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Sample records for underground space kansas

  1. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  2. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  3. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  4. ORGANIZE AN INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERGROUND SPACE OF MEGAPOLISES

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    V. P. Pustovoytenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forecasting the trends of urbanization, the main factors influencing the modern methods of organization of development of the underground construction of mega-cities, during the substantiation of field of integrated use and composition of organizational-and-technological schemes of development of underground space, is considered.

  5. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration interdisciplinary studies in space technology at the University of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B. G.

    1974-01-01

    A broad range of research projects contained in a cooperative space technology program at the University of Kansas are reported as they relate to the following three areas of interdisciplinary interest: (1) remote sensing of earth resources; (2) stability and control of light and general aviation aircraft; and (3) the vibrational response characteristics of aeronautical and space vehicles. Details of specific research efforts are given under their appropriate departments, among which are aerospace engineering, chemical and petroleum engineering, environmental health, water resources, the remote sensing laboratory, and geoscience applications studies.

  6. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  7. About working of the research program on development of underground space of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartoziya, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Basic proposition relative to the developed federal program on scientific research in the area of assimilating underground space in Russia are presented. The underground objects are divided by their purpose into four groups: 1) underground objects of house-hold purpose (energy and mining complex, industrial enterprises, storages, garages, etc); 2) underground objects of social purpose (libraries, shops, restaurants, etc); 3) underground objects of ecological purpose (storages, disposal sites for radioactive wastes and hazardous substances, dangerous productions, etc); 4) underground objects of defense purpose. Trends in the scientific-research program formation, relative to underground space assimilation are enumerated. 7 refs

  8. Incorporating civil-defense shelter space in new underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    At the present time, the population of the US is approximately ten times more vulnerable to nuclear weapons than the Soviet population. This vulnerability can be reduced rapidly by urban evacuation in a crisis. However, the need to keep the essential economy running in a crisis, as well as coping with attacks on short warning, makes the construction of shelter space where people live very desirable. This can be done most economically by slightly modifying underground construction intended for peacetime use. The designer must consider all elements of the emergency environment when designing the space. Provisions must be made for emergency egress, light and ventilation (without elecric power), blast closures, water, sanitation, and food. The option of upgrading the space in a crisis should be considered. An example is given

  9. A research on the excavation, support, and environment control of large scale underground space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Jeong, So Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    With the growing necessity of the underground space due to the deficiency of above-ground space, the size and shape of underground structures tend to be complex and diverse. This complexity and variety force the development of new techniques for rock mass classification, excavation and supporting of underground space, monitoring and control of underground environment. All these techniques should be applied together to make the underground space comfortable. To achieve this, efforts have been made on 5 different areas; research on the underground space design and stability analysis, research on the techniques for excavation of rock by controlled blasting, research on the development of monitoring system to forecast the rock behaviour of underground space, research on the environment inspection system in closed space, and research on dynamic analysis of the airflow and environmental control in the large geos-spaces. The 5 main achievements are improvement of the existing structure analysis program(EXCRACK) to consider the deformation and failure characteristics of rock joints, development of new blasting design (SK-cut), prediction of ground vibration through the newly proposed wave propagation equation, development and In-Situ application of rock mass deformation monitoring system and data acquisition software, and trial manufacture of the environment inspection system in closed space. Should these techniques be applied to the development of underground space, prevention of industrial disaster, cut down of construction cost, domestication of monitoring system, improvement of tunnel stability, curtailment of royalty, upgrade of domestic technologies will be brought forth. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Using of underground space and fundamental problems of preservation environments living of men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemyakin, E.I.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in works related to problems on assimilation of the underground space as the medium for the Earth population future environment are considered. Three basic trends are separated: 1) geomechanical provision of works relative to underground space assimilation: 2) creation of underground objects with the long-term operation for disposal of radioactive wastes disposal from the nuclear energy and modern chemical production enterprises, as well as for location of underground power plants, enrichment facilities and other production enterprises; 3) assimilation of underground space in large cities. Geomechanical provision envisages evaluation of the massif block structure, creation of geomechanic monitoring system, site selection for mining enterprises and large-sized objects with an account of geodynamic perspective, especially in places intended for construction of underground NPPs and disposal of nuclear power and other highly-toxic wastes

  11. A Framework for Assessment of the Influence of China’s Urban Underground Space Developments on the Urban Microclimate

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    Xiaobin Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to establish the framework for linking underground space projects and the urban microclimate, in order to construct an interdisciplinary research framework. Based on the combination of underground space, urban form and the urban microclimate, the impacts of underground space on urban microclimate factors above ground and underground are summarized and the internal mechanism is investigated. The above ground factor refers to the impact of a new urban form induced by the underground space planning on the urban microclimate. The underground factor refers to the impact of the control of the internal environment of underground space on the ground environment. This study mainly addresses two aspects. Firstly, to identify the influencing factors of urban underground space microclimate and define the research entry point and classify the indicator of the external space environment; secondly, to address the key issues of the research areas and their influence on the urban underground space project and the urban microclimate in the current phase and establish the direction of future research. The microclimate case of the Nanjing underground planning is provided to preliminarily analyze how underground space development improves the urban microclimate. By the comparative analysis of microclimate parameters, air quality parameters, and outdoor thermal environment parameters (Mean Radiant Temperature, MRT, the influences and benefits of underground space projects on the urban microclimate is quantitatively explored.

  12. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  13. A study of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Wang Yan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Xue

    2005-01-01

    Using Model 1027 continuous radon monitor, a test of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space was done. Four different types of ventilation, i.e. by air pump (P), by air intake blower (B), by air pump and air intake blower simultaneously (PBS), and by air pump and air intake blower in turn (PBT), were examined. The authors found that efficiency of PBS is the highest among these ventilation type. Having ventilated the underground space with PBS for 1, 2 or 3 hours in three different days, and having observed the radon concentration change in the following 24 hours, the authors can conclude that it is safe for people to stay there during the eight working hours if the underground space is ventilated for 2 hours everyday in the morning. (authors)

  14. The Etruscans in 3D: From Space to Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Remondino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available eomatics and Geoinformatics deal with spatial and geographic information, 3D surveying and modeling as well as information science infrastructures. Geomatics and Geoinformatics are thus involved in cartography, mapping, photogrammetry, remote sensing, laser scanning, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, geo-visualisation, geospatial data analysis and Cultural Heritage documentation. In particular the Cultural Heritage field can largely benefit from different Information and Communication Technologies (ICT tools to make digital heritage information more informative for documentation and conservation issues, archaeological analyses or virtual museums. This work presents the 3D surveying and modeling of different Etruscan heritage sites with their underground frescoed tombs dating back to VII-IV century B.C.. The recorded and processed 3D data are used, beside digital conservation, preservation, transmission to future generations and studies purposes, to create digital contents for virtual visits, museum exhibitions, better access and communication of the heritage information, etc.

  15. A Simple and Robust Method for Simultaneous Consideration of Overland and Underground Space in Urban Flood Modeling

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    Ah-Long Son

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed two methods, boundary-type and pond-type, to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling. The boundary-type treats the exit of underground space as an interface for inflow of floodwater by imposing open boundary condition and pond-type considers underground space as an underground pond by configuring pond terrain. The effect of underground space in urban flood inundation was examined by coupling one-dimensional (1D stormwater management model (SWMM and two-dimensional (2D overland flood model. The models were applied to the Hyoja drainage basin, Seoul, Korea where urban flood occurred due to heavy rainfall in 21 September 2010. The conduit roughness coefficient of SWMM was calibrated to minimize the difference between observed and predicted water depth of pipe. In addition, the surface roughness coefficient of 2D model was calibrated by comparing observed and predicted flood extent. Then, urban flood analysis was performed on three different scenarios involving a case not considering underground (Case 1 and cases considering underground, boundary-type (Case 2 and pond-type (Case 3. The simulation results have shown that the boundary-type is simple but robust method with high computational efficiency to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling.

  16. Locating and defining underground goaf caused by coal mining from space-borne SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zefa; Li, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jianjun; Yi, Huiwei; Feng, Guangcai; Hu, Jun; Wu, Lixin; Preusse, Alex; Wang, Yunjia; Papst, Markus

    2018-01-01

    It is crucial to locate underground goafs (i.e., mined-out areas) resulting from coal mining and define their spatial dimensions for effectively controlling the induced damages and geohazards. Traditional geophysical techniques for locating and defining underground goafs, however, are ground-based, labour-consuming and costly. This paper presents a novel space-based method for locating and defining the underground goaf caused by coal extraction using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques. As the coal mining-induced goaf is often a cuboid-shaped void and eight critical geometric parameters (i.e., length, width, height, inclined angle, azimuth angle, mining depth, and two central geodetic coordinates) are capable of locating and defining this underground space, the proposed method reduces to determine the eight geometric parameters from InSAR observations. Therefore, it first applies the Probability Integral Method (PIM), a widely used model for mining-induced deformation prediction, to construct a functional relationship between the eight geometric parameters and the InSAR-derived surface deformation. Next, the method estimates these geometric parameters from the InSAR-derived deformation observations using a hybrid simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. Finally, the proposed method was tested with both simulated and two real data sets. The results demonstrate that the estimated geometric parameters of the goafs are accurate and compatible overall, with averaged relative errors of approximately 2.1% and 8.1% being observed for the simulated and the real data experiments, respectively. Owing to the advantages of the InSAR observations, the proposed method provides a non-contact, convenient and practical method for economically locating and defining underground goafs in a large spatial area from space.

  17. A study on the effects of the pollutant in the underground commercial space on the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, R.G.; Kim, T.W.; Hong, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    On average, people spend 80 to 90 per cent of their time indoors. In an effort to address concerns regarding indoor air pollution, this study measured air quality in an underground commercial space to examine the degree of indoor air pollution. Indoor workers were asked to respond to a survey questionnaire to determine the effects of pollutants on the human body. Air quality measurements showed that the concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and formaldehyde (HCHO) exceeded the maintenance and recommendation standards of the Korean Ministry of Environment. The respondents stated that they had psychological, nasal, and skin symptoms associated with poor ventilation and dust problems. To that end, computer simulation will be used to study the air flow in underground commercial space as well as movement of pollutants. This reports showed that indoor pollutants are the major causes of disease. As such, it is essential to maintain good indoor air quality. 6 refs., 21 tabs., 5 figs

  18. RESEARCH INTO PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION METHOD OF UNDERGROUND SPACE - CENTERING ON THE TOKYO METRO -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    This research is concerned with developing evaluation methods that can be useful for environmental design from the psychological perspective of QOL, that is comfort, in underground space. For this research, eight stations on the Tokyo Metro, including the Fukutoshin line, were selected and two types of questionnaires were carried out after respondents had walked through the station areas and the walkways connecting the stations. From the results of the first questionnaire, four factors, comfort/convenience, insecurity, visibility/noticeability, brightness/ease of walking, were extracted. From the results of the second questionnaire, three factors were extracted: visibility of noticeboards, overall atmosphere of underground space, visibility of fare chart/subway map. There was a strong correlation between the factors comfort/convenience and insecurity, extracted from the first questionnaire, and the overall atmosphere factor extracted from the second questionnaire. For visibility/noticeability, there was a strong correlation with notices, fares chart, and subway map.

  19. Lunar Underground Mining and Construction : A Terrestrial Vision enabling Space Exploration and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Greg; Grenier, Louis; Blair, Brad

    As the Space Shuttle, Candarm and Space Station near their useful extended lives before the end of this decade, the question "What will be the next frontier for humans and robots to explore and how will we get there?" needs to be considered. Several countries are planning their next take on the exploration of the solar system. The moon is still a viable destination for several countries for two main reasons: the recent discovery of water improves the prospects of a basic infrastructure capability that would enable future commercial interests to drive the impetus to deploy profitable operations in the near future. The commercial appeal to establish a permanent lunar base should rise in this decade with the prospect of using natural resources available, in particular recently found water. The ability to break water into hydrogen and oxygen for providing the main necessities of life, rocket fuel and air to breathe make this permanent base feasible. Furthermore, several significant environmental issues will force this permanent base underground. These issues include lunar radiation, solar flares, temperature extremes and micro-meteorites. Lunar radiation alone will force this move to rock shielding protection of astronauts as at least 10 metres of rock cover will be required to protect human, animals and plants. As early as 1959 the placecountry-regionUS army considered a permanent underground base on the moon. While the original underground idea has merit space pioneers have strayed from this sensible safe concept. Furthermore, advances in proven telerobotic min-ing technology for terrestrial purposes can provide the opportunity for the commercial interests and perhaps government space programs to consider the concept, design, build and implement an underground lunar habitat and a mining and processing operation from basic infrastructure to commercial deployment of profitable operations. This paper discusses a Canadian concept behind a permanent manned outpost on the

  20. A Novel Relative Navigation Control Strategy Based on Relation Space Method for Autonomous Underground Articulated Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqian Dou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel relative navigation control strategy based on the relation space method (RSM for articulated underground trackless vehicles. In the RSM, a self-organizing, competitive neural network is used to identify the space around the vehicle, and the spatial geometric relationships of the identified space are used to determine the vehicle’s optimal driving direction. For driving control, the trajectories of the articulated vehicles are analyzed, and data-based steering and speed control modules are developed to reduce modeling complexity. Simulation shows that the proposed RSM can choose the correct directions for articulated vehicles in different tunnels. The effectiveness and feasibility of the resulting novel relative navigation control strategy are validated through experiments.

  1. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space.

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    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones.

  2. Spaces of Play: The Spatial Dimensions of Underground Club Culture and Locating the Subjunctive

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    Alice O'Grady

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 1 153 875 7 1 1074 11.1539 0 0 0 Normal 0 false false false EN-AU JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} This article examines the interrelated concepts of space, play and performativity in relation to the underground club scene in the UK. Grounded in the discipline of performance studies, this article uses the lens of play to identify how the spatial characteristics of underground dance culture provide a fertile terrain for performative acts of collectivity and expression. Resonating with previous EDMC scholarship that invokes concepts of liminality and the social dimensions of “spontaneous communitas”, the physical and psychical dimensions of play will be considered. Applying Turner’s work on subjunctivity (1982 and Jill Dolan’s concept of “utopian performatives” (2005 in relation to the psytrance scene, the article positions the underground party as a playful arena, a spatial construct that offers a context for moments of individual and collective transformation that are expressed and experienced performatively. 

  3. Evacuation simulation using Hybrid Space Discretisation and Application to Large Underground Rail Tunnel Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooramun, N.; Lawrence, P. J.; Galea, E. R.

    2017-08-01

    In all evacuation simulation tools, the space through which agents navigate and interact is represented by one the following methods, namely Coarse regions, Fine nodes and Continuous regions. Each of the spatial representation methods has its benefits and limitations. For instance, the Coarse approach allows simulations to be processed very rapidly, but is unable to represent the interactions of the agents from an individual perspective; the Continuous approach provides a detailed representation of agent movement and interaction but suffers from relatively poor computational performance. The Fine nodal approach presents a compromise between the Continuous and Coarse approaches such that it allows agent interaction to be modelled while providing good computational performance. Our approach for representing space in an evacuation simulation tool differs such that it allows evacuation simulations to be run using a combination of Coarse regions, Fine nodes and Continuous regions. This approach, which we call Hybrid Spatial Discretisation (HSD), is implemented within the buildingEXODUS evacuation simulation software. The HSD incorporates the benefits of each of the spatial representation methods whilst providing an optimal environment for representing agent movement and interaction. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the HSD through its application to a moderately large case comprising of an underground rail tunnel station with a population of 2,000 agents.

  4. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  5. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  6. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  7. Kansas Rivers TMDL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set includes all the streams in the Kansas 2006 Water Register that have established TMDLs as of October 17, 2006. The impairments and implementation...

  8. Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD) is an exact digital representation of selected features from the USGS 7.5 minute topographic map series. Features that are...

  9. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  10. Bayesian salamanders: analysing the demography of an underground population of the European plethodontid Speleomantes strinatii with state-space modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvidio Sebastiano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that Plethodontid salamanders are excellent candidates for indicating ecosystem health. However, detailed, long-term data sets of their populations are rare, limiting our understanding of the demographic processes underlying their population fluctuations. Here we present a demographic analysis based on a 1996 - 2008 data set on an underground population of Speleomantes strinatii (Aellen in NW Italy. We utilised a Bayesian state-space approach allowing us to parameterise a stage-structured Lefkovitch model. We used all the available population data from annual temporary removal experiments to provide us with the baseline data on the numbers of juveniles, subadults and adult males and females present at any given time. Results Sampling the posterior chains of the converged state-space model gives us the likelihood distributions of the state-specific demographic rates and the associated uncertainty of these estimates. Analysing the resulting parameterised Lefkovitch matrices shows that the population growth is very close to 1, and that at population equilibrium we expect half of the individuals present to be adults of reproductive age which is what we also observe in the data. Elasticity analysis shows that adult survival is the key determinant for population growth. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates how an understanding of population demography can be gained from structured population data even in a case where following marked individuals over their whole lifespan is not practical.

  11. Science programs in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ariele R.; Kelly, Brian P.

    2017-05-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a non-regulatory Earth science agency within the Department of the Interior that provides impartial scientific information to describe and understand the health of our ecosystems and environment; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. The USGS cooperates with Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies in Kansas to deliver long-term data in real-time and interpretive reports describing what those data mean to the public and resource management agencies. USGS science programs in Kansas provide real-time groundwater monitoring at more than 23 locations; streamflow monitoring at more than 218 locations; water-quality and trends in the Little Arkansas and Kansas Rivers; inflows and outflows of sediment to/from reservoirs and in streams; harmful algal bloom research in the Kansas River, Milford Lake, and Cheney Reservoir; water-quantity and water-quality effects of artificial groundwater recharge for the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project near Wichita, Kansas; compilation of Kansas municipal and irrigation water-use data statewide; the occurrence, effects, and movement of environmental pesticides, antibiotics, algal toxins, and taste-and-odor compounds; and funding to the Kansas Water Resources Research Institute to further research and education through Kansas universities.

  12. The mechanism study between 3D Space-time deformation and injection or extraction of gas pressure change, the Hutubi Underground gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiang, W.; Li, J.; Daiqing, L.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    The surface deformation of underground gas reservoir with the change of injection pressure is an excellent opportunity to study the load response under the action of tectonic movement and controlled load. This paper mainly focuses on the elastic deformation of underground structure caused by the change of the pressure state of reservoir rock under the condition of the irregular change of pressure in the underground gas storage of Hutubi, the largest underground gas storage in Xinjiang, at the same time, it makes a fine study on the fault activities of reservoir and induced earthquakes along with the equilibrium instability caused by the reservoir. Based on the 34 deformation integrated observation points and 3 GPS continuous observation stations constructed in the underground gas storage area of Hutubi, using modern measurement techniques such as GPS observation, precise leveling survey, flow gravity observation and so on, combined with remote sensing technology such as InSAR, the 3d space-time sequence images of the surface of reservoir area under pressure change were obtained. Combined with gas well pressure, physical parameters and regional seismic geology and geophysical data, the numerical simulation and analysis of internal changes of reservoir were carried out by using elastic and viscoelastic model, the deformation mechanical relationship of reservoir was determined and the storage layer under controlled load was basically determined. This research is financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41474016, 41474051, 41474097)

  13. Ecoregions of Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a...

  14. Fire safety and environmental design of deep underground spaces used for human activities. Daishindo chika kukan no bosai/kankyo sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Kadoya, M.; Tokuda, K.; Hisajima, T.; Okada, N. (Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    The disaster prevention and environment technology, which is the essential conditions for the living in the underground space, was developed to be applied to a simulated model space. The basic conditions including the location and utilization for the simulation model are as follows: (1) It locates at the city center of a big city, (2) A station for a high speed rail way (linear car) is located at the deep underground (50 m), (3) As there are still many physiological and psychological problems left unsolved for the living including dinning and sleeping in the underground, such facilities as private residential house, hotel, and hospital were excluded. Such facilities as shop, restaurant, theater, recreation facility, city hall, police station, and parking lot were considered. For the disaster prevention design, the design technique for emergency evacuation system within the building and for the smoke control system were taken up. For the air conditioning design, the large space air conditioning design, energy saving design system, and the deodorant air conditioning system were investigated. The energy program and the aqueduct program were also discussed. 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  16. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  17. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Upper Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period as part of a...

  18. Using drugs in un/safe spaces: Impact of perceived illegality on an underground supervised injecting facility in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter J; Lopez, Andrea M; Kral, Alex H

    2018-03-01

    Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) are spaces where people can consume pre-obtained drugs in hygienic circumstances with trained staff in attendance to provide emergency response in the event of an overdose or other medical emergency, and to provide counselling and referral to other social and health services. Over 100 facilities with formal legal sanction exist in ten countries, and extensive research has shown they reduce overdose deaths, increase drug treatment uptake, and reduce social nuisance. No facility with formal legal sanction currently exists in the United States, however one community-based organization has successfully operated an 'underground' facility since September 2014. Twenty three qualitative interviews were conducted with people who used the underground facility, staff, and volunteers to examine the impact of the facility on peoples' lives, including the impact of lack of formal legal sanction on service provision. Participants reported that having a safe space to inject drugs had led to less injections in public spaces, greater ability to practice hygienic injecting practices, and greater protection from fatal overdose. Constructive aspects of being 'underground' included the ability to shape rules and procedures around user need rather than to meet political concerns, and the rapid deployment of the project, based on immediate need. Limitations associated with being underground included restrictions in the size and diversity of the population served by the site, and reduced ability to closely link the service to drug treatment and other health and social services. Unsanctioned supervised injection facilities can provide a rapid and user-driven response to urgent public health needs. This work draws attention to the need to ensure such services remain focused on user-defined need rather than external political concerns in jurisdictions where supervised injection facilities acquire local legal sanction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  20. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  1. Forests of Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory,...

