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction datas and microscopic studies indicates that the principal carrier for radioactivity in the rocks of Espinharas is a silicate mineral of U and Th, probably situaded in the series of transition: Coffinite -> uraninite, thorogummite -> thorianite. Some additional experiments about leachability of uranium with diluted sulfuric acid are reported, which confirm the different nature of radioactivity distribution in feldspatic and gneissic rocks. (author) [pt

  14. Phosphorus - uranium mineralization of the Mandacaru Farm, Iraucuba, state of Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J.R.L.V.; Azevedo, L.F. de; Castro, G.L.; Alcantara e Silva, J.R. de

    1984-01-01

    The phosphorus-uranium mineralization of the Mandacaru Farm (Iraucuba - state of Ceara) is located in the phosphorus-uranium Province of north-central Ceara. The area is a mobile belt placed between the Sao Luiz and the Sao Francisco cratons, related to the Northeast Folding Region. It is represented by lithologies from the Fundamental Complex (Transamazonico Cycle) and the Ceara Group ectinict series (Brasiliano Cycle). All the rocks are cut by Eo-Cambrian acidic dikes and Jurassic basic dikes. The plastic tectonics acted over the regional rocks through four folding phases; the first two being of isoclinal recumbent type, and the last two subvertical open folds. The fissural tectonics affected the area in the form of overthrust faults and transcurrent faults. The fracturing system was reactivated as normal faults during the Brasiliano Cycle. The phosphorus-uranium mineralization appears in the form of uraniferous collophane/apatite forming disseminations i gnaisses, calc-silicated rocks and amphibolites; stockwork structures in marbles; and occurring as matrix in breccias and cataclasites. This mineralization occurs in fractured ad faulted areas, associated to diaphthoresis, sodic metasomatism and episyenitization processes. (Author) [pt

  15. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Tarango, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  16. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in the the uranium industry in Australia that took place during the quarter ended 30 June 1980 are reviewed. These include uranium mine production and uranium exploration. Prices for uranium oxide and uranium hexafluoride as at the end of June 1980 and figures for U 3 O 8 production and export from 1978 to March 1980 are listed

  17. Characteristics of attached radon-222 daughters under both laboratory and underground uranium-mine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.O.; Cooper, J.A.; Langford, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.

    1981-09-01

    The organic, inorganic, and radiological characteristics of airborne aerosols have been measured as a function of particle size in controlled atmosphere test chambers and operating uranium mines. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in two mines ranged from 26 to 57 ng/m 3 of air. The carbon chain length of adsorbed n-alkanes was correlated with particle size. Normal mining activities produced an ore dust aerosol with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) greater than 2 μm. The elements Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, and U exhibited elemental ratios similar to bulk ore and had comparable MMAD's. The S, Zn, and Pb were higher in aerosols than bulk ore and were associated with smaller MMAD particulates. Radon daughter particle size distributions were influenced by the kinds of particulates generated in mining activity

  18. Interaction of radon and smoking among czech uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2011-01-01

    The study is based on a case-control study nested within a cohort study (11 000 miners and 1074 lung cancers). The controls were individually matched by year of birth and attained age. Smoking data were collected in person or from relatives of deceased subjects or from medical files. The study resulted in 850 cases of lung cancer with smoking data. The linear dependence of lung cancer relative risk (RR) on radon exposure adjusted for smoking was not substantially different from analyses when smoking was ignored and reflected mainly the risk among smokers. However, the excess RR per unit exposure among never smokers (70 cases) was substantially higher in comparison with that in smokers, reflecting differences in lung morphometry and clearance. The RRs from combined effects are substantially lower than the risk derived from the multiplicative model, but somewhat higher than those from the additive model. The work was supported by the Czech Ministry of Health (IGA NS 10596). (authors)

  19. The estimation of the number of underground coal miners and normalization collective dose at present in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fu-dong; Chen, Lu; Pan, Zi-qiang; Liu, Sen-lin; Chen, Ling; Wang, Chun-hong

    2017-01-01

    Due to the improvement of production technology and the adjustment of energy structure, as well as the town-ownership and private-ownership coal mines (TPCM) were closed or merged by national policy, the number of underground miner has changed comparing with 2004 in China, so collective dose and normalization collective dose in different type of coal mine should be changed at the same time. In this paper, according to radiation exposure by different ventilation condition and the annual output, the coal mines in China are divided into three types, which are named as national key coal mines (NKCM), station-owned local coal mines (SLCM) and TPCM. The number of underground coal miner, collective dose and normalization collective dose are estimated at present base on surveying annual output and production efficiency of raw coal in 2005-2014. The typical total value of the underground coal miners recommended in China is 5.1 million in 2005-2009, and in which there are respectively included 1 million, 0.9 million and 3.2 million for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. There are total of 4.7 million underground coal miner in 2010-2014, and the respectively number for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM are 1.4 million, 1.2 million and 2.1 million. The collective dose in 2005-2009 is 11 335 man.Sv.y -1 , and in which there are respectively included 280, 495 and 10 560 man.Sv.y -1 for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. As far as 2010-2014, there are total of 7982 man.Sv.y -1 , and 392, 660 and 6930 man.Sv.y -1 for each type of coal mines. Therefore, the main contributor of collective dose is from TPCM. The normalization collective dose in 2005-2009 is 0.0025, 0.015 and 0.117 man.Sv per 10 kt for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM, respectively. As far as 2010-2014, there are 0.0018, 0.010 and 0.107 man.Sv per 10 kt for each type of coal mines. The trend of normalization collective dose is decreased year by year. (authors)

  20. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Choice of methods depends on the objective; • Basics: – Know your mineral system (deposit-type): SCIENCE; – Create useful datasets: A MUST; • Mineral system approach can be rewarding. For successful examples visit GA’s website; • Don’t overdo or oversell it (only detailed exploration such as drilling can find a deposit)

  1. Practical difficulties in determining 222Rn flux density in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1991-01-01

    Radon-222 flux density, J, has been determined in a number of locations in an underground U mine. Measurements were conducted using the Two-Point Measurement (2PM) method, consisting of measuring the 222Rn concentration at two different points a distance apart within a given section of the mine. Several mine models were used for determining J by the above method. The 2PM method is sensitive to sources and sinks of 222Rn other than mine walls, as well as mining operations and mining activities of a diverse nature, and to local variations in airflow conditions. Because of this, J obtained by the 2PM method represents an 'apparent' flux density. Significant differences were found in the flux density calculated according to different mine models. In addition, J measurements using the flux 'can' method were also carried out in mine walls and compared with the values obtained by the 2PM method. Wide discrepancies between the two methods were found. The practical and theoretical difficulties in determining J are discussed

  2. Uranium mining in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scales, M.

    2006-01-01

    The mines of northern Saskatchewan make Canada the worlds leading uranium producer in Canada supplied 29% of global demand, or 11.60 million tonnes of the metal in 2004. Here are two bright ideas - how to mine an orebody by neither pit nor underground method, and how to mine high-grade ore without miners - that Cogema and Cameco are pursuing in the Athabasca Basin

  3. The geology of uranium mineralization at Mika, N.E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funtua, I.I.; Okujeni, C.P.; Elegba, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium mineralization at Mike is located near Zing in Taraba State, N.E., Nigeria. The host rock consist of a sheared Pan-African medium-grained granite which is in places intruded by rhyolite and siliceous veins. Numerous joints, faults and fractures criss-cut the area. Some of the fractures are filled with secondary quartz. The ore occurs in two parallel N-S trending shear Zones with the western limb hosting a rhyolite body. Drill section reveals a subsurface extension of the mineralization. In the upper limb, mineralization consisting of metal autunite and coffinite occurs associated with the rhyolite body. In lower ore limb meta-autunite, coffinite and pitchblende occur along a set of two parallel shear surface. The pitchblende occurs massive and as vein lets in association with sulphides. The ore body is marked by distinct hydrothermal alteration zones which feature sericitization, silicification, hematization and kaolination. Reactivated regional structures of NE-SW and the N140oE and N170E played an important role in the formation of Mika mineralization. These acted as channel and as mechanical barrier for the mineralization fluid. The bimodal magmatism of the Burashika group is postulated to be related to the process of mineralization in view of the ubiquitous rhyolite in the mineralized bodies

  4. Detection of certain minerals of uranium, zinc, lead and other metals using photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigel, H.O.; Robbins, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    We have discovered that certain photoluminescent minerals of uranium, lead, zinc, fluorine, tungsten and other elements which may naturally occur at the surface of the earth can be selectively detected in the presence of most other photoluminescent minerals and organic materials which are likely to occur at the earth's surface. The base of selective ldetection is the discovery that the lifetimes of photoluminescent emission of materials in the latter class are much shorter than the lifetimes of photoluminescent emission of materials in the former class. This invention utilizes this discovery in the detection of minerals of uranium, zinc, lead, flourine, tungsten, molybdenum, mercury and other elements. In one embodiment of the invention, using a laser or other short duration source of optical excitation, measurements of the photoluminescent response of the earth are made at times sufficiently long for the photoluminescence of other common and unwanted sources to have substantially decayed, thereby selectively detection and identifying certain minerals of potiential economic interest. In another embodiment a source of light is modulated at a predetermined frequency and the photoluminescent response of the earth which is out-of-phase with the source is measured. In a third embodiment this source of light may be incident solar radiation after passage through asuitable modulator

  5. Geology of Cerro Carmen prospect; uranium and rare earth element mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin Medina, Heriberto; Alarcon Farias, Boris

    2008-01-01

    The prospect Cerro Carmen is an skarn deposit with uranium (U) and Rare Earth Elements (REE )hosted in intermediate to basic volcanic rocks. The associated elements involved are Th, Ti, Fe, Y and Sc. The main mineral specie is davidite, it represent a formation temperature near to 1500 o C. The first radiometric anomalies of this prospect were discovered through aerial radiometric survey in 1982, latter in 1995, the interest expressed by Empresa Nacional de Mineria (ENAMI) and CCHEN, on REE and Uranium elements, resulted in the sign of an agreement between both parties to study this prospect,in which ENAMI provided operational resources and CCHEN provided professional resources. From geological point of view, the prospect is located at contact of volcanic rocks, that correspond to La Negra Formation of Pliensbachiano age to upper Jurassic age, with igneous rocks of Pluton Sierra Aspera of Neocomian age, in a structural lineament NW with emplacements of monzonitic and aplitic intrusive rocks from upper Cretaceous age with potassium metasomatism and mineralization of U and REE. In III and IV Regions, similar mineralization to the described one, marks a regional lineament coincidental with the axis of the iron metallogenic province, supporting the need to realize studies to improve the estimation of the potential of radioactive minerals of the country

  6. The risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in underground copper miners in Zambia exposed to respirable silica: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Ngosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB among underground miners exposed to silica remains a global problem. Although well described in gold and coal mining, risk in other mining entities are not as well documented. This study aims to determine dust-related dose response risk for PTB among underground miners exposed to silica dust in Zambia's copper mines. Methods A cross sectional study of in-service miners (n = 357 was conducted at Occupational Health and Safety Institute (OHSI, Zambia. A systematic review of medical data over a 5-year period from assessments conducted by doctors at OHSI and statutory silica exposure data (n = 16678 from the Mine Safety Department (MSD were analysed. Lifetime cumulative exposure metrics were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between PTB and lifetime exposure to silica, while adjusting for various confounders. Results The median respirable silica dust level was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.1–1.3. The overall prevalence of PTB was 9.5 % (n = 34. High cumulative respirable silica dust category showed a statistically significant association with PTB (OR = 6.4 (95 % CI 1. 8–23 and a significant trend of increasing disease prevalence with increasing cumulative respirable silica dust categories was observed (ptrend < 0.01. Smoking showed a statistically significant association with PTB with OR = 4.3 (95 % CI 1.9–9.9. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the association of increased risk for certified active TB with cumulative respirable dust in a dose related manner among this sample of copper miners. There is need to intensify dust control measures and incorporate anti-smoking interventions into TB prevention and control programmes in the mines.

  7. Geochemistry and morphology of mineral components from the fossil gold and uranium placers of the Witwatersand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbauer, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrofluoric-acid leaching technique to obtain heavy-mineral grains intact from Witwatersrand conglomerates and the scanning electron microscope with microanalyzer attachment, the technique of morphological microscopy was applied to observe the three dimensions of the grains and to study their composition. In combination with stereo x-ray radiography of rock slabs and the application of various geochemical techniques, this afforded new information on the processes that led to the formation of Precambrian placer deposits. Fossilized organisms could consequently be recognized from the morphology of their carbonaceous remains, permitting their role in the concentration of gold and uranium to be explained. Studies of the morphology of different types of gold, pyrite, and other minerals have permitted conclusions on the origin and distribution of economically important minerals, as well as on the palaeoenvironment of Precambrian placers that were not possible with the classical methods of microscopy

  8. Application of EDRXF technique for the determination of uranium and thorium in beach sand minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Zircon is a naturally occurring mineral and is available in many locations all over the world, This mineral usually contains U and Th at about 100-500 μg/g. Naturally occurring TiO 2 , containing minerals, rutile and ilmenite have small quantities of associated uranium. Natural rutile may contain upto 10% iron and upto 500 μg/g of uranium. Since the availability of rutile in nature is limited, ilmenite is used as raw material for producing synthetic rutile. In India, from monazite, thorium is separated by Indian Rare Earths Ltd., wherein uranium is a bye product. Since rutile is of importance to the gemstone markets, this is also produced from ilmenite ore. Roasting, reduction and leaching processes are important steps for removal of iron economically and efficiently from ilmenite ore during the production of synthetic rutile. We have developed a method to determine U and Th in zircon, using synthetic powder standards of ZrO 2 , containing U and Th in the range of 50 to 1000 μg/g. The limits of detection for U and Th were determined to be 200 and 100 μg/g respectively. Three zircon ore samples from different locations in India were analyzed for uranium and thorium using the method. The standardized method can be used for fast determination U and Th in zircon samples non-destructively with a precision of 10-20 %. Further another method was developed for the determination of uranium in rutile. Since iron and chromium are among the other impurities co-existing with U in rutile, these analytes have been included in the method. Synthetic standards containing U at 200-10,000 μg/g and Fe, Cr at 100- 2000 μg/g level were prepared and the spectrometer was calibrated using these standards. Two synthetic samples were analyzed using this method to evaluate the method for its reliability and reproducibility. In the present talk, details of these studies will be discussed. Moreover the work carried out on the determination of U/Th in sand minerals by other international

  9. Uranium fission track length distribution modelling for retracing chronothermometrical history of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebetez, M.

    1987-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of uranium 238 isotope contained in certain minerals creates damage zones called latent tracks, that can be etched chemically. The observation of these etched tracks and the measurement of their characteristics using an optical microscope are the basis of several applications in the domain of the earth sciences. First, the determination of their densities permits dating a mineral and establishing uranium mapping of rocks. Second, the measurement of their lengths can be a good source of information for retracing the thermal and tectonic history of the sample. The study of the partial annealing of tracks in apatite appears to be the ideal indicator for the evaluation of petroleum potential of a sedimentary basin. To allow the development of this application, it is necessary to devise a theoretical model of track length distributions. The model which is proposed takes into account the most realistic hypotheses concerning registration, etching and observation of tracks. The characteristics of surface tracks (projected lengths, depths, inclination angles, real lengths) and confined tracks (Track IN Track and Track IN Cleavage) are calculated. Surface tracks and confined tracks are perfectly complementary for chrono-thermometric interpretation of complex geological histories. The method is applied to the case of two samples with different tectonic history, issued from the cretaceous alcalin magmatism from the Pyrenees (Bilbao, Spain). A graphic method of distribution deconvolution is proposed. Finally, the uranium migration, depending on the hydrothermal alteration, is studied on the granite from Auriat (France) [fr

  10. Risk due assessment of the intake of uranium isotopes in mineral spring waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Iara M.C.; Mazzilli, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    To complement the data of a previous research concerning the evaluation of the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the injection of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 222 Rn in mineral spring waters from a natural highly radioactive region of Brazil. The study was performed to evaluate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the ingestion of 238 U and 234 U in the same spring waters. It is assumed that the risk coefficient for natural U isotopes is the same as for the 226 Ra-induced bone sarcomas and that the equilibrium for skeletal content is 25 times the daily ingestion of 226 Ra, but 11 times the daily ingestion of long-lived uranium isotopes. Waters samples were collected seasonally over a period of one year at all the spring sites used by the local population of Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 28.4 mBq/L and from 4.7 to 143 mBq/L were observed for 238 U and 234 U, respectively. Based upon the measured concentrations the lifetime risk due to the ingestion of uranium isotopes was estimated. A total of 0.3 uranium-induced cancers for 10 6 exposed persons was predicted, suggesting that chronic ingestion of uranium at the levels observed at these springs will result in an incremental increase of fatal cancers of 0.1%. (author)

  11. Microbes, Minerals and Electrodes at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF): Electrochemistry 4100 ft below the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A. R.; Abuyen, K.; Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Kruger, B.; El-Naggar, M.; Amend, J.

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the importance of mineral oxidation processes in subsurface environments. This stems, in part from our limited insight into the biochemistry of many of these metabolisms, especially where redox interactions with solid surfaces is concerned. To this aim, we have been developing electrochemical cultivation techniques, to target enrichment and isolation of microbes capable of oxidative extracellular electron transfer (oxEET)—transfer of electrons from the exterior of the cell to the interior. Our previous worked focused on marine sediments; using an electrode poised at a given redox potential to isolate mineral-oxidizing microbes. Electrode oxidizing microbes isolated from these enrichments belong to the genera Thioclava, Marinobacter, Halomonas, Idiomarina, Thalassospira, and Pseudamonas; organisms commonly detected in marine and deep sea sediments but not generally associated with mineral, sulfur and/or iron oxidation. At the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Leed, South Dakota, we have been utilizing similar electrocultivation techniques to understand: 1) the potential for mineral oxidation by subsurface microbes, 2) their selective colonization on mineral vs. electrode surfaces, as well as 3) the community composition of microbes capable of these metabolic interactions. An electrochemical and mineral enrichment scheme was designed and installed into a sulfidic groundwater flow, located at the 4100 ft level of the former gold mine. The communities enriched on electrodes (graphite and indium tin oxide coated glass) and minerals (sulfur, pyrite, and schists from the location) were compared to the long-term ground water microbial community observed. Ultimately, these observations will help inform the potential activity of a lithotrophic microbes in situ and will in turn guide our culturing efforts.

  12. Genetic Affiliation of Gold and Uranium Mineralization in El-Missikat Granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F.A.; Omar, S.A.M.; El Sawey, El.H.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal El-Missikat granitic pluton is affected by two fault systems trending NW-SE (the oldest) and ENE-WSW directions. It is one of the uranium occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The northwestern margins of El-Missikat pluton, along its contact with the gneissose quartz diorite, are dissected by numerous reactivated fractured shear zones running generally ENE-WSW to NE-SW and dipping about 60°-70° to SE. Many white (oldest), smoky or black and jasperoid (youngest) silica veinlets fill the fractures of these shear zones. These veins are of irregular shape and variable thickness ranging from few centimeters to about three meters. They are chiefly affected by silicification, sericitization, hematitization , kaolinization and hydrothermal alterations processes. The smoky black veins are hosting secondary uranium and fluorite-, sulphide-gold mineralizations. Polished surface studies, ICP-ES and Atomic Absorption as well as Scanning Electron Microscope measurements recorded galena, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite and molybdenite in the black and jasperoid mineralized veins. Gold associated with ore mineral assemblage as pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, sheelite and iron oxides. The identified sulphide minerals not bearing gold are recorded. Gold are relatively coarse-grained, massive and metallic yellow or stretched bronze colored particles. The recorded secondary U minerals associates the sulphide gold-mineralization in the black and jasperoid silica veins. Regarding the mobility of both uranium and gold, U 4+ mobilized in oxidizing medium and migrate and transport as U 6+ , then deposited later as U 4+ when the medium changes to be reducing characterized by high /O 2 . On contrary, gold mobilized when the medium is complex AuCl 3- ion bearing. Consequently, El- Missikat granitic pluton affected by oxidizing Au and Cl 3- bearing high temperature hydrothermal solutions that leached U 4+ , W and Mo from the granitic mass as U 6 + , later decrease of

  13. Uranium-bearing and associated minerals in their geochemical and sedimentological context, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed study of uranium-bearing minerals of the Rio Algom-Denison ore reef in the Elliot Lake, Ontario area was carried out. Regional trends in pebble size diminution in the quartz pebble conglomerates coincides with the regional direction of sediment transport. Quartz pebble size and pyrite grain size from the same sample are correlated, which indicates that the coarse granular pyrite is detrital. Electron microprobe analyses showed high yttrium content in the uraninite. Brannerite had a variable composition; although some may be detrital, most seems to have been formed by adsorption of uranium onto titanium. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the area have been controlled by the process of fluvial deposition. (LL)

  14. Quantitative aspects of radon daughter exposure and lung cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, C.; Axelson, O.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an excessive incidence of lung cancer in miners with exposure to radon daughters. The various risk estimates have ranged from six to 47 excess cases per 10 6 person years and working level month, but the effect of smoking has not been fully evaluated. A group of iron ore miners was studied in an attempt to obtain quantitative information about the risk of lung cancer due to radon and its daughters among smoking and non-smoking miners. The results show a considerable risk for miners to develop lung cancer; even non-smoking miners seem to be at a rather high risk. An additive effect of smoking and exposure to radon daughters is indicated and an estimate of about 30-40 excess cases per 10 6 person years and working level month seems to apply on a life time basis to both smoking and non-smoking miners aged over 50. (author)

  15. The distribution of E-centres concentration in the minerals of the wall-rocks of uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislyakov, Ya.M.; Moiseev, B.M.; Rakov, L.T.; Kulagin, Eh.G.

    1975-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to investigate the distribution of electron-hole centres caused by natural radioactive irradiation in terrigenous arcosic rocks and their principal mineral components (quartz-feldspar concretions, white and smoky quartz, feldspars). The relationship between concentrations of E-centres and the uranium content of the rocks reflects the genetic features of the uranium mineralization. Taking one specific deposit as an example, the author shows the proportional dependence between uranium content and E-centre concentration. The dependence reflects the practically simultraneous formation of the main mass of epigenetic mineralization. The hypothesis that older (syngenetic) ore deposits may have existed was not confirmed. Despite the long interval between sedimentary accumulation end epigenesis, no significant surplus concentrations of E-centres were found in epigenetic-metamorphic rocks. Anomalous concentrations of uranium and E-centres are caused by uranium migration during later epigenetic processes superimposed on the mesozoic ore-controlling zonality. One result of this migration is the formation in limonitized rocks of ''augen'' ores for which low concentrations of paramagnetic centres are typical. For the study of the distribution of E-centres in rocks from uranium deposits, it is possible to use polymineral mixtures. For the proper interpratation of the data obtained, however, account must be taken of the sensitivity to irradiation of the various mineral components, particularly the various forms of quartz, which is the principal natural dosimeter. (E.G.)

  16. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  17. Survey on basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yinghua; Sun Quanfu; Du Weixia; Lei Suwen; Lei Shujie; Li Xiaoying; Zhang Shouzhi; Qian Yekan; Su Xu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China. Methods: 2836 workers from 24 mines in 9 provinces/regions were face-to-face interviewed to collect information including age at exposure,exposure duration, cigarette smoking among others. Results: Age of the investigated non-uranium miners ranged from 17 to 72 (36.9 ± 8.0) years. The miners received low and poor education, 3% of them were illiterate, 58% with primary and middle school education, only 7% with junior college and higher education. Seventy-five percent of the uranium miners are migrant rural workers. Ethnic minority miners accoungted for 16% of all the investigated miners. Among the migrant rural workers age at initial exposure was estimated to be 29.6 ± 8.0 years. By the time of the investigation, 46.7% of the miners had worked in the mine for five years and longer, working years in the mine was 6.7 ± 6.8 years with a median of 4.1 years. 3.4% of the non-uranium miners began the initial radon exposure in mines before their 18 years of old. 17.5% of the investigated miners reported working more than 8 h every working day. Among the males, 58.0% were current smokers with a median of 16 cigarettes per day. Age to begin the cigarette smoking was 20 years on average. Current smoking rate was age-dependent, the rate as high as 69.2% for the males aged 15-19 years. Current smoking rate was significantly statistically lower in coal mines than that in other mines, 49.0% vs 62.5%. Compared with other miners, more frequent mechanical ventilations were reported by coal miners, Conclusions: In China non-uranium mines, 75% were migrant rural workers, by the time of the investigation about half of them had worked in the mines for at least five years. Non-uranium miners began their mining at 30 years on average, with a very small percentage of 3%, exposed to the mining radon before their 18 years. Current cigarette smoking rate in non-uranium male miners

  18. Uranium-bearing and associated minerals in their geochemical and sedimentological context, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    The depositional energy environment of the Rio Algom-Denison ore reef was investigated on a regional scale using several parameters including pebble size. Regional trends of decreasing pebble size coincide with the regional direction of sediment transport. Pebble size was also used to characterize the depositional energy environment at the sample level. Quartz-pebble size and pyrite-grain size as determined from the same samples have a correlation coefficient of 0.93 which indicates that the coarse granular pyrite is detrital. Bulk chemical analyses of selected elements (U, Th, Pb, Ti, Ce, La, Y and Zr) which were chosen to reflect specific minerals (uraninite, brannerite, monazite and zircon), showed strong correlation with quartz-pebble size of the respective samples. Electron microprobe analyses of uraninite and brannerite are reported. The uraninites have typical pegmatitic compositions. Several types of brannerite are described; the conclusion reached is that although some brannerite may be detrital, most of it formed by adsorption of uranium onto titania collectors. Redistribution of some of the uranium has not changed the placer nature of the ore reef. Genesis of individual minerals (pyrite, uraninite, brannerite, zircon and monazite) is discussed. It is concluded that the mineralogy and its geochemical expression have been controlled by processes of fluvial deposition. As a result of the regional patterns in depositional environment, the ore reef shows a broad mineralogical zoning. Fluctuations in depositional energy have also produced lithologically related mineral zoning on a smaller scale. (author)

  19. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Progress report for period, July 1, 1977--July 1 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1978-01-01

    This study was initiated in 1957 by the U.S. Public Health, and many facets of this project are reaching final objectives. Many new studies have developed in the course of this study and will continue. The projects supported by The Department of Energy during the past year are of utmost importance and consist of: (a) collection of material from uranium miners known to have cancer of the lung into a tumor registry; (b) completion and publication of the Manual on Pulmonary Cytology; (c) regression study of sputum cytological findings in uranium miners who showed marked atypical squamous cell metaplasia and have quit smoking cigarettes, mining, or both; (d) continuation of sputum collection and collection of lungs from deceased miners; (e) sensory development for localization of carcinoma in situ of the lung; and (f) lung histology program. Since we have examined approximately 80,000 sputum samples the last 21 years in cases that showed normal cytology at the inception of the study and some subsequently developed carcinoma of the lung, we have an accumulation of material that is worthy of study and presentation. In addition, we continue to add new knowledge to the art of diagnostic pulmonary cytology. This is a relatively new field, and our contributions resulting from these studies have added much to this new diagnostic tool

  20. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Progress report, July 1, 1976--July 1, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1977-01-01

    This study was initiated in 1957 by the U.S. Public Health and many facets of this project are reaching final objectives. Many new studies have developed in the course of this study and will continue. The projects supported by the Energy Research and Development Administration are of utmost importance and consist of: collection of material from uranium miners known to have cancer of the lung into a tumor registry; manual on pulmonary cytology; regression study of sputum cytological findings in uranium miners who showed marked atypical squamous cell metaplasia and have quit smoking cigarettes, mining, or both; continuation of sputum collection and collection of lungs from deceased miners; sensory development for localization of carcinoma in situ of the lung; and lung histology program. Since we have examined approximately 77,000 sputum samples over the last 20 years in cases that showed normal cytology at the inception of the study and some subsequently developed carcinoma of the lung, we have an accumulation of material that is worthy of study and presentation

  1. Selenide Mineralization in the Příbram Uranium and Base-Metal District (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Škácha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium mineralization in the Příbram uranium and base-metal district (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic bound to uraninite occurrences in calcite hydrothermal veins is extremely diverse. The selenides antimonselite, athabascaite, bellidoite, berzelianite, brodtkorbite, bukovite, bytízite, cadmoselite, chaméanite, clausthalite, crookesite, dzharkenite, eskebornite, eucairite, ferroselite, giraudite, hakite, klockmannite, naumannite, permingeatite, příbramite, sabatierite, tiemannite, and umangite were found here, including two new mineral phases: Hg-Cu-Sb and Cu-As selenides. Those selenides—and in some cases their sulphidic equivalents—are characterized using wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, reflected light, powder X-ray diffraction, single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The selenide mineralization in the Příbram uranium district is bound to the border of the carbonate-uraninite and subsequent carbonate-sulphidic stages. Selenides crystallized there at temperatures near 100 °C in the neutral-to-weakly-alkaline environment from solutions with high oxygen fugacity and a high Se2/S2 fugacity ratio.