  2. Forests of Kansas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016 inventory,...

  3. Sexting in Kansas Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dale R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study about sexting, the sending of sexually explicit or illicit photos or video between cell phones, in Kansas public schools. An on-line survey asked superintendents to report if they have had an occurrence of sexting in their district. They were also asked if they felt sexting is currently a problem in their…

  4. Regional interpretation of Kansas aeromagnetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarger, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The aeromagnetic mapping techniques used in a regional aeromagnetic survey of the state are documented and a qualitative regional interpretation of the magnetic basement is presented. Geothermal gradients measured and data from oil well records indicate that geothermal resources in Kansas are of a low-grade nature. However, considerable variation in the gradient is noted statewide within the upper 500 meters of the sedimentary section; this suggests the feasibility of using groundwater for space heating by means of heat pumps.

  5. 78 FR 67333 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Application for Reorganization Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... ``usage-driven'' FTZ sites for operators/users located within a grantee's ``service area'' in the context... City; Site 3 (9,667 acres total)--within the 10,000-acre Kansas City International Airport facility...,000 acres)--CARMAR Underground Business Park/CARMAR Industrial Park, No. 1 Civil War Road, Carthage...

  6. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  7. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  8. Forest Area in Kansas, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Hackett

    1983-01-01

    The 1981 forest inventory of Kansas showed that 2.6 percent of the total land area is forested. Commercial forest land accounted for 89 percent or 1,207,900 acres of the forest land and oak-hickory is the major forest type. An important Kansas resource are the 150,000 acres of natural wooded strips.

  9. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while an auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9,800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7,800 sq ft. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  10. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  11. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  12. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  13. Kansas Non-State Road System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...

  14. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  15. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  16. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  19. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  20. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  1. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  2. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  3. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  4. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  5. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  6. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  7. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  8. Kansas Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-03-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey Kansas Water Science Center has collected and interpreted hydrologic information in Kansas since 1895. Data collected include streamflow and gage height, reservoir content, water quality and water quantity, suspended sediment, and groundwater levels. Interpretative hydrologic studies are completed on national, regional, statewide, and local levels and cooperatively funded through more than 40 partnerships with these agencies. The U.S. Geological Survey provides impartial scientific information to describe and understand the health of our ecosystems and environment; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. These collected data are in the National Water Information System https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ks/nwis/rt, and all results are documented in reports that also are online at https://ks.water.usgs.gov/. Follow the USGS Kansas Water Science Center on Twitter for the most recent updates and other information: https://twitter.com/USGS_KS.

  9. Kansas Adult Observational Safety Belt Usage Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Methodology of Adult Survey - based on the federal guidelines in the Uniform Criteria manual. The Kansas survey is performed at 548 sites on 6 different road types in 20 randomly selected counties which encompass 85% of the population of Kansas. The ...

  10. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Coalbed methane production base established in Southeast Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that revenue from coalbed methane gas sales is growing and currently far exceeds that of what little conventional gas is produced in southeastern Kansas. And this only 2-1/2 years after Stroud Oil Properties, Wichita, brought in the first coalbed methane well in the Sycamore Valley in Montgomery County 6 miles north of Independence. Another operator contributing to the success is Conquest Oil, Greeley, Colo. Conquest acquired a lease with 20 old wells near Sycamore, recompleted five of them in Weir coal, and has installed a compressor. It hopes to being selling a combined 300 Mcfd soon. Great Eastern Energy, Denver, reportedly can move 2 MMcfd from its Sycamore Valley holdings. The fever is spreading into Northeast Kansas, where a venture headed by Duncan Energy Co. and Farleigh Oil Properties, also of Denver, plan 12 coalbed methane wildcats. The two companies received in October 1991 from the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC) a 40 acre well spacing for seven counties and an exclusion from burdensome gas testing procedures. The test procedures are on the books but not applicable to coal gas wells

  12. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  13. Geostatistical analysis of space variation in underground water various quality parameters in Kłodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Kłodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial variation in the different quality parameters of underground water in the water intake area (SW part of Poland. The research covers the period 2011-2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e., contents of: iron, manganese, ammonium ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion, total organic carbon, pH redox potential and temperature, were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial variation in the parameters was analyzed on the basis of data obtained (November 2011 from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012 were obtained (gained from 3 new piezometers, made in other locations in the relevant area. A depth of these piezometers amounts to 9-10 m.

  14. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  15. Irrigation water use in Kansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.

    2016-03-22

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of 2013 irrigation water use in Kansas. The published regional and county-level statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented. Total reported irrigation water use in 2013 was 3.3 million acre-feet of water applied to 3.0 million irrigated acres.

  16. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  17. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, State of Kansas (300m buffer) and Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  18. Solar-Energy System for a Commercial Building--Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Report describes a solar-energy system for space heating, cooling and domestic hot water at a 5,600 square-foot (520-square-meter) Topeka, Kansas, commercial building. System is expected to provide 74% of annual cooling load, 47% of heating load, and 95% of domestic hot-water load. System was included in building design to maximize energy conservation.

  19. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest... complaint against Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (collectively, Respondents) alleging that Sunflower Electric Power Corporation and Mid...

  20. 75 FR 103 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 17, Kansas City, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Order No. 1655 Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 17, Kansas City, Kansas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following...

  1. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  2. Kansas Protects and Restores Wetlands, Streams and Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG) in 2007 when the Kansas State Conservation Commission began identifying team members interested in developing a framework for a comprehensive Kansas Wetland and Aquatic Resources Conservation Plan.

  3. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  4. Estimating the discharge for ordinary high water levels in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The water resource design community in Kansas, including the Kansas Department of Transportation : (KDOT), is required to obtain appropriate permits for construction projects. Projects that involve stream : modification, including drainage structures...

  5. Landsat TM and ETM+ Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2000-2001 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and...

  6. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  7. Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)...

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  10. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  11. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  12. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  13. Underground mining operation supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusid, M.B.; Kozel, A.M.

    1980-12-10

    Underground mining operation supports include the supporting layer surrounded by a cylindrical jacket of cemented rock. To decrease the loss of support material due to the decreasing rock pressure on the supporting layer, the cylindrical jacket of cemented rock has an uncemented layer inside, dividing it into 2 concentric cylindrical parts.

  14. Kansas Educational Achievement Report Card 2015. Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Mark; Carter, Ted

    2015-01-01

    This report includes a high-level overview of student outcome data and how Kansas measures up to the other 49 states. It is meant to complement the other reporting that the Kansas Association of School Boards has released and will be releasing related to improving student outcomes for all Kansas public schools. The following are key findings…

  15. Endangered Fish Species in Kansas: Historic vs Contemporary Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas state has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. Based on recent count, more than 140 fishes have been documented in Kansas rivers. And at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and thre...

  16. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  17. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  18. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  19. Status of the Kansas State University superconducting linac project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom J.

    1986-05-01

    Funding for the construction of the superconducting linac at Kansas State University was approved by the Department of Energy on May 15, 1985. The project is funded out of the Division of Chemical Sciences, USDOE. Initial design and staff technical training was initiated during 1984-85 with laboratory personnel working at both Florida State University and Argonne National Laboratory. The linac under construction is based upon the Nb split-ring resonator technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory for ATLAS. The linac at Kansas State University will have 14 superconducting resonators with nine low-β (β=0.06) and five high-β (β=0.105) units operating at 97 MHz. Work has progressed on both of the single-resonator cryostats for time bunching and energy rebunching, respectively, with the major cryostat components presently under construction by C. E. Raymond Enterprise Manufacturing, a division of Combustion Engineering, with scheduled delivery of the single resonator cryostat vacuum housings, LN2-cooled heat shields, and LHe Dewars on January 17, 1986. Orders for all Nb-clad Cu resonators have been placed with Argonne National Laboratory and two low-β units are currently under construction. Requests for quotations for a 300-W LHe refrigerator (expandable to 500 W) 1000-l storage Dewar and LHe distribution system have been issued. The building addition which includes a new accelerator/experimental hall (˜6000 ft2 basement structure) and ground-level laboratory support space including additional experimental setup space, additional machine shop space, and mechanical equipment space, is currently under construction with a completion date scheduled for May 1986. Additional personnel training on LHe refrigeration systems is scheduled for January 1986, at the Texas Accelerator Center and at Florida State University.

  20. Indoor smoking ordinances in workplaces and public places in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S; Davis, Ken; Nazir, Niaman; Dunton, Nancy; Winn, Kimberly; Jacquot, Sandy; Moler, Don

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferences of elected city officials regarding the need for a statewide clean indoor air law and to analyze the content of local smoking ordinances. A survey of elected officials in 57 larger Kansas cities obtained information on the perceived need for statewide legislation, venues to be covered, and motivating factors. Clean indoor air ordinances from all Kansas cities were analyzed by venue. The survey response rate was 190 out of 377 (50.4%) for elected officials. Over 70% of the respondents favored or strongly favored greater restrictions on indoor smoking. Sixty percent favored statewide legislation. Among these, over 80% favored restrictions in health care facilities, theaters, indoor sports arenas (including bowling alleys), restaurants, shopping malls, lobbies, enclosed spaces in outdoor arenas, and hotel/motel rooms. Officials who had never smoked favored a more restrictive approach. Employee and public health concerns were cited as influential by 76%-79% of respondents. Thirty-eight ordinances, covering over half of the state's population, were examined. They varied considerably in their exemptions. Official's attitudes toward smoking regulations were associated with their smoking status. The examination of existing ordinances revealed a piecemeal approach to smoking regulations.

  1. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  2. 50 CFR 32.35 - Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.35 Kansas. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in... shooting from or over roads and parking areas. 4. We only allow portable blinds and blinds made from...

  3. Kansas Training and Retraining Plan. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Board of Education, Topeka.

    This document outlines the Kansas plan for making every state citizen a learner and a worker by the year 2000. The goal of the plan is to take new approaches to education and human resources management that emphasize learning, flexibility, and productive participation in work and society throughout life. The plan lists the skills that will be…

  4. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-01-01

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  5. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  6. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  7. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  8. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  9. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  10. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  11. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  12. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  13. Underground super highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Clear communication is key. And quality communications and information equipment is now, more than ever before, integral in mine development as the industry moves towards greater remote control and automation of machinery and mining processes. In an underground mine, access to communications and information equipment has often been limited due to thermal extremes, physical hazards and dangerous chemicals. On top of this, copper conductors that are often used for communication equipment do not operate as efficiently because of the excessive noise generated by mining equipment, and may also puse a safety hazard. However, the design of extremely rugged fibre optic cables is now enabling ten gigabit transmission links in places that were never before thought possible in mining. One place though, has still proved a challenge for the expansion of fibre optic net-works, and that is in an underground coal mine. Until now. Optical Cable Corporation (OCC) has developed the rugged tight buffered breakout fibre optic cables for transmission links in harsh mining environments. Working at depths of over 300 metres below ground, and having seen roof falls actually bury the cable between rocks and still, the cables are able to operate in a myriad of conditions

  14. Kansas energy, environment, and conservation: a geological overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Daniel F.

    2009-02-01

    The State of Kansas, as an energy-producing and agriculture-based state, faces problems in production of natural resources and potential pollution from their production. To coordinate information on the exploration, production, and use of coal, nuclear, petroleum, natural gas, hydro, wind, geothermal, coalbed methane, biofuel, solar, and other energy resources, the Kansas Energy Council and the University of Kansas Energy Research Center were created. Water, surface and subsurface, is the other important and maybe the most important natural resource in the welfare of the state. To ease the problems of contamination, situations are monitored by regulatory agencies: the Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, and Division of Water Resources of the Kansas Department of Agriculture. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kansas serves as the archive for energy and natural resource data and conducts research pertinent to the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources, including energy and water. The Kansas Energy Research Center coordinates and supports energy activities. The Kansas Water Office and the staff for the Kansas Water Authority are charged with water planning and preparing reports on water problems and possible solutions. The cost of preserving the environment in a relatively pristine state really is of no concern considering the possible consequences; living conditions should be preserved to assure future generations, a suitable, sustainable, stable environment. With all the dire predictions for the future and energy-producing and pollution problems, Kansas is a model state in this modern industrial age for protecting the environment and is a leader in conservation.

  15. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Water demands in Kansas, 1944-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The State of Kansas has administered water rights according to an appropriations doctrine since 1945. Water rights are issued by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, for eight categories of beneficial use. Water rights data and limited information on reported water use are stored on a computerized State data base; the U.S. Geological Survey cooperates with the State on maintenance of this system. This report analyzes trends in appropriations from 1944-84 for surface and groundwater for three major categories of use: irrigation, public supply, and industry. Demands for water, represented by these appropriations, are compared for three geographic areas within the State. These areas correspond to general patterns of water availability, population, and enterprises. As of 1984, 87% of the water appropriated for the three major types of use was for irrigation; most of this demand was for groundwater in the western one-third of the State. Seventy-five percent of the water demands in the central one-third of Kansas were met by groundwater; appropriations for irrigation represent the largest demand on water supplies in this area but must compete with appropriations for public supply and industry. Demands for surface water have increased substantially only in the eastern part of the State for industrial use and public supplies. The most prominent trends in water rights permit activity were related to climatic fluctuations, particularly the drought of the 1950's, legislative changes in the 1970 's requiring permits, and growth of urban populations in the central and eastern areas of the State. Analysis of trends in water appropriations can be useful in understanding the water issues facing Kansas in the future. (Author 's abstract)

  17. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  18. Kansas Academic Librarian Perceptions of Information Literacy Professional Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Alysia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the professional development needs of academic instruction librarians required to improve information literacy instructional effectiveness in higher education institutions within the state of Kansas. The population in this correlational study was the 84 academic librarians with instruction duties at Kansas's…

  19. Kansas's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; W. Keith Moser; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Kansas's forests was completed in 2005 after 8,868 plots were selected and 468 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of Kansas inventory is presented...

  20. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  1. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  2. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Platform pose (localization and orientation) information is a key requirement for autonomous mobile systems. The severe natural conditions and complex terrain of underground mines diminish the capability of most pose estimation systems, especially...

  3. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  4. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  5. Inventory and evaluation of potential oil shale development in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angino, E.; Berg, J.; Dellwig, L.; Stanley, B.; Walters, R.

    1981-01-02

    The University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc. was commissioned by the Kansas Energy Office and the US Department of Energy to conduct a review of certain oil shales in Kansas. The purpose of the study focused on making an inventory and assessing those oil shales in close stratigraphic proximity to coal beds close to the surface and containing significant reserves. The idea was to assess the feasibility of using coal as an economic window to aid in making oil shales economically recoverable. Based on this as a criterion and the work of Runnels, et al., (Runnels, R.T., Kulstead, R.O., McDuffee, C. and Schleicher, J.A., 1952, Oil Shale in Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, No. 96, Part 3.) five eastern Kansas black shale units were selected for study and their areal distribution mapped. The volume of recoverable oil shale in each unit was calculated and translated to reserves. The report concludes that in all probability, extraction of oil shale for shale oil is not feasible at this time due to the cost of extraction, transportation and processing. The report recommends that additional studies be undertaken to provide a more comprehensive and detailed assessment of Kansas oil shales as a potential fuel resource. 49 references, 4 tables.

  6. The China Jinping Underground Laboratory and Its Early Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Yuan-Jing; Yue, Qian; Zeng, Zhi; Chen, Yun-Hua; Wu, Shi-Yong; Ji, Xiang-Dong; Wong, Henry T.

    2017-10-01

    The China Jinping Underground Laboratory, inaugurated in 2010, is an underground research facility with the deepest rock overburden and largest space by volume in the world. The first-generation science programs include dark matter searches conducted by the CDEX and PandaX experiments. These activities are complemented by measurements of ambient radioactivity and the installation of low-background counting systems. Phase II of the facility is being constructed, and its potential research projects are being formulated. In this review, we discuss the history, key features, results, and status of this facility and its experimental programs, as well as their future evolution and plans.

  7. Estadio de Kansas City (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy, C. F.

    1978-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crosby Kemper stadium, located in the center of an industrial district of Kansas City, was designed for various uses which include activities ranging from music and sports competitions to equestrian sports. It has a capacity for approximately 16 to 18,000 people and parking for 4,000 cars. The outstanding feature of its architectonic conception is the solution adopted for building the roof, by means of enormous metal tubular beams, of triangular section and a height of 8.25 meters with pipe diameters reaching 120 cm.

    El estadio Crosby Kemper, situado en el centro de un distrito industrial de Kansas, fue concebido para un funcionamiento diverso que comprende actividades que van desde la música y competiciones deportivas hasta pruebas hípicas. Tiene capacidad para unas 16.000 ó 18.000 personas, y plazas de aparcamiento para 4.000 coches. En su concepción arquitectónica sobresale la solución adoptada para la realización de la cubierta, mediante enormes vigas tubulares metálicas, de sección triangular y altura de 8,25 m, con diámetros de tubo que alcanzan los 120 cm.

  8. Potential oil recovery from Kansas oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlinsog, D.G.; Angino, E.

    1983-01-01

    Dark organic-rich shales are present throughout much of the stratigraphic column of Kansas. Some of these shales yield considerable amounts of shale oil when assayed. One hundred forty samples from 37 shale units were tested for potential oil recovery. Fischer assay results indicate yields ranging from trace amounts to 23.3 gallons of oil per ton of shale. Differences in oil revovery are directly related to the type and amount of organic matter within a shale. Vitrinite is the dominant maceral in the Upper Cretaceous and Pennsylvanian dark shales tested. The Lower Permian and Upper Ordovician shales are essentially devoid of any organic material. The Devonian-Mississippian Chattanogga Shale contains equally small amounts of phytoplankton and vitrinite. Seven potentially economic, low-grade mixed oil shales are present in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian strata of eastern Kansas: the ''V'', Excello, Little Osage, Anna, Tacket Formation, Eudora, and Heebner shales. If shale oil, phosphate, uranium, and mineable coals were extracted concurrently from these units, extraction costs would be reduced and an economic window for potential exploitation of these oil shales might be formed. 47 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  10. What's the matter with Kansas? Legislative debates over stem cell research in Kansas and Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the contextual factors shaping legislative debates affecting stem cell research in two states, Kansas and Massachusetts, which both permit therapeutic cloning for stem cell research but markedly vary in their legislative approach to the issue. In Kansas, restrictive legislation was proposed but effectively blocked by research proponents, while in Massachusetts permissive legislation was successfully implemented under the auspices of an act to promote stem cell research. The importance of university and industry involvement is highlighted in each case, as are the roles of enterprising and persistent policy entrepreneurs. Providing a close examination of the policy process attending the cloning debate in these states is intended to contribute to an enhanced understanding of the cloning-policy process as it has played out at the state level, with an eye toward informing legislative debates over related biotechnical advances in the future.

  11. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  12. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  13. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  14. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  15. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  16. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  17. Laboratory evaluation of characteristics of recycled asphalt pavement in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this research was to evaluate characteristics of milled Recycled Asphalt : Pavements (RAP) collected from selected milled roadways in Kansas. The RAP was collected from three : selected milled roadways including K-25 in Grant Co...

  18. Evaluation of Motorcycle Safety in Kansas : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, motorcycle fatalities have increased at an alarming rate in the United States. Motorcycle safety issues in Kansas are no different from the national scenario. Accordingly, this study attempted to investigate motorcycle cr...

  19. Evaluation of high friction surface locations in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, the Kansas Department of Transportation entered into an agreement with the Federal Highway : Administration to fulfill the requirements of the High Friction Surface Materials Enhancing Safety at Horizontal : Curves on the National Highway Sy...

  20. Ramona, Kansas, Corrective Action Monitoring Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This Monitoring Report describes groundwater monitoring for the property at Ramona, Kansas, on which a grain storage facility was formerly operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The monitoring was implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory. Monitoring was conducted as specified in the Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Plan (Argonne 2012) approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2012).

  1. Ramona, Kansas, Corrective Action Monitoring Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes groundwater monitoring in 2015 for the property at Ramona, Kansas, on which a grain storage facility was formerly operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The monitoring was implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory and was conducted as specified in the Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Plan (Argonne 2012) approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2012).

  2. Ramona, Kansas, Corrective Action Monitoring Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report describes groundwater monitoring in 2014 for the property at Ramona, Kansas, on which a grain storage facility was formerly operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The monitoring was implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory and was conducted as specified in the Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Plan (Argonne 2012) approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2012).

  3. Environmental Benefits of Restoring Sediment Continuity to the Kansas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    sediment continuity from the Kansas River watershed to the Kansas River by passing sediment through, rather than trapping sediment in, large Federal...nutrients with a low nitrogen-to-phosphorous ratio, primarily composed of soluble reactive phosphorus (Shaus et al. 1997), which favors blue-green algae...Figure 5. Phytoplankton samples collected in August 2014 from Milford Lake were primarily composed of blue-green algae while those collected from Tuttle

  4. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  5. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  6. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  7. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  8. THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY TRANSPORTATION CENTER (KUTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe LEE, Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Universities are an integral part of society, and they have a role in society. In addition to educate the youngs, many universities also conduct research and service activities. In this paper, a brief description of a university-based research unit, University of Kansas Transportation Center (KUTC is presented. Three KUTC research/service programs namely the LTAP, the RTAP and the PC-TRANS are discussed in detail. The activities involved in these programs are outlined. These research/service programs have been able to reach and impact a large group of professionals in the field. The programs have contributed significantly to the betterment of our transportation system and the transportation community.

  9. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  10. Radar research at the University of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Shannon D.; Allen, Christopher; Arnold, Emily; Hale, Richard; Hui, Rongqing; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Leuschen, Carlton; Li, Jilu; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Salandrino, Alessandro; Stiles, James

    2017-05-01

    Radar research has been synonymous with the University of Kansas (KU) for over half a century. As part of this special session organized to highlight significant radar programs in academia, this paper surveys recent and ongoing work at KU. This work encompasses a wide breadth of sensing applications including the remote sensing of ice sheets, autonomous navigation methods for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), novel laser radar capabilities, detection of highenergy cosmic rays using bistatic radar, different forms of waveform diversity such as MIMO radar and pulse agility, and various radar-embedded communication methods. The results of these efforts impact our understanding of the changing nature of the environment, address the proliferation of unmanned systems in the US airspace, realize new sensing modalities enabled by the joint consideration of electromagnetics and signal processing, and greater facilitate radar operation in an increasingly congested and contested spectrum.

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Pratt Quadrangle, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, C.L.; Smit, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    Surface reconnaissance and detailed subsurface studies were done within the Pratt Quadrangle, Kansas, to evaluate uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. These studies were designed in part to follow up previous airborne radiometric, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment surveys. More than 8100 well records were examined in the subsurface phase of this study. Results of these investigations indicate no environments favorable for uranium deposits within the Pratt Quadrangle. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are limestone and dolomite environments, marine black shale environments, evaporative precipitate environments, and fluvial sandstone environments. Environments considered unevaluated because of insufficient data (although some thin sections were available for study) include Precambrian plutonic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks

  12. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  13. September 2007 monitoring results for Centralia, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-05-01

    In September 2005, periodic sampling of groundwater was initiated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in the vicinity of a grain storage facility formerly operated by the CCC/USDA at Centralia, Kansas. The sampling at Centralia is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Centralia (Argonne 2003, 2004, 2005a). Under the KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b), the groundwater is being sampled twice yearly (for a recommended period of two years) for analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as measurement of selected geochemical parameters to aid in the evaluation of possible natural contaminant degradation (reductive dechlorination) processes in the subsurface environment. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 10 monitoring wells and 6 piezometers (Figure 1.1), at locations approved by the KDHE (Argonne 2006a). The results of groundwater sampling and VOCs analyses in September-October 2005, March 2006, September 2006, and March 2007 were documented previously (Argonne 2006a,b, 2007a). The results have demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination, at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level of 5 {micro}g/L for this compound, in a broad groundwater plume that has shown little movement. This report presents the results of the groundwater sampling at Centralia in September 2007, performed in accord with the KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b). The September 2007 sampling represents the fifth and final monitoring event performed under the recommended two-year monitoring program approved by the KDHE.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and..., floor or walls in any underground work area for more than a 24-hour period; or (ii) The history of the... inches (304.8 mm) ±0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor or walls in any underground work area...

  15. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  16. Kansas business plan for commercial vehicle operations using intelligent transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-29

    This state business plan is the product of a cooperative effort between state agencies, the Federal Highway Administration, Kansas Turnpike Authority, and the Kansas Motor Carrier Association. The plan represents a shared commitment to move forward w...

  17. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  19. 78 FR 43810 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., 1985 (50 FR 40377), to implement its Base Hazardous Waste Management program. Kansas received... Regulations, Article 31--Hazardous Waste Management, effective May 10, 2013. The State's authorization package...

  20. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  1. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  2. Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Kansas City Transportation Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) to learn more about local community air quality in three neighborhoods in Kansas City, KS.

  3. Underground utilization at great depth and its subjects for a future study. Daishindo chika kukan no riyo to sono gijutsuteki kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, Tetsuro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1989-12-25

    This paper outlined the overall underground utilization such as features of underground and progress of its utilization, then discussed the underground utilization of great depth in any large city sphere especially paid attention recently and reviewed the present situation from the environmental and ground engineering standpoints. Further, technological problems were described to realize these subjects. The underground has topological features by which three dimensional space can be generated in the broad ground ranging to the 1,000m or deeper space from the surface. But following conditions are essential to utilize the underground in the future: high density space is ensured to eliminate the overpopulation in the capital surface region.; environmental conditions such as ground and underground water are not disturbed or comfortable environment is created; the safety to prevent diseraters is ensured by generating the space where flowing similar to the surface is possible. 25 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Welcoming Diversity? Symbolic Boundaries and the Politics of Normativity in Kansas City's LGBTQ Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Using document analysis and ethnographic field work, this article examines the debate within the LGBTQ community of Kansas City over the decision to hold its Pride festival in the Power and Light District (P&L), a renewed downtown area with a controversial dress code. Despite the developers' and city's goals of creating a cosmopolitan urban space that welcomed diverse populations, the P&L acquired a reputation as an anti-Black, anti-queer space due to its dress code and redevelopment history. I argue that the debate surrounding this controversy reveals limits to notions of diversity and diverging approaches to sexual politics within the LGBTQ community that are normally obscured by political actors within the movement but that work to create symbolic boundaries that exclude "non-respectable" members of the LGBTQ population. Recovering queer perspectives allows us to imagine a more capacious definition of diversity and inclusion, both within the LGBTQ movement and in urban space.

  5. Treatment of an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.E.; Braden, W.B. Jr.

    1974-03-12

    A method is described for treating underground formations, especially those containing clays or clay-like materials which are sensitive to fresh water. The treatment densensitizes the clays so they will not swell or disperse on contact with fresh water. The procedure consists of contacting the clay-containing formation with solutions which accomplish the electroless deposition of metal on the clay particles. Optionally, the formation can be resin coated prior to electroless plating. (9 claims)

  6. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  7. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  8. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  9. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  10. March 2008 monitoring results for Centralia, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-06

    In September 2005, periodic sampling of groundwater was initiated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in the vicinity of a grain storage facility formerly operated by the CCC/USDA at Centralia, Kansas. The sampling at Centralia is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Centralia (Argonne 2003, 2004, 2005a). Under the KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b), the groundwater is being sampled twice yearly (for a recommended period of two years) for analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as measurement of selected geochemical parameters to aid in the evaluation of possible natural contaminant degradation (reductive dechlorination) processes in the subsurface environment. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 10 monitoring wells and 6 piezometers (Figure 1.1), at locations approved by the KDHE (Argonne 2006a). The results of groundwater sampling and VOCs analyses in September-October 2005, March 2006, September 2006, March 2007, and September 2007 were documented previously (Argonne 2006a,b, 2007a, 2008). The results have demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination, at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level of 5 {micro}g/L for this compound, in a broad groundwater plume that has shown little movement. This report presents the results of the groundwater sampling at Centralia in March 2008, performed in accord with the KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b). The September 2007 sampling represented the fifth and final monitoring event performed under the recommended two-year monitoring program approved by the KDHE. The March 2008 sampling begins an extension of the approved monitoring that is to

  11. Analysis of endangered Kansas fish species distribution during historical and contemporary periods (pre- and post-1969)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. More than 140 fishes have recently been documented in Kansas rivers; of these, at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and threatened species ...

  12. 76 FR 81928 - Kansas City, KS, Board of Public Utilities; Notice of Petition for Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kansas City, KS, Board of Public Utilities; Notice of Petition for Waiver Take notice that on November 15, 2011, The Board of Public Utilities of Kansas City, Kansas (KCBPU... Tariff \\4\\, as adopted and implemented by public utilities. \\1\\ Open Access Same-Time Information System...

  13. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment

  14. Habitat features and distribution of Salamandra salamandra in underground springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are among the less known terrestrial habitats, but can reveal an unexpected biodiversity, and can play an underestimated role for amphibians. The fire salamander Salamandra salamandra is sometimes found in underground environments, but the factors affecting its distribution in subterranean spaces remain substantially unexplored. We repeatedly surveyed some hypogeous springs, such as draining galleries and “bottini” in NW Italy, in order to evaluate the relationship between environmental features and distribution of S. salamandra in these underground springs. We performed visual encounter surveys to assess the occurrence of larvae, juveniles or adults in springs. We also recorded four habitat variables: easy of access, isolation, macrobenthos richness and forest cover of the surrounding landscape. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the relationships between habitat features and occurrence of larvae. We observed larvae of S. salamandra in 13 out of 22 springs; their presence was associated to springs with high easy of access and with relatively rich macrobenthos communities. In underground springs, larval development apparently required longer time than in nearby epigeous streams. Nevertheless, S. salamandra can attain metamorphosis in this environment. The occurrence of S. salamandra in underground environments was not accidental, but repeated in the time and interesting from an ecological point of view, confirming the high plasticity of the species.

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Manhattan Quadrangle, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, C.L.; Smit, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    Surface reconnaissance and detailed subsurface studies were conducted in the Manhattan Quadrangle, Kansas, to evaluate uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. These studies were designed in part to follow up airborne radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. More than 600 well records were examined in the subsurface phase of the study. Results of these investigations indicate environments favorable for channel-controlled peneconcordant sandstone uranium deposits in Cretaceous rocks and for Wyoming roll-type deposits in Pennsylvanian sandstones. The Cretaceous sandstone environments exhibit such favorable characteristics as a bottom unconformity, high bed load, braided fluvial channels, large-scale cross-bedding, and one anomalous outcrop. The Pennsylvanian sandstone environments exhibit such favorable characteristics as arkosic cross-bedded sandstones, included pyrite and organic debris, interbedded shales, and gamma-ray log anomalies. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are limestone and dolomite environments, marine black shale environments, evaporative precipitate environments, and some fluvial sandstone environments. Environments considered unevaluated because not enough data were available include Precambrian plutonic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, even though a large number of thin sections were available for study

  16. Routine environment audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri. During this audit the activities the audit team conducted included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted October 24-November 4, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,{close_quotes} establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations and by using supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  17. Underground siting is a nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, R.K.; Gilbert, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    Underground siting of nuclear power plants is a concept that can be both technologically feasible and economically attractive. To meet both these criteria, however, each underground nuclear plant must be adapted to take full advantage of its location. It cannot be a unit that was designed for the surface and is then buried. Seeking to develop potential commercial programs, Underground Design Consultants (UDC)--a joint venture of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, New York City, Vattenbyggnadsbyran (VBB), Stockholm, Sweden, and Foundation Sciences, Inc., Portland, Oregon--has been studying the siting of nuclear plants underground. UDC has made a presentation to EPRI on the potential for underground siting in the U.S. The summary presented here is based on the experiences of underground nuclear power plants in Halden, Norway; Agesta, Sweden; Chooz, France; and Lucens, Switzerland. Data from another plant in the design phase in Sweden and UDC's own considered judgment were also used

  18. Radon in Brazilian underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques; Eston, Sérgio Médici; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; Francisca, Diego Diegues

    2018-02-14

    Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented. The adopted methodology consisted of three main phases. The first was an extensive bibliographical survey of the concentration levels of radon and RDP, and the radiation dose estimates, considering measurements made heretofore by various Brazilian researchers and exhibiting original measurement work undertaken by the one of the authors (mine O). In the second phase, the values obtained were compared with OELs. In the third phase, it was verified whether any control measures were undertaken in the mines with high exposure of workers to radon and its progeny, and if so, the adopted controls were determined. Data of radon concentration obtained from 52 campaigns in 40 underground mines were analyzed. The results showed that the assessment of the exposure of workers to radon and its progeny was undertaken in many mines at least once, and that in 62.5% of the mines, when visited for the first time, the radon levels throughout them were below the Brazilian OELs. As expected, the main control measure adopted or recommended was the improvement of the ventilation system. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  20. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. Annual Report of Groundwater Monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Periodic sampling is performed at Centralia, Kansas, on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) by Argonne National Laboratory. The sampling is currently (2009-2012) conducted in accord with a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2009). The objective is to monitor levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater sitewide (Argonne 2003, 2004, 2005a), as well as the response to the interim measure (IM) pilot test that is in progress (Argonne 2007b). This report provides a summary of the findings for groundwater inspection in Centralia.

  2. Field test of distribution automation equipment at Kansas Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahwa, A.; Shultis, J.K.; Dowling, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Distribution automation can be beneficial to the utilities by reducing operating cost and increasing efficiency. Since needs of most utilities are different, obtaining first hand experience with distribution automation equipment is important. In this paper experiences of Kansas City Power and Light Co., and Midwest Energy, Inc. (members of Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program) related to operation of pilot distribution automation systems are described. Data gathered on failure of equipment is also included. As a part of this project, a microcomputer program was developed for cost/benefit analysis of eight distribution automation functions. In this paper salient features of this program are discussed and results of an example are presented

  3. Sitewide monitoring at Agra, Kansas, June 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-01-14

    In 1985, carbon tetrachloride was discovered in the groundwater at Agra, Kansas, during routine sampling of public water supply wells. Two of Agra's four public water supply wells contained low but detectable levels of carbon tetrachloride; the concentrations in wells PWS-3 and PWS-4 exceeded the maximum contaminant level. These wells were removed from service in 1986, although they remain available for uses other than drinking water. Other public wells, outside the area of contamination, supply drinking water for the city of Agra. In 1987-2005, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) and the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted investigations to delineate the contaminant plume and to identify source areas for the contamination - which results from the past use of grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride. Source areas were identified on the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility property and on the Producers Agricultural Marketing Association, Inc., property located to the south (Argonne 2006). The contaminant plume extends to the southeast, toward well PWS-3, from the identified source areas. Both the CCC/USDA and Pro-Ag Marketing are currently implementing KDHE-approved interim measures (IMs). To address the contamination identified on its former property, the CCC/USDA is implementing a source control IM consisting of large-diameter boreholes (LDBs) coupled with soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). Pro-Ag Marketing plans to use groundwater extraction to address the downgradient plume. The CCC/USDA and Pro-Ag completed installation of the two interim measures in May 2009 and August 2009, respectively. The performance and assessments of the effectiveness of the IMs are being reported separately by the responsible entities. As part of the IM process, the KDHE (2008) requested the development of a joint sitewide groundwater monitoring plan to allow periodic assessment of the

  4. September 2008 monitoring results for Centralia, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-24

    In September 2005, periodic sampling of groundwater was initiated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in the vicinity of a grain storage facility formerly operated by the CCC/USDA at Centralia, Kansas. The sampling at Centralia is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Centralia (Argonne 2003, 2004, 2005a). Under a KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b), the groundwater was sampled twice yearly (for a recommended period of two years) for analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as measurement of selected geochemical parameters to aid in the evaluation of possible natural contaminant degradation (reductive dechlorination) processes in the subsurface environment. The sampling in September 2007 represented the fifth and final monitoring event performed under the two-year twice yearly monitoring program (Argonne 2006a,b, 2007a, 2008a). The results from the two-year monitoring program demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level of 5 {micro}g/L for this compound in a broad groundwater plume that has shown little movement. The relative concentrations of chloroform, the primary degradation product of carbon tetrachloride, suggested that some degree of reductive dechlorination or natural biodegradation was taking place in situ at the former CCC/USDA facility on a localized scale. The CCC/USDA subsequently developed an Interim Measure Conceptual Design (Argonne 2007b), proposing a pilot test of the Adventus EHC in situ chemical reduction technology, that was approved by the KDHE in November 2007 (KDHE 2007). Implementation of the proposed interim measure occurred in December 2007

  5. October 2007 monitoring results for Morrill, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-03-26

    In September 2005, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) initiated periodic sampling of groundwater in the vicinity of a grain storage facility formerly operated by the CCC/USDA at Morrill, Kansas. On the basis of available information, the CCC/USDA believes that one or more third parties operated this facility after termination of the CCC/USDA's lease in 1971. The sampling at Morrill is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), to monitor levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at this site (Argonne 2004, 2005a). Under the KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b), the groundwater has been sampled twice yearly for a recommended period of two years. The samples are analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as for selected geochemical parameters to aid in the evaluation of possible natural contaminant degradation (reductive dechlorination) processes in the subsurface environment. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 12 monitoring wells and 3 private wells (Figure 1.1), at locations approved by the KDHE. The scope of the originally approved monitoring has been expanded to include vegetation sampling (initiated in October 2006) and surface water and stream bed sediment sampling (initiated in March 2007). The analytical results for groundwater sampling events at Morrill in September 2005, March 2006, September 2006, and March 2007 were documented previously (Argonne 2006a, 2007c,e). The results have demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination, at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (5.0 {micro}g/L) for this compound, in a groundwater plume extending generally south-southeastward from the former CCC/USDA facility, toward Terrapin Creek at the south edge of the town. Little clear

  6. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  7. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  8. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  9. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  10. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  11. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  12. Comparison of spacing factors as measured by the air-void analyzer and ASTM C457.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) began using the Air-Void Analyzer (AVA) in : 2001 and first incorporated an AVA spacing factor requirement into paving specifications beginning in late : 2002. In 2005, a statewide investigation to evalu...

  13. Plans for development of the underground space of moscow ПЛАНИРОВАНИЕ ГРАДОСТРОИТЕЛЬНОГО ОСВОЕНИЯ ПОДЗЕМНОГО ПРОСТРАНСТВА г. МОСКВЫ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Valeriy L’vovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities tend to widely employ their underground space whenever selection of the model of compact spatial development is under discussion. There’s been growth in the complexity of approaches (“underground cities” of Canada and Japan, their planning, validity, consistency of implementation (master plans of underground areas of cities in Finland, the Netherlands, China, Singapore, etc..Moscow still lags behind in terms of the scale and complexity of its “Urban Underground Space”, although the city has everything in place to transfer its engineering and transportation facilities, social, scientific and industrial infrastructure under the ground. Initial steps have already been made (The Concept for the Underground Space Development and Principal Trends for the Underground Development of Moscow, parts of the City Master Plan for the period up to 2025 provide for the planned goals in the underground development of each functional area.However, new political and economic realities require a systemic consideration of the problem and improvement of conceptual approaches, as the underground space is an integral part of the developed area. In this regard, substantial reform of the public administration in this area is necessary, first of all, in the field of spatial planning, as well as coordination of the underground planning with the adjacent sectors of the economic activity, adequate development of the system of legal, information and other types of support, urban regulation and engineering research, primarily on the federal level. Successful fundraising needs an adequate mechanism of assessment of the social and economic efficiency of development of the underground space of cities.Even if new territories are annexed to Moscow, the issue of underground development remains of vital importance. This is a rare opportunity to address the ambitious task of creating a unique comfortable environment for Muscovites to assure the sustainable development

  14. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Kansas. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  15. The Best Little Teacher Education Program in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Many undergraduate teacher education programs still treat technology as an elective, instead of an integral and inseparable part of the curriculum. So when "T.H.E. Journal" set out to find the best program for training tomorrow's teachers, it found one at a K-12 school district in Kansas. The Blue Valley School District in Overland Park,…

  16. Using Sports to Teach Geography: Examples from Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChano, Lisa M.; Shelley, Fred M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates how sports can be used to teach geographic concepts, using illustrative examples from the Kansas City area. Given the global popularity of sport and its impacts and links to environment, economy, and culture, it is surprising that more attention has not been paid to sport as a vehicle for the conceptualization and teaching…

  17. Final work plan for targeted sampling at Webber, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-05-01

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work for targeted sampling at Webber, Kansas (Figure 1.1). This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). Data obtained in this sampling event will be used to (1) evaluate the current status of previously detected contamination at Webber and (2) determine whether the site requires further action. This work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. Argonne has issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that describes the general scope of and guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The Master Work Plan, approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document should be consulted for complete details of the technical activities proposed at the former CCC/USDA facility in Webber.

  18. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in thirteen sections: (1) Orientation and Careers, (2) Leadership and Future Farmers of America, (3) Supervised Occupational Experience Program, (4) Plant…

  19. DO PROFITABLE GRAIN MARKETING STRATEGIES EXIST FOR KANSAS CROPS?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Daniel M.

    2000-01-01

    The issue of whether profitable preharvest and postharvest marketing strategies exist relative to harvest sales for Kansas crops for the 1985-1998 marketing years is addressed. Practical application of market efficiency concepts is discussed. Nonharvest wheat marketing strategies offered less opportunity relative to harvest sales than for feedgrains and especially soybeans.

  20. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This second horticulture guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Leadership, (2) Supervised Occupational Experience, (3) Plant Propagation, (4) Soil and Plant Growth Media, (5) Fertilizers, (6) Greenhouse, (7) Plant…

  1. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Human Relations, (2) Business Operations, (3) Greenhouse, (4) Retail Flowershop Operation, (5) Landscape Nursery, (6) Lawn Maintenance, (7)…

  2. Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams, 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2016-08-29

    Dissolved oxygen concentrations in streams are affected by physical, chemical, and biological factors in the water column and streambed, and are an important factor for the survival of aquatic organisms. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) rates in Kansas streams are not well understood. During 2014 and 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, measured SOD at eight stream sites in eastern Kansas to quantify SOD rates and variability with respect to season, land use, and bottom-sediment characteristics. Sediment oxygen demand rates (SODT) ranged from 0.01 to 3.15 grams per square meter per day at the ambient temperature of the measurements. The summer mean SOD rate was 3.0-times larger than the late fall mean rate, likely because of increased biological activity at warm water temperatures. Given the substantial amount of variability in SOD rates possible within sites, heterogeneity of substrate type is an important consideration when designing SOD studies and interpreting the results. Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams was correlated with land use and streambed-sediment characteristics, though the strength of relations varied seasonally. The small number of study sites precluded a more detailed analysis. The effect of basin land use and streambed sediment characteristics on SOD is currently (2016) not well understood, and there may be many contributing factors including basin influences on water quality that affect biogeochemical cycles and the biological communities supported by the stream.