  2. What are the health costs of uranium mining? A case study of miners in Grants, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin A

    2014-10-01

    Uranium mining is associated with lung cancer and other health problems among miners. Health impacts are related with miner exposure to radon gas progeny. This study estimates the health costs of excess lung cancer mortality among uranium miners in the largest uranium-producing district in the USA, centered in Grants, New Mexico. Lung cancer mortality rates on miners were used to estimate excess mortality and years of life lost (YLL) among the miner population in Grants from 1955 to 2005. A cost analysis was performed to estimate direct (medical) and indirect (premature mortality) health costs. Total health costs ranged from $2·2 million to $7·7 million per excess death. This amounts to between $22·4 million and $165·8 million in annual health costs over the 1955-1990 mining period. Annual exposure-related lung cancer mortality was estimated at 2185·4 miners per 100 000, with a range of 1419·8-2974·3 per 100 000. Given renewed interest in uranium worldwide, results suggest a re-evaluation of radon exposure standards and inclusion of miner long-term health into mining planning decisions.

  3. Kidney cancer mortality and ionizing radiation among French and German uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Acker, Alain [AREVA NC, Paris (France); Kreuzer, Michaela [Federal Office for Radiation Protection and Health, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, on uranium miners, is an important area of research. Radon is a well-known carcinogen for lung, but the link between radiation exposure and other diseases remains controversial, particularly for kidney cancer. The aims of this study were therefore to perform external kidney cancer mortality analyses and to assess the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and kidney cancer mortality, using competing risks methodology, from two uranium miners cohorts. The French (n = 3,377) and German (n = 58,986) cohorts of uranium miners included 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer. For each cohort, the excess of kidney cancer mortality has been assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR) corrected for the probability of known causes of death. The associations between cumulative occupational radiation exposures (radon, external gamma radiation and long-lived radionuclides) or kidney equivalent doses and both the cause-specific hazard and the probability of occurrence of kidney cancer death have been estimated with Cox and Fine and Gray models adjusted to date of birth and considering the attained age as the timescale. No significant excess of kidney cancer mortality has been observed neither in the French cohort (SMR = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval [0.73; 2.67]) nor in the German cohort (SMR = 0.91 [0.77; 1.06]). Moreover, no significant association between kidney cancer mortality and any type of occupational radiation exposure or kidney equivalent dose has been observed. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates and/or large pooled cohorts should allow us to confirm or not the absence of association. (orig.)

  4. Kidney cancer mortality and ionizing radiation among French and German uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle; Acker, Alain; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, on uranium miners, is an important area of research. Radon is a well-known carcinogen for lung, but the link between radiation exposure and other diseases remains controversial, particularly for kidney cancer. The aims of this study were therefore to perform external kidney cancer mortality analyses and to assess the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and kidney cancer mortality, using competing risks methodology, from two uranium miners cohorts. The French (n = 3,377) and German (n = 58,986) cohorts of uranium miners included 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer. For each cohort, the excess of kidney cancer mortality has been assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR) corrected for the probability of known causes of death. The associations between cumulative occupational radiation exposures (radon, external gamma radiation and long-lived radionuclides) or kidney equivalent doses and both the cause-specific hazard and the probability of occurrence of kidney cancer death have been estimated with Cox and Fine and Gray models adjusted to date of birth and considering the attained age as the timescale. No significant excess of kidney cancer mortality has been observed neither in the French cohort (SMR = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval [0.73; 2.67]) nor in the German cohort (SMR = 0.91 [0.77; 1.06]). Moreover, no significant association between kidney cancer mortality and any type of occupational radiation exposure or kidney equivalent dose has been observed. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates and/or large pooled cohorts should allow us to confirm or not the absence of association. (orig.)

  5. Investigation on Microbial Dissolution of Uranium (VI) from Autunite Mineral - 13421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University. 10555 West Flagler St. Suite 2100, Miami Fl 33175 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitating autunite minerals by polyphosphate injection was identified as a feasible remediation strategy for sequestering uranium in contaminated groundwater and soil in situ at the Hanford Site. Autunite stability under vadose and saturated zone environmental conditions can help to determine the long-term effectiveness of this remediation strategy. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in Hanford soil as well as other subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. Ubiquitous in subsurface microbial communities, these bacteria can play a significant role in the dissolution of minerals and the formation of secondary minerals. The main objective of this investigation was to study the bacterial interactions under oxidizing conditions with uranium (VI); study the potential role of bicarbonate, which is an integral complexing ligand for U(VI) and a major ion in groundwater compositions; and present data from autunite dissolution experiments using Arthrobacter strain G968, a less U(VI)-tolerant strain. Sterile 100 mL glass mixed reactors served as the major bioreactor for initial experimentation. These autunite-containing bioreactors were injected with bacterial cells after the autunite equilibrated with the media solution amended with 0 mM, 3 mM 5 mM and 10 mM concentrations of bicarbonate. G968 Arthrobacter cells in the amount of 10{sup 6} cells/mL were injected into the reactors after 27 days, giving time for the autunite to reach steady state. Abiotic non-carbonate controls were kept without bacterial inoculation to provide a control for the biotic samples. Samples of the solution were analyzed for dissolved U(VI) by means of kinetic phosphorescence analyzer KPA-11 (Chemcheck Instruments, Richland, WA). Analysis showed that as [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}] increases, a diminishing trend on the effect of bacteria on autunite leaching is observed. Viability of cells was conducted after 24 hours of cell

  6. Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riese, A.C.; Popp, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    The tests described were undertaken to determine the extent to leach solution-rock interactions with uranium-bearing ore obtained from the Mariano Lake mine. Leach solutions of an acidic (H/sub 2/O/sub 4/-sulfuric acid) and basic (NaHCO/sub 3/-sodium bicarbonate) nature were tested, in addition to a leach solution containing potassium chloride and sulfuric acid (KCl/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The latter solution was chosen in an attempt to equilibrate the aqueous phase with the rock-forming silicate minerals and minimize adverse effects such as clay formation, porosity loss, and lixiviant loss. 29 refs

  7. Investigation on Microbial Dissolution of Uranium (VI) from Autunite Mineral - 13421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Precipitating autunite minerals by polyphosphate injection was identified as a feasible remediation strategy for sequestering uranium in contaminated groundwater and soil in situ at the Hanford Site. Autunite stability under vadose and saturated zone environmental conditions can help to determine the long-term effectiveness of this remediation strategy. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in Hanford soil as well as other subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. Ubiquitous in subsurface microbial communities, these bacteria can play a significant role in the dissolution of minerals and the formation of secondary minerals. The main objective of this investigation was to study the bacterial interactions under oxidizing conditions with uranium (VI); study the potential role of bicarbonate, which is an integral complexing ligand for U(VI) and a major ion in groundwater compositions; and present data from autunite dissolution experiments using Arthrobacter strain G968, a less U(VI)-tolerant strain. Sterile 100 mL glass mixed reactors served as the major bioreactor for initial experimentation. These autunite-containing bioreactors were injected with bacterial cells after the autunite equilibrated with the media solution amended with 0 mM, 3 mM 5 mM and 10 mM concentrations of bicarbonate. G968 Arthrobacter cells in the amount of 10 6 cells/mL were injected into the reactors after 27 days, giving time for the autunite to reach steady state. Abiotic non-carbonate controls were kept without bacterial inoculation to provide a control for the biotic samples. Samples of the solution were analyzed for dissolved U(VI) by means of kinetic phosphorescence analyzer KPA-11 (Chemcheck Instruments, Richland, WA). Analysis showed that as [HCO 3 - ] increases, a diminishing trend on the effect of bacteria on autunite leaching is observed. Viability of cells was conducted after 24 hours of cell incubation with

  8. A new genetic understanding for the mineralized breccia from the uranium deposit No.320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Maozhong; Wang Xiangyun; Shen Baopei; Wen Guangdou; Fan Tao

    1996-01-01

    The hydrothermal cryptoexplosion was found in the uranium deposit No.320 for the first time. A polygenetic understanding is presented that the mineralized breccia in the deposit is mainly attributed to tectonite genesis and secondarily attributed to the hydrothermal cryptoexplosion. Geodes in breccia are of multigenesis, of these, the geodes from tectonic breccia are the most important, other geodes may be attributed to the hydrothermal cryptoexplosion, dissolution and dropping (stripping) of coarse biological fossils, paleokarst and modern hot spring water corrosion, dissolution of pyrite in rocks, etc. It is inferred that the original rocks of silicified breccia are silicalite, carbonaceous shale and carbonaceous pelitic limestone rich in biogenic debris

  9. Orientated hemolysis of the red blood cells of miners from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosek, J.

    1975-06-01

    The method of orientated hemolysis was used to investigate the suspension of the washed red blood cells. The control group and the test group of miners were set up. It was found that the groups did not differ either in the number of the test tubes where the hemolysis took place, or in the number of the hemolytic zones. However they did differ in the average width of the hemolytic zones and their most probable location. A more frequent occurrence of wide hemolytic zones and their placement at the end of a row of 40 test tubes has been observed in the group of miners of the uranium mines. The reason for this was not elucidated but it was shown that the phenomenon can be simulated artifically by adding uranyl and lead salts to the suspension of the red blood cells. (author)

  10. Investigations into Pb isotope signatures in groundwater and sediments in a uranium-mineralized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mônica Dalla Vecchia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This work presents the investigation in an environment that contains uranium deposits by using Pb isotope signatures. The study area, southeast of Brazil, is characterized by the lack of surface water and, as a consequence, the groundwater plays an important role in the economy of the region, such as the supply to the uranium industry and, above all serving the needs of the local population. The objective of the present investigation is the determination of the signatures of Pb in groundwater and sediments as well as the identification of environments under influences of geogenic and/or anthropogenic sources. It was determined that the Pb in the majority of sediments was geogenic in origin. Although data from the literature, related to the environmental studies, consider 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratio values below or close to 1.2 as an indicative of anthropogenic Pb, the 206Pb/ 207Pb determined for the majority of groundwater samples ranged from 1.14 to 1.19, and are similar to the data reported for rocks samples (1.09 to 1.96 from area with U mineralization. It was also determined that the anthropogenic influence of the uranium was restricted to a single sampling point within the mining area.

  11. Investigations into Pb isotope signatures in groundwater and sediments in a uranium-mineralized area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchia, Adriana Monica Dalla; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar Horta; Rios, Francisco Javier; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Queiroz, E-mail: amdvc@cdtn.br, E-mail: acql@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br, E-mail: pchr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    This work presents the investigation in an environment that contains uranium deposits by using Pb isotope signatures. The study area, southeast of Brazil, is characterized by the lack of surface water and, as a consequence, the groundwater plays an important role in the economy of the region, such as the supply to the uranium industry and, above all serving the needs of the local population. The objective of the present investigation is the determination of the signatures of Pb in groundwater and sediments as well as the identification of environments under influences of geogenic and/or anthropogenic sources. It was determined that the Pb in the majority of sediments was geogenic in origin. Although data from the literature, related to the environmental studies, consider {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotopic ratio values below or close to 1.2 as an indicative of anthropogenic Pb, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb determined for the majority of groundwater samples ranged from 1.14 to 1.19, and are similar to the data reported for rocks samples (1.09 to 1.96) from area with U mineralization. It was also determined that the anthropogenic influence of the uranium was restricted to a single sampling point within the mining area. (author)

  12. Final environmental statement related to the Minerals Exploration Company, Sweetwater Uranium Project (Sweetwater County, Wyoming). Docket No. 40-8584

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Minerals Exploration Company (MEC) for the construction and operation of the proposed Sweetwater Uranium Mill in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, with a nominal capacity of 3000 tons (2.7 x 10 6 kg) per day of uranium ore. As part of this proposal, the applicant proposes also to construct a heap leaching and resin ion-exchange facility to extract uranium from low-grade ores and mine water. Conditions for the protection of the environment are set forth

  13. Role and the future needs of analytical chemistry in uranium mineral prospecting in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2007-01-01

    Geological samples are by nature very complex. The concentration of the sought elements varies from ppb to percent levels and matrix effects are invariably present. The types of samples to be analysed by chemist varies widely viz., simple surface rock to borehole cores, separated refractory or heavy mineral fractions and beneficiation products, soils, various types of waters, ores etc. They need different types of techniques and procedures for analysis. The use of chemical analysis data in geology was started with whole rock analysis for major elements which has influenced the advancement of geology in the early decades of last century. When the analytical techniques have improved and could determine the trace constituents at natural abundance levels this data was used to interpret the genetic aspects and tectonic setting of the rocks. In modern mineral exploration programmes, the samples are usually analysed for a wide variety of elements besides the element of interest and thus the multi-elemental determination capabilities of analytical chemistry are indispensable. Often the associated path finder elements which are more mobile and hence, form wider signatures of their presence are used to detect the presence of element sought. These pathfinder elements are easy to detect at low concentration levels by the existing analytical techniques. In uranium exploration programme, uranium itself is the pathfinder because of its ease of mobility and detection. The associated elements vary for various types of uranium deposits. Over the years, most of the outcropping uranium mineralisation signatures are detected by radiometric survey techniques and it is a high time to look for sub-cropping or concealed uranium deposits for which radiometric techniques are not useful. Geochemical surveys are used to detect these which involve analysis of various types of samples by chemical means. Target areas are identified by these techniques in Cuddapah basin, Aravalli tract and various

  14. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the contribution made by various energy sources in the production of electricity. Estimates are made of the future nuclear contribution, the future demand for uranium and future sales of Australian uranium. Nuclear power growth in the United States, Japan and Western Europe is discussed. The present status of the six major Australian uranium deposits (Ranger, Jabiluka, Nabarlek, Koongarra, Yeelerrie and Beverley) is given. Australian legislation relevant to the uranium mining industry is also outlined

  15. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The development, prospecting, research, processing and marketing of South Africa's uranium industry and the national policies surrounding this industry form the headlines of this work. The geology of South Africa's uranium occurences and their positions, the processes used in the extraction of South Africa's uranium and the utilisation of uranium for power production as represented by the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town are included in this publication

  16. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.D.J.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion is given of uranium as an energy source in The Australian economy. Figures and predictions are presented on the world supply-demand position and also figures are given on the added value that can be achieved by the processing of uranium. Conclusions are drawn about Australia's future policy with regard to uranium (R.L.)

  17. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.

    1981-03-01

    The geological setting of uranium resources in the world can be divided in two basic categories of resources and are defined as reasonably assured resources, estimated additional resources and speculative resources. Tables are given to illustrate these definitions. The increasing world production of uranium despite the cutback in the nuclear industry and the uranium requirements of the future concluded these lecture notes

  18. Mortality in uranium miners in West Bohemia: a long term cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, L.; Kunz, E. (National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)); Swerdlow, A.J. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom)); Darby, S.C. (Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom). Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit); Placek, V. (Health Inst. of Uranium Industry, Pribam (Czech Republic))

    1994-05-01

    A cohort of 4320 uranium miners in West Bohemia who started work at the mines during 1948 to 1959 and worked there for at least four years were followed up to the end of 1990 to determine cause specific mortality risks in relation to exposures in the mines. The miners had experienced high radon exposures, on average 219 working level months during their uranium mining careers, for which detailed measurements were available. They had also been exposed to high arsenic levels in one of the two major mines, and to dust. New follow up methods, not previously used for occupational cohorts in Czechoslovakia, were utilised. By the end of follow up 2415 (56%) of the cohort were known to have died. Overall mortality was significantly raised compared with that in the general population, with significantly raised risks of lung cancer, accidents, homicide, mental disorders, cirrhosis, and non-rheumatic circulatory diseases. The relative risk of lung cancer was greatest four to 14 years after entry to the mines. (Author).

  19. Uranium, radium and 40K isotopes in bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content in commercially bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians was investigated on the basis of 28 samples. Activity concentration results for radium isotopes 226,228 Ra, uranium isotopes 234,238 U and isotopic ratios 234 U/ 238 U were determined. The correlations between investigated isotopes and calculated potassium 40 K ions dissolved in water were carried out. The results show a correlation between TDS (total dissolved solids) values and dissolved radionuclides. High correlation coefficients were observed between total radium content and 40 K. The isotopic ratio of 234 U/ 238 U varies in the range from 1.6 to 7 in all investigated waters which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the parent nuclide 238 U and its daughter 234 U. The effective radiation dose coming from studied radium and uranium radionuclides consumed with mineral water from the Outer Carpathians obtained by a statistical Pole is equal to 4.3μSv/year (58 l/year water consumption) and do not exceed the permissible limit equal to 100μSv/year. Assuming 0.5 l consumption per day, i.e. 182.5 l/year, the effective dose is equal to 13.4μSv/year, what is still below the unit

  20. Radioactive mineral spring precipitates, their analytical and statistical data and the uranium connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, R.A.; Felmlee, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Major radioactive mineral springs are probably related to deep zones of active metamorphism in areas of orogenic tectonism. The most common precipitate is travertine, a chemically precipitated rock composed chiefly of calcium carbonate, but also containing other minerals. The mineral springs are surface manifestations of hydrothermal conduit systems which extend downward many kilometers to hot source rocks. Conduits are kept open by fluid pressure exerted by carbon dioxide-charged waters rising to the surface propelled by heat and gas (CO2 and steam) pressure. On reaching the surface, the dissolved carbon dioxide is released from solution, and calcium carbonate is precipitated. Springs also contain sulfur species (for example, H2S and HS-), and radon, helium and methane as entrained or dissolved gases. The HS- ion can react to form hydrogen sulfide gas, sulfate salts, and native sulfur. Chemical salts and native sulfur precipitate at the surface. The sulfur may partly oxidize to produce detectable sulfur dioxide gas. Radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, radon-222, radium-228, and radon-220, and other daughter products of uranium-238 and thorium-232. Uranium and thorium are not present in economically significant amounts in most radioactive spring precipitates. Most radium is coprecipitated at the surface with barite. Barite (barium sulfate) forms in the barium-containing spring water as a product of the oxidation of sulfur species to sulfate ions. The relatively insoluble barium sulfate precipitates and removes much of the radium from solution. Radium coprecipitates to a lesser extent with manganese-barium- and iron-oxy hydroxides. R-mode factor analysis of abundances of elements suggests that 65 percent of the variance of the different elements is affected by seven factors interpreted as follows: (1) Silica and silicate contamination and precipitation; (2) Carbonate travertine precipitation; (3) Radium coprecipitation; (4) Evaporite precipitation

  1. Study of mortality of Ontario miners, 1955-1977. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.; Kusiak, R.A.; Wheeler, W.C.; Suranyi, G.; Gentleman, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    A mortality study of Ontario Mines covering the period of 1955 to 1977 was carried out. There are 50,201 men in the study for a total of 754,391 person-years and 6,757 deaths were observed in this population over the period of the study. The most serious hazard in this population was death due to violent causes. The population was subdivided into gold miners, nickel-copper miners, iron ore miners, other ore miners, mixed ore miners, and uranium miners. Only in certain types of miners was an increase in deaths from non-neoplastic lung disease detectable. A significant increase was noted in underground gold miners, mixed ore miners and in uranium miners. This increase was largely due to increased death rates from silicosis and chronic interstitial pneumonia. In addition there were 43 deaths due to silicotuberculosis in gold miners and 36 deaths due to the same cause in mixed ore miners. It is estimated that the total difference between observed and expected deaths from silicosis and chronic interstitial pneumonia as well as from silicotuberculosis which was observed gold miners and in mixed ore miners can actually be attributed to gold mining only. Increased cancer risk in non-uranium miners is observed for cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung in full-time underground gold miners and full-time underground mixed ore miners, and cancer of the stomach in full-time underground gold miners. It is assumed that the increased risk of lung cancer in both these groups of miners is in fact due to underground gold mining only. As to uranium miners, previous studies have already demonstrated an increased lung cancer risk in these men and this finding was confirmed in this study. Men who have also worked for Eldorado Nuclear Limited show a siginificantly increased risk of death from all causes and from all disease causes

  2. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: (1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and (2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  3. Understanding the Underground Hydrous Minerals on Mars: Stability Field, Phase Transitions, and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Chou, I. M.; Ling, Z.; Sobron, P.

    2017-12-01

    Three types of studies form the bases of our understandings: (1) systematic laboratory experiments on the thermodynamics and kinetic properties of hydrous (Mg, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ca, Al, Na) -sulfates, -chlorides, and -perchlorates, made by this and many other teams. (2) the thermal modeling of two-layer regolith with very different thermal inertia (TI) and its validating observation on Mars [Mellon et al., 2004, 2009]. (3) the mission observations on Mars and the field investigations at analog sites. Following are some examples of these understandings, with more to be presented at AGU. Hydrous salts (sulfates, chlorides, perchlorates) in an enclosure could keep a relatively stable RH%, i.e., they are environmental RH buffers. Underground layers of hydrous salty soils (high TI) on Mars could be considered as a quasi-closed system, equilibrated within their environments. The RH% range kept by them would help to stabilize many hydrous salts. For example, Mg- & Fe3+-sulfates with high hydration degrees (6-20 H2O) were observed in the subsurface layers in a terrestrial hyperarid region and at Gusev on Mars. A general trend was found that the RH% levels kept by hydrous sulfates in an enclosure are much higher than those by hydrous perchlorates and by hydrous chlorides. This implies that in an underground layer of mixed hydrous salts, one type of salts (e.g. sulfates) can provide the necessary RH-buffering for the phase transition of other types,, e.g., the deliquescence of perchlorates or chlorides, to trigger RSL or to provide liquid H2O at relatively warm T. The dehydration rates of hydrous sulfates have a high dependence on cation types. Among them, Mg and Fe2+-sulfate have higher dehydration rates, and ferric sulfates dehydrate much slow. This lab-observation was validated by MER mission observation, i.e., the finding of highly hydrated ferric sulfates, i.e. Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2.20H2O, in subsurface at Gusev crater. However, the dehydration rate of hydrous sulfates can also

  4. Lung cancer from radon and smoking: a multistage model for the WISMUT uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillen, Teun van; Bijwaard, Harmen; Schnelzer, Maria; Kreuzer, Michaela; Grosche, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the world's third-largest uranium-mining province located in areas of Saxony and Thuringia in the former German Democratic Republic, the WISMUT Company conducted extensive uranium mining starting in 1946. Up to 1990, when mining activities were discontinued, most of the 400,000 employees had been exposed to uranium ore dust and radon and its progeny. It is well established that, besides smoking, such exposures are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. From about 130,000 known miners a huge cohort of 59,000 miners has been formed and in an epidemiological analysis lung cancer risks have been evaluated (Grosche et al., 2006). We will present an alternative approach using a biologically-based multistage carcinogenesis model quantifying the lung-cancer risk related to both the exposure to radon and smoking habits. This mechanistic technique allows for extrapolation to the low exposures that are important for present-day radiation protection purposes and the transfer of risk across populations. The model is applied to a sub-cohort of about 35,000 persons who were employed at WISMUT after 1955, with known annual exposures estimated from the job-exposure matrix (Lehmann et al., 2004). Unfortunately, detailed information on smoking is missing for most miners. However, this information has been retrieved in two case-control studies, one of which was nested in the cohort while the other was not (Brueske-Hohlfeld et al., 2006). For these studies, the relevant smoking parameters are assembled in so-called smoking spectra that are next projected onto the entire cohort using a Monte-Carlo sampling method. Individual smoking habits that are randomly assigned to the cohort members, together with the information on annual exposure to radon, is used as an input for the multistage model. Model parameters related to radon and tobacco exposure are fitted with a maximum-likelihood technique. We will show results of the observed and expected lung

  5. Why can rossing uranium mine keep mining even in low price conditions of uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    Rossing uranium mine is the only operating uranium mine in the world where the uranium occurs in intrusive alaskite. In the past 10 years, uranium market regressed in the world, uranium production weakened, expenditures of capital for uranium exploration were insufficient. Uranium spot market price rapidly decreased from $111.8/kg U in late 1970's to $22.1/kg U in mid-1990's. Why can Rossing uranium mine mined with traditional underground and open pit operation can keep running even in low price conditions of uranium market? Augumenting research on the deposit, mineral and technology, decreasing production cost and improving selling strategy can not only maintain Rossing's uranium production at present, but also ensure sustainable development in the coming 15 years. Exploration of low-costed uranium deposits is very important. However, obvious economic benefits can be obtained, as Rossing uranium mine does, by augumenting geological-economical research on the known uranium deposits of hard-rock type and by using new techniques to improve the conventional techniques in the uranium mine development. (authors)

  6. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos Basin and its relationship to uranium mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunji Xue

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ordos Basin of North China is not only an important uranium mineralization province, but also a major producer of oil, gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of the hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. We have demonstrated in a previous study that the preferential localization of Cretaceous uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Ordos Jurassic section may have been related to the interface between an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid. This interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and which drove the upward flow, and topographic relief, which drove the downward flow. In this study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation is taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation at the end of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow.

  7. The characteristic of reduced form exciting factors of governing mineralization in hydrothermal uranium deposits and its prospecting significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangqing; Lou Xianhong; Li Zhenqiu

    2008-01-01

    Reduced form exciting factors of governing mineralization are discussed. It is indicated that metallogenic conditions of hydrothermal uranium deposits of reduced form exciting factors governing mineralization are ore-forming solution flow into metallogenic space; Eh decreases significantly, and reach reducing condition of mineral deposit. The exciting factors of governing mineralization are divided into internal reduction subclass and environment reduction subclass. Then emphases on the classification, characteristic, formation condition, representative deposits and prospecting significance in this paper. The environment reduction index is put forward to evaluate reducing power of surrounding rock. (authors)

  8. The characteristics of soda metasomatite type uranium mineralization for proterozoic strata in the central-southern part of Kang-Dian earth's axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Farong

    1995-12-01

    The uranium mineralization for Proterozoic strata in the central-southern part of Kang-Dian earth's axis can be divided into four typy (sandstone, soda metasomatite, proterozoic epimetamorphics and quartzite). The soda metasomatite type is the dominant type of uranium mineralization and has the prospecting potential in the area. The characteristics of this type uranium mineralization and the problems of metallogenesis are discussed. Soda metasomatite type uranium mineralization is controlled by soda metasomatite and structure. Uranium exists mainly in the forms of minerals (pitchblende, uranate). Its cell parameter is high and oxygenated coefficient is low, belonging to moderate-low temperature hydrothermal origin. The metallogenetic materials originated from deep-seated crust and country rocks. The metallogenetic solution includes a great quantity of atmospheric water, besides hydrothermal solution from deep-seated crust. The metallogene underwent the two stages i.e. Jinnin and Chengjiang. (4 tabs., 3 figs.)