  3. Building Confidence, A Story of Consensus in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-04-01

    DOE's State Energy Program published this case study in conjunction with the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC) about KCC's experience with establishing the IECC 2003 energy code in the state. The case study deals with building energy codes, home energy rating systems, and energy efficiency in residential buildings.

  4. Full depth bituminous recycling of I-70, Thomas County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, 13 full depth asphalt pavement test sections were built on a portion of I-70 in Thomas County, Kansas. Various combinations of hot mix and cold recycle mixes with different additives were used to build the test sections. Two of the test sect...

  5. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  6. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...

  7. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is ab...

  8. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  9. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  10. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  11. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  12. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  13. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  14. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  15. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  16. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  17. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  18. Underground coal mining section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  19. The Evolution of Groundwater Management Paradigms in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to trace the evolution of key water-related laws and management practices in Kansas, from the enactment of the Kansas Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1945 to the present, in order to highlight the state's efforts to create a more sustainable water future and in hopes that others will benefit from Kansas' experience. The 1945 Act provides the basic framework of water law (prior appropriation) in Kansas. Progression of groundwater management in the state encompasses local ground-water management districts (GMDs) and their water-management programs, minimum-streamflow and TMDL standards, water-use reporting and water metering programs, use of modified safe-yield policies in some GMDs, the subbasin water-resources-management program, the integrated resource planning/Aquifer Storage and Recovery project of the City of Wichita, the Central Kansas Water Bank, enhanced aquifer subunits management, and various water conservation programs. While these have all contributed to the slowing down of declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and in associated ecosystems, they have not yet succeeded in halting those declines. Based on the assumption that the different management approaches have to operate easily within the prevailing water rights and law framework to succeed, a number of steps are suggested here that may help further halt the declines of the High Plains aquifer. These include eliminating the "use it or lose it" maxim in the prior-appropriation framework, broadening the definition of "beneficial use," regulating domestic and other "exempt" wells, encouraging voluntary "sharing the shortage" agreements, and determining to what extent water rights may be regulated in the public interest without a compensable "taking." Further necessary measures include determining to what extent water-rights holders might be subjected to reasonable dictates without having the security of their rights altered.

  20. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  1. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  2. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  3. A Development Program for Metropolitan Junior College, Kansas City. Volume Three: The Economy, Population, and Manpower Requirements of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The economy, population, and manpower requirements of the Kansas City metropolitan area are examined in this volume of a report for the planning and development of Metropolitan Junior College (MJC). Part I looks at the Kansas City economy, first from a historical perspective and then in terms of recent trends in economic growth; the comparative…

  4. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  5. EXPERIMENTAL CALIBRATION OF UNDERGROUND HEAT TRANSFER MODELS UNDER A WINERY BUILDING IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tinti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground temperature and hydrogeological conditions are key parameters for many engineering applications, such as the design of building basements and underground spaces and the assessment of shallow geothermal energy potential. Especially in urban areas, in the very shallow depths, it is diffi cult to fi nd natural undisturbed underground thermal conditions because of anthropic interventions. The assessment of underground behaviour in disturbed conditions will become more and more relevant because of increasing awareness to energy effi ciency and renewable energy topics. The purpose of this paper is to show a three-dimensional representation - based on models calibrated on experimental data - of the underground thermal behaviour aff ected by a building in a rural area in Italy. Temperature varies in space and time and it depends on ground, climate and building characteristics, and all these parameters are taken into account by the seasonal periodic modelling implemented. The results obtained in a context of low urbanization indirectly suggest the importance of these eff ects in dense urban areas; taking greater account of these aspects could lead to improvements in the design of underground spaces and geo-exchanger fi elds for geothermal energy exploitation.

  6. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  7. Review of technical features in underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Deep underground laboratories are multidisciplinary research infrastructures. The main feature of these laboratories is the reduced cosmic ray muons flux. This characteristic allows searching for rare events such as proton decay, dark matter particles or neutrino interactions. However, biology in extreme environments and geophysics are also studied underground. A number of ancillary facilities are critical to properly operate low background experiments in these laboratories. In this work we review the main characteristics of deep underground laboratories and discuss a few of the low background facilities.

  8. Underground or aboveground storage tanks - A critical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. The greatest interest in AGSTs comes from managers with small volumes of used oil, fresh oil, solvents, chemicals, or heating oil. Dealing with small capacity tanks is not so different than large bulk storage - and, in fact, it lends itself to more options, such as portable storage, tank within tank configurations and inside installations. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: (1) safety; (2) product losses; (3) cost comparison of USTs vs AGSTs; (4) space availability/accessibility; (5) precipitation handling; (6) aesthetics and security; (7) pending and existing regulations

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    A cooperative agreement was negotiated in April 1978 for the installation of a space and domestic hot water system at Southeast of Saline, Kansas Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas. The solar system was installed in a new building and was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are liquid flat plate. They are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. This final report, which describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility, contains detailed drawings of the completed system. The facility was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  10. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  11. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  12. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  13. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  14. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  15. EXPERIENCE IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Kaufman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives examples of underground construction of hydropower station inNepaland sewer tunnel in the USA. These projects pay attention to influence of geotechnical risks and their consequences.

  16. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  17. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  18. Summary of hydrologic conditions in Kansas, water year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louen, Justin M.

    2017-04-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, maintains a long-term network of hydrologic monitoring sites in Kansas. Real-time data are collected at 216 streamgage sites and are verified throughout the year with regular measurements of streamflow made by USGS personnel. Annual assessments of hydrologic conditions are made by comparing statistical analyses of current and historical water year (WY) data for the period of record. A WY is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the calendar year in which the period ends. Long-term monitoring of hydrologic conditions in Kansas provides critical information for water-supply management, flood forecasting, reservoir operations, irrigation scheduling, bridge and culvert design, ecological monitoring, and many other uses.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON WHEAT PRODUCTION IN KANSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Howard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of climate change on wheat production in Kansas using annual time series data from 1949 to 2014. For the study, an error correction model is developed in which the price of wheat, the price of oats (substitute good, average annual temperature and average annual precipitation are used as explanatory variables with total output of wheat being the dependent variable. Time series properties of the data series are diagnosed using unit root and cointegration tests. The estimated results suggest that Kansas farmers are supply responsive to both wheat as well as its substitute (oat prices in the short run as well as in the long run. Climate variables; temperature has a positive effect on wheat output in the short run but an insignificant effect in the long run. Precipitation has a positive effect in the short run but a negative effect in the long run.

  20. Northeast Kansas well tests oil, gas possibilities in Precambrian rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Newell, K.D.; Doveton, J.H.; Magnuson, L.M.; Lollar, B.S.; Waggoner, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tests for oil and gas prospects in Precambrian rocks in Northeast Kansas is currently being undertaken by WTW Operating LLC. It drilled in late 2005 the no.1 Wilson well with a depth of 5,772ft, 1,826ft into the Precambrian basement on a venture testing the possibility of oil and gas in the crystalline rocks. The basin extends northeast into Nebraska and Iowa and is a shallow cratonic basin filled with Paleozoic segments. The rocks have been previously though as not a potential for oil and gas due to the rocks' crystalline and nonporous character with the exception of the Midcontinent rift system (MRS). Later, though, small quantities of oil have been produced on the Central Kansas uplift from granite wash while the wells also produced low-Btu with swabbing operations. The recovered gas contained considerable nonflammable components of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and helium which equates to a low btu content of 283.

  1. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  2. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  3. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  4. Bendix Kansas City Division technological spinoff through 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, H.T.

    1979-02-01

    The results of work of Bendix Kansas City Division are made available in the form of technical reports that are processed through the DOE Technical Information Center in Oak Ridge. The present report lists the documents released by the Division, along with author and subject indexes. Drawing sets released are also listed. Locations of report collections in the U.S., other countries, and international agencies are provided

  5. Serpentinization and the origin of hydrogen gas in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coveney, R.M. Jr.; Goebel, E.D.; Zeller, E.J.; Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Angino, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen gas occurs in ten Kansas wells near the Mid-Continent rift system. Since 1982, two wells have yielded small amounts of gases containing an average of 29-37 mole % H/sub 2/, the remainder being chiefly N/sub 2/ with only traces of hydrocarbons. Isotopic compositions for hydrogen (delta D = -740 to -836 per thousand) imply near-ambient (about 10/sup 0/C) equilibration temperatures for the gases, which are among the most deuterium-depleted in nature and resemble the H/sub 2/-rich gases described from ophiolites in Oman. Isotopic values for the Kansas N/sub 2/ differ slightly from those of the atmosphere, but not enough to rule out an atmospheric origin. Because they are low in CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/, expected byproducts of biogenic activity, the gases are probably abiogenic in origin. The existence of such gases near a major rift system, containing mafic rocks, and not far from known kimberlites is consistent with an origin from reactions involving Fe/sup +2/ oxidation, for example during serpentinization. Because the gases may be associated with kimberlites and deep-seated rifting, mantle outgassing is possible, but such an origin would be difficult to reconcile with the low isotopic temperatures. The H/sub 2/ gases from Kansas (and elsewhere) seem to be too low in pressure to have commercial value. However, neither the Kansas gases nor those from other H/sub 2/ occurrences have been adequately examined to assess their importance as potential resources. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Revising the Dust Bowl: High Above the Kansas Grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvester, Kenneth M.; Rupley, Eric S.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reconstructs land cover patterns in Depressionera Kansas from historical aerial photos and compares the locations of crop fields to areas of submarginal land identified in modern digital soil survey maps. The analysis argues that New Deal land retirement programs overestimated the degree of bad land use because they lacked the basic science to make comprehensive assessments. The findings demonstrate that the misuse of land unfit for cultivation was relatively rare across the cent...

  7. Low back pain and musculoskeletal symptoms among Kansas farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, John; Rodgers, Gina; Merlino, Linda

    2006-07-01

    Farming continues to rank as one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among the farmers and to examine the factors associated with occupational back pain. Farmers in a predominately corn and soybean growing region of Kansas served as the study sample. Questionnaires were mailed out to 499 active farmers of a Farmers' Cooperative in Southeast Kansas. The self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of back pain and other MSDs and to determine the strength of associations between back pain and work factors. The participation rate was 57.2%. The low back was the anatomical area with the highest prevalence of self-reported work-related pain (37.5%), followed by the shoulders (25.9%), knees (23.6%), and neck (22.4%). Close to 60% of the farmers reported that they experienced farm work-related MSD symptoms in at least one of the nine body areas in the previous year. Nearly one quarter of the farmers reported seeing a physician for their low back symptoms, and one in five farmers had to modify their work habits due to low back symptoms during the previous year. Low back pain and other musculoskeletal conditions are a significant problem for Kansas farmers. This group of Kansas farmers experienced low back pain at a much higher rate than the general working population and higher than other groups of farmers previously studied. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Dissolution of Kansas evaporites: the radioactive waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository at Lyons, Kansas, focused attention on the problem of evaporite dissolution. More study is needed in the determination of the mechanisms responsible for deterioration. Also, recent water-use policies have been questioned with the need pointed out for increased effectiveness in planning. Good water planning has to take into account the role of evaporite dissolution in water quality. 23 references

  9. An evaluation of the use of an advanced oxidation process to remove chlorinated hydrocarbons from groundwater at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, S.B. II; Peyton, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The Allied-Signal Aerospace Company currently operates a production facility in Kansas City, Missouri, under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Over the years the operation of the DOE Kansas City Plant has resulted in the contamination of groundwater with chlorinated hydrocarbons, including trichloroethene (TCE). One of the plumes of contaminated groundwater, the underground tank farm (UTF) plume, was selected for remediation with an advanced oxidation process (AOP) consisting of simultaneous treatment by ozone (O{sub 3}), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Since the use of AOPs is relatively new for the removal of organics from groundwater, information on design criteria, costs, performance, and operating experience is not well documented in the literature. Therefore, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested to evaluate the treatment process. This report documents the work performed through FY 1989. The results of the initial year of the evaluations, FY 1988, have been published previously, and the evaluation will continue at least through FY 1990. This report first briefly describes the treatment plant and the mechanisms of the treatment process. Next, the methodology and the results from the evaluation are discussed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented. 8 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  11. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  12. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    Underground exploitation of dimensional stones is not a novelty, being long since practised, as proved by a number of historical documents and by a certain number of ancient quarrying voids throughout the world. Anyway, so far, open cast quarrying has been the most adopted practice for the excavation of dimensional stones. One primary reason that led to this situation is of course connected to the lower production costs of an open cast exploitation compared to an underground one. This cheapness has been supported by geological and technical motives: on the one hand, the relative availability of surface deposits and, on the other, the development of technologies, which often can be used only outdoor. But, nowadays, general costs of quarrying activities should be re-evaluated because new, and often proper, restrictions have been strongly rising during recent years. As a consequence of both environmental and technical restrictions, pressure will more and more arise to reduce open cast quarrying and to promote underground exploitations. The trend is already well marked for weak rocks - for instance in the extractive basin of Carrara, where about one hundred quarries are active, 30 per cent is working underground, but also in Spain, Portugal and Greece the number of underground marble quarries is increasing - but not yet for hard rock quarrying, where only few quarries are working underground all around the world. One reason has to be found in cutting technologies traditionally used. In weak rocks, diamond wire saw and chain cutter are usable, with few adaptations, in underground spaces, while drilling and blasting, the traditional exploitation method for hard stone, is not easily usable in a confined space, where often only one free face is available. Many technicians and researchers agree that two technologies will probably open the door to underground quarrying in hard rocks: diamond wire and water jet. The first one is already available; the second should still be

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Factors Related to Customer Satisfaction with MoDOT in the Kansas City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey was sent to approximately twenty thousand citizens from District Four (Kansas City Area) residents in order to gather statistical evidence for : supporting or eliminating reasons for the satisfaction discrepancy between Kansas City Ar...

  14. The Underground Laboratory in South Korea : facilities and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongduk

    2017-01-01

    We have developed underground physics programs for last 15 years in South Korea. The scientific and technical motivation for this initiative was the lack of local facility of a large accelerator in Korea. Thanks to the large underground electric power generator in Yangyang area, we could construct a deep underground laboratory (Yangyang Laboratory, Y2L) and has performed some pioneering experiments for dark matter search and double beta decay experiments. Since year of 2013, a new research center in the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics (CUP), is approved by the government and Y2L laboratory is managed by CUP. Due to the limited space in Y2L, we are proposing to construct a new deep underground laboratory where we can host larger scale experiments of next generation. The site is in an active iron mine, and will be made in 1100 meter underground with a space of about 2000 m2 by the end of 2019. I will describe the status and future plan for this underground laboratory. CUP has two main experimental programs. (1) Identification of dark matter : The annual modulation signal of DAMA/LIBRA experiment has been contradictory to many other experiments such as XENON100, LUX, and Super CDMS. Yale University and CUP (COSINE-100) experimentalists agreed to do an experiment together at the Y2L and recently commissioned a 100kg scale low background NaI(Tl) crystal experiment. In future, we will develop NaI(Tl) crystals with lower internal backgrounds and try to run identical detectors at both north and south hemisphere. Low mass WIMP search is also planned with a development of low temperature sensors coupled with highly scintillating crystals. (2) Neutrinoless double beta decay search : The mass of the lightest neutrino and the Majorana nature of the neutrinos are not determined yet. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment can answer both of the questions directly, and ultra-low backgrounds and excellent energy resolution are critical to

  15. Naturally occurring hydrogen gas from a borehole on the western flank of Nemaha anticline in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, E.D.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.; Angino, E.E.; Zeller, E.

    1983-08-01

    Since August 1982, the CFA 1 Scott well in Sec. 20, T14S, R6E, Morris County, Kansas, located about 14 mi (23 km) south of Junction City, has yielded a gas composed of 50 +/- 10% free hydrogen, 50 +/- 10% nitrogen, and only traces of hydrocarbons. This analysis has been ascertained by gas chromatography and mass spectrography of samples taken over a period of 6 months. The reservoir rock is a Kinderhook sand from 2176 to 2196 ft (663 to 669m) depth. The gas samples analyzed are accumulating in the head space above a fluid level (salt water) of 1805 ft (550m) from a botton-hole depth of 2197 ft (670m). The Scott well is located on the western flank of the complexly faulted Nemaha anticline, updip from the central North American rift system and 30 mi (48 km) south of Riley County where serpentinized kimberlites occur. The geothermal gradient is 30/sup 0/C/km (87/sup 0/F/mi). Basement rock beneath the well is granite, probably overlying deeply buried magnetic rocks. No single mechanism is responsible solely for generating this H/sub 2/-rich gas from the Scott well; rather, a combination of fortuitous geologic and possibly biologic processes are contributing in various proportions to the production of the H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. Conceivably, the local geologic setting merely is circumstantial and unrelated to the genesis of the gases. However, in view of its spatial association with the central North American rift Zone, a major geologic feature with similarity to the East Pacific Rise, the Kansas gas occurrence warrants additional study.

  16. Hemoglobin Kansas found by electrophoretic diagnosis in Brazil Hemoglobina Kansas diagnosticada através de eletroforese no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Bonini-Domingos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hemoglobin variants with abnormal oxygen affinity have been reported so far from various regions of the world. They can be classified by their oxygen affinity and 15 variants with low oxygen affinity have been reported. A number of hemoglobin mutants which show an abnormal affinity for oxygen have been reported, but only few cases of hemoglobin Kansas. All cases reported so far are from Japan or in Japanese families. In this paper we describe a Brazilian patient with cyanosis and hemoglobin Kansas diagnosed by an electrophoretical procedure.Hemoglobinas variantes com afinidade anormal ao oxigênio têm sido encontradas em várias partes do mundo. Pela sua afinidade ao oxigênio, estas hemoglobinas variantes têm sido classificadas e 15 variantes com baixa afinidade relatadas. Numerosas hemoglobinas mutantes com afinidade anormal têm também sido relatadas, mas somente poucos casos de Hemoglobina Kansas. Os casos são de pacientes procedentes do Japão, ou de famílias com descendentes japoneses. Neste relato descrevemos um paciente com manifestações de cianose que teve o seu diagnóstico confirmado através da eletroforese.

  17. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  18. En Garde: Fencing at Kansas City's Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, 1991-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, Bradley W.

    2015-01-01

    Central High School in Kansas City, Missouri is one of the oldest schools west of the Mississippi and the first public high school built in Kansas City. Kansas City's magnet plan resulted in Central High School being rebuilt as the Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, a school that was designed to offer students an…

  19. Geospatial economics of the woody biomass supply in Kansas -- A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga Khaliukova; Darci Paull; Sarah L. Lewis-Gonzales; Nicolas Andre; Larry E. Biles; Timothy M. Young; James H. Perdue

    2017-01-01

    This research assessed the geospatial supply of cellulosic feedstocks for potential mill sites in Kansas (KS), with procurement zones extending to Arkansas (AR), Iowa(IA), Missouri(MO), Oklahoma (OK), and Nebraska (NE). A web-based modeling system, the Kansas Biomass Supply Assessment Tool, was developed to identify least-cost sourcing areas for logging residues and...

  20. 75 FR 35078 - Notice of Acceptance of Concurrent Legislative Jurisdiction in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Acceptance of Concurrent Legislative Jurisdiction in Kansas AGENCY... Jurisdiction in Kansas. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of jurisdictional changes over areas administered by... jurisdiction over lands and waters owned, leased or administratively controlled by the National Park Service at...

  1. The Kansas Child Welfare System: Where Are We? Where Should We Be Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    In 1996, Kansas launched the nation's most sweeping attempt to radically transform the child welfare system by implementing a privatized form of managed care. Four years later, the child welfare system shows signs of instability and seems very much in transition. This report examines the current status of the child welfare system in Kansas and…

  2. 30 CFR 916.25 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reclamation plan amendments. 916.25 Section 916.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE KANSAS § 916.25 Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following..., -16-4 through -8; policy and procedures for project ranking and selection; organization structure...

  3. Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

  4. New technology of underground structures the framework of restrained urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshko, Mikhail; Pankratenko, Alexander; Revyakin, Alexey; Shchekina, Ekaterina; Kholodova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    In the paper was indicated the essentiality of large-scale underground space development and high-rise construction of cities in Russia. The basic elements of transport facilities construction effective technology without traffic restriction are developed. Unlike the well-known solutions, it offers the inclusion of an advanced lining in the construction that strengthens the soil mass. The fundamental principles of methods for determining stress in advanced support and monitoring of underground construction, providing the application of pressure sensors, strain sensors and displacement sensors are considered.