  9. Application of a stratified random sampling technique to the estimation and minimization of respirable quartz exposure to underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makepeace, C.E.; Horvath, F.J.; Stocker, H.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of a stratified random sampling plan is to provide the best estimate (in the absence of full-shift personal gravimetric sampling) of personal exposure to respirable quartz among underground miners. One also gains information of the exposure distribution of all the miners at the same time. Three variables (or strata) are considered in the present scheme: locations, occupations and times of sampling. Random sampling within each stratum ensures that each location, occupation and time of sampling has equal opportunity of being selected without bias. Following implementation of the plan and analysis of collected data, one can determine the individual exposures and the mean. This information can then be used to identify those groups whose exposure contributes significantly to the collective exposure. In turn, this identification, along with other considerations, allows the mine operator to carry out a cost-benefit optimization and eventual implementation of engineering controls for these groups. This optimization and engineering control procedure, together with the random sampling plan, can then be used in an iterative manner to minimize the mean value of the distribution and collective exposures

  10. Remote sensing application research of mineralization prospect of uranium-polymetal deposits in west side of Daxinganling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fusheng; Cui Zhenkui; Fang Maolong; Wang Guojuan; Yao Hua

    1998-12-01

    The key of mineral exploration by remote sensing method is the extraction and identification of mineralization-related geologic information from remote sensing data under the guidance of mineralization theory. Remote sensing research of deposits is combined with the analysis of regional geology setting, so as to give full play to the advantage of remote sensing technology. According to the geologic features of the covered area, different kinds of satellite data are, at first, selected and processed with different methods and therefore mineralization-related geologic information is effectively extracted. Then regional geologic setting is discussed and main mineralization-controlled factors, such as uranium-occurred volcanic basins, mineralization-controlled faults and granite bodies, Mesozoic volcanic rock series, volcanic framework, are identified. On the basis of the former study, the remote sensing image models of different kinds of deposits have been established. Finally, multi-source information integration technique has been applied to the assessment of favorable mineralization areas. This research shows that it is feasible to extract and identify mineralization-related information from remote sensing images in complicated and covered areas, and that the study area is favorable for uranium and polymetal deposit explorations because of its favorable geologic setting and mineralization conditions

  11. Discovery of uranium mineralizations in the rhyolite-granite complex in the Jabal Eghei area of southern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During investigation of the Jabal Eghei area in southern Libya and the production of geological maps at a scale of 1:250 000 (Tibesti sector, sheet Wadi Eghei NF 34-1 and NF 34-2, regional prospecting for mineral raw materials was performed. Radiometric survey of observed targets at the sites indicated two significant uranium mineralizations in rhyolites, and some smaller ones in granites that are in close contact with rhyolites. Rhyolites are located in the central part of the investigated region. They cut through granite rocks. The first mineralization is in the central part of the rhyolite region, which is mostly composed of silificated rhyolites. The second one was discovered near the granite-rhyolite contact zone, characterized by the presence of silicified breccia rocks. These findings were confirmed by laboratory measurements of more than seventy samples collected in the area, using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of uranium in these mineralizations were found to range from approx. 50 mg kg-1 to more than 600 mg kg-1. The latter value is about 240 times above the Earth’s average. Besides uranium, these measurements have also given concentrations of thorium and potassium. Additional geochemical analysis was performed on samples taken from locations where uranium anomalies were discovered using ICP-MS technique, in which concentrations of more than forty elements were determined. Uranium mineralizations are accompained by increased contents of silver (up to 17 times, arsenic (up to 8 times, molybdenum (up to 50 times, mercury (up to 9 times, and lead (up to 14 times, in regard to the Clark’s values. These results warrant a continued investigation of this region because of potential interest in the discovery of nuclear mineral raw materials.

  12. p53 mutations and codon 213 polymorphism of p53 in lung cancers of former uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schuster, H; Wiesner, B; Bauer, P; Täuscher, F; Plogmann, H; Morgenroth, K; Konietzko, N; Norpoth, K

    1999-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of G-->T transversions of p53 in lung cancers of smokers. One study has reported a special "hotspot" mutation at codon 249 of p53 in lung cancers of former uranium miners. The aim of our study was to look for mutational spectra of p53 in former German uranium miners with lung cancers. We investigated 16 patients with lung cancer who had worked as uranium miners in Germany and 13 lung cancer patients without a mining history of the same region. By means of the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing we looked for mutations in exons 5 7 of the p53 gene. We could not find any suggestion of hotspot mutations. The only G-->T mutation in former uranium miners was detected in the only nonsmoker. In 3 patients (19% of the total) we found a codon 213/3 polymorphism. The results indicate that G-->T transversions do not seem to be very common mutations in p53 in lung cancers probably caused by radiation. Therefore, p53 may be mutated early in lung cancer development if radiation exposure is a critical factor in carcinogenesis. In accordance with studies of thyroid cancer patients in the Chernobyl region, our results may indicate an overrepresentation of codon 213/3 polymorphism in p53 in radiation-caused cancers.

  13. Dose-response relationship analysis for cancer and circulatory system disease mortality risks among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubay, Damien

    2015-01-01

    The relation between lung cancer risk and radon exposure has been clearly established, especially from the studies on uranium miner cohorts. But the association between radon exposure and extrapulmonary cancers and non-cancer diseases remains not well known. Moreover, the health risks associated with the other mining-related ionizing radiation exposures are still under consideration. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the estimation of the radio-induced health risks at low-doses through the analysis of the kidney cancer and Circulatory System Disease (CSD) mortality risks among uranium miners. Kidney cancer mortality risk analyses were performed from the French cohort of uranium miners (n=5086; follow-up period: 1946-2007), the post-55 cohort (n=3,377; follow-up period: 1957-2007) and the German cohort of the Wismut (n=58,986; follow-up period: 1946-2003) which included 24, 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer, respectively. The exposures to radon and its short-lived progeny (expressed in Working Level Month WLM), to uranium ore dust (kBqh.m -3 ) and to external gamma rays (mSv) were estimated for each miners and the equivalent kidney dose was calculated. The dose-response relation was refined considering two responses: the instantaneous risk of kidney cancer mortality (corresponding to the classical analysis, Cause specific Hazard Ratio (CSHR) estimated with the Cox model) and its occurrence probability during the followup (Sub-distribution Hazard Ratio (SHR) estimated with the Fine and Gray model). An excess of kidney cancer mortality was observed only in the French cohort (SMR = 1.62 CI95%[1.04; 2.41]). In the Wismut cohort, a decrease of the kidney cancer mortality was observed (0.89 [0.78; 0.99]). For these three cohorts, the occupational radiological exposures (or the equivalent kidney dose) were significantly associated neither with the risk of kidney cancer mortality (e.g. CSHRWismut-radon/100 WLM=1.023 [0.993; 1.053]), nor with its occurrence

  14. Detection of Bronchial Neoplasia in Uranium Miners by Autofluorescence Endoscopy (SAFE-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Horvath

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the detection rate for premalignant changes of bronchial epithelium was studied in 56 symptom-free volunteers from the risk group of Czech uranium miners (mean age 50.69 years, mean WLM 21.06 (1 Working Level Month is equal to the absorption of latent energy of 2.08 × 10–5 J/m3 in one month, i.e. 170 working hours by the additional employment of the System of Autofluorescence Endoscopy (SAFE-1000 Pentax to conventional white-light bronchoscopy, comparing results with those of bronchial biopsy histopathology examination. Histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed intraepithelial neoplasias in 15 areas in 10 persons. White-light bronchoscopy sensitivity was 21.05%, and specificity 93.7% which an autofluorescence bronchoscopy sensitivity was 78.95% and specificity 81.89%.

  15. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, “evaporite” refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where “salt” can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  16. Occupational diseases in uranium and ore miners in connection with radiation exposure in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.

    2003-01-01

    Dozens cases of diseases are submitted to judgement as occupational diseases every year in the Czech Republic. Patients or attending physicians suggest that these cases are caused by occupational ionizing radiation. Only a part of these cases is qualified as occupational disease. The term 'occupational disease' is rather a juridical term which underlies the right to financial compensation. The causal association with exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be indisputably verified by expert medical opinion. Most diseases, which are proposed as occupational disease, are malignant tumors of the lungs. Total majority of judged cases are lung cancers from radioactive agents. In 2002, a total of 33 cases of lung cancer in former uranium or ore miners have been acknowledged as occupational diseases. The decision about occupational disease is derived from probabilistic approach based on estimation of probability of causation of irradiation on disease origin (methodical guideline No. 15 of Ministry of Health Bulletin, part 9, 1998). The presented paper gives a general information about all judged causes of occupational diseases in former uranium and ore miners in the Czech Republic in 2002. A total of 72 cases were submitted to judgement of conditions of disease origin to the National Radiation Protection Institute in 2002. 67 cases were lung cancers, 1 case was chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, basaliom, cancer of larynx and cancer of nasal septum. The probability of causation was assessed as prevailing in 32 cases of lung cancer, borderline in 5 cases and low in other 30 cases of lung cancer. The probability of causation was prevailing in both cases of myeloid leukemia. (author)

  17. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, D.

    1991-01-01

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3σ(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 4n- ] n layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca 2+ ions and H 2 O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 (P O 4 ) 2 (OH) 4 .4 H 2 O must be changed to Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 .7 H 2 O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author)

  18. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, 'evaporite' refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where 'salt' can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  19. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the Canadian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine and mill expansions and exploration activity are described, as well as changes in governmental policy. Although demand for uranium is weak at the moment, the industry feels optimistic about the future. (LL)

  20. Multifactorial study of the risk of lung cancer among French uranium miners: radon, smoking and silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Jean-Christophe; Leuraud, Klervi; Vacquier, Blandine; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Acker, Alain; Laurier, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    This case-control study nested in the French cohort of uranium miners provides an opportunity to take account of silicosis and smoking in the assessment of the relation between radon and lung cancer. The study includes 100 miners who died of lung cancer and 500 matched controls born within the same period of birth and of the same age at the time of death of the matching case. Data on radon exposure are obtained from individual monitoring of the miners, and data on smoking come from medical records and interviews. To identify cases of silicosis among the 600 miners surveyed, appraisals carried out as part of the compensation process for occupational diseases are used. Statistical analyses are based on a conditional logistic regression, and the linear model for excess relative risk was used to model the risk of death due to lung cancer according to cumulative radon exposure. The percentage of missing data on silicotic status is less than 20%. The study reveals a significant association between the relative risk of lung cancer and silicosis (ORsilicosis = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.4-8.9), and the relation between radon and lung cancer persists after adjusting for smoking and silicotic status (ERRradon per WLM = 1.0%; 95% CI: 0.1-3.5%). Radon, cigarette smoking and silicotic status appear to be three factors that each have a specific effect on the risk of lung cancer. This study reminds us of the complexity involved in assessing occupational risks in the case of multiple sources of exposure.

  1. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, G.C.; McKay, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Production of uranium oxide in Australia for 1983 was 3786 t(3211 t U). Uranium exports for 1983 were 3273 t U 3 O 8 at an average f.o.b. value of $41.02/lb U 3 O 8 . Private exploration expenditure for uranium in Australia during the 1982-83 fiscal year was $36.5 million, 35% less than in 1981-82. In November 1983, the Government decided that uranium mining would be allowed only at the existing Ranger and Nabarlek mines and at the proposed Olympic Dam mine. Australia's Reasonably Assured Resources of uranium recoverable at less than US$80/kg U as at December 1983, totalled 474 000 t U. Australia's total now represents 30% of the Western world's low-cost RAR. In addition Australia has 235 000 t U in the low-cost Estimated Additional Resources Category 1, which represents 31% of the Western world's resources in this category

  2. Uranium (-nickel-cobalt-molybdenum) mineralization along the Singhbhum copper belt, India, and the problem of ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.

    1982-08-01

    Uranium mineralization is present at many places along the 200 km long Singhbhum copper belt, but the mineralization is relatively concentrated at the central part of it. The belt is characterized by many shear zone features, such as mylonites, phyllonites, and L-S type of structures and of course, copious metasomatism. Country rocks are basic schists, metapelites, quartzose rocks and albite schist/gneiss (‘Soda Granite’). Orebodies are sheet-like, conformable with the pervasive planar structures in the host rocks. No pronounced ‘wall rock alteration’ accompanied the mineralization. Grade of the ore is low (pile.

  3. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, St.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO 2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  4. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  5. Redox buffer capacity of sedimentary rocks around uranium deposit. Study of water-mineral-microbe system at the Tono uranium deposit, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Murakami, Yuki; Hama, Katsuhiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center; Naganuma, Takeshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan). School of Biosphere Sciences

    2003-06-01

    The redox buffer capacity of the water-mineral-microbe system in and around the Tono uranium deposit, Japan, was studied to evaluate the long-term stability of the redox system. The uranium deposit occurs in the lower part of a Miocene sedimentary rock sequence that unconformably overlies granite. In the groundwater, profiles of redox sensitive solutes such as sulphate and sulphide ions, abundance and viability of microbes, and sulphur isotope ratios of sulphate ions suggest that microbial sulphate reduction involving organic matter and subsequent pyrite precipitation are dominant redox reactions at the depths of the uranium ore bodies. Concentrations of both the sulphate and chloride increase with increasing depth. The dissolved sulphate is surmised to have originated from dissolution of sulphate and sulphide minerals in a geologic marine formation precipitated in marine environments, in the upper part of the sedimentary rocks. Such a redox process in the water-mineral-microbe system is inferred to have continued from the time when the marine formation underwent uplift above sea-level, because sulphate-reducing bacteria can use sulphate ions dissolved in fresh water that infiltrates from the marine formation and organic matter located in the deeper sedimentary rocks. The chloride ion also has a linear relationship with groundwater residence time. from the relationship between sulphate and chloride ion concentrations, the sulphate ion dissolution rates from the marine formation are estimated at about 5.9 x 10{sup -5} mM/yr. Calculations by using the sulphate-S contents of the rocks and the sulphate dissolution rate suggest that microbial sulphate reduction alone could maintain sufficiently reducing conditions to preserve the uranium ore for several hundred thousand years, in the case where a hydrogeological system continues to exist without much change. (author)

  6. Redox buffer capacity of sedimentary rocks around uranium deposit. Study of water-mineral-microbe system at the Tono uranium deposit, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Murakami, Yuki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The redox buffer capacity of the water-mineral-microbe system in and around the Tono uranium deposit, Japan, was studied to evaluate the long-term stability of the redox system. The uranium deposit occurs in the lower part of a Miocene sedimentary rock sequence that unconformably overlies granite. In the groundwater, profiles of redox sensitive solutes such as sulphate and sulphide ions, abundance and viability of microbes, and sulphur isotope ratios of sulphate ions suggest that microbial sulphate reduction involving organic matter and subsequent pyrite precipitation are dominant redox reactions at the depths of the uranium ore bodies. Concentrations of both the sulphate and chloride increase with increasing depth. The dissolved sulphate is surmised to have originated from dissolution of sulphate and sulphide minerals in a geologic marine formation precipitated in marine environments, in the upper part of the sedimentary rocks. Such a redox process in the water-mineral-microbe system is inferred to have continued from the time when the marine formation underwent uplift above sea-level, because sulphate-reducing bacteria can use sulphate ions dissolved in fresh water that infiltrates from the marine formation and organic matter located in the deeper sedimentary rocks. The chloride ion also has a linear relationship with groundwater residence time. from the relationship between sulphate and chloride ion concentrations, the sulphate ion dissolution rates from the marine formation are estimated at about 5.9 x 10 -5 mM/yr. Calculations by using the sulphate-S contents of the rocks and the sulphate dissolution rate suggest that microbial sulphate reduction alone could maintain sufficiently reducing conditions to preserve the uranium ore for several hundred thousand years, in the case where a hydrogeological system continues to exist without much change. (author)

  7. Accounting for Berkson and Classical Measurement Error in Radon Exposure Using a Bayesian Structural Approach in the Analysis of Lung Cancer Mortality in the French Cohort of Uranium Miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Rage, Estelle; Laurier, Dominique; Laroche, Pierre; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Ancelet, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Many occupational cohort studies on underground miners have demonstrated that radon exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality. However, despite the deleterious consequences of exposure measurement error on statistical inference, these analyses traditionally do not account for exposure uncertainty. This might be due to the challenging nature of measurement error resulting from imperfect surrogate measures of radon exposure. Indeed, we are typically faced with exposure uncertainty in a time-varying exposure variable where both the type and the magnitude of error may depend on period of exposure. To address the challenge of accounting for multiplicative and heteroscedastic measurement error that may be of Berkson or classical nature, depending on the year of exposure, we opted for a Bayesian structural approach, which is arguably the most flexible method to account for uncertainty in exposure assessment. We assessed the association between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality in the French cohort of uranium miners and found the impact of uncorrelated multiplicative measurement error to be of marginal importance. However, our findings indicate that the retrospective nature of exposure assessment that occurred in the earliest years of mining of this cohort as well as many other cohorts of underground miners might lead to an attenuation of the exposure-risk relationship. More research is needed to address further uncertainties in the calculation of lung dose, since this step will likely introduce important sources of shared uncertainty.

  8. Geochemistry of the uranium mineralized Achala granitic complex, Argentina: Comparison with Hercynian peraluminous leucogranites of western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Leroy, J.; Valdiviezo, P.A.; Daziano, C.; Gamba, M.; Zarco, A.J.; Morello, O.; Ninci, C.; Molina, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Achala granitic complex belongs to the Sierras Pampeanas Hercynian belt, located west of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. This complex is very large (about 100 km N-S and 40 km E-W) and is composed of biotite, biotite with muscovite and muscovite with tourmaline granites intruded in amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks, along a main N 20 deg. E structural direction. Numerous uranium mineralizations are located within the granitic massif and tungsten mineralizations are present both in the enclosing metamorphic rocks and in the granite. The geochemistry of the granite has been studied in four test areas (Southern, Copina, Median and Don Vincente). Two test areas (Median and Don Vicente) present clear evidence of hydrothermal alteration: albitization and dequartzification similar to the French 'episyenites', silicification and argillic alteration. Potassic alteration is rare and weakly developed. The two test areas with hydrothermal alteration present a high uranium geochemical background (5-30 ppm). High thorium contents (up to 65 ppm) are essentially observed in the less differentiated granites of the Copina and Median areas. Thorium/uranium ratios are highly variable (1-10). Uranium minerals are related to different environments - (1) apatite-biotite enclave mineralized with uraninite and uranothorite, (2) gneiss from the contact metamorphism rim, (3) granite with incipient dequartzification, (4) granite associated with albitic episyenites and (5) silicified granite - but are all located in the two test areas presenting clear evidence of hydrothermal alteration. The three petrogenetic events are clearly related to very different mechanisms, separated from each other by several tens of millions of years in the west European Hercynian chain. In the same period the same succession of events leading to uranium deposits is observed in Argentina. 34 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  9. Irradiation defects in clayey minerals in association with discordance-type uranium deposit; Les Defauts d'Irradiation dans les Mineraux argileux associes aux gisements d'Uranium de type Discordance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morichon, E.; Beaufort, D. [Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire HydrASA, CNRS-FRE 3114, 86 - Poitiers (France); Morichon, E.; Allard, Th. [IMPMC, UMR 7590, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Radioactivity generates defects in minerals and these defects are the witnesses of the presence of radio-elements, and therefore represent an interesting potential for uranium prospecting. Investigations made in the Athabasca basin in Canada reveal irradiation defects in very old clays (kaolinite, illite and sudoite) in the alteration halo of discordance-type uranium deposits. The authors comment the defect concentration variation among the different drillings. These differences show that hexavalent uranium circulated in the whole geological system

  10. Uranium geochemistry in a calcareous peat: mineral-organic-microorganisms interactions and implications on uranium mobility in a contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phrommavanh, V.; Descostes, M.; L'Orphelin, J.M.; Beaucaire, C.; Gaudet, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the different approaches and techniques which have been implemented to study the behaviour of uranium in an as complex medium as a natural peat, in this case, a calcareous peat located on an old industrial site which was dedicated to uranium processing and which is now being decontaminated. They report and comment a chemical and mineralogical characterization of this peat, its hydrochemical characterization, and a microbial flora characterization

  11. Potential dust exposures in underground mines of the former Wismut Ltd. during the early phase of uranium mining after the second world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    We performed dust measurements in several underground mines of Wismut Ltd. during dry drilling and ore mining with pneumatic hammers. The purpose was to reproduce operational conditions typical of the early phase of uranium mining after the second world war. Since do dust measurements were performed, data or information on exposures in that period of time are not available. Our investigations were intended to fill this gap. The decisive step to reduce exposures in mining areas and in regions to be opened up and prepared was the conversion from dry drilling with air flushing to wet drilling with water flushing resulting in a decrease of fine dust concentrations by more than 97%. (orig./SR) [de

  12. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil; Inclusoes fluidas nos minerais associados a mineralizacao uranifera da Jazida do Engenho (Anomalia 09), provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Aurelio da Silva de

    2009-07-01

    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO{sub 2} showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal

  13. Frequent detection of latent tuberculosis infection among aged underground hard coal miners in the absence of recent tuberculosis exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Ringshausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Miners are at particular risk for tuberculosis (TB infection due to exposure to silica dust and silicosis. The objectives of the present observational cohort study were to determine the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI among aged German underground hard coal miners with silicosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD using two commercial interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs and to compare their performance with respect to predictors of test positivity. METHODS: Between October 2008 and June 2010, miners were consecutively recruited when routinely attending pneumoconiosis clinics for an expert opinion. Both IGRAs, the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT and the T-SPOT®.TB (T-SPOT, were performed at baseline. A standardized clinical interview was conducted at baseline and at follow-up. The cohort was prospectively followed regarding the development of active TB for at least two years after inclusion of the last study subject. Independent predictors of IGRA positivity were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 118 subjects (mean age 75 years, none reported recent exposure to TB. Overall, the QFT and the T-SPOT yielded similarly high rates of positive results (QFT: 46.6%; 95% confidence interval 37.6-55.6%; T-SPOT: 61.0%; 95% confidence interval 52.2-69.8%. Positive results were independently predicted by age ≥80 years and foreign country of birth for both IGRAs. In addition, radiological evidence of prior healed TB increased the chance of a positive QFT result fivefold. While 28 subjects were lost to follow-up, no cases of active TB occurred among 90 subjects during an average follow-up of >2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of LTBI, the absence of recent TB exposure, and the currently low TB incidence in Germany, our study provides evidence for the persistence of specific interferon-gamma responses even decades after putative exposure. However, the clinical value of current IGRAs

  14. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1997-01-01

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  15. Relationship between characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Fengjun; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang; Li Sitian

    2000-01-01

    Like normal deltas, fan-deltas are composed of three parts, i.e., fan-delta plain, fan-delta front and pre-fin-delta, In-situ leachable uranium deposits are commonly distributed along the margins of in-land basins. The author analyzes the possible relationship between the basic characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and uranium mineralization. Two examples, e.g., the fan delta depositional systems in the eastern part of Jungger basin and the southern part of Yili basin, are given to illustrate the fan-delta vertical sequence and planar distribution of sedimentary facies. It has been pointed out that the braided channel sandstone bodies on delta plain, sub-aqueous distributional channel sandstone bodies and delta front sandstone bodies may be the favourable host rocks for in-situ leachable sandstone uranium deposits

  16. Petrography of the uranium-bearing minerals of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina: phase assemblages and migration of uranium in granitoid rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, J.A.; Solberg, T.N.; Becker, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    Optical petrography, fission track U mapping, and electron microprobe analysis of granitoid rocks from the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, show a nonuniform distribution of U in the rocks. In order of abundance, U occurs: in accessory minerals, with U concentrations decreasing in the order: uraninite, coffinite, uranoan thorite, zircon, monazite, titanite, allanite, apatite, zeolites; on altered sulfaces of Fe/sup +2/- and S-bearing minerals; at microcracks filled with carbonate, zeolite, and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide minerals; on clay minerals of altered feldspars; and in major minerals as a widely dispersed minor component. Thorium has been identified in the accessory minerals thorite, thoroan uraninite, coffinite, allanite, and monazite. Uranium and Th distribution is believed to be of magmatic origin within the major U-Th-Zr phase assemblage: uranoan thorite +zircon /plus or minus/ uraninite. The mechanisms of U retention are similar to those found in sedimentary U deposits. The U-Th-Pb isotope studies of the Liberty Hill pluton show that these mechanisms are effective in retaining the initial concentrations of U. Refs

  17. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  18. The chemical evolution and paragenesis of uranium minerals from the Ruggles and Palermo granitic pegmatites, New Hampshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeb, S.L.; Foord, E.E.; Lichte, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the chemical evolution and paragenesis of the uranium minerals at the Palermo No. 1 and Ruggles granitic pegmatites, Grafton County, New Hampshire, revealed four stages of secondary mineralization. A total of eight uranium minerals were identified in the four stages. The first stage is a mixture of uranyl oxide hydroxide-hydrates represented by mineral A, which surrounds and replaces a uraninite core. The second stage is a carbonate stage found only at the Palermo No. pegmatite, and is represented by rutherfordine. The third stage is represented by uranyl silicates. At the Palermo No. 1 pegmatite, this stage consists of β-uranophane, and at the Ruggles pegmatite, it consists of soddyite and β-uranophane. A final fourth stage is a phosphate stage represented by phosphuranylite and meta-autunite I. The first three stages of mineralization developed from hydrothermal and meteoric processes. With dropping temperatures, hydrothermal fluids reached meteoric temperatures and acquired the characteristics of meteoric water. The pH shifted from acidic (pH less than about 6 at 100 o C) to alkaline (pH > 7 at 25 o C). Since mineral A contains hydroxyl and a low amount of molecular water, it probably formed at a temperature greater than 100 o C in the acidic environment. After the first stage, the hydrothermal fluids likely reached the temperatures of meteoric water. The initial pH of the meteoric water was acidic (pH less than about 6 at 25 o C) and then slowly shifted to alkaline. The mineralizing fluids became oversaturated in CO 3 , Ca, K, and Si. Uraninite and mineral A became unstable and were replaced by rutherfordine and uranyl silicates. The fourth or phosphate stage developed from the introduction of groundwater. The uranyl phosphate minerals precipitated from an acidic fluid (pH o C) that was oversaturated with Ca, K, U, and P. (author). 22 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  19. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of uranium-rich fluoriteinEl-Missikat mineralized granite,Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A unique, highly radioactive variety of fluor it emineral has been recorded in the uranium occurrence of El-Missikat sheared granite pluton. In this occurrence, the uranium assumes different forms, including its presence as discrete, visible, secondary minerals, rare uraninite and its association with the jasperoid and silica veinlets. However,in some other parts of the sheared zone, the uranium was found to be solely incorporated with fluorite crystals,filling veinlet sand fractures with out any other manife station.This paper focuses ont her elevant mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of this unique fluorite variety.In addition to an investigation with binocular and polarizing microscopes, the separated fluorite grains were analyzed usingan environmental scanning electronmicroscope(ESEM and a field-emission scanning electron microscope.In addition to this,some fluorite crystals were subjected to electron microprobe analyses. While the fluorite accounted for as much as 20% of the sheared granite samples studied, it was found to range from 82 to 96 % in the different size fractions of the separated heavy mineral content. In some parts of the separated fluorite crystals,uranium inquantities of up to 2200 ppm was found to be heterogeneously distributed in the fluoritelattice,regardless of its coloration.

  20. Close out of the Malargue site: Underground draining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Nolberto N.; Liseno, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    An industrial uranium production facility stopped working in Malargue city, Mendoza province. Nowadays, in that place there are 700,000 tons of solid tailings piles from the uranium minerals concentration process. They must be treated inside the site through engineering works included in the final closeout project. This paper describes the project technical details of an underground drainage system, designed to depress the groundwater level and to be sure about the isolation of the solids to be treated from the groundwater. The work was done by a private company, after public bidding process. At the moment the drainage system is in operation control stage. (author)

  1. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkin, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in the Australian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine production increased markedly to 1841 t U 3 O 8 because of output from the new concentrator at Nabarlek and 1131 t of U 3 O 8 were exported at a nominal value of $37.19/lb. Several new contracts were signed for the sale of yellowcake from Ranger and Nabarlek Mines. Other developments include the decision by the joint venturers in the Olympic Dam Project to sink an exploration shaft and the release of an environmental impact statement for the Honeymoon deposit. Uranium exploration expenditure increased in 1980 and additions were made to Australia's demonstrated economic uranium resources. A world review is included

  2. Trace element determinations in uranium bearing minerals and rocks by spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.; Szacki, W.; Pluhar, E.

    1981-01-01

    Spark source mass spectrometry has been used in the multielemental analyses in the samples: BIR, DNC, and W-2 of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The concentrations for up to 23 trace elements could be determined depending on the concentration level and matrix composition. The USGS standards W-1 and BCR-1 were used as multi-elemental standards to evaluate the necessary sensitivity factors. The determinations of U and Th concentrations of DL-1a (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, CANMET) are based on sensitivity factors of CANMET DH-1, BL-1, BL-2, BL-3, and BL-4 standard material. The agreement between our U and Th values and those concentration values supplied from CANMET at the end of the round robin program for the standardization was found to be good. The application of spark source mass spectrometry is demonstrated by determining the concentrations of 10 geochemical relevant elements in two drill cores of a uranium deposit and neighbouring rocks. (orig.) [de

  3. Factor analysis of geochemical data from ore and host rocks of the uranium mineralization at Mika, N. E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funtua, I. I.

    1997-01-01

    The Mika uranium occurrence is located in one of a series of NW-NE trending shear zones which host uraniferous Jurassic rhyolitic dykes located in Pan-African brecciated granites within peraluminous granite complex of NE Nigeria. The bodies of mineralization are about 100 metres long and up to 4 metres thick. The U mineralization associated with the rhyolite dykes contains predominantly meta-autunite and apatite, while that of the brecciated granites displays variable mineralogy with meta-autunite, one or two generations of coffinite and colloformic, pitch blend in open veins. The mineralization is thought to be related to bimodel magmatism of the Burashika group and the reactivation of regional structures. Multivariate statistical evaluation of geochemical data of 28 elements/oxides in 296 host rock and mineralized samples from the surface and drill cores display a coherent association of [(U, Pb, Zn, Cu, P 2 O 5 , Fe 2 O 3 ) + Mo], [(CaO, Zr, Sr) +(Y, Mo, V, As)] and [(MgO, K 2 O) + (TiO 2 , Rb)] in the mineralized rocks; reflecting the presence of hamatized phosphate bearing ores in association with sulphide minerals and apatite in the granite rhyolites. A link of the mineralizing fluids with the emplacement of the rhyolites is implied from the striking resemblance between the above element association in mineralized rocks to those of the unmineralized rhyolites. A source of ore fluids over saturated in uranium and silica emanating from crystallizing rhyolitic melts which were expelled into faults and/or shear zones in the surrounding country rock is inferred

  4. Small mine size is associated with lung function abnormality and pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, David J; Halldin, Cara N; Wang, Mei Lin; Laney, A Scott

    2014-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of lung function abnormality and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) by mine size among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia. During 2005-2012, 4491 miners completed spirometry and chest radiography as part of a health surveillance programme. Spirometry was interpreted according to American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines, and radiography per International Labour Office standards. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for abnormal spirometry (obstructive, restrictive or mixed pattern using lower limits of normal derived from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III) and CWP among workers from small mines (≤50 miners) compared with those from large mines. Among 3771 eligible miners, those from small mines were more likely to have abnormal spirometry (18.5% vs 13.8%, pmine was associated with 37% higher prevalence of abnormal spirometry (PR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61) and 2.1 times higher prevalence of CWP (95% CI 1.68 to 2.70). More than one in four of these miners had evidence of CWP, abnormal lung function or both. Although 96% of miners in the study have worked exclusively under dust regulations implemented following the 1969 Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act, we observed high rates of respiratory disease including severe cases. The current approach to dust control and provision of safe work conditions for central Appalachian underground coal miners is not adequate to protect them from adverse respiratory health effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The determination of phosphorus in uranium minerals and resulting solutions; Determinacion de fosforo en minerales de uranio y soluciones procedentes de su beneficio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.; Rarellada Bellod, R.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1964-07-01

    Interferences of several elements present in Spanish uranium minerals in the phosphorus determination by the spectrophotometrical method of the molibdovanada te phosphoric acid are studied. A method is described with a previous separation of these element by a cationic resin. This method is successfully applied to the phosphorus determination in acid or alkaline lixiviation solutions of uranium minerals, as well as in the evaluates of ion exchange resins used used technically for the concentration of solutions with a low uranium content. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Comparative analysis of the relation between uranium and alumophosphates minerals in radioactive manifestations in the northwest part of Pinar del Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, B.; Llanes, I.; Dekre la O, L.; Cabrera, I.

    1993-01-01

    The relation between Uranium and alumophosphates minerals is well know and the possibility in these conditions of uranium concentration upto 2000 PPM is know. The northwest area in Pinar del Rio has shown that there could have a number of physico-chemical conditions to favour the formation of uranium concentration related with alumophosphates minerals. The mineralogical investigation developed in that area has shown that the presence of alumophosphates minerals ( mainly Cranllite Group) is very close related with uranium concentration and create good conditions to the development of further investigations. A comparative analysis of Hierro-Mantua, Cayo Largo and Centro Escolar areas in the northwest of Pinar del Rio is given other areas in all over the word and give some ideas about the genesis of radioactivity in this area

  7. Identification and quantitative grade estimation of Uranium mineralization based on gross-count gamma ray log at Lemajung sector West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi Gunawan Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Lemajung sector, is one of uranium potential sector in Kalan Area, West Kalimantan. Uranium mineralization is found in metasiltstone and schistose metapelite rock with general direction of mineralization east - west tilted ± 70° to the north parallel with schistocity pattern (S1). Drilling evaluation has been implemented in 2013 in Lemajung sector at R-05 (LEML-(S1). Drilling evaluation has been implemented in 2013 in Lemajung sector at R-05 (LEML-gamma ray. The purpose of this activity is to determine uranium mineralization grade with quantitatively methode in the rocks and also determine the geological conditions in sorounding of drilling area. The methodology involves determining the value of k-factor, geological mapping for the sorounding of drill hole, determination of the thickness and grade estimation of uranium mineralization with gross-count gamma ray. Quantitatively from grade estimation of uranium using gross-count gamma ray log can be known that the highest % eU 3 O 8 in the hole R-05 (LEML-40) reaches 0.7493≈6354 ppm eU found at depth interval from 30.1 to 34.96 m. Uranium mineralization is present as fracture filling (vein) or tectonic breccia matrix filling in metasiltstone with thickness from 0.10 to 2.40 m associated with sulphide (pyrite) and characterized by high ratio of U/Th. (author)

  8. Study of phosphatic nodules as a possible source of uranium mineralization in warcha sandstone of nilawahan group salt range using SSNTD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.A.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Mohammad, A.

    2004-07-01

    The strong in the sedimentary depositional characteristics between the Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group in the Salt Range and the uranium bearing sandstones of Siwalik Group in the foot hills of Himalaya and Sulaiman Ranges tempted the geologists to investigate the former group for the occurrence of any uranium deposits in it. Like volcanic ash beds in Siwaliks, phosphatic nodules may be a possible source of uranium mineralization in Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group. Samples of phosphatic nodules occurring in the Sandstone of Nilawahan Group Salt Range were analyzed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detention Technique (SSNTD) for the determination of their uranium concentration. The results obtained are quite encouraging and favour the idea of exploring the area in detail for any possible occurrence of uranium deposit. Uranium concentration in these samples ranges from (434 + - 39) ppm to (964+ -81)ppm with and average concentration of (699 + - 62) ppm. (author)

  9. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.

  10. Radon in Brazilian underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques; Eston, Sérgio Médici; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; Francisca, Diego Diegues

    2018-02-14

    Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented. The adopted methodology consisted of three main phases. The first was an extensive bibliographical survey of the concentration levels of radon and RDP, and the radiation dose estimates, considering measurements made heretofore by various Brazilian researchers and exhibiting original measurement work undertaken by the one of the authors (mine O). In the second phase, the values obtained were compared with OELs. In the third phase, it was verified whether any control measures were undertaken in the mines with high exposure of workers to radon and its progeny, and if so, the adopted controls were determined. Data of radon concentration obtained from 52 campaigns in 40 underground mines were analyzed. The results showed that the assessment of the exposure of workers to radon and its progeny was undertaken in many mines at least once, and that in 62.5% of the mines, when visited for the first time, the radon levels throughout them were below the Brazilian OELs. As expected, the main control measure adopted or recommended was the improvement of the ventilation system. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners. First annual report, 1 April 1983-1 January 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This Technical Progress Report for the first nine months of the contract Lung Cancer Epidemiology in New Mexico Uranium Miners describes by task the activities finished or begun since April, 1983. Data collection during the period has included copying all available Grants Clinic examination records for miners in the current study cohort, for completion of smoking and mining histories, and abstracting, coding, and verifying 500 of these records; copying all State Mine Inspector reports and abstracting, coding, and verifying 225 of these records; coding, verifying, and keying all except one batch of employment histories from companies, and tracing gaps in histories through company personnel logs; receipt of output from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health with information on New Mexico miners included in the US Public Health Service Colorado Plateau study; and updating some 30 miners from status unknown to status known by means of new information from personnel offices, the Grants Clinic, and interviews in the community. In order to examine the feasibility of a study of later miners, we have created a computer file of working level months (WLM) records, cumulated WLM for each miner for each year, and cumulated WLM for each miner over the years 1967 to 1982. We have records for 10,516 miners not in the current cohort, most of whom began mining in the 1970's. They have relatively low WLM because of their later, briefer mining experience. We have not yet done power calculations based on complete WLM data, 1967 to 1982. We have also not yet collected Grants Clinic examination records for all these miners

  12. Comparison of uranium biosorption between scytalidium acidophilum and rhizopus arrhizus. Mineral sciences laboratories division report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salley, J.; McCready, R.G.L.; Cuif, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    Biosorption of uranium from the mine biolixiviant and from complex synthetic uranium solutions by the extremely acid-tolerant fungus Scytalidium acidophilum was studies. Uranium uptake at pH 4 was shown to be three times greater than uptake at pH 2.5. Kinetics of biosorption at different ceg[ centrations were conducted to evaluate the biosorptive capacities of the fungus at pH 4. An uptake of 42 mgU/g was reached within 10 min for a cell concentration of 1.0 g/l. Kinetic studies showed that biosorption is slower and less efficient with mine water compared to synthetic U solution, due to the higher concentrations of competitive ions present in mine water. Uranium biosorption by S. acidophilum was also evaluated with biosorption isotherms and compared to another fungus, Rhizopus arrhizus. At pH 4, R. arrhizus always showed greater uranium uptake than S. acidophilum for both mine water and complex synthetic solution. Uranium uptake was greater than 37 mgU/g and 51 mgU/g with min water for S. acidophilum and R. arrhizus respectively, and 65 mgU/g and 122 mgU/g with complex synthetic uranium solution. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  13. The study of the sorption capacity of mineral kasongan and sand mixture of the waste of uranium organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiyono, M. E.; Sardjono, D.; Sukosrono

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the sorption capacity of mineral Kasongan and sand of Progo of the waste of uranium organic phase which to be connected with a backfill material which can be used to carried out of waste transportation from uncertain unit of the wastes to process of the wastes. The aim of the investigation wastes transportation must be conducted of the anticipation, that of the wastes with safe to unit management of wastes. Therefore must be investigated of the uranium organic wastes. This investigations which influence sorption ability, so an experimental investigation on its absorbability is necessary since this nuclide can not be dispersed to the environment. This investigation was carried out by varying some parameters which influence the sorption ability or sorptive capacity of the mineral Kasongan and the sand of Progo. The variables investigated were the grains size of the backfill material. Also the composition of mineral Kasongan/sand of Progo. The grains size were varied from 10-200 mesh and the composition were varied from 100/0 to 0/100 by weight. The sorption capacity of the maximum results was also determined. It can be concluded that the sorption capacity of the mineral Kasongan was the best at the grains of size about 80 mesh. The sorption capacity was 58 x 10 -2 ml/g and the grains size of the sand of Progo about 20 to 80 mesh was 30 x 10 -2 ml/g. The best sorption capacity of 58 x 10 -2 ml/g was gained at the composition of 100 % mineral Kasongan and 0% sand Progo. (author)

  14. Geochemistry of the granitoids from the Central Surguja Shear Zone, India: geological evolution and implications on uranium mineralization and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, V.P.; Murugan, C.; Sabot, H.K.; Krishnamurthy, P.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous stock-like bodies of grey granites (up to 15 km 2 across) and sheet-like bodies of pink granite (1 km to 15 km long and 0.2-0.5 km thick) have intruded along the cores of anticlines of the Central Surguja Shear Zone(CSSZ), during the Satpura Orogeny (Middle Proterozoic). Major, minor, and trace element data, critical elemental ratios, and Qz-Or-Ab normative mineralogical data indicate that the granitic melt was derived from palingenesis of crustal rocks. The pink granites represent melts equilibrated under very low pressure in a hydrous system, apparently influenced by fractionation and differentiation. The grey granites represent hydrous melts derived under pressure of about 5 kb. The pink granites are the youngest intrusives and show distinct enrichment of Rb(235-407 ppm), Y(33-356 ppm), Zr(120-533 ppm), Nb(16-161 ppm), and U(10-141 ppm). In general, the granites show high Rb/Sr and Ba/Sr, and low Ba/Rb ratios pointing to their evolved nature. Uranium mineralization at a number of places, such as at Jajawal, Dhabi, Dumhat, Pakni, and others is hosted by grey and pink granites, quartzo-feldspathic cataclasite, and chlorite-biotite schist, within the Central Surguja Shear Zone. Discriminant diagrams to infer palaeotectonic regimes using Rb, Nb, and Y indicate a within plate environment for the granites, notably for the pink types. Besides structurally controlled vein-type uranium mineralization, sedimentary rocks of the Gondwana Supergroup enveloping the Surguja Crystalline Complex (SCC) may also hold potential for sedimentary-type uranium mineralization in conducive locales. (author). 22 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene H.S.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

  16. Uranium-thorium and rare earth migration in granitic uranium deposits: comparison test with high level radioactive wastes in underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menager, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    The dispersion of U, Th and REE from a U-vein type deposit, localized in an intragranitic vein, through the surrounding host rock has been characterized by combining petrological, mineralogical, geochemical (major and trace elements, radiogenic isotopes) studies. The different stages of hydrothermal alteration, including those leading to changes in the major or trace elements concentrations have been identified. The distances over which U, Th and REE have migrated are estimated and correlated to the main water/rock interaction processes. The role of co-precipitation with secondary minerals in the retention of these elements is stressed. These processes are considered as analogous to those which could take place around a radioactive waste repository in a similar rock formation. The main geochemical implications of this work for the safety assessment of such a disposal are discussed. 7 figs., 27 refs

  17. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; McKay, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Production for 1986 was 4899 t U 3 O 8 (4154 t U), 30% greater than in 1985, mainly because of a 39% increase in production at Ranger. Exports for 1986 were 4166 t U 3 O 8 at an average f.o.b. unit value of $40.57/lb U 3 O 8 . Private exploration expenditure for uranium in Australia during the 1985-86 fiscal year was $50.2 million. Plans were announced to increase the nominal capacity of the processing plant at Ranger from 3000 t/year U 3 O 8 to 4500 t and later to 6000 t/year. Construction and initial mine development at Olympic Dam began in March. Production is planned for mid 1988 at an annual rate of 2000 t U 3 O 8 , 30 000 t Cu, and 90 000 oz (2800 kg) Au. The first long-term sales agreement was concluded in September 1986. At the Manyingee deposit, testing of the alkaline solution mining method was completed, and the treatment plant was dismantled. Spot market prices (in US$/lb U 3 O 8 ) quoted by Nuexco were generally stable. From January-October the exchange value fluctuated from US$17.00-US$17.25; for November and December it was US$16.75. Australia's Reasonably Assured Resources of uranium recoverable at less than US$80/kg U at December 1986 were estimated as 462 000 t U, 3000 t U less than in 1985. This represents 30% of the total low-cost RAR in the WOCA (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economy Areas) countries. Australia also has 257 000 t U in the low-cost Estimated Additional Resources Category I, 29% of the WOCA countries' total resources in this category

  18. Joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners: lung cancer risk at low radon exposure rates and modifying effects of time since exposure and age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladislav Tomasek; Agnes Rogel; Margot Tirmarche; Dominique Laurier

    2006-01-01

    The present analysis was conducted in the frame of European project 'Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiologic and experimental data'. The overall goal of the project related to uranium miners was the evaluation of lung cancer dose-response relationship and of dose rate effects among European uranium miners exposed to low doses and low dose rates of radon decay products. In addition, modifying factors like attained age, age at exposure and time since exposure were investigated. The joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners was conducted mainly in order to increase the statistical power and to allow a more detailed description of the variation of dose-response relationship in time. (N.C.)

  19. The sedimentology and uranium mineralization of the Klipbankskraal deposit north of Merweville, C.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    A sedimentological study was conducted on the farm Klipbankskraal, north-west of Merweville. The orebody is located in the Poortjie Member at the base of the Teekloof Formation. The mineralised sandstone, S1, is a tabular lithosome deposited in an ephemeral, braided river environment. It consists of two major and several minor mesocycles, with the upper major cycle showing evidence of having inherited the drainage pattern of the lower mesocycle. The vector mean azimuth of the sequence as a whole is towards 059 degrees. The uranium is present as stacked, tabular lenses associated with permeable zones in the immediate vicinity of erosional inter-cycle contacts. Although no obvious relationship exists between the uranium and channels or bars, the distribution of plant material was controlled by the current velocities which also controlled the type of sedimentary structures. Uranium occurs preferentially in fissile-weathering (horizontal-bedded) sandstone and mud-pebble conglomerate, both permeable lithologies, and in mudstone or silt-stone. Uranium is genetically related to other elements such as Mn, Mo, Cu, Co and Pb, which must have been constituents of the ore fluid. Uraniferous granites in the source areas probaly supplied most of the uranium

  20. Relationship of radioactive radon daughters and cigarette smoking in the genesis of lung cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.; Huth, G.C.; Auerbach, O.; Kuschner, M.

    1988-01-01

    This article documents the study of 383 cases of lung cancer in uranium miners and presents for the first time the relationship of radioactive radon gas and cigarette smoking. There is evidence that alpha radiation from radon gas at exposure levels above 465 working level months (WLM) is a strong contributor to the development of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking plays the most significant role in causing lung tumor; this is also noticed in nonminers who smoke cigarettes. A synergistic or additive effect of these two carcinogens is strongly suggested. The data indicate that small cell tumors develop in younger nonsmoking miners exposed to radon levels above 465 WLM. Lung cancers develop in smoking miners at lower levels of radon exposure than in nonsmoking miners. Based on an average mining experience of 15 years, there is substantial evidence that the present maximum allowable limit of 0.3 working levels (WL), or 4 working level months (WLM) per year, is safe, representing a margin of safety of approximately 10:1. Furthermore, a comparison of these data with the radon levels in some homes, averaging in the neighborhood of 0.025 WL, would indicate that health risks at these levels are negligible. It is suggested that 20 picocuries/liter, which equals 0.10 WL, be the maximum allowable level in homes

  1. Influence of mineral colloids and humic substances on uranium(VI) transport in water-saturated geologic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Cheng, Tao; Wu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Mineral colloids and humic substances often co-exist in subsurface environment and substantially influence uranium (U) transport. However, the combined effects of mineral colloids and humic substances on U transport are not clear. This study is aimed at quantifying U transport and elucidating geochemical processes that control U transport when both mineral colloids and humic acid (HA) are present. U-spiked solutions/suspensions were injected into water-saturated sand columns, and U and colloid concentrations in column effluent were monitored. We found that HA promoted U transport via (i) formation of aqueous U-HA complexes, and (ii) competition against aqueous U for surface sites on transport media. Illite colloids had no influence on U transport at pH5 in the absence of HA due to low mobility of the colloids. At pH9, U desorbed from mobile illite and the presence of illite decreased U transport. At pH5, high U transport occurred when both illite colloids and HA were present, which was attributed to enhanced U adsorption to illite colloids via formation of ternary illite-HA-U surface complexes, and enhanced illite transport due to HA attachment to illite and transport media. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of mineral colloids and HA on contaminant transport is different from simple addition of the individual effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  3. Mineral potential of Malawai. 3. Mineral deposits associated with sedimentary and volcanic cover rocks: Karoo and post-Karoo (coal, uranium, industrial minerals and gemstone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report was produced for the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Malawi. It gives information and maps of uranium deposits, coal deposits, coal-bed methane, natural gas and helium potential, limestone deposits and gemstones (blue agate, chalcedony and kimerlites, the primary source of diamonds). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 4 maps, 5 photos.

  4. Removal of uranium(VI) from the aqueous phase by iron(II) minerals in presence of bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regenspurg, Simona, E-mail: regens@gfz-potsdam.de [Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Schild, Dieter; Schaefer, Thorsten; Huber, Florian [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Malmstroem, Maria E. [Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    Uranium(VI) mobility in groundwater is strongly affected by sorption of mobile U(VI) species (e.g. uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) to mineral surfaces, precipitation of U(VI) compounds, such as schoepite (UO{sub 2}){sub 4}O(OH){sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O), and by reduction to U(IV), forming sparingly soluble phases (uraninite; UO{sub 2}). The latter pathway, in particular, would be very efficient for long-term immobilization of U. In nature, Fe(II) is an important reducing agent for U(VI) because it frequently occurs either dissolved in natural waters, sorbed to matrix minerals, or structurally bound in many minerals. Redox reactions between U(VI) and Fe(II) depend not only on the availability of Fe(II) in the environment, but also on the chemical conditions in the aqueous solution. Under natural groundwater condition U(VI) forms complexes with many anionic ligands, which strongly affect its speciation. Carbonate, in particular, is known to form stable complexes with U, raising the question, if U(VI), when complexed by carbonate, can be reduced to UO{sub 2}. The goal of this study was to find out if Fe(II) when structurally bound in a mineral (as magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) or sorbed to a mineral surface (as corundum, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) can reduce U(VI) to U(IV) in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Batch experiments were conducted under anaerobic conditions to observe U removal from the aqueous phase by the two minerals depending on HCO{sub 3}{sup -} addition (1 mM), U concentration (0.01-30 {mu}M) and pH value (6-10). Immediately after the experiments, the mineral surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to obtain information on the redox state of U bound to the solid surfaces. XPS results gave evidence that U(VI) can be reduced both by magnetite and by corundum amended with Fe(II). In the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} the amount of reduced U on the mineral surfaces increased compared to carbonate-free solutions. This can be explained by the formation

  5. Anomalous rare earth element, yttrium and zirconium mobility associated with uranium mineralization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2008), s. 52-58 ISSN 0954-4879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Moldanubian Zone * uranium * geochemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2008 www.blackwell- synergy .com/loi/ter

  6. Qualitative microanalysis of rare earths (ceric and yttric), of thorium and uranium in minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrinier, H.

    1955-01-01

    We propose in this study to give a general method of attack of the niobio-titanates, niobio-tantalates, oxides, phosphates or silicates containing rare earths (ceric or yttric), uranium or thorium, and to put in evidence these different elements by microchemical reactions giving crystallization or the characteristic colorations. (M.B.) [fr

  7. Lung cancer risk, exposure to radon and tobacco consumption in a nested case-control study of French uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuraud, K.; Billon, S.; Bergot, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A nested case-control study was conducted among the French uranium miners cohort in order to assess the effect of protract ed radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account tobacco consumption. Material and methods: One hundred uranium miners employed by the French company CEA-COGEMA and who died of a lung cancer between 1980 and 1994 were identified as cases among the cohort. For each case, five controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case. Cumulated radon exposure during employment was reconstructed for each of these 100 cases and 500 controls. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from three complementary sources: 1) medical files, 2) forms filled in by occupational physicians and 3) questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62 cases and 320 controls and two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. Ninety percent of the cases and 73% of the controls were classified as 'ever smokers'. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 82.0 and 47.6 working level months (WLM) for the cases and the controls, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 1.1% with a 95%-confidence interval (CI) of 0.2-2.0%. When adjusting for smoking, radon exposure effect was little modified (ERR/WLM = 0.8%, 95% -CI = 0.1- 2.8%). The effect of smoking on lung cancer risk was comparable to results reported in previous miners cohorts (OR = 3.04, 95% -CI = 1.20-7.70). Discussion: A consequent effort was carried out to collect smoking status from three sources for the miners included in this nested case-control study. This analysis shows that, when adjusting on

  8. Groundwater prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits: the merits of mineral-solution equilibria versus single element tracer methods. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanty, R.B.; Langmuir, D.; Chatham, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the results of further research on the groundwater geochemistry of 96 well waters in two uraniferous aquifers in Texas and Wyoming, and is a continuation of the work presented by Chatham et al. (1981). In this study variations in concentrations of U, As, Mo, Se and V were compared with the saturation state of the groundwater with respect to mineral phases of these elements known or expected to occur in each area. The non-radiogenic trace elements exhibited strong redox dependence consistent with thermodynamic predictions, but their variations did not pinpoint existing uranium ore bodies, because of a shift in groundwater flow patterns since the time of ore emplacement. Saturation levels of trace element minerals such as realgar, native Se, and molybdenite showed broad anomalies around the ore-bearing areas, similar to patterns found for U minerals by Langmuir and Chatham (1980), and Chatham et al. (1981). The radiogenic elements Ra and Rn showed significant anomalies directly within the ore zones. Helium anomalies were displaced in the direction of groundwater flow, but by their magnitude and areal extent provided strong evidence for the existence of nearby uranium accumulations. Uranium isotope ratios showed no systematic variations within the two aquifers studied. Saturation maps for kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and the zeolites analcime and clinoptilolite provided 1 to 2 km anomalies around the ore at the Texas site. Saturation values for the gangue minerals pyrite and calcite defined the redox interface and often suggested the position of probable uranium mineralization. When properly used, the groundwater geochemical concepts for exploration can accurately pinpoint uranium mineralization at a fraction of the cost of conventional methods that involve test drilling and geophysical and core logging.

  9. Groundwater prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits: the merits of mineral-solution equilibria versus single element tracer methods. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanty, R.B.; Langmuir, D.; Chatham, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the results of further research on the groundwater geochemistry of 96 well waters in two uraniferous aquifers in Texas and Wyoming, and is a continuation of the work presented by Chatham et al. (1981). In this study variations in concentrations of U, As, Mo, Se and V were compared with the saturation state of the groundwater with respect to mineral phases of these elements known or expected to occur in each area. The non-radiogenic trace elements exhibited strong redox dependence consistent with thermodynamic predictions, but their variations did not pinpoint existing uranium ore bodies, because of a shift in groundwater flow patterns since the time of ore emplacement. Saturation levels of trace element minerals such as realgar, native Se, and molybdenite showed broad anomalies around the ore-bearing areas, similar to patterns found for U minerals by Langmuir and Chatham (1980), and Chatham et al. (1981). The radiogenic elements Ra and Rn showed significant anomalies directly within the ore zones. Helium anomalies were displaced in the direction of groundwater flow, but by their magnitude and areal extent provided strong evidence for the existence of nearby uranium accumulations. Uranium isotope ratios showed no systematic variations within the two aquifers studied. Saturation maps for kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and the zeolites analcime and clinoptilolite provided 1 to 2 km anomalies around the ore at the Texas site. Saturation values for the gangue minerals pyrite and calcite defined the redox interface and often suggested the position of probable uranium mineralization. When properly used, the groundwater geochemical concepts for exploration can accurately pinpoint uranium mineralization at a fraction of the cost of conventional methods that involve test drilling and geophysical and core logging

  10. Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

  11. Phanerozoic extensional faulting and alteration control on uranium mineralization in trachytes of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Mohamed M.; Waheeb, Anton G.; Aly, Samir M.; Farag, Nagdy M.; Sadek, Adel F.

    2017-12-01

    The Gabal Nasb El Atshan Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian altered trachytes include uranium up to 3165 ppm. The paleostress and resolved shear stress analyses of the deformation systems in Gabal Nasb El Atshan area indicate that the trachyte was subjected to WNW-ESE to E-W tensile shear stress directed extensional regimes. The low-stress regions in the vicinity of extensional faults and their associated joints were favorable locations for fluid flow and the consequence alteration and U-mineralization. This occurred more extensively along the contacts between the sills of trachyte and the Hammamat sedimentary rocks; where the latter acted as a physical barrier for the alteration fluids migration outward. Alteration styles include albitization, aegirinization, arfvedsonization, chloritization and ferruginisation. The albitization is the most common sodic metasomatism, giving sanidine from Or98.8Ab0.7 to Or62.3Ab37.6, anorthoclase from Or51.4Ab48.0 to Or12.2Ab87.6 and albite from Or11.0Ab89.0 to Or0.8Ab99.2. Aegirine and arfvedsonite formed due to decreasing sodium activity in the metasomatic fluids. Sodic metasomatism may be the source of uranium-enrichment, taking place during the late magmatic to deuteric processes. This was followed by a retrograde alteration of chloritization between 175 and 42 °C toward precipitation of Fe-oxides and alteration of primary uranium. Surficial low-temperature alteration remobilized and redistributed the produced uranylhydroxides and ferruginisation caused the reduction and adsorption of U forming betafite, uranophane, soddyite, umohoite, uranotile and uranopilite.