  5. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke

    The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured during 2 weeks at an underground station in central Stockholm. The instrument, an automatic TEOM monitor (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance), was placed on the platform in the centre of the station. During weekdays between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 470 and 260 μg/ m3, respectively. These levels are a factor 5 and 10 times higher than the corresponding values measured in one of the busiest streets in central Stockholm. The concentrations in the underground followed closely the train traffic intensity. The levels were very similar from one day to the next. During Saturdays and Sundays the levels decreased slightly due to less frequent train passages. Additional measurements were performed right after the tunnel had been washed. Tunnel walls and railway tracks between the platforms of the underground system were washed using water. Only a slight reduction of the PM 10 levels (approximately 13%) could be observed during a few days after the water treatment. For PM 2.5 the reduction was even less, about 10% lower levels could be seen. This might indicate that particles from tunnel walls and tracks make only a minor contribution to the observed levels. These results confirm earlier unpublished measurements showing high levels of PM in the underground of Stockholm. Substantially, elevated particle exposure levels have also been reported in several earlier studies in the underground of London, UK.

  6. Earthquakes in Kansas Induced by Extremely Far-Field Pressure Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterie, Shelby L.; Miller, Richard D.; Intfen, John W.; Gonzales, Julio B.

    2018-02-01

    Pressure diffusion from high-volume saltwater disposal wells near the Kansas-Oklahoma border appears to have contributed to triggering earthquakes as far as 90 km away. Elevated seismicity that began in southern Kansas in 2013 is largely believed to be induced by pore pressure increase from dozens of disposal wells injecting unprecedented volumes. Earthquakes initially occurred in dense swarms near the wells, and in subsequent years migrated into surrounding areas with minimal fluid injection. By 2017, earthquakes advanced 90 km from areas surrounding the high-volume injection wells into areas with considerable fluid injection volumes but historically consistent rates. Fluid pressure within the injection interval in southern Kansas increased subsequent to high-volume saltwater disposal in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma. Temporal pressure trends across central Kansas suggest that fluid migration and pressure diffusion from cumulative disposal to the south likely induced earthquakes much farther than previously documented for individual injection wells.

  7. Land subsidence caused by dissolution of salt near four oil and gas wells in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Stuart Wesley

    1975-01-01

    Collapse of the overlying strata into voids caused by dissolution of salt is the apparent cause of progressive land subsidence at the sites of several oil wells that were drilled through the salt beds of the Wellington Formation in Kansas. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if data from four sites, shown in figure 1, substantiate the hypothesis that corroded, broken, or improperly sealed casing permitted relatively fresh water from the shallow aquifers to circulate within the salt zone and that the resulting brine solution leaked downward into permeable zones that would accept the fluid under hydrostatic pressure.Strata similar to those penetrated by wells at the four sites (shown in tables 1 and 2) underlie much of central Kansas. Many thousands of oil and gas wells have been drilled through the salt beds, but land subsidence has been reported at few of the sites. Reported sites are near highways, and two well-documented instances of subsidence involve the stability of highway right-of-way. Because many wells have been drilled in remote areas, similar occurrences may remain unreported. The scope of this investigation is limited to the compilation, analysis and interpretation of the available data from four sites shown in figure 1, and the mention of a fifth site.The photograph (fig. 2) shows a deteriorated casing pulled from a well located between Sites 3 and 4 in western Rice County. The casing consists of inner and outer pipes with the annular space between filled with cement. The almost complete failure of the outer pipe is evident. The casing is believed to be from the well in the concrete pit that is in the lower right of the photograph. The pond in the background is a sink that has developed near the well; detailed historical data, however, were unavailable for further study of this site.The investigation was requested by the Energy Research and Develop-ment Administration (formerly U.S. Atomic Energy Commission) as part of a study of bedded

  8. Bioremediation of Benzene-contaminated Underground Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoh

    Contamination of underground aquifers with gasoline occurs frequently. Among the gasoline constituents, benzene is of great environmental concern, since it is carcinogenic, water-soluble and persistent under anaerobic conditions. We have analyzed a gasoline-contaminated underground aquifer undergoing natural attenuation, where benzene was degraded, albeit slowly, under anaerobic conditions. RNA-based stable-isotope probing identified that bacteria affiliated with the genus AZOARCUS was responsible for benzene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. This result was confirmed by isolating an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium AZOARCUS sp. strain DN11. This strain degraded benzene at relatively low concentrations (as low as 10 ppb). It could also degrade toluene and xylenes. In laboratory bioaugmentation experiments using benzene-contaminated groundwater, it was demonstrated that supplementation with DN11 significantly accelerated benzene degradation under a nitrate-reducing condition. These results indicate that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  9. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  10. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  11. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  12. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns.

  13. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  14. Acquiring underground infrastructure's as-built information for cities' sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaw, S W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid progress of urbanization around the world has lead to an issue of urban land shortage. As such, the urban infrastructure, especially the utilities infrastructure, were buried underground for space saving and better design of urban landscape. However, this has created difficulties in locating these infrastructures from ground surface since they are invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, this paper offers a method to secure as-built information of the underground utility feature without excavation. This is done by utilizing digital image processing, a series of experiments conducted on preferred test site and real model simulation. By securing these underground utilities as-built information, it can contribute to the sustainability of cities through better urban planning. Moreover, the significant findings achieved in this study also eligible to pinpoint that ground penetrating radar (GPR) backscatter with appropritate treatment can yield unique backscatter signature which functional for identification of the types of underground utility without proving excavation. Thereby, good agreement between the backscatter reflections of GPR with respective underground utility not only serves as input which can channelled into a city's planning, but also uncovers the immense potential of GPR backscatter in reporting the ''feature information'' of the objects

  15. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  16. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  17. Rome: sinkhole events and network of underground cavities (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisio, Stefania; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic sinkholes in the city of Rome are closely linked to the network of underground cavities produced by human activities in more than two thousand years of history. Over the past fifteen years the increased frequency of intense rainfall events, favors sinkhole formation. The risk assessment induced by anthropogenic sinkhole is really difficult. However, a susceptibility of the territory to sinkholes can be more easily determined as the probability that an event may occur in a given space, with unique geological-morphological characteristics, and in an infinite time. A sinkhole susceptibility map of the Rome territory, up to the ring road, has been constructed by using Geographically Weighted Regression technique and geostatistics. The spatial regression model includes the analysis of more than 2700 anthropogenic sinkholes (recorded from 1875 to 2015), as well as geological, morphological, hydrological and predisposing anthropogenic characteristics of the study area. The numerous available data (underground cavities, the ancient entrances to the quarry, bunkers, etc.) facilitate the creation of a series of maps. The density map of the cavity, updated to 2015, showed that more than 20 km2 of the Roman territory are affected by underground cavities. The census of sinkholes (over 2700) shows that over 30 km2 has been affected by sinkholes. The final susceptibility map highlights that inside the Ring Road about 40 km2 of the territory (about 11%) have a very high probability of triggering a sinkhole event. The susceptibility map was also compared with the data of ground subsidence (InSAR) to obtain a predictive model.

  18. Status and Growth of Underground Science at WIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Norbert T.

    2008-10-01

    The science community is increasingly taking advantage of research opportunities in the government-owned Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 655m underground near Carlsbad, NM. Discoveries so far include viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in 250 million-year old salt, preserved in an ultra-low background-radiation setting. Supplementing the overburden's shielding against cosmic radiation, terrestrial background from the host formation is less than five percent that of average crustal rock. In the past, WIPP accommodated development and testing of neutral current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and dark matter research, and it currently hosts two experiments pursuing neutrino-less double-beta decay. That scientists can listen to whispers from the universe in proximity to megacuries of radioactive waste lends, of course, credibility to the argument that WIPP itself is very safe. Almost a century of regional petroleum and potash extraction history and more than three decades of WIPP studies have generated a comprehensive body of knowledge on geology, mining technology, rock mechanics, geochemistry, and other disciplines relevant to underground science. Existing infrastructure is being used and can be expanded to fit experimental needs. WIPP's exemplary safety and regulatory compliance culture, low excavating and operating cost, and the high probability of the repository operating at least another 40 years make its available underground space attractive for future research and development. Recent proposals include low-photon energy counting to study internal dose received decades ago, investigations into ultra-low radiation dose response in cell cultures and laboratory animals (e.g., hormesis vs. linear no-threshold) and detectors for dark matter, solar and supernova neutrinos, and proton decay. Additional proposals compatible with WIPP's primary mission are welcome.

  19. Final Monitoring Plan for Site Closure at Inman, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Inman, Kansas, is a rural town located in southwest McPherson County, in sections 8, 9, 16, and 17, Township 21 South, Range 4 West (Figure 1.1). There are 1,377 people in 513 households, as of the census of 2010. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the southern edge of the city of Inman, Kansas, from 1954 to 1965. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In 1997, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contamination level [MCL] of 5.0 μg/L) were detected in three private wells near the former grain storage facility at Inman, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. No public water supply wells were identified within 1 mi of the town by the KDHE in 1998. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites associated with grain storage operations. To determine whether the former CCC/USDA facility at Inman is a potential contaminant source and its possible relationship to the carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater, the CCC/USDA agreed to conduct a multi-phase investigation at Inman. The investigation was performed by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the USDA.

  20. Final report : site reclassification investigation for Courtland, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Dennis, C. B.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated a grain storage facility in Courtland, Kansas. Prior to 1986, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the grain industry to preserve stored grain. In 1999, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) identified the former CCC/USDA operation as the likely source of carbon tetrachloride found in groundwater east of the former CCC/USDA facility in Courtland. Sampling by the KDHE in April 1998 had found carbon tetrachloride in the Garman residence lawn and garden well at a concentration of 2.1 {micro}g/L and in the Hoard residence lawn and garden well at a concentration of 0.5 {micro}g/L. Subsequent soil and groundwater sampling by the KDHE at the former CCC/USDA facility found no indication of a continuing source, and subsequent sampling of the affected wells showed generally declining contaminant levels. At the request of the KDHE and the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory prepared a Work Plan for Groundwater Sampling for Potential Site Reclassification, Courtland, Kansas (Argonne 2004). The objective of the proposed work was to conduct a single groundwater monitoring event and collect information necessary to update the status of the previously detected groundwater contamination, in support of an evaluation of appropriate actions for reclassification of the status of this site from active to resolved, under the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the USDA's Farm Service Agency (FSA). The reclassification would be in accordance with the KDHE's Reclassification Plan (Policy No. BERRS-024, online at http://www.kdhe.state.ks.us/pdf/ber/scp/reclass.pdf). The KDHE approved the Work Plan on August 8, 2005. Sampling was conducted on September 7, 2005.

  1. A research on the excavation and maintenance of underground energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee-Soon; Chung, So-Keul; Ryu, Chang-Ha [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    CAES which is called as a compressed air energy storage was firstly developed at Huntorf, Gen-nan in 1978. The capacity of that system was 290MW, and it can be treated as a first commercial power plant. CAES has a lot of merits, such as saving the unit price of power generation, averaging the peak demand, improvement of maintenance, enlarging the benefit of dynamic use. According to the literature survey, the unlined rock cavern should be proposed to be a reasonable storing style as a method of compressed air storage in Korea. In this study, the most important techniques were evaluated through the investigation of the foreign construction case studies, especially on the unlined rock caverns in hard rock mass. We decided the hill of the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials as CAES site. If we construct the underground spaces in this site, the demand for electricity nearby Taejon should be considered. So we could determine the capacity of the power plant as a 350MW. This capacity needs a underground space of 200,000, and we can conclude 4 parallel tunnels 550m deep from the surface through the numerical studies. Design parameters were achieved from 300m depth boring job and image processing job. Moreover the techniques for determination of joint characteristics from the images could be obtained. Blasting pattern was designed on the underground spaces, and automatic gas control system and thermomechanical characteristics on caverns were also studied. And finally the following research items could be proposed for future researches. (1) Establishment of criteria for selection of optimal tunnel type. (2) Evaluation of water tightening ability. (3) Investigation of Lining type. (4) Development of techniques for site investigation in deep underground project. (5) Evaluation of construction techniques for underground space and shaft. (6) Investigation of long-term maintenance for pressured tunnel. (author). 14 refs.

  2. Annual Report of Monitoring at Morrill, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at Morrill, Kansas, was initially identified in 1985 during statewide testing of public water supply wells for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). High levels of nitrate were also present in the public water supply wells. The city of Morrill is located in Brown County in the northeastern corner of the state, about 7 mi east of Sabetha (Figure 1.1). The population of Morrill as of the 2010 Census was approximately 230 (down from 277 in 2000). All residents of Morrill now obtain their drinking water from the Sabetha municipal water system via a pipeline constructed in 1991. This document reports the findings concerning the groundwater in Morrill.

  3. Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

  4. Barriers and Opportunities for Sustainable Food Systems in Northeastern Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Janke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey responses of producers and institutional buyers in northeastern Kansas (United States were analyzed to understand barriers and opportunities for sustainable food systems in the region where their emergence has been limited. Producers and buyers identified barriers previously noted regarding mismatches of available quantities and prices. Producers’ enthusiasm to supply locally exceeded buyers’ interest to source locally. Transportation was identified as one of the major concerns by producers, and their responses to choice tasks revealed producers’ preferences to sell locally while pricing their products to secure sales revenue and to cover their logistics expenses at least partially.

  5. Instructional image processing on a university mainframe: The Kansas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. H. L.; Siebert, J.; Gunn, C.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive digital image processing program package was developed that runs on the University of Kansas central computer, a Honeywell Level 66 multi-processor system. The module form of the package allows easy and rapid upgrades and extensions of the system and is used in remote sensing courses in the Department of Geography, in regional five-day short courses for academics and professionals, and also in remote sensing projects and research. The package comprises three self-contained modules of processing functions: Subimage extraction and rectification; image enhancement, preprocessing and data reduction; and classification. Its use in a typical course setting is described. Availability and costs are considered.

  6. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  7. Sediment transport to and from small impoundments in northeast Kansas, March 2009 through September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; Lee, Casey J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, investigated sediment transport to and from three small impoundments (average surface area of 0.1 to 0.8 square miles) in northeast Kansas during March 2009 through September 2011. Streamgages and continuous turbidity sensors were operated upstream and downstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes to study the effect of varied watershed characteristics and agricultural practices on sediment transport in small watersheds in northeast Kansas. Atchison County Lake is located in a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops, with wide riparian buffers along streams, a substantial amount of tile drainage, and numerous small impoundments (less than 0.05 square miles; hereafter referred to as “ponds”). Banner Creek Lake is a predominantly grassland basin with numerous small ponds located in the watershed, and wide riparian buffers along streams. Centralia Lake is a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops with few ponds, few riparian buffers along streams, and minimal tile drainage. Upstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes 24, 38, and 32 percent, respectively, of the total load was transported during less than 0.1 percent (approximately 0.9 days) of the time. Despite less streamflow in 2011, larger sediment loads during that year indicate that not all storm events transport the same amount of sediment; larger, extreme storms during the spring may transport much larger sediment loads in small Kansas watersheds. Annual sediment yields were 360, 400, and 970 tons per square mile per year at Atchison County, Banner, and Centralia Lake watersheds, respectively, which were less than estimated yields for this area of Kansas (between 2,000 and 5,000 tons per square mile per year). Although Centralia and Atchison County Lakes had similar percentages of agricultural land use, mean annual sediment yields upstream from Centralia Lake were about 2.7 times

  8. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  9. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  10. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  11. Zen Communist: Breyten Breytenbach's view from underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an interview after his release from prison, Breyten Breytenbach describes himself, at the time he became involved in underground politics, as a Zen Communist. He returns occasionally to this interaction of Marxist ideas of social revolution and Buddhist ideas of non-attachment, but never attempts to explain the resulting ...

  12. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  13. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  14. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Underground application of magnetic resonance soundings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available that characterize the orientation of the mine wall. There is a geometric enhancement of the MRS signal under typical mining conditions for the locations studied. However, the loop size is severely restricted in underground conditions, limiting the feasible target...

  16. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ) is the project lead unit and is developing the sensors needed for underground data acquisition related to the safety application. The body of the robot is being developed by the Mechatronics and Micro-Manufacturing (MMM) group. The software component is being...

  17. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to dat...

  18. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  19. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  20. Annual Report of Monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). Barnes is located in Section 9, Township 4 South, Range 5 East, at approximate latitude 39°43'0'' north and longitude 96°52'25'' west (USGS 1968). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area’s topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. This report summarizes findings for groundwater inspection in Barnes.

  1. Kansas nurse leader residency programme: advancing leader knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiuhua; Peltzer, Jill; Teel, Cynthia; Pierce, Janet

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Kansas Nurse Leader Residency (KNLR) programme in improving nurses' leadership knowledge and skills and its acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. The Future of Nursing Report (Institute of Medicine, 2011) calls for nurses to lead change and advance health. The 6-month KNLR programme was developed by the Kansas Action Coalition to support nurses' leadership development. Nurses (n = 36) from four nursing specialties (acute care, long-term care, public health and school health) participated in the programme. The adapted Leader Knowledge and Skill Inventory was used to assess leadership knowledge and skills. Programme acceptability, feasibility and implementation fidelity also were evaluated. The programme completion rate was 67.7% (n = 24). Programme completers had significantly improved self-assessed and mentor-assessed leadership knowledge and skills (p programme gains were maintained 3 months after programme completion. The KNLR programme effectively improved leadership knowledge and skills and was positively evaluated by participants. The implementation of the KNLR programme using a hybrid format of in-person sessions and online modules was feasible across four specialty areas in both rural and urban regions. The next steps include the development of an advanced programme. Residency programmes for new nurse leaders are critical for successful transition into management positions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Distribution and Sources of Nitrate-Nitrogen in Kansas Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Kansas is primarily an agricultural state. Irrigation water and fertilizer use data show long- term increasing trends. Similarly, nitrate-N concentrations in groundwater show long-term increases and exceed the drinking-water standard of 10 mg/l in many areas. A statistical analysis of nitrate-N data collected for local and regional studies in Kansas from 1990 to 1998 (747 samples found significant relationships between nitrate-N concentration with depth, age, and geographic location of wells. Sources of nitrate-N have been identified for 297 water samples by using nitrogen stable isotopes. Of these samples, 48% showed fertilizer sources (+2 to +8 and 34% showed either animal waste sources (+10 to +15 with nitrate-N greater than 10 mg/l or indication that enrichment processes had occurred (+10 or above with variable nitrate-N or both. Ultimate sources for nitrate include nonpoint sources associated with past farming and fertilization practices, and point sources such as animal feed lots, septic systems, and commercial fertilizer storage units. Detection of nitrate from various sources in aquifers of different depths in geographically varied areas of the state indicates that nonpoint and point sources currently impact and will continue to impact groundwater under current land uses.

  3. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  4. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  5. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  7. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  8. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  9. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?...

  10. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  11. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  12. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  13. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  14. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  15. An Integrated Risk Index Model Based on Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic for Underground Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fayaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Available space in congested cities is getting scarce due to growing urbanization in the recent past. The utilization of underground space is considered as a solution to the limited space in smart cities. The numbers of underground facilities are growing day by day in the developing world. Typical underground facilities include the transit subway, parking lots, electric lines, water supply and sewer lines. The likelihood of the occurrence of accidents due to underground facilities is a random phenomenon. To avoid any accidental loss, a risk assessment method is required to conduct the continuous risk assessment and report any abnormality before it happens. In this paper, we have proposed a hierarchical fuzzy inference based model for under-ground risk assessment. The proposed hierarchical fuzzy inference architecture reduces the total number of rules from the rule base. Rule reduction is important because the curse of dimensionality damages the transparency and interpretation as it is very tough to understand and justify hundreds or thousands of fuzzy rules. The computation time also increases as rules increase. The proposed model takes 175 rules having eight input parameters to compute the risk index, and the conventional fuzzy logic requires 390,625 rules, having the same number of input parameters to compute risk index. Hence, the proposed model significantly reduces the curse of dimensionality. Rule design for fuzzy logic is also a tedious task. In this paper, we have also introduced new rule schemes, namely maximum rule-based and average rule-based; both schemes can be used interchangeably according to the logic needed for rule design. The experimental results show that the proposed method is a virtuous choice for risk index calculation where the numbers of variables are greater.

  16. DaMaSCUS: the impact of underground scatterings on direct detection of light dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris, E-mail: emken@cp3.sdu.dk, E-mail: kouvaris@cp3.sdu.dk [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2017-10-01

    Conventional dark matter direct detection experiments set stringent constraints on dark matter by looking for elastic scattering events between dark matter particles and nuclei in underground detectors. However these constraints weaken significantly in the sub-GeV mass region, simply because light dark matter does not have enough energy to trigger detectors regardless of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section. Even if future experiments lower their energy thresholds, they will still be blind to parameter space where dark matter particles interact with nuclei strongly enough that they lose enough energy and become unable to cause a signal above the experimental threshold by the time they reach the underground detector. Therefore in case dark matter is in the sub-GeV region and strongly interacting, possible underground scatterings of dark matter with terrestrial nuclei must be taken into account because they affect significantly the recoil spectra and event rates, regardless of whether the experiment probes DM via DM-nucleus or DM-electron interaction. To quantify this effect we present the publicly available Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings (DaMaSCUS), a Monte Carlo simulator of DM trajectories through the Earth taking underground scatterings into account. Our simulation allows the precise calculation of the density and velocity distribution of dark matter at any detector of given depth and location on Earth. The simulation can also provide the accurate recoil spectrum in underground detectors as well as the phase and amplitude of the diurnal modulation caused by this shadowing effect of the Earth, ultimately relating the modulations expected in different detectors, which is important to decisively conclude if a diurnal modulation is due to dark matter or an irrelevant background.

  17. DaMaSCUS: the impact of underground scatterings on direct detection of light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Conventional dark matter direct detection experiments set stringent constraints on dark matter by looking for elastic scattering events between dark matter particles and nuclei in underground detectors. However these constraints weaken significantly in the sub-GeV mass region, simply because light dark matter does not have enough energy to trigger detectors regardless of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section. Even if future experiments lower their energy thresholds, they will still be blind to parameter space where dark matter particles interact with nuclei strongly enough that they lose enough energy and become unable to cause a signal above the experimental threshold by the time they reach the underground detector. Therefore in case dark matter is in the sub-GeV region and strongly interacting, possible underground scatterings of dark matter with terrestrial nuclei must be taken into account because they affect significantly the recoil spectra and event rates, regardless of whether the experiment probes DM via DM-nucleus or DM-electron interaction. To quantify this effect we present the publicly available Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings (DaMaSCUS), a Monte Carlo simulator of DM trajectories through the Earth taking underground scatterings into account. Our simulation allows the precise calculation of the density and velocity distribution of dark matter at any detector of given depth and location on Earth. The simulation can also provide the accurate recoil spectrum in underground detectors as well as the phase and amplitude of the diurnal modulation caused by this shadowing effect of the Earth, ultimately relating the modulations expected in different detectors, which is important to decisively conclude if a diurnal modulation is due to dark matter or an irrelevant background.

  18. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  19. Markov chain modelling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Valor, A.; Hallen, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-time, non-homogenous linear growth (pure birth) Markov process has been used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The closed form solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The identification of the transition probability function can be achieved by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. Monte-Carlo simulations previously reported have been used to predict the time evolution of the mean value of the pit depth distribution for different soil textural classes. The simulated distributions have been used to create an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. The proposed model has also been applied to pitting corrosion data from pipeline repeated in-line inspections and laboratory immersion experiments.

  20. Surface-water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; results of investigations, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Surface-water-quality conditions and trends were assessed in the lower Kansas River Basin, which drains about 15,300 square miles of mainly agricultural land in southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas. On the basis of established water-quality criteria, most streams in the basin were suitable for uses such as public-water supply, irrigation, and maintenance of aquatic life. However, most concerns identified from a previous analysis of available data through 1986 are substantiated by analysis of data for May 1987 through April 1990. Less-than-normal precipitation and runoff during 1987-90 affected surface-water quality and are important factors in the interpretation of results.Dissolved-solids concentrations in the main stem Kansas River during May 1987 through April 1990 commonly exceeded 500 milligrams per liter, which may be of concern for public-water supplies and for the irrigation of sensitive crops. Large concentrations of chloride in the Kansas River are derived from ground water discharging in the Smoky Hill River Basin west of the study unit. Trends of increasing concentrations of some dissolved major ions were statistically significant in the northwestern part of the study unit, which could reflect substantial increases in irrigated acreage.The largest concentrations of suspended sediment in streams during May 1987 through April 1990 were associated with high-density cropland in areas of little local relief and medium-density irrigated cropland in more dissected areas. The smallest concentrations were measured downstream from large reservoirs and in streams draining areas having little or no row-crop cultivation. Mean annual suspended-sediment transport rates in the main stem Kansas River increased substantially in the downstream direction. No conclusions could be reached concerning the relations of suspended-sediment transport, yields, or trends to natural and human factors.The largest sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in the study unit were fertilizer

  1. Measurement of age of underground water, using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio; Kagami, Tadaaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Onuma, Akiko; Shoka, Yasushi

    1978-01-01

    Age of four kinds of underground water in Aichi prefecture was estimated by measuring a concentration of tritium. The tritium concentration was measured by the usual method. The first water-bearing zone of the shallow part, about 50m in depth, of Nobi plain is a new underground water cultivated within 20 years, whereas second water-bearing zone is an old underground water of 20 years old or more. No relationship of water flow between the first and the second water-bearing zone was observed. A very deep underground about 100m or more in depth, of the Nobi plain is confirmed to be infinite years old fossil water by measuring of tritium. The underground water in Atsumi peninsula is mostly a new underground water within 20 years. Only one out of eight showed the existence of old underground water before 20 years or more. The underground water of the granite area at Mikawa district is confirmed to be old underground water before 20 years or more. Alkaline underground water in the granite zone is considered to be very old in view of composition of water. The origin of underground water can be learned by tritium concentration, which shows whether the water is new water in the neighborhood of earth's surface or very old cultivated water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Stream instability countermeasures applied at Kansas Department of Transportation highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This project considered stream instability countermeasures used by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) to protect the highway infrastructure at stream crossings from changes due to the dynamic nature of streams. Site visits were made to 13...

  3. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by compa...

  4. 78 FR 41911 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161-Sedgwick County, Kansas; Authorization of Production Activity; Siemens...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Activity; Siemens Energy, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Hutchinson, Kansas On March 7, 2013, Siemens Energy, Inc., an operator of FTZ 161, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to...

  5. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  6. A new species of Myrmedonota Cameron from eastern Kansas (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, K. Taro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Myrmedonota heliantha sp. n. is described from eastern Kansas (USA). All specimens were collected from dung. A modified new key to the species of Myrmedonota of America north of Mexico is provided. PMID:21594129

  7. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  8. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  9. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  10. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  11. Underground Engineering: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzalai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    UNDERGROUND ENGINEERING: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation. Complexity, sustainability, safety, security, versatility, creativity, and innovation are essential themes driving engineering science today. The world is changing rapidly and although the content and methods of engineering are evolving with it, an engineer's professional mission remains the same: to solve problems and make decisions. The application of new software such as BIM, Digital Project and Advanced TBM is shaping the...

  12. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  13. Underground navigation and localisation using RFID tags

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available their locations. The paper will build on previous work done by Forster[8] and Vorst et al.[9] by implementing the proposed hybrid SLAM method on the mining safety platform, which will eventually be used in an underground environment. II. NAVIGATION... AND LOCALISATION SCHEME A. Exploration and clustering The algorithm used for exploring the RFID environment is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Algorithm used for exploring RFID environment Given sufficient (more than 500 steps per 25 square metres) simulation...

  14. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  15. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  17. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  18. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  19. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  20. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lamar quadrangle, Colorado and Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, A.M.; Johnson, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium resources of the Lamar Quadrangle, Colorado and Kansas, were evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. The environment favorable for uranium is the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the area east of John Martin Reservoir for south Texas roll-type sandstone deposits. Carbonaceous trash and sulfides are abundant in the Dakota Sandstone. The unit underlies a thick Upper Cretaceous section that contains bentonitic beds and uraniferous marine black shale. Water samples from the Dakota Sandstone aquifer contain as much as 122 ppB U 3 O 8 . Geologic units considered unfavorable include most of the Paleozoic rocks, except in the Brandon Fault area; the Upper Cretaceous rocks; and the Ogallala Formation. The Dockum Group, Morrison Formation, and Lytle Member of the Purgatoire Formation are unevaluated because of lack of data

  2. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for \\$20/bbl, CO2 costs \\$1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to \\$0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  3. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  4. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  5. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  6. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  7. Final report : Phase III targeted investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated these facilities from the early 1950s until the early 1970s, at a time when commercial fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and private industry for the preservation of grain in storage. In 1997 the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and non-drinking water wells in the Everest area as part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program. All of the sampled wells were outside the Everest city limits. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well, DW06; Figure 1.1) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Subsequent KDHE investigations suggested that the contamination in DW06 could be linked to the former use of grain fumigants at the CCC/USDA facility. For this reason, the CCC/USDA is conducting a phased environmental study to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination at Everest and to identify potential remedial options. The studies are being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Two phases of investigation were completed previously; this report presents the findings of the targeted Phase III investigation at Everest.

  8. Water-quality and fluvial-sediment characteristics of selected streams in northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, an investigation was made of the water-quality and fluvial-sediment characteristics of selected streams in northeast Kansas for which the construction of floodwater-retarding and grade-stabilization structures to control soil erosion is being considered. The predominent chemical type of water in streams draining the study area is calcium bicarbonate. In-stream concentrations of chemical constituents generally decrease with increasing streamflow. Exceptions to this are nitrate and phosphorus, which enter the streams as components of surface runoff. Computed mean annual discharges of dissolved solids ranged from 512 tons for Pony CratkSabetha, Kansas, to 23,900 tons for the Wolf River near Sparks, Kansas. Sediment yields in the study area, predominently silt and clay, are among the largest in the State. Drainage basins in the northern part of the study area yielded the most suspended sediment, with Pony Creek at Sabetha and near Reserve, Kansas, yielding 5,100 tons per square mile per year. Drainage basins in the southern part of the study area yielded less suspended sediment, with Little Grasshopper Creek near Effingham, Kansas, yielding 493 tons per square mile per year and Little Delaware River near Horton, Kansas, yielding 557 tons per square mile per year. (USGS)

  9. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  10. Challenges associated with the design of underground grinding plant at McArthur River project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrozek, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    McArthur River is an unique high grade uranium underground mine. Ore grinding and thickening are part of the underground operation. The grinding circuit is designed to operate in conditions different from conventional plant environments. Design of the grinding plant was a collective effort of a multi-disciplinary engineering team closely cooperating with project operating personnel. The equipment had to be selected to reflect widely varying ore properties. A user-friendly plant layout provides access to equipment inspections, services, and the delivery of necessary components. The size of the grinding chamber was limited in order to keep the rock stress levels within allowable values. All underground equipment brought to the construction site was restricted in size and weight. Plant construction faced limited storage space underground, tight erection sequencing, and schedule. Plant ventilation is a critical design feature. It efficiently removes radioactive dust from work areas, eliminates stagnant air pockets, and separates clean air from contaminated air areas. Radiation shielding on the equipment is designed to correspond with operational and maintenance functions. Plant operation is remotely controlled and requires little attendance. Video cameras are used on critical equipment and in controlled access areas. An extensive program of preventive and predictive maintenance allows highly reliable plant operation. (author)

  11. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  12. Underground pedestrian routes as an option for arranging the transfer from one type of public transport to another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, O.

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the issues of pedestrian movements within cities and focuses on the architectural and planning organization of transfer between two types of public transport. The amount of time citizens lose on the pedestrian sections of their way from home to work were analyzed. The article describes factors that influence the speed and the comfort of pedestrian movements as well as provides rationalization for connecting two types of transport in the underground space. The article also touches upon the issue of the negative cost impact caused by excessive time losses, including the ones that appear on the pedestrian sections of the route. Architectural methods that may ease a pedestrian’s psychological adaptation to the underground space are listed in the article. The results of experimental designing that prove the reduction of the travel time by forming underground pedestrian ways in cities were described. The article features the model of a multi-functional underground space under Serpukhovskaya Zastava square in Moscow. It is noted that pedestrian routes in the cities which do not allow easy movement on the above-the-surface space provide comfortable movement for the citizens.

  13. Specialized video systems for use in underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendom, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Robotics Development Groups at the Savannah River Site and the Hanford site have developed remote video and photography systems for deployment in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a part of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) program within DOE. Figure 1 shows the remote video/photography systems in a typical underground storage tank environment. Viewing and documenting the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in characterizing their condition and contents and in controlling their remediation. Several specialized video/photography systems and robotic End Effectors have been fabricated that provide remote viewing and lighting. All are remotely deployable into and from the tank, and all viewing functions are remotely operated. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. Overview video systems, both monaural and stereo versions, include a camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, vertical deployment system, and positional feedback. Each independent video package can be inserted through a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter opening. A special attribute of these packages is their design to never get larger than the entry hole during operation and to be fully retrievable. The End Effector systems will be deployed on the large robotic Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) being developed by other portions of the OTD-DOE programs. The systems implement a multi-functional ''over the coax'' design that uses a single coaxial cable for all data and control signals over the more than 900 foot cable (or fiber optic) link

  14. Underground transportation and handling system for Pollux-casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrimpf, C.

    1988-01-01

    The concept for the underground transportation and handling system for Pollux-casks was optimized in a first phase by dividing the process in the repository up into the several transportation and manipulation steps. For each step, the possibilities were described and evaluated by means of a list of criteria (technical, safety and economical criteria). The following concept for the transportation and handling was developed: The casks are transported to the unloading area of the surface facilities by railway or truck. After removal of the transport protection, the entry control is performed. The cask is lifted from the vehicle and placed on a railbound transportation vehicle. This transport unit is transferred to the shaft and placed there ready for shaft hoisting. With the hoisting cage protruding, the transport unit is placed on the hoisting cage by means of a pushing-on device, locked, and then conveyed underground. After arrival on the emplacement level, the transport unit is pulled-off from the hoisting cage and taken over by a mine locomotive and transferred through the transportation and access drifts as far as to the emplacement site. There the locomotive pushed the rail transport vehicle into the emplacement drift, as far as to the designated emplacement position. At the emplacement position, the cask is again lifted by means of hoisting equipment. The rail transport vehicle is pulled out of the emplacement drift and returned to the surface for reloading. After deposition of the cask on the drift floor, the emplacement equipment is pulled back in order to give the operation space free for the slinger backfill truck. Within preceding tests two different backfilling techniques were investigated under realistic conditions: pneumatic backfilling and slinger backfilling. The slinger truck was found to be the most suitable for the designated purpose

  15. Ventilation experiment in the Mont Terri underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, M. [Dm-Iberia, Consultores en ciencias de la tierra, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The required ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operational phases of a radioactive waste repository could give rise to a process of desaturation of the rock around the drifts, changing its hydraulic and thermal properties. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), and has been co-financed by the EC under contract FIKW-CT-2001-00126. Its main objective was to evaluate in-situ and better understand the desaturation process of a consolidated clay formation, when subjected to a flow of dry air during several months. This VE test has been performed under practically isothermal conditions (T {approx_equal} 15-16 C), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal micro-tunnel (diameter = 1,3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. In the summer of year 2002 (3,4 years after the micro-tunnel excavation), the test section was sealed off by means of two double doors, and monitored with a total of 96 sensors (rock water potential, water content, temperature and displacements, and conditions of the air in the test section). Specifically, in a rock thickness of approximately two meters, 24 piezometers, 32 hygrometers, 10 TDR, 8 extensometers and 5 electrodes chains (geo-electrical survey) were installed. Hydraulic, geochemical and geo-electrical laboratory tests have been also performed to characterize the Opalinus clay properties. Besides, the in-situ VE test has been interpreted and modelled, using the obtained experimental data for calibration of several codes, such as the Code-Bright, Code-Aster, Tough 2 and Mherlin. (authors)

  16. The 2013–2016 induced earthquakes in Harper and Sumner Counties, southern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Dougherty, Sara L.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the first four years (2013–2016) of the ongoing seismicity in southern Kansas using high‐precision locations derived from a local seismometer network. The earthquakes occur almost exclusively in the shallow crystalline basement, below the wastewater injection horizon of the Arbuckle Group at the base of the sedimentary section. Multiple lines of evidence lead us to conclude that disposal of wastewater from the production of oil and gas by deep injection is the probable cause for the surge of seismicity that began in 2013. First, the seismicity correlates in space and time with the injection. We observe increases in seismicity subsequent to increases in injection and decreases in seismicity in response to decreases in injection. Second, the earthquake‐rate change is statistically improbable to be of natural origin. From 1974 through the time of the injection increase in 2012, no ML">ML 4 or larger earthquakes occurred in the study area, while six occurred between 2012 and 2016. The probability of this rate change occurring randomly is ∼0.16%">∼0.16%. Third, the other potential industrial drivers of seismicity (hydraulic fracturing and oil production) do not correlate in space or time with seismicity. Local geological conditions are important in determining whether injection operations will induce seismicity, as shown by absence of seismicity near the largest injection operations in the southwest portion of our study area. In addition to local operations, the presence of seismicity 10+ km from large injection wells indicates that regional injection operations also need to be considered to understand the effects of injection on seismicity.

  17. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain 238 U and 232 Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; 226 Ra ( 214 Bi), 232 Th e 40 K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m -3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m -3 . The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a -1 (mean 10 mSv.a -1 ). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  18. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  19. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; CHENG Ning; LI Zhen-shuang

    2013-01-01

    For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC s...

  20. Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion

  1. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  2. The Underground "Fortress" of Bang Tsho Ruler

    OpenAIRE

    Pelgen, Ugyen; Gyeltshen, Tshering

    2004-01-01

    The Bang Tsho village was part of the Kurtoed Province in North Eastern Bhutan. The authors deals with the underground architecture of this village. The article is based on a field visit carried out in November 2002. While the main focus of field work was on discerning the migration routes of the sKur smad speaking population of Lhun rtse rDzong khag to other rDzong khags in particular bKra shsi gang and bKra shis yang rtse the authors visited also the Bang tsho village and examined the ruins...

  3. Passenger noise exposure in London underground

    OpenAIRE

    Garbala, M; Gomez-Agustina, L

    2015-01-01

    The London Underground network carries almost half of London's commuters, and is the most heavily used mode of public transport in London. Its routes are 402 km long in total and it is used by over 1.2 billion passengers annually1. Though very efficient and convenient, travelling by Tube can be a noisy experience which could have potential impact on commuters’ hearing health. There is a wealth of research and information on impacts of occupational noise on hearing health. However, there is ve...

  4. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  5. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  7. Womanspace: The underground and the labyrinth in Ursula K. Le Guin’s Earthsea narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ursula K. Le Guin’s renowned Earthsea cycle, spanning 20 years and five texts, is often acknowledged to be a textual space for the creative exploration and interrogation of gender. The two spaces in the title – ‘earth’ and ‘sea’ – are held in equilibrium, both by the author’s craft and by magic. Unfortunately, though, few critics have explored how these spaces function in the narrative. In this article, we explore the representation of underground spaces and labyrinths as meaningful landscapes in the Earthsea cycle. These spaces are found throughout Le Guin’s Earthsea fiction, but are foregrounded in four narratives: ‘The finder’ and ‘The bones of the earth’ (Tales from Earthsea, The tombs of Atuan and The other wind. Le Guin’s writing consistently identifies the earth as feminine, in keeping with the archetype of ‘Mother Earth’, and we find that subterranean spaces and labyrinths are depicted as sites of power and empowerment for women. Nevertheless, we argue that Le Guin’s affinity for gender equity and balance prevents these tropes from becoming another tired revisioning of an easy equation of earthy forces and ‘the feminine’. Rather, for Le Guin, the underground and the labyrinth are sites of union between masculine and feminine elements and characters, through the empowerment of the feminine.

  8. Extended investigation into continuous laser scanning of underground mine workings by means of Landis inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, E. N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper investigates the method of applying mobile scanning systems (MSSs) with inertial navigators in the underground conditions for carrying out the surveying tasks. The available mobile laser scanning systems cannot be used in the underground environment since Global Positioning System (GPS) signals cannot be received in mines. This signal not only is necessary for space positioning, but also operates as the main corrective signal for the primary navigation system - the inertial navigation system. The idea of the method described in this paper consists in using MSSs with a different correction of the inertial system than GPS is.

  9. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  10. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  11. Final work plan : environmental site investigation at Sylvan Grove, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-07-15

    In 1998, carbon tetrachloride was found above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L in groundwater from one private livestock well at Sylvan Grove, Kansas, by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The 1998 KDHE sampling was conducted under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) private well sampling program. The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), a USDA agency, operated a grain storage facility in Sylvan Grove from 1954 to1966. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites associated with former CCC/USDA grain storage operations. Sylvan Grove is located in western Lincoln County, approximately 60 mi west of Salina (Figure 1.1). To determine whether the former CCC/USDA facility at Sylvan Grove is a potential contaminant source and its possible relationship to the contamination in groundwater, the CCC/USDA has agreed to conduct an investigation, in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the USDA. This Work Plan presents historical data related to previous investigations, grain storage operations, local private wells and public water supply (PWS) wells, and local geologic and hydrogeologic conditions at Sylvan Grove. The findings from a review of all available documents are discussed in Section 2. On the basis of the analyses of historical data, the following specific technical objectives are proposed for the site investigation at Sylvan Grove: (1) Evaluate the potential source of carbon tetrachloride at the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) Determine the relationship of potential contamination (if present) at the former CCC/USDA facility to contamination identified in 1998 in groundwater samples from one private well to the west; and (3) Delineate the extent of potential contamination associated with the former CCC/USDA facility. The detailed scope of work is outlined in Section 3. The results of the proposed work will provide the basis for determining

  12. Kansas Primary Care Weighs In: A Pilot Randomized Trial of a Chronic Care Model Program for Obesity in 3 Rural Kansas Primary Care Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Andrea C.; Banitt, Angela; Befort, Christie; Hou, Qing; Rhode, Paula C.; Grund, Chrysanne; Greiner, Allen; Jeffries, Shawn; Ellerbeck, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Context: Obesity is a chronic disease of epidemic proportions in the United States. Primary care providers are critical to timely diagnosis and treatment of obesity, and need better tools to deliver effective obesity care. Purpose: To conduct a pilot randomized trial of a chronic care model (CCM) program for obesity care in rural Kansas primary…

  13. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-07-26

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area's topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes of the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. The findings of the monitoring events at Barnes in 2011 continued to support the following previous conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders have consistently indicated that the flow direction is strongly influenced by pumping of the public water supply wells. The results have demonstrated an apparent groundwater flow direction to the northeast when the public wells are not pumping and a northwesterly groundwater flow trend when the public wells are pumping. (2) Evaluation of manual water level measurements and carbon tetrachloride concentrations continues to suggest that three vertically distinguishable aquifer zones are present at Barnes: shallow, intermediate, and deep (Table 4.1). The highest concentration of carbon tetrachloride occurs in the intermediate zone, in wells near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Lower concentrations have been detected in the deep aquifer zone (where the public water supply wells are screened), and no carbon tetrachloride has been detected in the shallow zone. (3) The conceptual model of the groundwater flow system at Barnes, as postulated on the basis of the accumulated results, suggests that the observed vertical hydraulic gradients

  14. The second-phase development of the China JinPing underground Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jainmin; Ji, Xiangdong; Haxton, Wick; Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    During 2013-2015 an expansion of the China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) will be undertaken along a main branch of a bypass tunnel in the JinPing tunnel complex. This second phase of CJPL will increase laboratory space to approximately 96,000 m^3, which can be compared to the existing CJPL-I volume of 4,000 m^3. One design configuration has eight additional hall spaces, each over 60 m long and approximately 12 m in width, with overburdens of about 2.4 km of rock, oriented parallel to ...