  12. Thermoluminescence study of quartzite in a gold and uranium mineralized zone (Canavieiras, Jacobina-Bahia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.

    1973-01-01

    The quartzite of Canavieiras gold mine (Jacobina-Bahia, Brazil) shows in its natural glow curve, a high temperature. The study of the reproductibility of this peak resulted in the standartization of measurement for grain sizes between 80 and 100 mesh. ''In Situ'' total gamma-ray profiles were made using a scintillation detector for the study the distribution of radioactive elements near the pirite, uranium and gold strike. In the interpretation of the profiles it was possible to shown a positive correlation between thermoluminescence and uranium yields. The thermoluminescence peak is sufficiently high temperature peak to let thermoluminescence accumulate at ambient temperatures. It was used in attempt to estimate the time and the event that enitiated the accumulation of thermoluminescence. The result obtained, (7 - + 4).10 6 years, may correspond to the last heating of the rocks at relatively recent time. (C.D.G.) [pt

  13. Thorium and uranium separation from Rare Earth complex minerals in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzmen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: • Thorium and uranium separation from a REEs solution is possible in by using simple traditional methods. • Main advantage of this method is to separate with high recovery yield uraniumand almost completely thorium which is an undesirable element due to its radioactive property in the different REEs group or individual REE. • Separation of thorium before any other step of REE’s group or individual element separation is crucial. • By using this flowsheet it would be possible to obtain uranium and other valuable elements (Zr, Ti, etc.) as coproducts of REEs. • Another important point, during REEs production, it is avoided to accumalate U and Th contaminated process wastes. • Thus, in the contrary, radioactive elements are refined and contained for safe storage.

  14. Assessment of uncertainty associated with measuring exposure to radon and decay products in the French uranium miners cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique; Bernhard, Sylvain; Henry, Stéphane; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of exposure data directly affects the reliability of the risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies. Measurement uncertainty must be known and understood before it can be corrected. The literature on occupational exposure to radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products reveals only a few epidemiological studies in which uncertainty has been accounted for explicitly. This work examined the sources, nature, distribution and magnitude of uncertainty of the exposure of French uranium miners to radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products. We estimated the total size of uncertainty for this exposure with the root sum square (RSS) method, which may be an alternative when repeated measures are not available. As a result, we identified six main sources of uncertainty. The total size of the uncertainty decreased from about 47% in the period 1956–1974 to 10% after 1982, illustrating the improvement in the radiological monitoring system over time.

  15. The Lagoa Real subalkaline granitic complex (south Bahia, Brazil): a source for uranium mineralizations associated with Na-Ca metasomatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruejol, P.; Cuney, M.; Poty, B.; Neto, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the central zone of the Sao Francisco Craton (South Bahia), the lower Proterozoic Lagoa Real granites and orthogneisses overthrust to the West the younger Urandi and Espinhaco metamorphic series, probably a late Brazilian event. This thrust is related to the regional metamorphism (amphibolite facies) of the Lagoa Real granites and induces a reverse HP metamorphism in the over thrusted series. Undeformed granites (sao Timoeto type) present two feldspars, perthitic orthoclase largely predominant over plagioclase (oligoclase ≥ albite), blue quartz, Fe-rich amphibole and biotite ± clinopyroxene assemblages, ilmenite ≥ magnetite, zircon, apatite, allanite and Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates. The crystallization of the granites begins at high temperature and under low fO 2 and P H2O conditions. Fractional crystallization of pyroxene and plagioclase leads to silica enrichment during magmatic differentiation. Increasing fO 2 and P H2O are observed during this evolution. Orthogneisses show strongly recrystallized paragenesis: equal abundance of non-perthitic microcline and plagioclase (oligoclase ≤ albite), quartz, more Al-rich amphibole and biotite, magnetite, sphene, zircon, allanite, Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates, and ± apatite. HT Na and Ca metasomatism occurs 330 Ma later than granite emplacement and is synchronous with important uranium mineralizations. Major elements and trace-elements geochemistry of the granites and orthogneisses indicate subalkaline to alkaline typology. Incompatible behaviour of Th, REE, Y, Zr, Nb, and F points out a convergence with alkaline magmatism. CI, F, Th, Y, REE, NB enrichments and Ba, Sr depletions are also related to a late magmatic stage. U-Th-rich and metamict accessory minerals of the granites represent a favorabl source for the Lagoa Real uranium ore-deposits [pt

  16. Chemical changes of minerals trapped in the lichen Trapelia involuta. Implication for lichen effect on mobility of uranium and toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate development of minerals trapped in a lichen, we examined the lichen Trapelia involuta growing directly on secondary uranyl minerals and U-enriched Fe oxide and hydroxide minerals. Sericite and other minerals in the underlying rock are trapped in the lichen T. involuta during its biological growth and chemically changed by lichen activities. The presence of chemically changed sericite accompanied by an Fe-bearing mineral in the lichen suggests that dissolution of sericite is promoted mainly by polysaccharides excreted by the lichen. Oxalic acid or lichen acids absent in the medulla may not play an important role in the dissolution. Our results suggest that lichens on metal-rich surface affect the mobility of uranium and other toxic metals through dissolution followed by trap of minerals from the underlying rock. (author)

  17. Chemical changes of minerals trapped in the lichen Trapelia involuta. Implication for lichen effect on mobility of uranium and toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi [University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Purvis, O.William [The Natural History Museum, Department of Botany, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    To elucidate development of minerals trapped in a lichen, we examined the lichen Trapelia involuta growing directly on secondary uranyl minerals and U-enriched Fe oxide and hydroxide minerals. Sericite and other minerals in the underlying rock are trapped in the lichen T. involuta during its biological growth and chemically changed by lichen activities. The presence of chemically changed sericite accompanied by an Fe-bearing mineral in the lichen suggests that dissolution of sericite is promoted mainly by polysaccharides excreted by the lichen. Oxalic acid or lichen acids absent in the medulla may not play an important role in the dissolution. Our results suggest that lichens on metal-rich surface affect the mobility of uranium and other toxic metals through dissolution followed by trap of minerals from the underlying rock. (author)

  18. Mineral resource analysis of the proposed site for underground storage of high-level commercial nuclear waste, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaming, G.F.; Davis, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of known and potential mineral resources of the Hanford Site and vicinity, Washington State, was undertaken as part of a larger program being conducted by the United States Department of of Energy to evaluate the suitability of candidate sites for construction of terminal repositories for high-level nuclear waste. Current mining within 100 km of the Hanford Site is limited to surface-mined diatomaceous earth, sand and gravel, and stone. Occurrences of relatively low-unit-value minerals within 100 km of the candidate site consist of peat, diatomaceous earth, pumicite, quarry rock, and sand and gravel. Such resources are surficial in occurrence and are not concentrated within the Pasco Basin relative to the remainder of the Columbia Plateau. A small, low-pressure natural gas field, in production from 1929 to 1941, is present at the southern edge of the Hanford Site. No other commercial production of fossil fuels has occurred in the area. With the exception of small, low grade gold placers along the Columbia River, no high-unit-value mineral resources are known to occur within 100 km of the candidate site. Economic analysis of the area within 100 km of the candidate site indicates that gross value of known mineral resources and potential, undiscovered natural gas within Columbia River basalts is $470.5 million. Subtraction of estimated exploration, development, production, and wholesale marketing costs from gross value leaves a net value of $33.3 million. Projected net value per area and per capita averages $569/km 2 and $62/current inhabitant. For the remainder of the Columbia Plateau, respective values are $1,195/km 2 or $98/inhabitant. For a mineral-rich state such as New Mexico, comparable net value per area is $17,600/km 2

  19. Enhancement of lung cancer by cigarette smoking in uranium and other miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    There are substantial animal and epidemiological data related to cigarette smoking and lung cancer among miners exposed to elevated levels of radon daughters that appears to be in disagreement. An hypothesis is advanced that explains most of this disagreement as being derived from temporal differences of cancer expression. The hypothesis is that a given radiation exposure induced a finite number of lung cancers, which have shorter latent periods due to the cancer promotion activity of smoke among cigarette smokers. According to this hypothesis, the life-shortening effect is greater among smoking miners than nonsmoking miners, and the ultimate number of lung cancers among smoking miners will be only a little larger than among nonsmokers. The greater number will derive from the additive effect of radiation and smoking, plus the greater force of competing causes of death among elderly nonsmokers

  20. Development of the Falea Polymetallic Uranium Project, Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, Bob; Freeman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Falea project basics: • Project now owned by Denison Mines; • ANSTO Minerals working with owner and their consultant, DRA; • Located in south western Mali, West Africa, near the intersection of the Senegal and Guinea borders; • Established mining region (mainly gold); • Location on plateau favourable for underground operation; • Significant uranium, silver and copper mineralisation - different to other U deposits; • Excellent metallurical outcomes to date

  1. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  2. Study of the ‘lifeline’ as the measure allowing for safe self-rescue of miners in conditions of lack of visibility caused by underground fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Henryk; Grodzicka, Aneta; Musioł, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The article presents statistical data regarding the evacuation of miners affected by underground fire hazards. The data indicates that the hazard remains considerable. Due to the increasing lengths of escape routes, measures should be introduced in the longwall regions, which shall improve the safe evacuation of miners, especially in conditions of highly limited visibility or the lack thereof. Within the research project No. 12, entitled: ‘The development of orientation systems and systems for signalling the direction of crew withdrawal for escape routes in longwall gates’, which is a part of the Strategic Research Project entitled ‘The improvement of work safety in mines’ financed by the National Centre for Research and Development, a ‘lifeline’ was designed - that is, a measure that is very effective in the evacuation of staff. Subsequently, tests of time of passage were conducted in the ‘Krupiński’ coal mine in conditions of lack of visibility. The tests have confirmed the suitability of the ‘lifeline’ as the measure used for orientation towards the correct direction of evacuation, which increases the pace and the confidence while travelling through the escape route. The mean speed of passage through the heading with an upwards inclination of 11° was 22 m/min, while in case of a nearly horizontal longwall gate, it was 39 m/min.

  3. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making ...

  4. Mineral resources and energy. Report by the 'Soil and underground' group of the Ancre Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    After comments on the growth of the world consumption of raw materials, on the relocation of productions and on the loss of interest by industrialized countries in mineral resources and their dependency, and a discussion of the relationship between energy and mineral raw materials, this study proposes an assessment and a discussion of energy needs for mining and metal industries. In the next part, needs in raw materials for the energy sector are analysed and discussed with respect to their field of application, to their intensity, to energy scenarios, and to application to research. The value chain is then analysed as well as its risks which can be political, industrial, related to infrastructures, economic, environmental, geological, technical, or social. Recycling capacities and the potential of substitution are then addressed. Themes and axis of research are identified for the assessment of needs, social acceptability, geology and exploration, mining, ore processing and metal industry, recycling, and substitution

  5. Occupational disease disclosed by preventive follow-up of former uranium ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacina, V.; Vich, Z.; Elterlein, E.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of preventive follow-up examinations of former employees of the concern Czechoslovak Uranium Mines is to determine possible health damage of chronically exposed workers in an area that can become manifest even following a long time after leaving the high-risk working environment. In a group of 1,139 persons that had undergone preventive follow-up examinations in the years 1977 to 1980 there were 63 cases of newly detected affections that were reported as occupational diseases, and other serious affections. The system of preventive follow-up examinations represents a significant contribution to the improvement of health care of the workers. (author)

  6. Uranium concentrations in the phosphates of Congo related to marin and continental mineral authigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giresse, P.; N'Landou, J. de Dieu; Wiber, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the Maastrichtian phosphates of Tchivoula (Congo), uanium, for the most part fixed and tetravalent in marine apatites in there after mobilized and occasionally concentrates during the course of successive stages of dissolution, recrystallization (secondary apatite) or authigenesis (ferro-aluminous phosphates, autunite and torbernite). Very high levels near the top of the deposit appear to be related to the percolation of uraniferous solutions from Ypresian phosphatic beds which are no longer present. In the marine Tertiary phosphates of Djeno, diagenesis is less advanced; radial changes in uranium concentration on the scale of individual coprolites of selacians can be observed and are related to the loss of P 2 O 5 [fr

  7. Occurrence of parsonite, a secondary uranium mineral, in alaskite of the Wheeler Creek pluton, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.P.; Johnson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reconnaissance investigations in the Purcell Mountains of westcentral Alaska in 1977 revealed the presence of parsonite, a hydrous phosphate of lead and uranium with the formula Pb 2 UO 2 (PO 4 ) 2 2H 2 O. This is the first reported occurrence of parsonite in Alaska. The parsonite occurs as a soft, yellow to chocolate brown coating closely associated with green muscovite on fracture surfaces in a shear zone in alaskite of the Wheeler Creek pluton. Thin magnetite veinlets are also present. The identification of parsonite was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Delayed neutron analysis were run on samples of the Alaskite

  8. Southern complex: geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry of selected uranium- and thorium-rich granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Four major rock groups are defined in the Southern Complex: the Bell Creek Granite (BCG), the Clotted Granitoids (CGR), the Albite Granite (AGR), and the Migmatite Complex. Metatexites of the Migmatite Complex are the oldest rocks and include paleosome of a metasedimentary and metavolcanic protolith represented by Banded Iron Formation, Banded Amphibolite, and Banded Gneisses, and interlayered or crosscutting leucogranites. The CGR span the range from metatexite to diatexite and represent in-situ partial melting of metapelitic layers in the protolith during intrusion of the BCG. The BCG cuts the migmatites, is locally cut by the CGR, and was derived by partial melting of a dominantly metasedimentary protolith at some depth below the presently exposed migmatites during a regional tectonothermal event. The Albite Granite is a 2km diameter, muscovite-fluorite-columbite-bearing intrusive stock that cuts all other major units. The thorium history of the BCG is a function of the history of monazite. The thorium history of the CGR is also dominated by monazite but the thorium content of this unit cannot be entirely accounted for by original restite monazite. The uranium history of the BCG and CGR was dominated by magmatic differentiation and post magmatic, metamorphic and supergene redistributions and is largely independent of the thorium history. The thorium and uranium history of the AGR was dominated by magmatic/deuteric processes unlike the BCG and CGR

  9. Investigation of Great Basin big sagebrush and black greasewood as biogeochemical indicators of uranium mineralization. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, F.E.; McGrath, S.

    1982-11-01

    The effects of varying phosphate concentrations in natural aqueous systems upon the uptake of uranium by big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata subsp. tridentata) and black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook) Torr.) were investigated. Two separate growth experiments with five drip-flow hyroponic units were used and plant seedlings were grown for 60 days in solutions of varying phosphate and uranium concentrations. Successful growth experiments were obtained only for big sagebrush; black greasewood did not sustain sufficient growth. The phosphate concentration of the water did affect the uptake of uranium by the big sagebrush, and this effect is most pronounced in the region of higher concentrations of uranium in the water. The ratio of the concentration of uranium in the plant to that in the water was observed to decrease with increasing uranium concentration in solution. This is indicative of an absorption barrier in the plants. The field data shows that big sagebrush responds to uranium concentrations in the soil water and not the groundwater. The manifestation of these results is that the use of big sagebrush as a biogeochemical indicator of uranium is not recommended. Since the concentration of phosphate must also be knwon in the water supplying the uranium to the plant, one should analyze this natural aqueous phase as a hydrochemical indicator rather than the big sagebrush

  10. Internal radiation burden of coal and uranium miners. Radioactivity measurement of pathological tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobor, J.

    1994-01-01

    The components of natural radioactivity exposure of miners are the external gamma radiation, inhalation of 222 Rn and its short-halflife daughter products, and exposure to long isotope radiation ( 238 U to 226 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb to 210 Po). Pathological tissue samples were examined by alpha and beta radioactivity measurements to determine the contribution of radiation burden from incorporated long-halflife natural isotopes, and to determine the possible fluctuations at various populations of miners. (N.T.) 19 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Characterization of pyroxenes associated with the uranium mineralization of the Jazida Cachoeira, Lagoa Real Uranium Province, Bahia State, Brazil; Caracterizacao de piroxenios associados a mineralizacao uranifera da Jazida Cachoeira, Provincia Uranifera de Lagoa Real, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rhaine Matos

    2005-07-01

    This work has as objective to contribute for the knowledge about the genesis of the Cachoeira uranium deposit (Lagoa Real Uranium Province, Bahia State, Brazil), characterizing pyroxenes (with emphasis in those associated with the uranium mineralization and those hosting inclusions) of the deposit and their associated inclusions. In function of the accomplished analyses, steps that should be followed to obtain and interpret data from fluid inclusions (FI), in the D09B XRF X-Ray Fluorescence Beam Line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil, have been described. The analyzed pyroxenes are augites, diopsides and aegirine-augites, and intermediate terms, for example between augite and diopside, were detected. They presented two and three phases fluid inclusions being some, possible, primary ones. The three phases FI could present a birefringent solid phase. The pyroxenes presented, also, solid inclusions. The analysis of some solid inclusions revealed that they were albites. These albites are, probably, previous to the pyroxene host mineral. The obtained results indicated that the studied pyroxenes are associated to an important phase of caleic metasomatism. These pyroxenes are not totally associated to the precipitation of the uranium. In the petrographic study of the samples, two types of plagioclase were identified, one very altered and other less altered. Synchrotron light is a powerful tool for analyze FI. It was verified that care in the preparation of the sample, such as the selection of near-surface FI, are very important to obtain reliable data. In the studies with synchrotron light only the vanadium was detected in larger amount in the area that contained FI (in pyroxene), in relation to the control area, due, mainly, to experimental factors. The presence of this element it is not easy to interpret. Additional studies, on solid and fluid inclusion in pyroxene, and in other minerals, will be important to understand the Cachoeira uranium

  12. Geology of hydrothermal uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, K.G.; Belov, V.K.; Putilov, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    Geological characteristics of hydrothermal phosphorus-uranium deposits placed in sedimentary, igneous-sedimentary, metamorphic and intrusion formations are presented. Attention is paid to mineral composition, texture and structure of ores, their genesis, tectonics. Geochemical peculiarities of ores and age of molybdenum-uranium and uranium deposits are described. Geological criteria and prospecting features of uranium and uranium-molybdenum deposits are given

  13. Prospection works for uranium mineralizations in the sector Centro Escolar. Province of Pinar del Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaide Orpi, J.; Pena Fortes, B.; Olivera Acosta, J.; Leal Ramirez, R.; Geler Roffe, T.; Sanchez Rumayor, J.

    1996-01-01

    The present article shows the final results obtained from the prospection works, realized in a sector Centro Escolar. Those works were projected in order to search radioactive minerals accumulations in some prospective areas. The main result was the selection of a perspective area which have been recommended to be evaluated in depth

  14. Phyllitic minerals in hydrothermal uranium deposits. I. Crystalchemistry of relict and newly formed micas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Jacques; Cathelineau, Michel

    1982-01-01

    Several generations of white micas have been recognised in four two mica granite massifs which are associated with uranium deposits in the Hercynian chain. These different generations correspond to distinct geological phenomena belonging to the deuteric and hydrothermal stages of the history of these massifs. Crystalchemical studies of these micas with the aid of the electronic microprobe show that each of these phenomena corresponds a phengite of different, well defined compositions. An increase in the phengitic character and a decrease in the paragonite component are observed over time. Strong similarities exist between micas of the same generation belonging to different granite massifs. The study of the evolution of the earliest deuteric micas during later hydrothermal phenomena, mica episyenitisation and deposition of pitchblende, has shown two opposed trends. In the case of mica episyenitisation, the micas tend to reequilibrate, while in the case of pitchblende deposition and the vein stage in general, the micas preserve their primary character [fr

  15. Variation of properties of clayey minerals and associated phases about uranium deposits related to proterozoic discordances; Variation des proprietes des mineraux argileux et des phases associees autour des gisements d'uranium lies aux discordances Proterozoiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaufort, D.; Patrier, P.; Laverret, E.; Gaboreau, St.; Billault, V. [HYDRASA, Universite de Poitiers-CNRS, 86 - Poitiers (France); Quirt, D. [AREVA Resources Canada AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The authors propose explanations for the clayey alteration which surrounds uranium deposits related to proterozoic discordances as it is noticed in Canada (Athabasca) and Australia (Kombolgie). The observed mineral sequences are interpreted as the product of an increasing interaction between infiltrated diagenetic acid and oxidising solutions on the one hand, and platform rocks on the other hand, at temperatures between 150 and 200 C. These interpretations are based on crystallographic and crystallochemical investigations

  16. Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern Tarim area--Evidence from apatite fission track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxu; Dong Wenming; Liu Zhangyue; Chen Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    The apatite fission track dating and inversion result of geological thermal history of four rock specimens from Sawafuqi area and Talike area in northern Tarim Basin show that two areas uplifted at different ages. The apatite fission track ages of Sawafuqi range from 3.5 to 3.9 Ma, while the ages of Talike range from 53 to 59 Ma. The thermal history recorded by rock samples reveals that there are at least three prominent cooling phases since Late Cretaceous epoch. Detailed study was made on the division of uplifting stages during Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution with the existing data in northern Tarim area. And new ideas on tectonic evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization have been put forward by combining with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization ages in this area.(authors)

  17. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bit of each one. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium. Let's take a closer look at some of the minerals you get from food. Calcium Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so you ...

  18. Uranium mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; U 4+ minerals (uraninite; coffinite; brannerite; ningyoite; lermontovite; U 4+ molybdates; U 4+ pyrochlores; U 4+ columbites; petscheckite and liandratite) minerals (uranyl oxide hydrates; uranyl silicates; uranyl phosphates and arsenates; uranyl vanadates; uranyl molybdates; uranyl sulphates; uranyl carbonates; uranyl selenates and tellurates). Appendices contain X-ray data and optical data for uranium minerals. (U.K.)

  19. A new method for determining uranium and thorium contents in mineral mining materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Membry, A.; Chambaudet, A.; Fromm, M.

    1994-01-01

    The method is based on the quantitative analysis of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). A mathematical model taking into account the variability of the critical angle of registration for the etching of the tracks generated by the incoming alpha projectiles is described. Complementarity of laboratory experiments and theoretical track etching model enables the relationship between critical angle and alpha particles energy to be determined. The formalism of the dosimetric method is based on the calculation of the probability P sub i for an alpha particle emitted in the phosphate to generate an observable etched track in the CR39 SSNTD. The determination of these probabilities cannot be achieved without a good knowledge of the relation expressing the critical angle as a function of particle energy. Supposing a secular equilibrium, we first propose a bulk relation giving the number of parent nuclides of a given family per unit volume of material. By taking the probabilities as P sub i into account, the content of uranium and thorium in the material (phosphates) can be estimated. The results obtained are compared to those cited in the literature. 1 tab., 6 refs. (author)

  20. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

  1. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  2. Psychosocial and health impacts of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Susan E; Madsen, Gary E

    2011-11-01

    The uranium industry in the American Southwest has had profoundly negative impacts on American Indian communities. Navajo workers experienced significant health problems, including lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and psychosocial problems, such as depression and anxiety. There were four uranium processing mills and approximately 1,200 uranium mines on the Navajo Nation's over 27,000 square miles. In this paper, a chronology is presented of how uranium mining and milling impacted the lives of Navajo workers and their families. Local community leaders organized meetings across the reservation to inform workers and their families about the relationship between worker exposures and possible health problems. A reservation-wide effort resulted in activists working with political leaders and attorneys to write radiation compensation legislation, which was passed in 1990 as the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) and included underground uranium miners, atomic downwinders, and nuclear test-site workers. Later efforts resulted in the inclusion of surface miners, ore truck haulers, and millworkers in the RECA Amendments of 2000. On the Navajo Nation, the Office of Navajo Uranium Workers was created to assist workers and their families to apply for RECA funds. Present issues concerning the Navajo and other uranium-impacted groups include those who worked in mining and milling after 1971 and are excluded from RECA. Perceptions about uranium health impacts have contributed recently to the Navajo people rejecting a resumption of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.

  3. External gamma radiation and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the German WISMUT uranium miners cohort study, 1946-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Sogl, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Walsh, L. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    It is currently unclear whether exposure of the heart and vascular system, at lifetime accumulated dose levels relevant to the general public (<500 mGy), is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, data from the German WISMUT cohort of uranium miners were investigated for evidence of a relationship between external gamma radiation and death from cardiovascular diseases. The cohort comprises 58,982 former employees of the Wismut company. There were 9,039 recorded deaths from cardiovascular diseases during the follow-up period from 1946 to 2008. Exposures to external gamma radiation were estimated using a detailed job-exposure matrix. The exposures were based on expert ratings for the period 1946-1954 and measurements thereafter. The excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative gamma dose was obtained with internal Poisson regression using a linear ERR model with baseline stratification by age and calendar year. The mean cumulative gamma dose was 47 mSv for exposed miners (86 %), with a maximum of 909 mSv. No evidence for an increase in risk with increasing cumulative dose was found for mortality from all cardiovascular diseases (ERR/Sv = -0.13; 95 % confidence interval (CI): -0.38; 0.12) and ischemic heart diseases (n = 4,613; ERR/Sv = -0.03; 95 % CI: -0.38, 0.32). However, a statistically insignificant increase (n = 2,073; ERR/Sv = 0.44; 95 % CI: -0.16, 1.04) for mortality from cerebrovascular diseases was observed. Data on smoking, diabetes, and overweight are available for subgroups of the cohort, indicating no major correlation with cumulative gamma radiation. Confounding by these factors or other risk factors, however, cannot be excluded. In conclusion, the results provide weak evidence for an increased risk of death due to gamma radiation only for cerebrovascular diseases. (orig.)

  4. Contemporary Pollution Due Old Uranium Tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjamberdiev, I.

    2007-01-01

    The areas of our study are uranium mining areas (with tails and dumps) Min-Kush, Kadji-Sai, Mailuu-Suu. These areas situated in different parts of Tien-Shan region. We study the content (and correlations among): level of uranium in environment, immune function and level, level in human teeth. It has been found: content of uranium in river water under tails about 2,0x10-5 gm/litter, and high level in drinking water too 2,0-4,0. Drying grass and flowers uranium content was 0,04-0,51x10-5 gm/gm, most high content were in Tacniatherum crinitum and Atgilops triuncialis. Lams tissues contain 0,005-2,44 mg/g in Min-Kush, 0,03-0,107, in Mailuu-Suu, and 0,001-0,048 mg/g in Kadji-Sai. Human teeth uranium content (Mailuu-Suu): in milk-teeth 0,481x10-6 gm/gm, in former miners 0,7684x10-6 gm/gm. Inhabitants of the area, which not working in uranium industry have 0,6876x10-6 gm/gm. There was low level of immune function (lymphocytes, IgI globulin, etc) in all three regions (in child, in adults, in uranium-mining worked people). There is no doubt of the positive correlations of uranium pollution of water (by underground infiltration from tails) on one hand and, on the other hand - a) grass, b) lambs body, c) human teeth, d) human immune function. Levels of uranium in teeth strictly depend on time of mining contact. (author)

  5. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum

  6. Study on palynological assemblages and the relationship with uranium mineralization of the tengger depression in the erlian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lu; Dai Mingjian

    2014-01-01

    Tengger depression of Erlian basin, which was a Cenozoic inland depression, developed in the late Variscan Orogeny and along the long axis trending of east to west. The upper member of Sanhan Formation is the main prospecting target horizon in Tengger area. Besides, the lower member of Sanhan Formation is also taken into account the prospecting target horizon in this area. Comprehensive analysis of the palynological assemblages collected from NO. TZK2-4 core samples in Tengger area indicates that the time of sediment occurred in Early Cretaceous and roughly equivalent to the Aptian-Albian age. Furthermore, it can determine those core sample should be the important prospecting target horizon-Sanhan Formation of Lower Cretaceous in studied area. And the climate characteristic was warm and humid subtropical climate, and had the transition to sub-humid to semi-hot condition. It can be inferred that ancient warm and humid or fluctuation station of warm and humid to semi-arid climate was favorable to the uranium mineralization. (authors)

  7. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  8. Risks associated with mining and processing of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    Mortality from all causes was determined for groups of white and Indian underground uranium miners, and for a small group of uranium mill workers. Analysis was by a life table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer was found among both white and Indian miners. A significant excess of nonmalignant respiratory disease was found among whites. It was attributed primarily to diffuse parenchymal damage by radiation; it approaches respiratory cancer in importance as a cause of death among whites. A significant excess of malignant disease of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue was found among uranium mill workers. This was attributed primarily to irradiation of lymph nodes by thorium-230. Exposure-response curves for nonsmoking uranium miners are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease.'' Cigarette smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigarette smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage by the radiation. The predominant histological type of cancer among nonsmokers, white smokers and Indians is small cell undifferentiated. Accidental deaths are high among inexperienced miners, and even among experienced miners it is about 3 times what is expected

  9. Factors Modifying the Radon-Related Lung Cancer Risk at Low Exposures and Exposure Rates among German Uranium Miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, M; Sobotzki, C; Schnelzer, M; Fenske, N

    2018-02-01

    It is still not fully understood whether and how factors such as time, age and smoking modify the relationship between lung cancer and radon at low exposures and exposure rates. Improved knowledge is necessary for the dose conversion of radon in working level month (WLM) into effective dose, as currently discussed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). An update of the German uranium miner cohort study (n = 58,974 men) with a 10-year extension of mortality follow-up (1946-2013) was used to further examine this issue. Internal Poisson regression was applied to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) for lung cancer mortality per unit of cumulative radon exposure in WLM with exponential time-related effect modifiers. In the full cohort restricted to <100 WLM the estimated overall ERR/WLM was 0.006 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003; 0.010] based on 1,254 lung cancer deaths and 1,620,190 person-years at risk. Both age at and time since exposure turned out to be important modifiers of the ERR/WLM and were included in the final model. Here, the ERR/WLM centered on age at exposure of 30 years, and 20 years since exposure was 0.016 (95% CI: 0.008; 0.028). This value decreased statistically significantly by approximately 40% and 60% for each 10-year increase in age at exposure and time since exposure, respectively. The joint effect of smoking and radon exposure was investigated in the sub-cohort of miners hired in 1960 or later, which includes data on smoking status. The centered ERR/WLM was slightly higher for non/light smokers compared to moderate/heavy smokers (0.022 versus 0.013). The current findings provide evidence for an increased lung cancer risk at low radon exposures or exposure rates that is modified by age and time. The observed risk is lower, but statistically compatible to those of other miner studies at low exposures or exposure rates. These findings reject an additive- and support a sub- to (supra-) multiplicative interaction

  10. The behavior of uranium in the soil/plant system with special consideration of the uranium input by mineral phosphorus fertilizer; Untersuchungen zum Verhalten von Uran im System Boden/Pflanze unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Uran-Eintrags durch mineralische Phosphorduenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setzer, Sascha

    2014-03-28

    The fate of uranium in the environment and, consequently, its hazard potential for human beings is still discussed controversially in the scientific literature. Mineral phosphorous fertilizer can contain uranium as impurity, so that their application can cause an additional input of uranium into agricultural environments. It is still unclear whether and to what extent fertilizer-derived uranium can enter the human food chain by the consumption of contaminated waters or vegetable crop products. The mobility and availability of uranium in the agricultural ecosystem is mainly determined by its behavior in the pedosphere. Due to interactions with organic and inorganic components, the pedosphere is an effective storage and filter system for pollutants and thus plays an important role for the fate of uranium in the environment. In order to improve the assessment of the hazard potential, the present study investigates the behavior of uranium in the soil/plant-system with a focus on the uranium input by mineral phosphorous fertilizer. The specific objectives were (A) to investigate the general distribution of uranium in soils, (B) to determine the effect of CaCO{sub 3} on the sorption behavior of uranium and to quantify the effects of (C - D) varying substrate properties and (E) the application of phosphorus fertilizers on the uranium uptake by ryegrass. The results of these experiments imply that the use of mineral phosphorous fertilizers does not pose an acute risk within the meaning of consumer protection. The studied soils predominantly had a high to very high sorption capability for uranium. At the same time, a small soil-to-plant-transfer of uranium was determined, where the majority of uranium accumulated in/to the plant roots. The availability of uranium in soils and its uptake by plants can thus be classified as generally low. Furthermore, some soil parameters were identified which seem to favor a higher uranium-availability. This study found that very high and

  11. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  12. Study of the total uranium in underground water in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua; Estudio del uranio total en agua subterranea en la Ciudad de Jimenez, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M. [Centro de Investigacion de Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: marusia.renteria@cimav.edu.mx

    2004-07-01

    Samples of water of wells in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua were analyzed, and its were determined the content of total uranium. It was used the technique of extraction of uranium from water adding Bis ( 2- ethylexyl) phosphate and scintillating Beta plate Hi safe, and the measures of the activities were carried out in the portable scintillation detector Thiathler- O Y HIDEX. The obtained interval of concentrations was 0.12 to 0.26 Bq/l that it is finds below the maximum permissible limits that it manages the Mexican regulation. It was found a significant correlation among the concentration of uranium and those total solid dissolved present in the samples. (Author)

  13. Studies on hydrogeological conditions for mineralization of some sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Li Sen; Xiao Feng; Qi Daneng; Yin Jinshuang

    1996-11-01

    Based on the analysis for regional geology, structural and hydrogeological conditions of Erennaoer Depression, Erlian Basin, the hydrogeological hydraulic zoning was carried out for groundwater in the study area, structural-palaeo-hydrogeological stages and the feature of deep-seated groundwater were studied, and, two important U-mineralization periods were determined. The conditions of recharge, runoff and discharge of groundwater in ore bearing aquifers and the hydraulic mechanism were revealed by isotope hydrology and single-well tracing technique. By study of hydrogeochemistry, it is indicated that both Subeng and Nuheting U-deposit are located at the parts where groundwater characteristics intensely variate, and the ore indicators are determined. Oil and gas transportation and the relationships between groundwater and U-metallogenetic process were discussed by using of organic geochemistry method. It shows that the bleeding of oil and gas is very important for the forming of U-deposits. It is suggested that the interlayered oxidation zone type sandstone U-deposit which is suitable for in-situ leaching could be existed in the Tenggeer formation, Bayanhua group of Lower Cretaceous, accordingly, two prospecting areas are delimited. (4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  14. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  15. Licensing of the Process Uranium Plant Mineral, Retortillo-Santidad; Licenciamiento de la Planta de Proceso de Mineral de Uranio Retortillo-Sanidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Arroyo, E.; Colilla Peletero, J.; Bellon del Rosal, F.; Mancipe Jimenez, D. C.; Garrido Delgado, C.; Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.

    2013-07-01

    Berkeley Minera Spain, S.A. provides for the operation of the concession Retortillo-Santidad (Salamanca) mining and construction of a beneficiation plant of uranium ore, for the production of uranium concentrate (Yellow cake). In Spain, the project Quercus, ENUSA, obtained the last prior authorization in 1979. Since then, there has been a continuous evolution in the aspects technical and regulatory. This paper is the documentation and content necessary for the licensing of a uranium production plant. In particular, to obtain the prior authorization as radioactive installation of 1st category (RINR).

  16. Interaction of radon and smoking among Czech uranium miners using model of a threshold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to radon and smoking are among the most important factors influencing the risk of lung cancer. However, the joint effect of radon and smoking has not been sufficiently investigated so far. In this paper we will try to describe by means of a threshold energy model the mechanism of synergic effect of the aforementioned factors, and compare their influence on the risk of lung cancer. The model is based on the assumption that the inactivation of cells is caused by the excess of threshold specific energy z0 in the sensitive volume of the cell. Cigarette smoking causes, among others, an increase in the synthesis of the survivin protein that protects cells from apoptosis and thereby reduces their radiosensitivity. Survivin is therefore responsible for the increase of threshold energy z0, which in turn leads to the increase of lung cancer risk. A linear relationship between the threshold energy and the number of cigarettes smoked was assumed. The effect of smoking on radon exposure was evaluated for various groups of smokers that were defined by the degree of morphometric and geometric changes in the lungs induced by smoking and various degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We simulate various scenarios of irradiation - short-term exposure, long-term exposure, as well as various smoking habits - smoker, ex-smoker. The calculated values can be, to an extent, compared to the epidemiological analysis geometric mixture models of Tomasek, who statistically evaluated epidemiological data about lung cancer occurrence among miners working in Jachymov and Pribram mines. From the results it follows that the correlation coefficient was particularly high. Although the approach outlined in this paper is only one of the many that strive to describe in detail the synergic effect of smoking and exposition, the used model can contribute to a more precise estimate of lung cancer risk in areas with various smoking habits. (authors)

  17. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  18. Differences in baseline lung cancer mortality between the German uranium miners cohort and the population of the former German Democratic Republic (1960-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Dufey, Florian; Möhner, Matthias; Schnelzer, Maria; Tschense, Annemarie; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2011-03-01

    A previous analysis of the radon-related lung cancer mortality risk, in the German uranium miners cohort, using Poisson modeling techniques, noted internal (spontaneous) rates that were higher on average than the external rates by 16.5% (95% CI: 9%; 24%). The main purpose of the present paper is to investigate the nature of, and possible reasons for, this difference by comparing patterns in spontaneous lung cancer mortality rates in a cohort of male miners involved in uranium extraction at the former Wismut mining company in East Germany with national male rates from the former German Democratic Republic. The analysis is based on miner data for 3,001 lung cancer deaths, 1.76 million person-years for the period 1960-2003, and national rates covering the same calendar-year range. Simple "age-period-cohort" graphical analyses were applied to assess the main qualitative differences between the national and cohort baseline lung cancer rates. Some differences were found to occur mainly at higher attained ages above 70 years. Although many occupational risk factors may have contributed to these observed age differences, only the effects of smoking have been assessed here by applying the Peto-Lopez indirect method for calculating smoking attributability. It is inferred that the observed age differences could be due to the greater prevalence of smoking and more mature smoking epidemic in the Wismut cohort compared to the general population of the former German Democratic Republic. In view of these observed differences between external population-based rates and internal (spontaneous) cohort baseline lung cancer rates, it is strongly recommended to apply only the internal rates in future analyses of uranium miner cohorts. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  19. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  20. The discussion on the relationship between high-resolution sequence stratigraphy and uranium mineralization of Zhiluo formation in Dongsheng area, ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaolin; Xiang Weidong; Li Tiangang; Fang Xiheng; Pang Yaqing

    2007-01-01

    According to the data of drill cores, outcrops and well logging, two orders base-level cycles are recognized from Zhiluo Formation in Dongsheng area, which consist of 8-14 short-term base-level cycles and 3 mid-term base-level cycles, and their structural types and stacking patterns are discussed by using principles and methods of high-resolution sequence stratigraphic theory. Based on the correlation of mid-term base-level cycles, the control of the A/S (Accommodation/Sediment supply) ratio in mid-term base-level cycles on the scale of sand bodies and physical properties of reservoir is analysed. Studies show that the sand bodies of braided stream in MSC1 of Zhiluo Formation are favourable to uranium mineralization, however, the sand bodies of meandering river in MSC2 and MSC3 are not favourable to uranium mineralization. The change of the A/S results in the difference in characters of sand body, such as physical properties, continuity and so on, which control the fluid flowing path. After discussing the immigration of uranium-bearing oxidizing ground water in the braided channel sand bodies, the paper tries to present the answers to the question of why the host orebody occurs mainly in the middle and upper sand body which the lower limb is thicker than the upper limb in the limb orebodies. (authors)

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of the upper cretaceous and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the southwest of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wenming; Lin Jinrong; Xia Yuliang; Qi Daneng

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous of the southwest of Songliao Basin is featured with fluvial, delta and lacustrine depositional systems in a large scale. The rocks are mainly composed of aubergine with mixed gray sandstone, siltstone and mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous in the area can be classified as 7 depositional sequences which can also be classified as 4 super-sequences. The formation of sequence and its internal system tracts is controlled by the relative lake-level change, of which the second class change controls the formation of super-sequence and development of large-scale sand bodies, and the third class change controls the formation of depositional sequence and the sand bodies distribution and their geometry and physical property. While the palaeo-climatical change affects the fabric and material composition of the rocks. The uranium mineralization in the area is mainly controlled by the sequence, depositional system and the physical and chemical properties of the sand bodies. The uranium bodies mainly occur in the thick and large sand bodies of the lower part of a super-sequence which are all older than the Nenjiang Formation. This kind of mineralization is closely related to the transgressive system tract of a depositionai sequence, in which the delta sand bodies are the best host rocks. As the epigenetic alteration widely goes on, the enrichment of uranium takes place by the absorption of clay and co-precipitation of pyrite and pitchblende. (authors)

  2. Radiation hazards of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1975-09-01

    This paper examines each of the radiological problems that arise in these processes and explains their scientific background. The major operational requirement is to ensure that exposure of miners over their working lives to radon and its daughter products does not lead to an unacceptable increase in their chance of contracting lung cancer. Studies on the incidence of lung cancer amongst underground uranium miners indicate that this risk will be small if lifetime exposures are kept below about 120 'working level months', even amongst underground miners who smoke cigarettes. The risk is much smaller again for miners who do not smoke cigarettes. Other hazards that must be controlled are exposure of miners and mill workers to external radiation and to dusts containing long-lived radioactive alpha emitting isotopes. Finally, the solid waste products from the mill (the tailings) which contain most of the naturally occurring radioactivity, must be properly impounded and after closure of the mill, stabilized to ensure long-term containment. Access by the public to the stabilized tailings must be controlled and habitation within the controlled area prohibited. (author)

  3. Can radiation protection be further improved in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, S.

    1992-01-01

    The efforts of optimization made by mine operators to improve radiation protection are illustrated by results and comments. Routinely, uranium miners are the most exposed workers in the fuel cycle (average: 20-30 mSv.y -1 for underground mines). In uranium mines, especially for ten years, operators have been striving to lower collective doses and comply with the regulation in force based on ICRP recommendations. Since 1988, french uranium miners have registered no effective cumulated doses exceeding the basic limit of 50 mSv.y -1 , which does not occur in every country. In 1990, ICRP issued new recommendations lowering the basic limit so that the average should not exceed 20 mSv.y -1 . To comply with the limit, the operators should make a number of more or less restricting arrangements. Additional financial means would become important in present mines. New operating concepts should be sought for new mines. Independently of the financial aspects, should not the expenses made towards lowering a risk already very low (hypothetic and long-term risk) be better used to improve conventional safety. Furthermore, there appears a number of noxious effects running against the aim pursued. As a conclusion, more efficient radiation protection could be achieved by implementation of the principle of optimization of the collective dose instead of more severe limits of individual doses

  4. Elkon - development of new world class uranium mining center (v.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boytsov, A.

    2010-01-01

    The uranium deposits of Elkon district are located in the south of Republic of Sakha Yakutia. Deposits contain about 6% of the world known uranium resources: 342,409 tonnes of in situ or 288,768 tonnes of recoverable RAR + Inferred resources. Most significant uranium resources of Elkon district (261,768 tonnes) were identified within five deposits of Yuzhnaya zone. The uranium grade averages 0.15 %. Gold, silver and molybdenum are by-products. Principal resources are proposed to be mined by conventional underground method. Location, shape and dimensions of uranium orebodies are primarily controlled by NW-SE oriented and steeply SW dipping faults of Mesozoic age and surrounding pyrite-carbonate- potassium feldspar alteration zones. Country rocks are Archean gneisses. Deposits are of metasomatic geological type. Principal mineralization is represented by brannerite. The Yuzhnaya zone is about 20 km long. It was explored by underground workings and drill holes. Upper limit of orebodies is at a depth of between 200 m and 500 m. Depth persistence exceeds 2,000 m. Uranium mining enterprise Elkon was established in November 2007. It is a 100% Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ) subsidiary. The planned producing capacity is up to 5,000 Mt U/year. It will perform the entire works related to uranium mining, milling, ore sorting, processing and uranium dioxide production. Technology of ore processing assumes primary radiometric sorting, thickening, sulphide flotation for gold concentrate extraction, subsequent autoclave sulphuric-acid uranium leaching from flotation tails and uranium adsorption onto resin, roasting and heap leaching for uranium from low grade ores, cyanide leaching of gold. Due to a considerable abundance of brannerite, the ore is classified as refractory. Elkon development include 4 main stages: feasibility study and infrastructure development (2009-2011), mine and mill construction (2012- 2015), pilot production (2013-2015), mine development and achieving full capacity

  5. Elkon - development of new world class uranium mining center (v.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boytsov, A.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The uranium deposits of Elkon district are located in the south of Republic of Sakha Yakutia. Deposits contain about 6% of the world known uranium resources: 342 409 tonnes of in situ or 288 768 tonnes of recoverable RAR + Inferred resources. Most significant uranium resources of Elkon district (261 768 tonnes) were identified within five deposits of Yuzhnaya zone. The uranium grade averages 0.15 %. Gold, silver and molybdenum are by-products. Principal resources are proposed to be mined by conventional underground method. Location, shape and dimensions of uranium orebodies are primarily controlled by NW-SE oriented and steeply SW dipping faults of Mesozoic age and surrounding pyrite-carbonate- potassium feldspar alteration zones. Country rocks are Archean gneisses. Deposits are of metasomatic geological type. Principal mineralization is represented by brannerite. The Yuzhnaya zone is about 20 km long. It was explored by underground workings and drill holes. Upper limit of orebodies is at a depth of between 200 m and 500 m. Depth persistence exceeds 2,000 m. Uranium mining enterprise Elkon was established in November 2007. It is a 100% Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ) subsidiary. The planned producing capacity is up to 5000 Mt U/year. It will perform the entire works related to uranium mining, milling, ore sorting, processing and uranium dioxide production. Technology of ore processing assumes primary radiometric sorting, thickening, sulphide flotation for gold concentrate extraction, subsequent autoclave sulphuric-acid uranium leaching from flotation tails and uranium adsorption onto resin, roasting and heap leaching for uranium from low grade ores, cyanide leaching of gold. Due to a considerable abundance of brannerite, the ore is classified as refractory. Elkon development include 4 main stages: feasibility study and infrastructure development (2009-2011), mine and mill construction (2012- 2015), pilot production (2013-2015), mine development and

  6. Study on the uranium mineralization genesis of the Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, Bahia, mine, as auxiliary in the discovery and comprehension of mineral beds; Estudo da genese da mineralizacao uranifica da mina da Cachoeira, Lagoa Real, BA, como auxilio na descoberta e compreensao de jazidas minerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira; Pereira, Ana Rosa Passos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: laro@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    The acknowledgement of the geological history of a ore reserve allows to infer relative to a large area with possibility to contain the large mineral content or even give the localization of new anomalies or mineral reserve. The study of ore reserve genesis is of great importance for the stages to obtain the mineral, from the prospection until the mineral mining. Fluid inclusions (FI) are fluid quantities which are imprison in the minerals during the formation process or some process where deformation occurs. The study of fluid inclusions, together with the petrographic mapping of the blades associated to the uranium para genesis of Lagoa Real, Brazil, are been used for a better comprehension of the uranium orogenesis. The main analysis techniques used in this context were the petrography and microthermometry. With the petrographic analysis fluid inclusions were observed and mapped in various minerals present in rocks associated to uranium mineralization, such as amphiboles, pyroxenes and grenades. The micro thermometric studies were only performed in the pyroxenes and the grenades due to the fluid inclusions types found in these minerals, and also the supposed relationships that those minerals have with uranium mineralization at that region. (author)

  7. Uranium: the recalcitrant commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, P.C.F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past year dollar prices of virtually every mineral commodity have risen considerably on the back of strong demand, falling stocks and rising capacity utilization. Uranium has experienced the same economic influences, but measures of conditions in uranium spot markets display drift and even further decline. Does this mean that uranium is not really a commodity after all, or have special factors been at work? Some of the economic features of the uranium market are re-examined in this context. (author)

  8. Integration of NURE and other data sets, southwest Montana and northeast Idaho: an orientation study to characterize mineralized environments. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madson, M.E.; Karp, K.E.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Morrison, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Mineralized environments in the Dillon, Butte, Hamilton, and Elk City 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS Quadrangles were identified and characterized from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance and Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey data, folio data, and other data sets used in this study. Methods applied to reconnaissance for uranium during the NURE program were used successfully in this project to recognize and delineate locales that have mineral-resource potential. These methods included preparation and interpretation of maps of geochemical, aerial radiometric, and aeromagentic data, as well as interpretation of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of NURE data sets. Data interpretations were conducted by a contingency approach that puts a variety of statistical and cartographic tools at the disposal of the geologist. These tools were applied selectively to the data until the geochemical and geophysical signature of an anomalous locale was described and characterized to the geologist's satisfaction. Ten areas known to be mineralized were described as type localities and used to calibrate the geochemical and geophysical models employed in the study. Other areas exhibiting anomalous geochemical and (or) geophysical characteristics were analogized to the type localities. Thirty anomalous areas were delineated during this study; 17 of the 30 are believed to warrant further investigation. Three locales contain Tertiary intrusive bodies that were delineated on the basis of their characteristic signatures and trace-element contents. 5 figures, 10 tables

  9. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.; Radulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  10. U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D.A.; Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

  11. Characterization of fluids associated to mineral paragenesis of uraniferous albitites and their gnessic embedding rocks from Lagoa da Rabicha Uranium Deposit, Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de

    2010-01-01

    Brazil has now the seventh largest uranium reserve in the world. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in central-south region of Bahia State. Along a helical structure, north-south oriented, with approximately 33 km long, there are 34 known uranium mineralized areas. In its central-south portion is located anomaly 03 (AN03), named Lagoa da Rabicha, discovered and mapped by NUCLEBRAS (Brazilian Nuclear Enterprises), in the 80s. The Cachoeira Mine (AN13), located in northern PULR, is currently the only uranium mine in production in Brazil and even in South America. Nowadays it is observed a growth in energy demand in Brazil and also worldwide and studies and research applied to the petrogenetic uranium deposits are relevant both to be able to increase their potential for exploration and to assist in the possible future occurrences discovery. In recent years, fluid inclusions analysis (FI) have been widely used to study the genesis of uranium deposits in PULR and even thought there are still doubts about the uranium mineralization metallogenesis at Lagoa Real. Therefore, this work aimed to study the minerals and fluids associated with Lagoa da Rabicha albitites uraniferous and gneissic host rocks. In this way it was prepared an overview of the fluids found in this sector, establishing a comparison with several authors' studies in this and others Lagoa Real anomalies, trying to show the solutions evolution, at the same time that happened the uraninite precipitation. Petrography, electronic microprobe, laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS) and fluid inclusion studies were the applied methodologies. The fluids inclusions assemblages present in pyroxene, garnet and plagioclase, the main mineralogical constituents, were studied. The older fluid was found in aegirine-augite pyroxene and had aquo-saline composition (without carbonic phases) with Ca, Fe and Mg, 9-13 wt% NaCl salinities and homogenization temperatures between 220 and 290 deg C. Concomitantly, occurred a

  12. Uranium and radium activities in samples of aquifers of the main cities of the Estado de Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    The natural uranium is in four valence states +3, +4, +5 and +6 being the hexavalent state the more soluble, which plays an important role in the transport of the uranium in the environment. The high concentrations of uranium in water not only in near waters to uranium mines, but also are in some mineral waters or in waters that are extracted of deep wells as it happens in the State of Chihuahua, where the underground waters are the fundamental source of consumption. The radium is a disintegration product of the uranium, the radio content in water is considered the second source of natural radioactivity. The distribution of radium in water is in function of the uranium content present in the aquifer. It was determined the uranium and radium content in samples of underground water of the main cities of the State of Chihuahua according to their number of inhabitants. The extraction methods for uranium and sulfates precipitation of Ba-Ra by means of the addition of barium carriers for the radium were used. The measures of the activities of uranium and radium were carried out by means of a portable liquid scintillation detector trade mark Thiathler-OY HIDEX. The obtained results have demonstrated that the content of uranium and radium in dissolution are in most of the sampling wells above the permissible maximum levels that manage the Mexican regulations. The high contents of uranium and radio can be attributed since to the influence of the geologic substrate characteristic of the zone in the State of Chihuahua they exist but of 50 uranium deposits. (Author)

  13. Methods for analyzing occupational cohort data with application to lung cancer in US uranium miners: Techniques for fitting and checking exposure-time-response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, J.; Whittemore, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods were used to examine how lung cancer death rates vary with cumulative exposures to radiation and tobacco among uranium miners. The two methods produced similar results when death rate ratios were taken to be the product of radiation and tobacco effects. The estimates were discrepant when death rate ratios were taken to be the sum of radiation and tobacco effects. Both methods indicated better fit for the multiplicative model. It may be that cumulative exposures are inappropriate measures of the effects of radiation and tobacco on lung cancer death rates, as well as for other pollutants where the assumption of cumulative dose is the basis for risk assessments

  14. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Uranium mineralization in the Wilson Creek and Cranberry Gneisses and the Grandfather Mountain Formation, North Carolina and Tennessee. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, H.D.; McHone, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Detailed petrologic investigations were conducted at 74 anomalies that have surface radioactivities of 5 to 300 times background in the Grandfather Mountain region of North Carolina and Tennessee. One or more specimens of radioactive rock and one specimen of nonanomalous (barren) rock were taken for chemical analysis from each of the 74 sites. The specimens were analyzed fluorometrically for uranium (U 3 O 8 ) and for 29 other elements by emission spectroscopy. Of the radioactive specimens, 23 contained less than 100 ppM U 3 O 8 and were either depleted in uranium because of leaching or were rich in thorium; 25 contained more than 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , with a maximum of 33,000 ppM. Specimens collected as barren contained up to 65 ppM U 3 O 8 . The more uraniferous rocks of the region tend to contain the larger concentrations of trace amounts of base metals

  16. The social costs of uranium mining in the US Colorado Plateau cohort, 1960-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin A

    2017-05-01

    Long-term social costs associated with underground uranium mining are largely unknown. This study estimated health costs of Native American and white (Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin) uranium miners in the US Public Health Service Colorado Plateau cohort study. Elevated uranium miner person-years of life lost (PYLL) were calculated from the most recent study of the Colorado Plateau cohort over 1960-2005. Nine causes of death categories were included. Costs to society of miner PYLL were monetized using the value of a statistical life-year approach. Costs over 1960-2005 totaled $2 billion USD [95% CI: $1.8, $2.2], or $2.9 million per elevated miner death. This corresponds to $43.1 million [95%: $38.7, $48.7] in annual costs. Lung cancer was the most costly cause of death at $1.4 billion [95%: $1.3, $1.5]. Absolute health costs were largest for white miners, but Native Americans had larger costs per elevated death. Annual excess mortality over 1960-2005 averaged 366.4 per 100,000 miners; 404.6 (white) and 201.5 per 100,000 (Native American). This research advances our understanding of uranium extraction legacy impacts, particularly among indigenous populations.

  17. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  18. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  19. Some physio-graphical keys to interpret reservoirs-traps, hosts of uranium-bearing mineralizations; Quelques clefs physiographiques pour interpreter les reservoirs-pieges, hotes des mineralisations uraniferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parize, O.; Feybesse, J.L.; Wattinne-Morice, A.; Benedicto, A.; Richard, Y.; Sol, R.; Milesi, J.P. [AREVA NC - BU Mines - Direction des Geosciences, 92 - Paris - La Defense (France); Duchemin, Ch.; James, O. [AREVA NC Niger, Niamey (Niger); Girard, Ch. [COMINAK, Akokan (Niger)

    2009-07-01

    As an approach in the search for silici-clastic formations which are reservoirs-traps hosting uranium-bearing mineralizations, the authors describe the use of facies sedimentology to describe successive deposits the arrangement of which determines the sequences according to which mineralisation will preferentially concentrate. They describe the use of sequential stratigraphy and how uranium had moved and deposited in successive eras and formations. They illustrate this approach by discussing different uranium-bearing deposits located in Niger and in France. They show how diagenesis, tectonics and sedimentology are combined to analyse these sites, and even to reassess them while exploiting them

  20. Uranium mining and lung cancer among Navajo men in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, F D; Hunt, W C; Pardilla, M; Key, C R

    2000-03-01

    Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. To further characterize the long-term consequences of uranium mining in this high-risk population, we examined lung cancer incidence among Navajo men residing in New Mexico and Arizona from 1969 to 1993 and conducted a population-based case-control study to estimate the risk of lung cancer for Navajo uranium miners. Uranium mining contributed substantially to lung cancer among Navajo men over the 25-year period following the end of mining for the Navajo Nation. Sixty-three (67%) of the 94-incident lung cancers among Navajo men occurred in former uranium miners. The relative risk for a history of mining was 28.6 (95% confidence interval, 13.2-61.7). Smoking did not account for the strong relationship between lung cancer and uranium mining. The Navajo experience with uranium mining is a unique example of exposure in a single occupation accounting for the majority of lung cancers in an entire population.