  15. A computationally efficient software application for calculating vibration from underground railways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M F M; Hunt, H E M

    2009-01-01

    The PiP model is a software application with a user-friendly interface for calculating vibration from underground railways. This paper reports about the software with a focus on its latest version and the plans for future developments. The software calculates the Power Spectral Density of vibration due to a moving train on floating-slab track with track irregularity described by typical values of spectra for tracks with good, average and bad conditions. The latest version accounts for a tunnel embedded in a half space by employing a toolbox developed at K.U. Leuven which calculates Green's functions for a multi-layered half-space.

  16. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  17. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  18. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  19. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  1. Pipe locator for imaging underground pipelines (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Wasa, Y.; Mori, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Recently, it becomes more important to locate the complex piping patterns such as tee, bend, riser, and the others with high accuracy for maintenance and protection of city gas pipelines. Hence, we have developed a new pipe locator system for imaging the complex underground pipelines using magnetic remote sensing techniques. The main framework of this development is the application of the pattern recognition of the magnetic field distribution to the location of buried pipelines in urban areas. The first step for imaging the complex pipelines is to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field distribution with high accuracy which is generated by the passage of the alternating signal current through buried pipeline. For this purpose a portable trolley unit which is capable of scanning the ground to collect data, the 10 three-axes coil sensors with a sensitivity of 1 μG which are aligned in the unit, and a filter system using a FFT signal processor which eliminates urban magnetic noise as high as 10 mG in some cases, were developed. The second step is to process the magnetic field distribution data, to extract the feature of the underground pipeline using the contour diagram and the three-dimensional drawing of the magnetic field, and to identify the complex piping patterns. Further, we recognized that a nonlinear least-square method algorithm for calculation of the pipeline's position was useful to improve the location accuracy.

  2. Dynamic Response of Underground Circular Lining Tunnels Subjected to Incident P Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stress concentration in tunnels and underground structures during earthquakes often leads to serious structural damage. A series solution of wave equation for dynamic response of underground circular lining tunnels subjected to incident plane P waves is presented by Fourier-Bessel series expansion method in this paper. The deformation and stress fields of the whole medium of surrounding rock and tunnel were obtained by solving the equations of seismic wave propagation in an elastic half space. Based on the assumption of a large circular arc, a series of solutions for dynamic stress were deduced by using a wave function expansion approach for a circular lining tunnel in an elastic half space rock medium subjected to incident plane P waves. Then, the dynamic response of the circular lining tunnel was obtained by solving a series of algebraic equations after imposing its boundary conditions for displacement and stress of the circular lining tunnel. The effects of different factors on circular lining rock tunnels, including incident frequency, incident angle, buried depth, rock conditions, and lining stiffness, were derived and several application examples are presented. The results may provide a good reference for studies on the dynamic response and aseismic design of tunnels and underground structures.

  3. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  4. A model of Precambrian geology of Kansas derived from gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Sprowl, D.R.; Steeples, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The fabric of the Precambrian geology of Kansas is revealed through inversion of gravity and magnetic data to pseudo-lithology. There are five main steps in the inversion process: (1) reduction of potential-field data to a horizontal plane in the wavenumber domain; (2) separation of the residual anomaly of interest from the regional background, where an assumption is made that the regional anomaly could be represented by some order of polynomial; (3) subtraction of the signal due to the known topography on the Phanerozoic/Precambrian boundary from the residual anomaly (we assume what is left at this stage are the signals due to lateral variation in the Precambrian lithology); (4) inversion of the residual anomaly in the wavenumber domain to density and magnetization distribution in the top part of the Precambrian constrained by the known geologic information; (5) derivation of pseudo-lithology by characterization of density and magnetization. The boundary between the older Central Plains Province to the north and the Southern Granite-Rhyolite Province to the south is clearly delineated. The Midcontinent Rift System appears to widen in central Kansas and involve a considerable portion of southern Kansas. Lithologies in southwestern Kansas appear to change over fairly small areas and include mafic rocks which have not been encountered in drill holes. The texture of the potential field data from southwestern Kansas suggests a history of continental growth by broad extension. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Public and Opinion Leader Willingness to Fund Obesity-Focused Policies in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Curry, Laurel E; Homsi, Ghada; Williams, Pamela A; Glasgow, LaShawn M; Van Hersh, Deanna; Willett, Jeffrey; Rogers, Todd

    2017-08-01

    Obesity increases the risk for leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Midwestern and southern states have the highest obesity rates-in Kansas, one in every three adults is obese. We compared the willingness of Kansas adults and opinion leaders to pay more in taxes to fund obesity prevention policies. In 2014, we asked a representative sample of 2,203 Kansas adults (response rate 15.7%) and 912 opinion leaders (response rate 55%) drawn from elected office and other sectors, including business and health, whether they would pay an additional $50 in annual taxes to support five policies that improve access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. We used adjusted Wald tests to compare public and opinion leaders' responses, and regression analysis to assess whether differences in respondents' gender, age, location (urban/rural), race/ethnicity, and political stance affected results. Adjusting for demographic differences, Kansas adults were more willing than opinion leaders to pay $50 in taxes for each of the five policy interventions. This study demonstrates a willingness among residents of a fiscally conservative state to pay increased taxes for policies that could reduce population obesity rates. Health professionals, including nurses, can use these findings to educate policy makers in Kansas and geopolitically similar states about widespread public support for obesity prevention policies. Public health and other nurses could also apply our methods to assess support for obesity prevention policies in their jurisdictions.

  6. D-cracking field performance of Portland cement concrete pavements containing limestone in Kansas : phase 1 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Premature deterioration of concrete pavement due to D-Cracking has been a problem in Kansas since the 1930s. : Limestone is the major source of coarse aggregate in eastern Kansas where the majority of the concrete pavements are : constructed. D-Crack...

  7. 75 FR 41819 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 17 under Alternative Site Framework, Kansas City, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1696] Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 17 under Alternative Site Framework, Kansas City, KS Pursuant to its authority under... establishment or reorganization of general-purpose zones; Whereas, the Greater Kansas City Foreign-Trade Zone...

  8. 75 FR 34983 - Order (1) Pursuant to Section 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act, Permitting the Kansas City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Act, Permitting the Kansas City Board of Trade Clearing Corporation To Clear Over-the-Counter Wheat Calendar Swaps and (2) Pursuant to Section 4d of the Commodity Exchange Act, Permitting Customer Positions... contract market, and its wholly- owned subsidiary corporation, the Kansas City Board of Trade Clearing...

  9. Demonstration of LED Street Lighting in Kansas City, MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Royer, Michael P.; Hadjian, M.; Kauffman, Rick

    2013-06-10

    Nine different streetlighting products were installed on various streets in Kansas City, Missouri during February, 2011, to evaluate their performance relative to the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting. The applications investigated included 100 W, 150 W, 250 W, and 400 W HPS installations. Initial measurements and comparisons included power, illuminance, and luminance; sample illuminance readings have continued at each of the nine locations at roughly 1,000-hour operating intervals since then. All of the LED products consumed less power than their HPS counterparts—with a mean difference of 39% and a range of 31% to 51%—but they also emitted 31% fewer lumens, on average. The net result is just a 15% increase in mean efficacy. Applying the city’s stringent light loss factors to the initial measured data meant that five of the LED products (and two of the HPS luminaires) were predicted to eventually fail to meet the specified mean illuminance over their lifetimes; however, the specified light loss levels are not expected to be reached by the LED products until some distant future date (between 12 and 30 years after installation according to manufacturer specification sheet estimates). The practical value of designing streetlighting systems to meet illumination requirements more than 15 years in the future is questioned. Numerous sources of variation in field measurements are noted throughout the report, particularly seasonal influences such as ambient temperature and foliage that are evident in the time-series illuminance data.

  10. Final work plan for targeted investigation at Hilton, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-08-28

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of a targeted investigation to update the status of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater associated with grain storage operations at Hilton, Kansas. The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility in Hilton during the 1950s and 1960s. At the time of the CCC/USDA operation in Hilton, grain storage facilities (CCC/USDA and private) were located along the both sides of the former Union Pacific railroad tracks (Figure 1.1). The main grain storage structures were on or near the railroad right-of-way. The proposed targeted investigation, to be conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on the behalf of CCC/USDA, will supplement Argonne's Phase I and Phase II investigations in 1996-1997. The earlier investigations erroneously focused on an area east of the railroad property where the CCC/USDA did not operate, specifically on a private grain storage facility. In addition, the investigation was limited in scope, because access to railroad property was denied (Argonne 1997a,b). The hydrogeologic system at Hilton is potentially complex.

  11. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  12. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    EW-201135) Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage March 2017 This document has been cleared for...09/2011-03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a...v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGWT American Ground Water Trust AHU Air Handling Unit ATES Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage BTES Borehole

  13. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  14. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted ...

  15. A new principle for underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan; Paasch, Kasper; Lassen, Benny

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic idea, design considerations and field test results for a novel concept of an energy storage system. The system is of the underground pumped hydro storage (UPHS) type where energy is stored by lifting a mass of soil through the pumping of water into an underground cav...

  16. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  17. Diurnal variations from muon data at Takeyama underground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Imai, K.; Imai, T.; Kudo, S.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    An underground station, Takeyama, is introduced, and some results of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations for the period between 1967 and 1984 are presented. There are clear tendencies of double and single solar cycle variations in the daily variations which are in good accord with those detected by other underground and neutron monitor observations.

  18. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Environment and the Department of Petroleum Resources control underground disposal of wastes in Nigeria with three principal regulations: Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground Injection and the ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340 Underground...) Ventilated with intake air that is monitored for carbon monoxide or smoke by an AMS installed and operated...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Involve activation of the fire alarm system; and (3) Include evacuation of all persons from their work... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At...

  1. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  2. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  3. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  4. The application of remote sensing to resource management and environmental quality programs in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B. G.; Martinko, E. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Kansas Applied Remote Sensing (KARS) Program during the period April 1, 1982 through Marsh 31, 1983 are described. The most important work revolved around the Kansas Interagency Task Force on Applied Remote Sensing and its efforts to establish an operational service oriented remote sensing program in Kansas state government. Concomitant with this work was the upgrading of KARS capabilities to process data for state agencies through the vehicle of a low cost digital data processing system. The KARS Program continued to take an active role in irrigation mapping. KARS is now integrating data acquired through analysis of LANDSAT into geographic information systems designed for evaluating groundwater resources. KARS also continues to work at the national level on the national inventory of state natural resources information systems.

  5. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  6. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  7. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  8. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  9. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  10. Underground openings for in situ experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Korbin, G.

    1982-01-01

    In situ tests include a wide variety of heater experiments with single and multiple arrays at full and reduced scale, block tests, heated room and pillar tests, brine and water migration experiments, permeability tests, fracture hydrology and groundwater chemistry studies, instrumentation development and testing, and other investigations. This article describes the identification of underground openings to accommodate such tests and the concept of a coupled hydrologic-thermomechanical experiment. The hydro/thermomechanical experimental program has five stages: 1) design and fabrication; 2) baseline studies; 3) chamber excavation; 4) test chamber experiment; and 5) data analysis and modeling. From the calculations presented, it was concluded that a large volume of rock (approximately 50 times that in the Stripa full-scale heater test) can be influenced within a reasonable time in the hydro/thermomechanical experiment, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory and repository-sized experiments

  11. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  12. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  13. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  14. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  15. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  16. DEALING WITH TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN UNDERGROUND NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacroix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, 25 people died and more than 150 were seriously injured in Ghislenghien (Belgium because of construction damage to a high pressure gas pipeline. Urban networks are invisible because usually buried between 1 and 1.5 meter underground. They should be identified to prevent such accidents which involve workers and public as well. Rural and urban districts, networks concessionary and contractors; everyone could benefit from their networks becoming safer. To develop software which evaluates the risks in managing both uncertainties and topology is the focus of attention. That’s the reason why we firstly propose to determine the topological relationships between networks; secondly we propose to compute the risks taking into account the various uncertainties such as the security radius or the coordinates accuracy, before giving the different required standards for an artificial intelligence tool in order to obtain high security level.

  17. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  18. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  20. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  1. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  3. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage... underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... as defined in § 280.210; and (b) Does not engage in petroleum production, refining, and marketing as...

  5. Final Corrective Action Study for the Former CCC/USDA Facility in Hanover, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater and vapor intrusion into a limited number of residences (attributable to the contaminant concentrations in groundwater) have been identified in Hanover, Kansas, at and near a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). At the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2009h), the CCC/USDA has prepared this Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address the contamination in groundwater and soil vapor.

  6. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-21

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) began its environmental investigations at Everest, Kansas, in 2000. The work at Everest is implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The results of the environmental investigations have been reported in detail (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The lateral extent of the carbon tetrachloride in groundwater over the years of investigation has been interpreted as shown in Figure 1.1 (2001-2002 data), Figure 1.2 (2006 data), Figure 1.3 (2008 data), and Figure 1.4 (2009 data). The pattern of groundwater flow and inferred contaminant migration has consistently been to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property (e.g., Figure 1.5 [2008 data] and Figure 1.6 [2009 data]). Both the monitoring data for carbon tetrachloride and the low groundwater flow rates estimated for the Everest aquifer unit (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b, 2008) indicate slow contaminant migration. On the basis of the accumulated findings, in March 2009 the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water. This current monitoring plan (Appendix A in the report of monitoring in 2009 [Argonne 2010]) was approved by the KDHE (2009a). Under this plan, the monitoring wells are sampled by the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities are consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. The first annual sampling event under the new monitoring plan took place in April 2009. The results of analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements were consistent with previous observations (Figures 1.1-1.4). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface

  7. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-16

    In September 2005, periodic sampling of groundwater was initiated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in the vicinity of a grain storage facility formerly operated by the CCC/USDA at Centralia, Kansas. The sampling at Centralia is performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Centralia (Argonne 2003, 2004, 2005a). Under the KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b), the groundwater was sampled twice yearly from September 2005 until September 2007 for analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as measurement of selected geochemical parameters to aid in the evaluation of possible natural contaminant degradation processes (reductive dechlorination) in the subsurface environment (Argonne 2006, 2007a, 2008a). The results from the two-year sampling program demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5 {micro}g/L for this compound, in a localized groundwater plume that has shown little movement. The relative concentrations of chloroform, the primary degradation product of carbon tetrachloride, suggested that some degree of reductive dechlorination or natural biodegradation was talking place in situ at the former CCC/USDA facility on a localized scale. The CCC/USDA subsequently developed an Interim Measure Conceptual Design (Argonne 2007b), proposing a pilot test of the Adventus EHC technology for in situ chemical reduction (ISCR). The proposed interim measure (IM) was approved by the KDHE in November 2007 (KDHE 2007). Implementation of the pilot test occurred in November-December 2007. The objective was to create highly reducing conditions that would enhance both chemical and biological

  8. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-10-19

    In September 2005, periodic sampling of groundwater was initiated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in the vicinity of a grain storage facility formerly operated by the CCC/USDA at Centralia, Kansas. The sampling at Centralia is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Centralia (Argonne 2003, 2004, 2005a). Under the KDHE-approved monitoring plan (Argonne 2005b), the groundwater was sampled twice yearly from September 2005 until September 2007 for analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as measurement of selected geochemical parameters to aid in the evaluation of possible natural contaminant degradation (reductive dechlorination) processes in the subsurface environment. The results from the two-year sampling program demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5 {micro}g/L for this compound in a localized groundwater plume that has shown little movement. The relative concentrations of chloroform, the primary degradation product of carbon tetrachloride, suggested that some degree of reductive dechlorination or natural biodegradation was taking place in situ at the former CCC/USDA facility on a localized scale. The CCC/USDA subsequently developed an Interim Measure Conceptual Design (Argonne 2007b), proposing a pilot test of the Adventus EHC technology for in situ chemical reduction (ISCR). The proposed interim measure (IM) was approved by the KDHE in November 2007 (KDHE 2007). Implementation of the pilot test occurred in November-December 2007. The objective was to create highly reducing conditions that would enhance both chemical and biological reductive dechlorination

  9. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  10. Tidal tilts observations in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.; Milyukov, V.

    2001-01-01

    A new tilt meter, based on the technology for building a space-borne high-sensitivity accelerometer and manufactured at IFSI/CNR, has a been operating during several years in the INFN Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The results of the analysis of a three-year data set, processed with the program package ETERNA, to estimate earth tidal parameters are reported. For the best series of data (1998) tide measurement accuracies are: 0.5-1% for the M 2 (lunar principal) amplitude and 3-4% for the O 1 (lunar declination) amplitude. The tilt meter installed at a depth of 1400 m shows no clear evidence of meteorological effects. Observed tidal parameters are compared with theoretical tidal parameters predicted for a non-hydrostatic inelastic Earth model and demonstrate good agreement for the M 2 component. Due to the high accuracy of the tidal components prediction (better than 1%) tidal measurements were used to estimate the long-term stability of the instrument response

  11. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  12. The Kansas Anthropologist Reminlscence Project for Senior Plains Anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin F. Hawley

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations, ask thy father and he will show thee, thy elders, and they will tell thee. Deuteronomy 32: 7. For the past six years, 'The Kansas Anthropologist' has published an ongoing series of reminiscences or retrospective articles by senior Great Plains archaeologists. The aim of the project is to collect reminiscences from senior anthro­pologists regarding their experiences in pre-and post-World War II Plains archaeology, biological anthropology, and ethnology. The historian John Lukacs (1966:x once offered an elegant and concise comment on the value of history, one that I offer here: "I believe that history, as a form of thought, is one of the most precious and perhaps unique rational posssessions of Western civilizations. The character of a person may appear best from the reconstruc­tion of the history of his life; the same is true of the character of nations. The very history of a prob­lem may reveal its essential diagnosis. There is no human endeavor that may not be approached and studied profitably through its history." Fortunately, there hardly needs to be a justification anymore for such a project, as is attested by the recent prolifera­tion of research into the history of archaeology and anthropology on virtually a global scale.The intention of these retrospective articles is not to explore or diagnose any particular problem but rather to create a mosaic of first person narrratives informed by personal experience and illustrated with photos and anecdotes to illuminate the development of Plains anthropology in the 20th Century.

  13. Microbial Community Responses to Glycine Addition in Kansas Prairie Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottos, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; White, R. A., III; Brislawn, C.; Fansler, S.; Kim, Y. M.; Metz, T. O.; McCue, L. A.; Jansson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding our abilities to unravel aspects of microbial community structure and function in complex systems like soil; however, characterizing the highly diverse communities is problematic, due primarily to challenges in data analysis. To tackle this problem, we aimed to constrain the microbial diversity in a soil by enriching for particular functional groups within a community through addition of "trigger substrates". Such trigger substrates, characterized by low molecular weight, readily soluble and diffusible in soil solution, representative of soil organic matter derivatives, would also be rapidly degradable. A relatively small energy investment to maintain the cell in a state of metabolic alertness for such substrates would be a better evolutionary strategy and presumably select for a cohort of microorganisms with the energetics and cellular machinery for utilization and growth. We chose glycine, a free amino acid (AA) known to have short turnover times (in the range of hours) in soil. As such, AAs are a good source of nitrogen and easily degradable, and can serve as building blocks for microbial proteins and other biomass components. We hypothesized that the addition of glycine as a trigger substrate will decrease microbial diversity and evenness, as taxa capable of metabolizing it are enriched in relation to those that are not. We tested this hypothesis by incubating three Kansas native prairie soils with glycine for 24 hours at 21 degree Celsius, and measured community level responses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Preliminary evaluation of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed minor changes in bacterial community composition in response to glycine addition. We will also present data on functional gene abundance and expression. The results of these analyses will be useful in designing sequencing strategies aimed at dissecting and deciphering complex microbial communities.

  14. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money

  15. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-02-27

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money.