  1. U for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Beisa Mine is unique in South Africa - it is the only underground mine with uranium as its main product and gold as a by-product. At the rate of 1,2 Mt/a, the life of Beisa is estimated on 26 years. Beisa's metallurgical plant is designed to handle initially a monthly throughput of 100 000t of ore, from which uranium, gold and silver will be extracted

  2. The siliceous-calcareous-argillaceous rock type uranium deposit in south subzone of Western Qinling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Farong; Zhou Dean; Ji Hongfang

    1995-11-01

    The siliceous-calcareous-argillaceous rock type uranium deposit in south subzone of western Qinling is an inland found type deposit with specific mineralization and good potentiality. The mineralization distributes along definite horizons and occurs in siliceous layer and lenses of siliceous-calcareous rocks. Orebody presents in forms of stratoid, lenticular and irregular veins and controlled by factorial structures. Ore is identified as massive and sandy and each characterized by various mineral compositions and element associations. The study shows that the mineralizing materials are mainly derived from ore-bearing strata. The metallogenic environment has characteristics of middle-low temperature and supergene The metallogenesis underwent three stages: (1) Sedimentation-diagenesis of the ore-bearing strata led to preliminary concentration of uranium; (2) Polytectonic activities accompanied by underground hydrothermal process resulted in the industrial concentration of uranium; and (3) Orebody reworked by oxidation-denudation and leaching, locally has taken place secondary concentration. The deposit in origin attributes to polygenesis dominated by underground hydrothermal metallogenesis. Main metallogenic epoch happens during the periods of Late Yanshan and Himalayan. According to the geological-tectonic conditions the further prospecting direction in study area is proposed. (3 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.)

  3. Evaluation of the Catahoula Formation as a source rock for uranium mineralization, with emphasis on East Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, E.B. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash and, in the lower coastal plain, also stream-transported erosion detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent northern Mexico, the nearest source of appropriate age and chemical affinity. Pedogenic and shallow-burial alteration of the labile volcanic glass component of the sediment resulted in ubiquitous secondary montmorillonite and solubilization of elements which are mobile in a HCO 3 -rich, near-surface environment. Primary uranium present in the glass at 5 to 6 ppMU was similarly mobilized and, under favorable conditions, accumulated by precipitation of tetravalent uranium phases at sites of lower Eh. Known economic deposits are restricted to the lower coastal plain where there has been uranium production for more than twenty years. Although there are differences between the productive lower coastal plain and the middle and upper as to stratigraphy, mineralogical composition, and weathering history, labile volcaniclastic material and its alteration products are abundant throughout the Catahoula outcrop and shallow subsurface in Texas. To provide a geochemical basis of comparison, samples from the upper, middle, and lower Texas coastal plain and the Trans-Pecos source area were analyzed for uranium, thorium, potassium, rubidium, strontium, zirconium, and titanium. These include both labile and immobile elements. Typical levels of these elements in the source material and relatively unaltered Catahoula volcanic glass allows estimation of uranium loss from highly altered sections based on their immobile element content

  4. Age relationships from U-Th-Pb isotope studies of uranium mineralization in Wernecke breccias, Yukon Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, A.

    1986-01-01

    Pb-U ± Th isotope analyses for 17 specimens of uraniferous breccia from the northeastern Wernecke Mountains reveal several apparent ages for mineralization. The oldest date, 1194 Ma, reflects either initial emplacement of the breccias or their modification by effects of the Rackla of Rapitan (Windermere) thick clastic wedges and iron formation. The 510 Ma date reflects mid-Cambrian mineralization roughly coincident with regional uplift (and attendant karstification) and development of thick clastic wedges. This was also an important period for Pb-Zn mineralization. Younger dates resulted from continuing remobilization, and all isotopic ages for mineralized breccia reflect movements associated with the Richardson Fault array

  5. Speculative resources of uranium. A review of International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) estimates 1982-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    On a country by country basis the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) estimates 1982-1983 are reviewed. Information provided includes exploration work, airborne survey, radiometric survey, gamma-ray spectrometric survey, estimate of speculative resources, uranium occurrences, uranium deposits, uranium mineralization, agreements for uranium exploration, feasibilities studies, geological classification of resources, proposed revised resource range, production estimate of uranium

  6. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  7. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  8. NOTCH1, HIF1A and other cancer-related proteins in lung tissue from uranium miners--variation by occupational exposure and subtype of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Pesch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radon and arsenic are established pulmonary carcinogens. We investigated the association of cumulative exposure to these carcinogens with NOTCH1, HIF1A and other cancer-specific proteins in lung tissue from uranium miners. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin-embedded tissue of 147 miners was randomly selected from an autopsy repository by type of lung tissue, comprising adenocarcinoma (AdCa, squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC, and cancer-free tissue. Within each stratum, we additionally stratified by low or high level of exposure to radon or arsenic. Lifetime exposure to radon and arsenic was estimated using a quantitative job-exposure matrix developed for uranium mining. For 22 cancer-related proteins, immunohistochemical scores were calculated from the intensity and percentage of stained cells. We explored the associations of these scores with cumulative exposure to radon and arsenic with Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r(s. Occupational exposure was associated with an up-regulation of NOTCH1 (radon r(s = 0.18, 95% CI 0.02-0.33; arsenic: r(s = 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.38. Moreover, we investigated whether these cancer-related proteins can classify lung cancer using supervised and unsupervised classification. MUC1 classified lung cancer from cancer-free tissue with a failure rate of 2.1%. A two-protein signature discriminated SCLC (HIF1A low, AdCa (NKX2-1 high, and SqCC (NKX2-1 low with a failure rate of 8.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the radiation-sensitive protein NOTCH1 can be up-regulated in lung tissue from uranium miners by level of exposure to pulmonary carcinogens. We evaluated a three-protein signature consisting of a physiological protein (MUC1, a cancer-specific protein (HIF1A, and a lineage-specific protein (NKX2-1 that could discriminate lung cancer and its major subtypes with a low failure rate.

  9. The bystander effect model of Brenner and Sachs fitted to lung cancer data in 11 cohorts of underground miners, and equivalence of fit of a linear relative risk model with adjustment for attained age and age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M P

    2004-01-01

    Bystander effects following exposure to α-particles have been observed in many experimental systems, and imply that linearly extrapolating low dose risks from high dose data might materially underestimate risk. Brenner and Sachs (2002 Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 78 593-604; 2003 Health Phys. 85 103-8) have recently proposed a model of the bystander effect which they use to explain the inverse dose rate effect observed for lung cancer in underground miners exposed to radon daughters. In this paper we fit the model of the bystander effect proposed by Brenner and Sachs to 11 cohorts of underground miners, taking account of the covariance structure of the data and the period of latency between the development of the first pre-malignant cell and clinically overt cancer. We also fitted a simple linear relative risk model, with adjustment for age at exposure and attained age. The methods that we use for fitting both models are different from those used by Brenner and Sachs, in particular taking account of the covariance structure, which they did not, and omitting certain unjustifiable adjustments to the miner data. The fit of the original model of Brenner and Sachs (with 0 y period of latency) is generally poor, although it is much improved by assuming a 5 or 6 y period of latency from the first appearance of a pre-malignant cell to cancer. The fit of this latter model is equivalent to that of a linear relative risk model with adjustment for age at exposure and attained age. In particular, both models are capable of describing the observed inverse dose rate effect in this data set

  10. Fracture network and distribution of elementary tectonic fracturing bodies. Investigation of tectonic control of uranium mineralization in the Peny Sector (La Crouzille, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraipont, P. de; Horrenberg, J.Cl.; Ruhland, M.; Marquaire, Ch.; Sierak, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of fracturing tectonics on the various granite materials in the Limousin region can be seen in the arrangement and spatial distribution of the fracture networks. However, a detailed analysis of the shape and arrangement of the various elementary tectonic bodies intersected by the fracture network is necessary in order to deduce the spatial, geometric and kinematic relations and to find the key tectonic elements which led to the formation and evolution of the mineralized vein system. After a brief summary of the elementary tectonic fracturing bodies identified at Peny, the existing relations between fracturing and mineralization are discussed. From the position in the deposit of the tectonic bodies (slices or scales, shearing lozenges, rolls and rotation-curve structures), it is possible to divide the deposit up into rough sections measuring 100-150m across and to highlight the areas of tectonic mobility where various types of fracturing are superimposed, corresponding to the sectors of uranium mineralization. Lastly, from the way in which the fracturing occurs and then evolves in successive stages, hypotheses concerning the location and distribution of the radiometric indications are drawn up with a view to searching for new deposits. (author)

  11. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  12. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  13. The Au-Ag-Sb-Bi-Te mineralization from the deposit Bytíz (mine 19), the Příbram uranium-polymetallic ore discrit, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litochleb, J.; Sejkora, J.; Šrein, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 28, Spec. pap. (2006), s. 133-135 ISSN 1896-2203. [Central European Mineralogical Conference /1./. Vyšná Boca, 11.09.2006-15.09.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Au-Ag-Sb-Bi-Te * mineralization * uranium-polymetallic ore Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  15. Final environmental statement related to the Atlas Minerals Division, Atlas Corporation, Atlas Uranium Mill (Grand County, Utah)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The proposed action is the continuation of Source Material License SUA-917 issued to Atlas Corporation for the operation of the Atlas Uranium Mill in Grand County, Utah, near Moab (Docket No. 40-3453). The present mill was designed for an 1100 MT (1200 ton) per day processing rate with 0.25% uranium ore feed. The actual ore processing rate may vary up to 1450 MT (1600 ton) per day if lower grade ores are processed, but the annual production rate of 836 MT (921 tons) U 3 O 8 will not be exceeded. Possible environmental impacts and adverse effects are identified. Conditions for the protection of the environment are set forth before the license can be renewed

  16. Petrography, mineral chemistry and lithochemistry of the albitite and granite-gneissics rocks of anomaly 35 from Lagoa Real uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Camila Marques dos

    2016-01-01

    In the northwestern portion of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province (LRUP), located in south-central Bahia, it is located one of the most promising uranium anomalies Brazil (an35, Gameleira I deposit), the reserves and proximity to the Cachoeira mine. Other anomalies of this sector (eg. 31 AN and AN34), are also considered strategic for the content of radioactive minerals and REE. The objective was to develop a study of a representative drill core of an35, where the main rocks PULR are present. The research focused on the mineralogical and chemical changes observed in the passages of a lithology to another, from the rock to the meta granitic albitites, through gneiss and transitional rocks, and making comparisons with similar lithologies sampled on testimonies of AN31 and 34. The granites are classified as hypersolvus coarse alkali-feldspar granite and are variably deformed. The main mineral assemblage in granites are perthitic orthoclase+hedenbergite+ quartz +hastingsite + biotite, and zircon, apatite, ilmenite and titanite are accessories. The reddening of these rocks are characterized by feldspars sericitization and hematitization and the presence of 'vazios'. The gneisses are mainly gray and reach milonitic to protomilonitics terms. These rocks have characteristics of subsolidus changes as swapped rims and metasomatic perthites. The tardi-magmatic association (amphibole+biotite) indicates final crystallization or late influx by superficial fluids resulting in an increase in water and volatiles, such as F and Cl in the system, which must also have carried rare-earth elementsGranites have geochemical affinity with A-type ferroan granite, A2, reduced and are post-collisional. Their patterns of incompatible elements and rare earths are comparable to Sao Timoteo Granite, but their petrographic features indicate that it is a less common granite facies. Albitites were classified as garnet albitites, magnetite albitites and biotite albitites. Contacts between

  17. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  19. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  20. Rheinbraun's Australian uranium business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, S.

    1989-01-01

    The leaflet argues against the mining activities of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG in Germany and especially against uranium mining in Australia. The ethno-ecological impact on flora and fauna, aborigines and miners are pointed out. Uranium mining and lignite mining are compared. (HSCH) [de

  1. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  2. Uranium resources, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The specific character of uranium as energy resources, the history of development of uranium resources, the production and reserve of uranium in the world, the prospect regarding the demand and supply of uranium, Japanese activity of exploring uranium resources in foreign countries and the state of development of uranium resources in various countries are reported. The formation of uranium deposits, the classification of uranium deposits and the reserve quantity of each type are described. As the geological environment of uranium deposits, there are six types, that is, quartz medium gravel conglomerate deposit, the deposit related to the unconformity in Proterozoic era, the dissemination type magma deposit, pegmatite deposit and contact deposit in igneaus rocks and metamorphic rocks, vein deposit, sandstone type deposit and the other types of deposit. The main features of respective types are explained. The most important uranium resources in Japan are those in the Tertiary formations, and most of the found reserve belongs to this type. The geological features, the state of yield and the scale of the deposits in Ningyotoge, Tono and Kanmon Mesozoic formation are reported. Uranium minerals, the promising districts in the world, and the matters related to the exploration and mining of uranium are described. (Kako, I.)

  3. Utilization of plastic detectors in autoradiographic studies of radioactive minerals from the Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, P.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A short account on an autoradiographic technique using plastic detectors, it's methodology, application and results is presented. With this technique the distribution of radioactive minerals in rocks can be studied in detail. As radioactive source for this study, samples mineralized in uraninite and/or pitchblende were used. The utilized detectors were the CR-39 (a polymer plate) and films of celulose nitrate: CA-80-15 and CN-85. The mineralization is associated to mafics (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, garnet, etc.) and to plagioclase (albite or albite-oligoclase), occurring as small inclusions and also in microfractures, cleavages and grain boundaries, mainly among plagioclase crystals which occur close to or practically touching mafic minerals. (Author) [pt

  4. Uranium enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.R.; Aakerblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

  5. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  6. Occurrence of tephra/volcanic tuff in the tertiary sediments of Himachal Himalaya from Tileli area, Mandi district, H.P.: implication for stratigraphy and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Pradeep; Chabbra, Jyotsana; Joshi, G.B.; Parihar, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Presence of Early Tertiary pyroclastic material (tephra) has been documented petrographically, for the first time, in the Mandi-Bilaspur Sector from Tileli area, Dharamsala basin of Himachal Pradesh. The tephra is reported from the red shale, identified as tuffaceous siltstone belonging to lower Dharamsala Formation that lies above the uraniferous sandstone body and occurs as thin layers of over 300m along the strike, close to the contact of lower and upper Dharamsala formations. The tuffaceous material shows crude but preferred orientation of minerals like biotite, muscovite, chlorite, clay, hematite and specularite. Various features indicating presence of tephra are, glass shards altered to clay but retaining 'U' shaped outline, spindle-shaped hematite with preferred orientation, spherical to sub-spherical clay and altered Fe oxide rich balls, clay groundmass with flow pattern, flaky minerals in association with clast depicting asymmetrical ramp structure. A zone of approximately 300 m length containing tuffaceous material has been established at Tileli overlying the uraniferous sandstone body. Identification of tephra at Tileli has significant implications as it enabled in demarcating the boundary between the upper and lower Dharamsala formations in central part of the basin in Bilaspur-Mandi Sector of HP Himalaya and also in guiding the uranium exploration programme in the lower Dharamsala Formation. (author)

  7. Comparison between two sampling methods by results obtained using petrographic techniques, specially developed for minerals of the Itataia uranium phosphate deposit, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, H.T.; Murta, R.L.L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of comparison of two sampling methods applied to a gallery of the uranium-phosphate ore body of Itataia-Ceara State, Brazil, along 235 metres of mineralized zone, are presented. The results were obtained through petrographic techniques especially developed and applied to both samplings. In the first one it was studied hand samples from a systematically sampling made at intervals of 2 metres. After that, the estimated mineralogical composition studies were carried out. Some petrogenetic observations were for the first time verified. The second sampling was made at intervals of 20 metres and 570 tons of ore extracted and distributed in sections and a sample representing each section was studied after crushing at -65. Their mineralogy were quantified and the degree of liberation of apatite calculated. Based on the mineralogical data obtained it was possible to represent both samplings and to make the comparison of the main mineralogical groups (phosphates, carbonates and silicates). In spite of utilizing different methods and methodology and the kind of mineralization, stockwork, being quite irregular, the results were satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  8. Technical measures and engineering management measures for radiation protection in underground uraniferous coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaihua; Ding Dexin; Zhang Zhijun; Li Guangyue

    2006-01-01

    The reserves of uraniferous coal resource account for a certain proportion of all uranium resources in China. China began to mine the uraniferous coal deposits in late 1960s. In the process of mining, much research was conducted on the control and reduction of the radiation hazards in underground uraniferous coal mine. However, such mining practice was stopped for many reasons in late 1980s. During recent years, electricity shortages have taken place from time to time. In order to alleviate the shortages, the Chinese government has decided to further develop nuclear electricity. Under such circumstances, underground mining of uraniferous coal deposits will be restarted. In order to make sure that the radiation protection will be stressed and the radiation hazards will be controlled effectively in the underground uraniferous mine, this paper gives the basic knowledge of radiation protection, describes the radiation hazards to the miners and our national dosage standards implemented in the underground mine, and, on the basis of summing-up of the past experience in mine radiation protection, presents the technical and management measures for controlling and reducing radiation hazards. (authors)

  9. Multiscale organisation of organic matter associated with gold and uranium minerals in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieja-Krol, Beata; Duber, Stanislaw [Faculty of Earth Science, University of Silesia, 60 Bedzinska St., 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Rouzaud, Jean-Noel [Laboratoire de Geologie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24, rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-03-01

    Organic matter from the northern part of the Early Proterozoic Witwatersrand basin (Carbon Leader reef) was investigated using optical (OM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopes, completed by XRD analysis. The multiscale organization (texture, microtexture, structure) of the organic matter was observed in order to gain information about the processes which affected organic material after its deposition in sediments. In the micrometre scale (optical microscope), the shape and size of the Reflectance Indicating Surface (RIS) of the organic matter were determined. The organic matter reveals a prevailing biaxial symmetry. The size of RIS is generally dependent on uranium and increases with increasing uranium concentration. Furthermore, it appears that more than one RIS is present within the scale of a single sample, each with a different symmetry and size. The presence of domains differing in organisation of the aromatic framework was confirmed by TEM observation in the DF mode. The aromatic skeleton of organic matter is composed of short, often crumpled, mostly isolated (non-stacked) polyaromatic layers whose fringe length corresponds to 3-16 aromatic rings. The data indicate reorganization of the polyaromatic organic matter structure under stress in high pressure and relatively low temperature conditions. The organic matter was in a solid state within the rocks before the pressure event. (author)

  10. Possible uranium sources of Streltsovsky uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lisheng

    2005-01-01

    The uranium deposit of the Late Jurassic Streltsovaky caldera in Transbaikalia of Russia is the largest uranium field associated with volcanics in the world, its uranium reserves are 280 000 t U, and it is the largest uranium resources in Russia. About one third of the caldera stratigraphic pile consists of strongly-altered rhyolites. Uranium resources of the Streltsovsky caldera are much larger than any other volcanic-related uranium districts in the world. Besides, the efficiency of hydrothermal alteration, uranium resources appear to result from the juxtaposition of two major uranium sources; highly fractionated peralkaline rhyolites of Jurassic age in the caldera, and U-rich subalkaline granites of Variscan age in the basement in which the major uranium-bearing accessory minerals were metamict at the time of the hydrothermal ore formation. (authors)

  11. Comparisons of lung tumour mortality risk in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the Colorado Plateau uranium miners: support for the ICRP lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the ratio of risks for exposure to radon progeny relative to low-LET radiation based on human lung cancer data, taking account of possible time and age variations in radiation-induced lung cancer risk. Fitting two sorts of time- and age-adjusted relative risk models to a case-control dataset nested within the Colorado Plateau uranium miner cohort and to the Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivor mortality data. If all A-bomb survivors are compared with the Colorado data, there are statistically significant (two-sided p model with exponential adjustments for the effects of radiation for time since exposure and age at exposure, and 1.9 x 10(-2) Sv WLM(-1) (95% CI 6.2 x 10(-3), 1.6 x 10(-1)) using a model with adjustments for the effects of radiation proportional to powers of time since exposure and attained age. Estimates of the risk conversion factor calculated using variant assumptions as to the definition of lung cancer in the Colorado data, or by excluding miners for whom exposure estimates may be less reliable, are very similar. The absence of information on cigarette smoking in the Japanese A-bomb survivors, and the possibility that this may confound the time trends in radiation-induced lung cancer risk in that cohort, imply that these findings should be interpreted with caution. There are no statistically significant differences between the male A-bomb survivors data and the Colorado miner data in the pattern of variation of relative risk with time after exposure and age at exposure. The risk conversion factor is very close to the value suggested by the latest ICRP lung model, albeit with substantial uncertainties.

  12. Uranium and radium activities in samples of aquifers of the main cities of the Estado de Chihuahua; Actividades de uranio y radio en muestras de agua subterranea de las principales ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav.edu.mx

    2003-07-01

    The natural uranium is in four valence states +3, +4, +5 and +6 being the hexavalent state the more soluble, which plays an important role in the transport of the uranium in the environment. The high concentrations of uranium in water not only in near waters to uranium mines, but also are in some mineral waters or in waters that are extracted of deep wells as it happens in the State of Chihuahua, where the underground waters are the fundamental source of consumption. The radium is a disintegration product of the uranium, the radio content in water is considered the second source of natural radioactivity. The distribution of radium in water is in function of the uranium content present in the aquifer. It was determined the uranium and radium content in samples of underground water of the main cities of the State of Chihuahua according to their number of inhabitants. The extraction methods for uranium and sulfates precipitation of Ba-Ra by means of the addition of barium carriers for the radium were used. The measures of the activities of uranium and radium were carried out by means of a portable liquid scintillation detector trade mark Thiathler-OY HIDEX. The obtained results have demonstrated that the content of uranium and radium in dissolution are in most of the sampling wells above the permissible maximum levels that manage the Mexican regulations. The high contents of uranium and radio can be attributed since to the influence of the geologic substrate characteristic of the zone in the State of Chihuahua they exist but of 50 uranium deposits. (Author)

  13. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaboreau, St

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  14. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  15. Final environmental statement related to the Wyoming Mineral Corporation Irigaray uranium solution mining project (Johnson County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The Irigaray project consists of solution mining (in situ leaching) operations involving uranium ore deposits in Johnson County, Wyoming. Solution mining activities will include a processing facility with an annual production of 500,000 lb of U 3 O 8 from up to 50 acres of well fields through the initial license authorization. The Irigaray project has an estimated lifetime of up to 10 to 20 years with known ore deposits and the current level of solution mining technology. The site is mostly used as grazing land for cattle and sheep. Initiation of the Irigaray project would result in the temporary removal from grazing and the disturbance of approximately 60 acres during operation as proposed by the staff. All disturbed surface areas will be reclaimed and returned to their original use. Approximately 1.2 x 10 6 m 3 of water will be withdrawn from the ore zone aquifer. 43 figs, 52 tables

  16. Genesis and timing of secondary uranium mineralization in northern Bavaria (F.R. of Germany), with special reference to geomorphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dill, H.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium deposits in northern Bavaria may be subdivided into two major types. Type-I deposits are hosted by black shales and contain uranous Fe-Al-phosphates with minor amounts of limonite in their near-surface parts. Supergene redeposition in type-II deposits caused 'gummites', uranophanes and uranyl phosphates which have formed as a function of pH and climate. Type-II deposits are hosted by crystalline rocks. Four stages of supergene U enrichment may be established in the study area: Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary, Late Miocene, Plio-Pleistocene and Late Pleistocene. The most important period for supergene U concentration is considered to be the Late Miocene. (orig.)

  17. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of uranium minerals. Assessment of the long-term evolution of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Finch, R.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    We have studied the dissolution behavior of uraninite, becquerelite, schoepite and uranophane. The information obtained under a variety of experimental conditions has been combined with extensive solid phase characterizations, performed in both leached and unleached samples. The overall objective is to construct a thermodynamic and kinetic model for the long-term oxidation alteration of UO 2 (s), as an analogy of the spent nuclear fuel matrix. We have determined the solubility product for becquerelite (logK s0 32.7±1.3) and uranophane (logK s0 = 7.8±0.8). In some experiments, the reaction progress has shown initial dissolution of uranophane followed by precipitation of a secondary solid phase, characterized as soddyite. The solubility production for this phase has been determined (logK s0 = 3.0±2.9). We have studied the kinetics of dissolution of uraninite, uranophane and schoepite under oxidizing conditions in synthetic granitic groundwater. BET measurements have been performed for uraninite and uranophane. For schoepite, the measurement has not been performed due to lack of sufficient amount of sample. The normalized rates of dissolution of uraninite and uranophane have been calculated referred to the uranium release, as 1.97x10 -8 moles h -1 m -2 and 4.0x 10 -9 moles h -1 m -2 , respectively. For schoepite, the dissolution process has shown two different rates, with a relatively fast initial dissolution rate of 1.97x10 -8 moles h -1 followed, after approximately 1000 hours, by a slower one of 1.4x10 -9 moles h -1 . No formation of secondary phases has been observed in those experiments, although final uranium concentrations have in all cases exceeded the solubility of uranophane, the thermodynamically more stable phase under the experimental conditions. 24 refs, 45 figs

  18. Final environmental impact statement. Marquez uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    As one of many activities TVA has undertaken to ensure an adequate supply of uranium for these plants, TVA has proposed to underground mine, through its operator, the uranium deposits located in the Canon de Marquez in McKinley County, New Mexico. Construction and operation of the underground mine would be expected to have the following environmental effects: (a) a temporary change in land use for 48.5 hectares from wildlife habitat and recreation to mineral extraction; (b) a minor alteration in topography near the proposed pond sites due to reclamation of waste rock piles; (c) minimal impacts on land due to limited vehicular traffic and road construction; (d) temporary depression of ground water levels in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in the mine vicinity during mine life; (e) short-term project-induced impacts to surface water and shallow ground water quality; (f) a temporary decrease in air quality in the vicinity of the mining operations due to fugitive dust and exhaust emissions from combustion-driven mining and support vehicles and releases of radon and short-lived radon progeny from ventilation shafts and ore piles; (g) a temporary decrease of plant and animal species at the mine site; (h) a minor and temporary effect on aquatic systems downstream from the mine and settling ponds due to sedimentation; and (i) a minor increase of noise levels in the immediate vicinity of mine shafts and vents. The no action alternative and alternatives for securing uranium ore by other methods were considered but were found insufficient to meet TVA objectives. None of the alternatives explored were environmentally preferable. TVA also evaluated site specific alternatives including the following: different shaft and support building siting, mining techniques, and reclamation options. 25 figures, 20 tables

  19. Factors modifying the risk of lung cancer associated to radon in the french cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacquier, B.; Rogel, A.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Acker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radon is classified lung carcinogen for man, but questions stay about the effects for low doses irradiation.The results of the analysis radon-lung cancer and the factors modifying on this relationship in the French cohort of miners followed until to 1999 is reported. This analysis confirms that the risk lung cancer is different according the period of exposure. A best precision in the measurement of exposure after 1956 could explain this difference. (N.C.)

  20. Optimization of uranium leach mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schecter, R.S.; Bommer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of well pattern and well spacing on uranium recovery and oxidant utilization are considered. As expected, formation permeability heterogeneities and anisotropies are found to be important issues requiring careful consideration; however, it also is shown that the oxidant efficiency and the produced uranium solution concentrations are sensitive to the presence of other minerals competing with uranium for oxidant. If the Damkohler number for competing minerals, which measures the speed of the reaction, exceeds that for uranium, the competing mineral will have to be oxidized completely to recover a large proportion of the uranium. If the Damkohler number is smaller, it may be possible to achieve considerable selectivity for uranium by adjusting the well spacing. 9 refs

  1. Radon in Uranium Mining. Proceedings of a Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A considerable increase in uranium production capacity is foreseen over the next decades to provide fuel for a rapidly expanding nuclear power industry. The problems that arise with this anticipated increase in production have far reaching implications on, for example, availability of ore, mining methods, mine and mill construction facilities, environmental impacts, all of which require careful attention within the uranium mining industry. The International Atomic Energy Agency is concerned in assisting with the study of all such problems, including, among others, the effect which radiological and waste management legislative controls will have on uranium costs and ore reserves. The essential requirement is that the health of uranium miners should be safeguarded. Most Governments of uranium-producing countries already have legislation limiting the permissible amounts of radon in working uranium mines, and many have also indicated that permitted levels may be more rigorous in future years. To comply with these regulations uranium mining companies and organizations must invest considerable sums on new ventilation and protective systems. This expenditure will, in many cases, increase the total cost of uranium production and, in some mines, may raise the cost above acceptable economic limits. The present estimated uranium reserves are classified on the basis of 'estimated cost of production' figures and these may, therefore, require modification. This, in turn, might affect the uranium fuel situation for future nuclear power programmes. To discuss this, and the related subjects of mine ventilation and radon emanation in mines, the Agency convened a Panel on Radon in Uranium Mining from 4 to 7 September 1973 which, at the invitation of the United States Government, was held in Washington, D.C. Nine participants and nine observers from six countries were present at the meeting. The principal subject was the theme of the first session. It was recognized that, while the

  2. Seasonal variation in concentration of radon and thoron at non-uranium mines in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Hongxing; Wu Yunyun; Zhang Qingzhao; Shang Bing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the seasonal variation in concentrations of radon and thoron in non-uranium mine. Methods: Eight kinds of mineral types from 9 non-uranium mines were selected, including copper, gold, aluminium, manganese, antimonium, tungsten, copper-nickel and coal mines in 6 provinces, such as Yunnan, Shandong, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hunan and Guizhou. LD-P R-T discriminative detectors were used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in underground mines during four seasons in one year. Results: Radon concentrations in underground mines showed a significantly seasonal variation. Radon concentration ranged from 35.5 to 4841 Bq/m 3 in summer, and the average value in four mines exceeded 1000 Bq/m 3 of the control limit for workplace (GB 18871-2002) . In winter, radon concentration ranged from 5 to 1917 Bq/m 3 , only one of them exceeded the control limit. The ratio of radon from summer to winter ranged from 2 to 12. Ventilation was one of the main factors which influenced the seasonal variation of radon. While the thoron concentration in underground mines showed a tendency that it was higher in summer and lower in winter. It was difficult to attain representative values for thoron, due to the influence of location of detectors. The seasonal variation of thoron should be further studied. Conclusions: Seasonal variation for radon and thoron should be taken into account to estimate the effective dose to miners. The values of radon concentration during the short term should be corrected. (authors)

  3. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  4. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  5. Economical indexes of uranium hydrometallurgical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.V.; Efimova, Z.I.; Sokolova, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for calculating capitalized and operating costs and total uranium concentrate production costs for evaluation of technical-and-economic indices and the new plant commissioning conditions are considered. Data on costs of uranium concentrate production using different techniques (sulfuric acid, soda, underground and concentrated leaching) are presented. The structure of capitalized costs and operating expenditures for the ore mining and reprocessing is indicated

  6. New exploration results of the Elkon uranium district deposits and prospects for their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, A.; Krasnykh, S.; Zhuravlev, V.; Kuzmin, E.; Tarkhanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Elkon Uranium District (EUD) is located in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and is of strategic importance for the Russian uranium industry. It comprises more than 40% of the entire Russian uranium mineral resource and 4% of the world's uranium resources. Drilling and underground mining completed in 1961-1986 amounted to over 600,000 m and 52,500 m, respectively. The performed activities resulted in the discovery of the Yuzhnaya Zone and the Severnoe deposits. The Yuzhnaya Zone uranium resources (Measured + Indicated + Inferred) amounted to 257.8 kt (grade 0.146%). Uranium mineralisation contains 141 t of gold, 1784 t of silver and 41,5 kt of molybdenum. The Severnoe Inferred resources have been estimated at 58.6 kt (grade 0.149%). During the period of 2007-2011 over 100,000 m of drilling and associated activities was completed within the Yuzhnaya Zone and Severnoe deposits along with optimisation of ore mining and processing methods, and geological and economic revaluation of the deposits.

  7. Concentration mechanisms of uranium in the mineralized fractures of the Lower Devonian of the Belgian Ardennes - The case of the Oizy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlet, J.M.; Doremus, P.; Quinif, Y.

    1987-01-01

    During a reconnaissance survey for uranium in the Belgian Paleozoic several anomalies or U occurrences have been discovered in the Lower Devonian by a car-borne radiometric survey. These anomalies appear in relation with mobilization and reconcentration processes at the boundary of redox fronts or following alteration fronts in the detrital series of the Lower Devonian. This paper describes the Oizy anomaly which occurs in a fracturated zone of the Gedinnian formations of the Ardenne Anticline and puts it back in the general context of the U concentrations of the Lower Devonian of the Belgian Ardennes. After a lithostratigraphic, structural and radiometric study of the quarry where the U concentrations occur, a laboratory study of the surrounding rocks has been performed by various techniques (γ- and α-spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, autoradiography and low-level counting technique, analytical chemistry). One can conclude that the mineralized fractures of Oizy are due to a downward remobilization of U by subsurface processes during post-Hercynian periods. 26 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 plate; 2 tabs

  8. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  9. Fluorite as an Sm-Nd geochronometer of hydrothermal processes: Dating of mineralization hosted in the Strel'tsovka uranium ore field, eastern Baikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, I. V.; Golubev, V. N.; Aleshin, A. P.; Larionova, Yu. O.; Gol'tsman, Yu. V.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of using hydrothermal fluorite as an Sm-Nd geochronometer is based on the results of an REE pattern study of this mineral (Chernyshev et al., 1986). As a result of REE fractionation, in many cases, the Sm/Nd ratio achieves a multifold increase compared with its level in terrestrial rocks, and the radiogenic shift of the 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratio reaches 10-20 ɛNd units over a short time interval (as soon as tens of Ma). This is a necessary prerequisite for Sm-Nd isochron dating of fluorite. Zonal polychrome fluorite from a vein referred to the final stage of large-scale uranium mineralization at the Sterl'tsovka deposit in the ore field of the same name located in the eastern Transbaikal region has been dated using the 143Nd/144Nd method. To optimize isochron construction, local probes with high and contrasting Sm/Nd ratios have been sampled from the polished surfaces of two samples, taking into account the REE pattern of zonal fluorite. Sm-Nd isochron dating has been carried out separately for each sample. The 147Sm/144Nd i 143Nd/144Nd ratios vary within the intervals 0.5359-2.037 and 0.512799-0.514105, respectively. Two isochrons, each based on six fluorite probes, have been obtained with the following parameters, which coincide within 2σ uncertainty limits: (1) t = 134.8 ± 1.3 Ma, (143Nd/144Nd)0 = 0.512310 ± 13, MWSD = 0.43 and (2) t = 135.8 ± 1.6 Ma, (143Nd/144Nd)0 = 0.512318 ± 10, MWSD = 1.5. The mean age of fluorite based on two isochron datings is 135.3 ± 1 Ma. Comparison of this value with the most precise dating of pitchblende related to the ore stage in the Strel'tsovka ore field (135.5 ± 1 Ma) shows that four mineralization stages, distinguished by geological and mineralogical data, that were completed with the formation of polychrome fluorite veins 135.3 ± 1 Ma ago, represent a single and indivisible hydrothermal process whose duration does not exceed 1 Ma.

  10. Consideration of measurement errors in the analysis of the risk related to the exposure to ionising radiation in an occupational cohort: application to the French cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allodji, Rodrigue Setcheou

    2011-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, measurement errors in exposure can substantially bias the estimation of the risk associated to exposure. A broad variety of methods for measurement error correction has been developed, but they have been rarely applied in practice, probably because their ability to correct measurement error effects and their implementation are poorly understood. Another important reason is that many of the proposed correction methods require to know measurement errors characteristics (size, nature, structure and distribution). The aim of this thesis is to take into account measurement error in the analysis of risk of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure based on the French cohort of uranium miners. The mains stages were (1) to assess the characteristics (size, nature, structure and distribution) of measurement error in the French uranium miners cohort, (2) to investigate the impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure, and (3) to compare the performance of methods for correction of these measurement error effects. The French cohort of uranium miners includes more than 5000 miners chronically exposed to radon with a follow-up duration of 30 years. Measurement errors have been characterized taking into account the evolution of uranium extraction methods and of radiation protection measures over time. A simulation study based on the French cohort of uranium miners has been carried out to investigate the effects of these measurement errors on the estimated ERR and to assess the performance of different methods for correcting these effects. Measurement error associated to radon exposure decreased over time, from more than 45% in the early 70's to about 10% in the late 80's. Its nature also changed over time from mostly Berkson to classical type from 1983. Simulation results showed that measurement error leads to an attenuation of the ERR towards the null

  11. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  12. Uranium 2000 : International symposium on the process metallurgy of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozberk, E.; Oliver, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The International Symposium on the Process Metallurgy of Uranium has been organized as the thirtieth annual meeting of the Hydrometallurgy Section of the Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM). This meeting is jointly organized with the Canadian Mineral Processors Division of CIM. The proceedings are a collection of papers from fifteen countries covering the latest research, development, industrial practices and regulatory issues in uranium processing, providing a concise description of the state of this industry. Topics include: uranium industry overview; current milling operations; in-situ uranium mines and processing plants; uranium recovery and further processing; uranium leaching; uranium operations effluent water treatment; tailings disposal, water treatment and decommissioning; mine decommissioning; and international regulations and decommissioning. (author)

  13. Uranium occurrences in the pegmatite 'Las Cuevas', province of San Luis, Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daziano, C.O.; Karlsson, A.C.; Ayala, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral associations found in an uranium deposit of Sierras Pampeanas, San Luis, are considered in these papers. Damourite stands out among the uranium minerals related to uraninite and coffinite. Pyrite, marcasite and other sulphides are found together with apatite and gummite. Autunite is the uranium secondary mineral more abundant. A mineralization with epigenetic contribution by circulating solutions is suggested to the studied area. (Author)

  14. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  15. Uranium mining in India - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The mining of uranium in India in the past, present and future is discussed. Uranium Corporation of India Ltd under the administrative control of Department of Atomic Energy was formed with a specific objective of mining and milling of uranium ore in the country. Uranium recovery plants, expansion mill, bye products recovery plant were set up. Underground mining, tailing disposal, land acquisition, rehabilitation and reclaimation are discussed. Cost reduction measures in mining operations are also discussed. (N.B.)

  16. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  18. Considerations on the phosophoro-uraniferous mineralization of Itataia deposit-CE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.C.G.S.; Braga, A. de P.G.; Campos, M. de.

    1980-01-01

    Phosphoro-uraniferous deposit of Itataia is situated in Precambrian metamorphic terrains, into the litho-stratigraphic unit named Caico Complex. Regionally, the rocks are linearly folded, as a result of compressive tectonic that fits in the regmatic pattern. Rio Groairas' and Itatira's wrench faults form shearing couples in which the drag folds' climax are thrusting faults with axial plane dipping north. Uranium mineralization occurs into a phosphatic rock containing about 80% of collophane - 'collophanite - in association chiefly with marbles or feldsphatic rocks and gneisses. The ore (collophanite) occurs mainly as a stockwork, and it may be massive, (into big joints) or disseminated (impregnating the host rocks). Dark ore appears only in brecciated zones; it is richer in uranium content, but poorer in phosphorous. The highest grade ore is in a very fractured zone, associated to marbles. Supergene enrichment took place in this area. Underground works show that mineralization is deeper toward east. No uranium mineral was identified yet. Itataia's deposit is a very peculiar one, because of the high grade uranium-phosphorous association. That's why it's difficult to establish a genetic model. However, there exist several genetic hypothesis, some of which in the same line of thought. (Author) [pt

  19. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, R. S. S.; Brar, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% – 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion replaces calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of the bone crystal. Although in North India, there is a risk of radiological toxicity from orally ingested natural uranium, the principal health effects are chemical toxicity. The skeleton and kidney are the primary sites of uranium accumulation. Acute high dose of uranyl nitrate delays tooth eruption, and mandibular growth and development, probably due to its effect on target cells. Based on all previous research and recommendations, the role of a dentist is to educate the masses about the adverse effects of uranium on the overall as well as the dental health. The authors recommended that apart from the discontinuation of the addition of uranium to porcelain, the Public community water supplies must also comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards of uranium levels being not more than 30 ppb (parts per billion). PMID:24478959

  20. Uranium Mining and Norm in North America-Some Perspectives on Occupational Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven H; Chambers, Douglas B

    2017-07-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively elevated levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In the U.S., these materials are sometimes referred to as technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertilizer. The processing of these materials has the potential to result in above-background radiation exposure to workers. Following a brief review of the sources and potential for worker exposure from NORM in these varied industries, this paper will then present an overview of uranium mining and recovery in North America, including discussion on the mining methods currently being used for both conventional (underground, open pit) and in situ leach (ISL), also referred to as In Situ Recovery (ISR), and the production of NORM materials and wastes associated with these uranium recovery methods. The radiological composition of the NORM products and wastes produced and recent data on radiological exposures received by workers in the North American uranium recovery industry are then described. The paper also identifies the responsible government agencies in the U.S. and Canada assigned the authority to regulate and control occupational exposure from these NORM materials.

  1. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  2. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340 Underground...) Ventilated with intake air that is monitored for carbon monoxide or smoke by an AMS installed and operated...

  3. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.D.; Fonte, J. da; Suckau, V.; Thakur, V.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  4. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  5. Uranium demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The estimated world resources of uranium as well as the estimated consumption of uranium over the next 25 years are briefly discussed. Attention is given to the prospecting of uranium in South Africa and elsewhere in the world

  6. Micronuclei in sputum from uranium workers: Epidemiologic application of an evolving cytogenetic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The exfoliated-cell micronucleus assay is a relatively new cytogenetic technique which can provide a measure of the genetic effect of exposure to carcinogens and mutagens in target tissues where tumors arise among exposed populations. It is responsive to the effects of ionizing radiation and tobacco smoke in some in vivo human cell systems, but has not been extensively field tested as an indicator of lung cancer-related effects, despite the public health importance of exposure to occupational and environmental lung carcinogens. In this study the exfoliated-cell micronucleus assay was used to assess effects of exposure to radon progeny and cigarette smoke in a population of uranium industry workers (including employees in underground and open-pit mines, mills, laboratories, and administrative offices); underground uranium miners experience markedly elevated lung cancer risk because of exposure to ionizing radiation from radon progeny. Ninety-nine workers were selected at random from among workers in Colorado Plateau uranium-related facilities who participated in a workplace sputum cytology screening program from 1964-1988. The prevalence of cells with micronuclei was determined by a manual assay of one sputum specimen for each worker under a light microscope. Occupational and smoking data obtained by interview during screening were used to classify exposure and smoking status at the time the sputum specimen was taken and to obtain information on potential confounders and effect modifiers; underground miners were classified as exposed to radon progeny, and others were considered unexposed. Neither radon progeny exposure nor cigarette smoking had any appreciable effect on the prevalence of micronucleated cells. Crude prevalence ratios were 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.3), respectively, for radon exposure and smoking

  7. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  8. Biogeochemical prospecting for uranium in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.R.; Holzbecher, J.; Ryan, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ashed twigs of Picea rubens (red spruce) collected over an area of uranium mineralization in central Nova Scotia were analyzed for uranium in the course of biogeochemical prospecting for this element. Uranium levels in background samples were significantly lower than in those collected from areas with mineralization either at depth or on the surface. Scintillometric data were useful only to differentiate background and surface mineralization. Uranium levels in soils showed no correlation whatsoever with mineralization or with radiometry. There was a very high degree of correlation between the scintillometric data and uranium concentrations in ashed twigs and it is considered that twigs of Picea rubens might be successfully used for biogeochemical prospecting for uranium in this area. (Auth.)

  9. The existence state of uranium(VI) in portland cement matrix material immobilization body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Li Yuxiang

    2005-01-01

    The basis of Portland cement material reaction with uranium, the corrosion of uranium minerals in nature and the state of study on immobilization of uranium by Portland cement matrix material are introduced, and some considerations are presented. (authors)

  10. Hazard visibility and occupational health problem solving the case of the uranium industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence from European research challenges the adequacy of current U.S. exposure guidelines for underground mine radiation. This study traces the history of government regulatory agency and industry response to the hazard of excessive mine radiation in the uranium industry in Colorado some 30 years ago. Problem-solving activity by government agencies and companies is shown to coincide with how visible the health hazard to uranium miners becomes. Hazard visibility and key problem-solving variables are defined and measured. The article also discusses a number of social factors that affect societal response to evidence of an occupational health hazard. Those factor include (1) the elusiveness of the disease and its symptoms, (2) the social class of the victim, (3) the level of medical and scientific interest in its cause and cure, and (4) the economic costs of the disease.

  11. Hazard visibility and occupational health problem solving the case of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence from European research challenges the adequacy of current US exposure guidelines for underground mine radiation. This study traces the history of government regulatory agency and industry response to the hazard of excessive mine radiation in the uranium industry in Colorado some 30 years ago. Problem-solving activity by government agencies and companies is shown to coincide with how visible the health hazard to uranium miners becomes. Hazard visibility and key problem-solving variables are defined and measured. The article also discusses a number of social factors that affect societal response to evidence of an occupational health hazard. Those factors include the elusiveness of the disease and its symptoms, the social class of the victim, the level of medical and scientific interest in its cause and cure, and the economic costs of the disease

  12. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  13. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  14. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who can...

  15. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  16. Structural analysis within the Rožná and Olší uranium deposits (Strážek Moldanubicum) for the estimation of deformation and stress conditions of underground gas storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Melichar, R.; Hájek, Antonín; Koníček, Petr; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kříž, P.; Lazárek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 237-246 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : structural analysis * deformation * stress * underground gas storage Subject RIV: DH - Mining , incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_13_Ptacek_237-246.pdf

  17. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As of...

  18. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  19. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  20. Uranium and its hazards in environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeis Hosseiny, N.; Haghighi Oskoei, R.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium is a natural and commonly occurring radioactive element. It is found in very small amounts in nature in the form of minerals, but may be processed into a silver-colored metal. Rocks, soil, surface and underground water, air and plants and animals all contain varying amounts of uranium. When a substance is released from a large area, such as an industrial plant, it enters the environment. This release does not always lead to exposure. You are normally exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance or by skin contact. If you are exposed to uranium , many factors determine whether you'll be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long) and how you come in contact with it. You must also consider the other chemicals you're exposed to and you age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle and state of health

  1. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  2. Elliot Lake study: factors affecting the uranium mine working environment prior to the introduction of current ventilation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    A study was carried out to assist in the retrospective assessment of the underground environment that existed in the Elliot Lake uranium mines in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The environmental conditions and work practices of the late 1950's were established by a combination of literature review and interviews with veteran miners. The practices of the 1950's were imitated in a pilot raise, and extensive measurements of the radiation environment were made. Realistic values of radon and thoron daughter production and removal rates were obtained. The computer model demonstrated that it could reproduce all the observed features of the radiation environment given realistic input parameters. A realistic time and space dependent computer model was used to calculate and compare the average expsoure of the miner in the 1950's with the exposure that would be expected from contemporary measurements, and with that of the miner today. The calculated exposure is about half of that expected from contemporary measurements, which gives assurance that previous exposures for pilot raise miners were not underestimated. Relative to today's miner, the average exposure of the typical raise miner of the 1950's is estimated as three times higher for radon daughters, equal for thoron daughters, equal for exposure to gamma radiation, but much higher for uranium and quartz dust

  3. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  4. Uranium mining in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalek, B.; Babka, O.; Grmela, A.

    2010-01-01

    Until the mid-nineties of the last century, uranium mining belonged to important industries in the Czech Republic and, the Czech Republic occupied a leading position in the world in the production of uranium concentrate. A considerable phasing out of this industry in the first half of the nineties in the last century led to the closure of almost all underground uranium mines; at present they are decommissioned and flooded. Mining operations are performed in only one underground mine in the deposit of Rozna with the expected cessation of mining by the year 2015. The present-day home production of uranium meets only 45% of the demand of the Czech nuclear power industry and is secured from three sources, namely from the production of the deposit of Rozna, from the treatment of mine waters flowing from closed underground uranium mines and from the remediation of the rock environment of the deposit of Straz. With the proven reserves of more than 100,000 t of natural uranium not mined at present, the Czech Republic still represents a potentially significant uranium producer. (author)

  5. Uranium laterite from Ipora/Amorinopolis region- Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the uranium bearing laterite in the district of Amorinopolis, GO. Emphasis is given in the study of its mineralogy and of the mineralization controls. The uranium mineralization is chiefly found within the arkosic sandstones at the base of the Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation. The ore is tabular and concordant with the bedding, the controls being simultaneously litho-stratigraphic and biochemical. Narrow permeable horizons of arkosic sandstone lie between impermeable shale an siltstone layers. Within the permeable horizon fossil remains (probably brachiopods) are replaced by uranium minerals. The oxidized iron minerals may have acted to insulate and preserve the secondary soluble uranium minerals. (author)

  6. Uranium exploration planning and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has long had an interest in providing manuals and guidebooks to assist workers in the most effective use of uranium exploration methods and techniques. These have been widely used by the mineral industry around the world. Little has been done, however, to guide and assist senior levels of management of national Atomic Energy Commissions or Geological Surveys in planning for and managing their uranium exploration had development programmes. The nature of uranium, and its potential military use makes it a commodity requiring special consideration. On the other hand, the fact that it is a mineral fuel commodity that is explored for and mined like other mineral commodities presents management with problems of mineral economics unlike those normally faced by government scientific organizations. In order to address these questions, the IAEA convened a Advisory Group meeting in December 1988, to discuss the requirements for uranium exploration planning and practice, from the point of view of national policy and strategy. The six advisors, three observers and four Agency staff members brought to the discussions a wealth of experience in government and in the minerals industry dealing with uranium. The present document, comprising 8 papers as well as transcribed discussions on each, should be of interest and value to senior government planners charged with the task of regulating and controlling their country's uranium development. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. A Critical Study on the Underground Environment of Coal Mines in India-an Ergonomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Netai Chandra; Sharma, Gourab Dhara

    2013-04-01

    Ergonomics application on underground miner's health plays a great role in controlling the efficiency of miners. The job stress in underground mine is still physically demanding and continuous stress due to certain posture or movement of miners during work leads to localized muscle fatigue creating musculo-skeletal disorders. A good working environment can change the degree of job heaviness and thermal stress (WBGT values) can directly have the effect on stretch of work of miners. Out of many unit operations in underground mine, roof bolting keeps an important contribution with regard to safety of the mine and miners. Occupational stress of roof bolters from ergonomic consideration has been discussed in the paper.

  8. Uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Voto, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methodology and technology that are currently being used in varying degrees in uranium exploration activities worldwide. Since uranium is ubiquitous and occurs in trace amounts (0.2 to 5 ppm) in virtually all rocks of the crust of the earth, exploration for uranium is essentially the search of geologic environments in which geologic processes have produced unusual concentrations of uranium. Since the level of concentration of uranium of economic interest is dependent on the present and future price of uranium, it is appropriate here to review briefly the economic realities of uranium-fueled power generation. (author)

  9. Uranium exploration in India: present status and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration for Uranium in India dates back to 1949, where surveys to locate atomic minerals were initiated in the well established Copper Thrust Belt (CTB) of Singhbhum, in the present day Jharkhand state. Based on the limited understanding on uranium geology, the thrust zones of Singhbhum which were popularly known for hosting Copper mineralization were targeted presuming sympathetic relation between Copper and Uranium. Exploration for uranium over the past six decades has resulted in identifying eleven major uranium deposits distributed in varied geological environs all over the country. Apart from conventional uranium mineralization, non-conventional resources like phosphorite, black shale etc. have immense potential. Even though their uranium grades will be of lower order, their uranium content will be huge due to their extensive size. In addition to intensifying uranium exploration in potential geological domains, AMD also plans to tap the non-conventional resources which will add substantially to the resource base

  10. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  11. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  12. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  13. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  14. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  15. Uranium occurences in calcrete and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Horwitz, R.C.; Mann, A.W.

    1977-10-01

    The report is a compilation of data pertaining to the occurence and distribution of uranium mineralization in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia and contains brief descriptions of many of the calcrete-uranium occurences, including some of the most minor. Virtually all calcretes in the region are liable to contain traces of uranium mineralization, visible as coatings of carnotite. The locations of the uranium occurences are shown on a map which features the distribution of calcrete

  16. Strategy to study the probabilistic distribution of uranium resources in northeastern Mexico; Estrategia para estudiar la distribucion probabilistica de recursos uraniferos en el noreste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, D.; Rodriguez S, J. de J.; Mendoza C, S. del P. [Servicio Geologico Mexicano, Blvd. Felipe Angeles Km 93.50-4, Col. Venta Prieta, 42083 Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo (Mexico); Balcazar, M.; Pena G, P.; Zarazua, G.; Lopez M, A., E-mail: davidsanchez@sgm.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares and Servicio Geologico Mexicano (ININ-SGM) agreement proposes the probabilistic determination of uranium deposits of the roll-fonts type, located in the Burgos Basin. Of the publications on the uranium deposits in this basin in the Texas State and the similarity of the stratigraphy with that corresponding to northeastern Mexico give solidity to the proposal. The proposal is to use a Geographical Information System as storage and processing platform for geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical and radiometric data. The collection of information from the SGM on radioactive minerals in Mexico and the modern isotope multi-analysis infrastructure of the ININ allow this study to be successfully addressed. The sensitivity of these equipment s is a few parts per trillion, for the isotopes of uranium, thorium and radio; portable field analysis equipment is available for radon isotope. An area has been identified within the Burgos Basin called La Coma, where the studies conducted allowed establishing a conceptual model of the hydro-geochemical environments that define oxidation, transition and reduction zones of the uranium ore, susceptible to being migrated by an underground flow, until precipitating it in sandstone receptors of the mineral. The first assessments of uranium and thorium in groundwater have been made using known standards. (Author)

  17. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. 75.811 Section 75.811 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. [Statutory Provisions] Frames, supporting...

  18. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not extend...

  19. Uranium production and the environment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    The production of uranium from open-pit and underground mines in Kazakhstan has terminated. Currently, uranium is extracted in Kazakhstan only by the In Situ Leaching (ISL) method. This method has a number of economical and ecological advantages. During a short period in the 70s-80s, Kazakhstan created a firm basis for developing uranium extraction by the ISL method. Now more than half of the world's uranium reserves amenable to the ISL method are located in Kazakhstan. By 2005, a significant increase in uranium production is planned. Thereby, Kazakhstan has the ability to grow into a world leader in uranium extraction through a lower cost and low environmental impact operations using the ISL method. (author)

  20. Mineralogical controls on uranium immobilization at Tono Uranium Deposit, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; McKibben, M. A.; Arthur, R. C.; Ota, K.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Tono uranium deposit, located in central Japan, is thought to have formed when oxidizing groundwater leached uranium from the underlying Toki Granite and transported it to the overlying host sedimentary formations where it precipitated under reducing conditions. Fission-track dating shows that this uranium mineralization took place ~10 million years ago and has remained immobilized despite episodes of sedimentation, uplift, subsidence, major faulting, and erosion. In order to understand the mineralogical controls on uranium immobilization, this study is gathering data on the mode of precipitation and adsorption of uranium within the various host lithologies. Optical petrography done on samples has shown a predominance of volcaniclastic deposits, containing glass shards within a fine-grained phyllosilicate matrix. Tephra that were formerly glass lack axiolitic devitrification textures and are altered to similar fine-grained mineralogy as in the matrix. X-ray diffraction data indicates that the majority of this fine-grained mineralogy is chlorite and the Mg, Ca smectite, saponite. Electron dispersive spectroscopy and back scattered electron data will create a map of the uranium concentrations and show any mineralogical affinities. Scanning and transmission electr