  16. Quality of streams in Johnson County, Kansas, 2002--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Stone, Mandy S.; Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Stream quality in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, was assessed on the basis of land use, hydrology, stream-water and streambed-sediment chemistry, riparian and in-stream habitat, and periphyton and macroinvertebrate community data collected from 22 sites during 2002 through 2010. Stream conditions at the end of the study period are evaluated and compared to previous years, stream biological communities and physical and chemical conditions are characterized, streams are described relative to Kansas Department of Health and Environment impairment categories and water-quality standards, and environmental factors that most strongly correlate with biological stream quality are evaluated. The information is useful for improving water-quality management programs, documenting changing conditions with time, and evaluating compliance with water-quality standards, total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions, and other established guidelines and goals. Constituent concentrations in water during base flow varied across the study area and 2010 conditions were not markedly different from those measured in 2003, 2004, and 2007. Generally the highest specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions in water occurred at urban sites except the upstream Cedar Creek site, which is rural and has a large area of commercial and industrial land less than 1 mile upstream on both sides of the creek. The highest base-flow nutrient concentrations in water occurred downstream from wastewater treatment facilities. Water chemistry data represent base-flow conditions only, and do not show the variability in concentrations that occurs during stormwater runoff. Constituent concentrations in streambed sediment also varied across the study area and some notable changes occurred from previously collected data. High organic carbon and nutrient concentrations at the rural Big Bull Creek site in 2003 decreased

  17. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  18. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  19. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  20. Underground urbanity: from the carrefour à étages multiples to the ‘inner street’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Clua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As Manuel de Solà-Morales noted, urbanity relies on the variety and quality of relations between things, materials and human beings. Considered as such, how are we to achieve an underground urbanity? This paper seeks to address this question through a focussed reading of a number of European urban projects from the 20th century; all of which put special care into ensuring the quality of their subterranean passageways. We begin with the carrefour à giration, which was designed by Eugène Hénard in 1906, in order to identify four fundamental attributes of this kind of urbanity: legibility, spatiality, accessibility and activity. We then continue with a qualitative analysis of the 1933 Blå Bodarna passageway designed by Tage William-Olsson and Holger Blom in Slussen (Stockholm. Looking ahead some decades later, the sequence of passages under the Vienna Ring, built during the mayoralty of Franz J. Jonas, provides a good example of how fundamental the connectivity to the underground public transport system was to the success of these spaces. Finally, the article closes with a review of those underground places found in Santiago Calatrava’s Stadelhofen Station and the Stationsplein by Manuel de Solà-Morales: from the carrefour à étages multiples to the ‘inner street’.

  1. STORAGE AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY WASTE COMING FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS IN UNDERGROUND MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Korzeniowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding current and planned development of municipal waste incineration plants in Poland there is an important problem of the generated secondary waste management. The experience of West European countries in mining shows that waste can be stored successfully in the underground mines, but especially in salt mines. In Poland there is a possibility to set up the underground storage facility in the Salt Mine “Kłodawa”. The mine today is capable to locate over 3 million cubic meters and in the future it can increase significantly. Two techniques are proposed: 1 – storage of packaged waste, 2 – waste recovery as selfsolidifying paste with mining technology for rooms backfilling. Assuming the processing capacity of the storage facility as 100 000 Mg of waste per year, “Kłodawa” mine will be able to accept around 25 % of currently generated waste coming from the municipal waste incineration plants and the current volume of the storage space is sufficient for more than 20 years. Underground storage and waste recovery in mining techniques are beneficial for the economy and environment.

  2. Earthquake resistance of cavern for underground nuclear power plants, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya

    1983-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plants have been studied as one of new siting forms of the nuclear power plants. This form is that some or all of nuclear power plants would be contained in the caverns within the rock mass. Large underground caverns such as the reactor vessel cavern should be excavated at the construction. Therefore, the study on the stability of such large underground caverns containing big important structure will be very important in case of the design of the underground power plants. However the stability analysis of underground caverns during earthquake has almost never been studied. Consequently the analytical methods have not been established. For the purpose of foreseeing the stability analysis of the large underground caverns during earthquake the dynamic analysis of the underground caverns were studied. The characteristics of the rock mass situated in the coastal hillside suitable to the siting conditions of the underground nuclear power plants in Japan were estimated. The stability during earthquake of the reactor vessel caverns of the tunnel type with the width of 32 m, the height of 46 m and the length of 70 m above which the thickness of earth covering is 100 m were analysed. The dynamic stresses at the surrounding rock mass of the caverns under the horizontal earthquake with 407 gal and the vertical earthquake with 204 gal were calculated. It was obtained from the results that the relaxed zone during earthquake was yielded just at the abutment of the underground in case of both the horizontal earthquake and the vertical earthquake, and the depth of the relaxed zone was 10 m at almost from the arch concrete. It is seemed that such relaxed zone can be treated with rock anchors and arch concretes considering the current reinforcement technique. (author)

  3. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  4. First underground light versus heat discrimination for dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Marcillac, P. de; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A

    2003-06-19

    We report on the results of the first underground dark matter search with light versus heat discrimination. It has been performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in the frame of the Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD (ROSEBUD) Collaboration with a double bolometer consisting of a 54 g scintillating CaWO{sub 4} and a thin Ge (0.26 g) for light detection. Its capability to distinguish nuclear against electron recoils has been proved and applied to derive limits for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates.

  5. ONKALO. Underground characterisation and research programme (UCRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the ONKALO Underground Characterisation and Research Programme (UCRP) is to explore Olkiluoto rock conditions and thereby enhance the current geoscientific understanding of the site, to allow the submission of an application for a construction licence for the deep repository. The characterisation programme has the following geoscientific goals: to develop and demonstrate techniques for detailed characterising volumes of rock from the underground, to update the current descriptive model of Olkiluoto bedrock and to increase confidence in this model such that it will serve the needs of construction and the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report (PSAR) in the construction licence application, and to identify volumes of rock that could be suitable for housing parts of the repository. The development of ONKALO will be based on coordinated investigation, design and construction activities. Mapping data from the tunnel front and data obtained from short probe holes will constitute most of the data needed to control the construction of ONKALO. Pilot holes will be drilled along the tunnel profile as the excavation proceeds and investigations will be carried out for geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterisation. Investigations cover more detailed mapping and sampling in parts of the tunnel, mapping and sampling of potential groundwater inflows to the tunnel and investigations from characterisation bore holes drilled from ONKALO. In addition, monitoring is planned in surface-drilled boreholes, in boreholes drilled from ONKALO, and in ONKALO itself. Monitoring will reveal changes in bedrock conditions and thus provide important information for site characterisation. The information collected by characterisation and monitoring will all be assessed in an integrated modelling effort. The aim of this modelling is both to successively enhance the description and understanding of the rock volume around ONKALO and to assess potential

  6. Propuesta del programaS-GeMS para el análisis estadístico espacial de fallas en alimentadores soterrados de 13,8 kV; PropodedS-GEMS program for statistical analysis of failure space of 13.8 kV underground feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alba Valle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, el sistema soterrado de Ciudad de La Habana, carece de herramientas gráficas de trabajo con lascuales poder visualizar zonas con alta incidencia de fallas en alimentadores de 13,8 kV y que permitan tomardecisiones certeras en cuanto a los tramos de alimentadores a reparar o sustituir por su deterioro. En este trabajo sepropone el uso de los programas S-GeMS (Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software y Autocad comoherramientas para el análisis estadístico espacial de la cantidad de fallas. Se realiza, en lo fundamental, el estudiode toda la documentación referente a las aplicaciones del programa S-GeMS y la Base de Datos de la cantidad defallas del 2007 al 2009, de los alimentadores de 13,8 kV perteneciente a la Unidad Empresarial Básica (UEBSoterrada. Finalmente se muestran, a modo de ejemplo, los resultados obtenidos con su aplicación al determinarsela dirección preferencial de distribución de la cantidad de fallas.   Nowadays, the Havana City underground system, lacks of graphical working tools which not only allow to visualizehigh faults incidence areas in 13,8 kV feeders but also make good decisions in reference to the feeder sections to berepaired or substituted due to their impairment. The use of S-GeMS (Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software andAutocad programs as tools for the spatial statistic analysis of faults quantity is proposed in this article. The study ofthe whole documentation related to the S-GeMS program applications is carried out as well as the UndergroundManagement Basic Unit (UEB 13,8 kV feeders faults quantity database from 2007 to 2009. Finally, the results afterdetermining the faults quantity distribution preferential address with the program application are shown, as anexample.

  7. FY 1999 research and development results. Preparatory study for the underground thermal energy storage system; 1999 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The study is conducted for the underground thermal energy storage system which utilizes heat capacity of the underground, e.g., aquifer, to exchange heat with the underground, and the FY 1999 results are described. For establishment of the concept of the underground heat storage systems, 2 sites are selected for each of Tokyo, Osaka and Sapporo for the study as the geological ground models, for their weather characteristics. Two cases are considered for the site where underground heat exchangers are installed, open space and immediately below a building. The heat-storage system comprises a high-efficiency heat pump, water heat-storage tank and cooling tower. The evaluation results indicate that energy saving rate of 37% or more and CO2 reduction rate of 9.5% or more are achievable in all areas except Sapporo, i.e., Tokyo and Osaka. The economic evaluation results indicate that the simple pay-out period is around 100 years for Tokyo and Osaka, and 80 years for Sapporo. The underground heat storage system is approximately 10% lower in life-cycle cost than the conventional system, 3 versus 3.3 billion yen for the period of 60 years. (NEDO)

  8. Exploring leadership roles, goals, and barriers among Kansas registered nurses: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Jill N; Ford, Debra J; Shen, Qiuhua; Fischgrund, Avery; Teel, Cynthia S; Pierce, Janet; Jamison, Marian; Waldon, Trynn

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report advocates for full nurse leader representation across multiple settings to address current challenges in our health care system. The purpose of this study was to examine nursing leadership development needs among Kansas registered nurses (RNs). Data were collected through an online survey and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Nearly 1,000 Kansas RNs participated. Most reported holding one or more leadership positions. Prevalent leadership goals were health care organization volunteer administrative roles. The most frequently identified barrier to developing leadership roles was time constraints. Many wanted to develop skills to serve on a board, 20% were interested in personal leadership development, and 19% in policy development. Based on the findings, the Kansas Action Coalition leadership team is developing programs to address the leadership needs of Kansas RNs. By building capacity in advanced leadership roles, RNs will be better prepared serve as full partners and lead efforts to promote the health of Kansans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bonanza Club: 35 Years of Maximum Crop Production and Extension Education in Southwestern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the success of a county extension crops program, the Bonanza Club, in providing timely and useful information regarding new and successful agronomic practices. The program is cited for its beneficial influence on changing crop-production practices in southwestern Kansas. (MCO)

  10. Atrazine and its metabolites as indicators of stream-aquifer interaction in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M.A.; Young, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of atrazine and its metabolites in Kansas ground water indicated that ground-water quality was impacted by stream-aquifer interaction between rivers in the Kansas River basin and their adjacent alluvial aquifers. Atrazine was detected in 19 of the 78 samples. The most common metabolite, deethylatrazine, was detected in 25 samples, 18 of which also had atrazine. The deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio (DAR) of of agricultural chemicals to ground water. In this study, 12 of 18 samples had DAR values of rivers. These rivers contain atrazine in varying concentrations. Results of the study suggest that stream-aquifer interaction is a process contributing to the presence of both atrazine and its metabolites in ground water in these areas.A survey of atrazine and its metabolites in Kansas ground water indicated that ground water quality was impacted by stream-aquifer interaction between rivers in the Kansas River basin and their adjacent alluvial aquifers. Atrazine was detected in 19 of the 78 samples. The most common metabolite, deethylatrazine, was detected in 25 samples, 18 of which also had atrazine. The deethylatrazine/attrazine ratio (DAR) of of agricultural chemicals to ground water. In this study, 12 of 18 samples had DAR values of rivers. These rivers contain atrazine in varying concentration. Results of the study suggest that stream-aquifer interaction is a process contributing to the presence of both attrazine and its metabolites in ground water in these areas.

  11. Assessing urban forest effects and values of the Great Plains: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...

  12. The Impact of Poverty and School Size on the 2015-16 Kansas State Assessment Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Schools with higher percentages of students in poverty have lower student assessment results on the 2015-16 Kansas Math and ELA assessments, and larger schools have lower student achievement results than smaller schools. In addition, higher poverty schools are likely to have larger gaps in performance based on special education status and possibly…

  13. 78 FR 43842 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R07-RCRA-2013-0447; FRL-9833-6] State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to...

  14. 77 FR 21760 - Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... the protest or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street NE... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Baseline Filing Take...

  15. Legal Challenges to Segregated Education in Topeka, Kansas, 1903-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jamie B.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of segregated education in Kansas and then explores 3 legal cases: (a) Reynolds v. The Board of Education of the City of Topeka (1903), (b) Wright v. Board of Education of Topeka (1930), and (c) Graham v. Board of Education of Topeka (1941), the precursors to Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas…

  16. Taeniopterid lamina on Phasmatocycas megasporophylls (Cycadales) from the Lower Permian of Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    New specimens of Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris from the original Lower Permian locality in Kansas demonstrate organic attachment of the two and corroborate Mamay's hypothesis that Phasmatocycas and Taeniopteris were parts of the same plant. These forms also suggest that cycads evolved from taxa with entire leaves; i.e. Taeniopteris, rather than from pteridosperms with compound leaves. ?? 1986.

  17. Study of Health Behaviors of Kansas Students. September-December, 1983. Grades K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Darrel

    A survey was conducted investigating the health habits and attitudes of 18,000 K-12 students enrolled in Kansas public schools. This document presents results of the study in tabular form. Information is provided on responses to questions dealing with: (1) stress management; (2) nutrition; (3) use of alcohol; (4) safety; (5) smoking; and (6)…

  18. The Edgerton Structure: A Possible Meteorite Impact Feature in Eastern Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Merriam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognized meteorite impact features are relatively rare in the U.S. Midcontinent region, but recently with increased interest and research, the number has increased dramatically. We add another possibility to the growing list, the Edgerton structure in northwestern Miami County, Kansas. The feature is elliptical (∼5.5 × 6.5 km, slightly elongated east-west with radial surface drainage. The feature was first observed on hillshade maps of digitized topography of 7.5 minute quadrangles. Subsequent magnetic profiles show a higher magnetic value in the center of the ellipse with higher values around the edges; this shape is characteristic of an impact feature. Depth to the anomalous body is estimated to be about 1 km, which puts it in the Precambrian crystalline basement under a cover of Paleozoic sediments. There are no deep boreholes in the vicinity and no seismic profiles are available. If it is an impact structure, it will be the second such feature documented in Kansas, the first being the Brenham meteorite crater at Haviland in Kiowa County in southwestern Kansas. It would be older than the other impact structures identified in the Midcontinent—Manson in Iowa, Ames in Oklahoma, Haswell Hole in Colorado, and possibly Belton in Missouri and Merna in Nebraska. There are at least two other prospective impact features in Kansas: the Goddard ring west of Wichita and Garden City ellipse north-west of Garden City.

  19. Evaluating the impact of future climate change on irrigated maize production in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States southern and central High Plains including western Kansas are experiencing declining ground water supplies from the Ogallala as a result of withdrawals for irrigation exceeding annual recharge, this situation will be exacerbated by future climate change. The purpose of this simulat...

  20. 78 FR 57838 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 15--Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone 15 was approved by the Foreign-Trade Zones Board on...: Camille Evans at [email protected]trade.gov or (202) 482-2350. Dated: September 16, 2013. Andrew McGilvray...

  1. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation : pilots have expressed a concern about the turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a : wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect t...

  2. 76 FR 40662 - Federal Implementation Plans for Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ..., and Wisconsin To Reduce Interstate Transport of Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... greater than 25 MW and covered by the Transport Rule Program. * The impact of variability on budgets is..., Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas beginning in 2012. The impacts of the Transport Rule inclusive of this...

  3. The Relationship between School Funding and Student Achievement in Kansas Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymotin, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in public school educational finance in the state of Kansas are shown to have had little positive effect on student educational achievement. A differences structure is used to determine the effect of changes in revenue per student at the district level on changes in measures of student achievement. Measures of achievement employed…

  4. 77 FR 9693 - Establishment of Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... remains, most (80 percent) of which lies within the Flint Hills of eastern Kansas and northeastern... identified by Congress or donated by nonprofit organizations. The purchase of easements from willing sellers... discussing the proposed project with landowners; conservation organizations; Federal, State and county...

  5. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas - Near-term, Class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Reynolds, Rodney R.; McCune, A. Dwayne; Michnick, Michael J.; Walton, Anthony W.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2000-06-08

    This project involved two demonstration projects, one in a Marrow reservoir located in the southwestern part of the state and the second in the Cherokee Group in eastern Kansas. Morrow reservoirs of western Kansas are still actively being explored and constitute an important resource in Kansas. Cumulative oil production from the Morrow in Kansas is over 400,000,000 bbls. Much of the production from the Morrow is still in the primary stage and has not reached the mature declining state of that in the Cherokee. The Cherokee Group has produced about 1 billion bbls of oil since the first commercial production began over a century ago. It is a billion-barrel plus resource that is distributed over a large number of fields and small production units. Many of the reservoirs are operated close to the economic limit, although the small units and low production per well are offset by low costs associated with the shallow nature of the reservoirs (less than 1000 ft. deep).

  6. The economics of potential reduction of the rural road system in Kansas : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The increasing size of farms in Kansas has led to increasing farm vehicle size as well. Tractor and combine weight and width has increased and the majority of farmers deliver their grain in semi-trucks. Tandem axle trucks are used to deliver farm sup...

  7. Primary Sources in the Teaching of History: The Western Civilization Program at the University of Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, James

    1990-01-01

    Describes complexities experienced in revising an introductory course in western civilization at the University of Kansas. Observes an important component was the inclusion of primary sources on the reading list. Discusses text selection and explains the efforts to achieve a historical balance and cover issues such as racism, sexism, and…

  8. Ecohydrological index, native fish, and climate trends and relationships in the Kansas River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to quantify climatological and hydrological trends and their relationship to presence and distribution of two native aquatic species in the Kansas River Basin over the past half century. Trend analyses were applied to indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHAs) ...

  9. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  10. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  11. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  12. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  13. Permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, D.M.; Haynes, C.D.; Whittle, G.P.

    1973-09-01

    The aim of the research performed was to explore methods of permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs that may improve the receptive capacity of a well to a level that will allow continued use of the disposal zone without resorting to elevated injection pressures. The laboratory investigation employed a simulated open-hole completion in a disposal well wherein the entire formation face is exposed to the well bore. Cylindrical core samples from representative reservoir rocks through which a central vertical opening or borehole had been drilled were injected with a liquid waste obtained from a chemical manufacturing plant. This particular waste material was found to have a moderate plugging effect when injected into samples of reservoir rocks in a prior study. A review was made of the chemical considerations that might account for the reduction of permeability in waste injection. Purpose of this study was to ascertain the conditions under which the precipitation of certain compounds might occur in the injection of the particular waste liquid employed. A summary of chemical calculations is contained in Appendix B. The data may be useful in the treatment of wastes prior to injection and in the design of restoration procedures where analyses of waste liquids and interstitial materials are available. The results of permeability restoration tests were analyzed mathematically by curve-fitting techniques performed by a digital computer. A summary of the analyses is set forth in the discussion of test results and examples of computer printouts are included in Appendix A

  14. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  15. Underground research laboratory room 209 instrument array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.A.; Everitt, R.A.; Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.

    1988-12-01

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in conjunction with excavation of a tunnel (Room 209) through a near-vertical water-bearing fracture oriented almost perpendicular to the tunnel axis. Encountering a fracture with such desirable characteristics provided a unique opportunity during construction of the URL to try out instrumentation and analytical methods for use in the Excavation Response Experiment (ERE), one of the major URL experiments. This is the first of four reports that cover the excavation response test. This report contains the information provided to the numerical modelling groups before the start of excavation. It includes survey information of the excavations within 30 m of the instrument array; the layout of the instrument array; details of the geology, rock properties, joint characteristics, in situ stresses, and in situ rock temperature distribution; the results of hydrogeological testing and monitoring; the planned excavation sequence; and the format for the modellers to present their results to facilitate easy comparison with the measured responses. Includes 13 excavation charts in back pocket

  16. Study of the Pasquasia underground cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes have to be verified both by laboratory and on site research, under both surface and underground conditions. The tests carried out under high lithostatic stress can allow extrapolations to be made having absolute value at the depths planned for the construction of the repository. On the area around the Pasquasia mine, a detailed geological mapping (1: 5000 scale) has been carried out. For the purpose of studying the effects induced by the advancement of the excavation's face into the clayey mass and over the cross section of the transversal tunnel, several measurement stations were installed (multibase straingauges, convergency rods, pressure cells, centering and concrete straingauges). Structural observations were made on both the fronts and the walls of the tunnel for the purpose of characterizing the mechanical behaviour of a clayey mass. The 37 cubic blocks, their sides measuring measurement 30cm, along 72 samples collected during the excavation, have been analyzed from different point of view (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, micropaleontological, interstitial water content, thermal properties, etc). After the excavation of the tunnel and the installation of the geotechnical stations, the measurements have been carried on up to March 1987. At this date the work programme has been unfortunately stopped by local authorities unfoundly suspecting Pasquasia mine would be used as waste repository

  17. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  18. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  19. Engineered barrier experiment Mont Terri underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (UPC-CIMNE), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [AITEMIN, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment is being carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland). The aim of the EB experiment is the demonstration of a new concept for the buffer construction of HLW repositories in horizontal drifts, in competent clay formations. The principle of this new buffer construction method is based on the combined use of a lower bed made of compacted bentonite blocks, and an upper backfill made with a bentonite pellets based material. The emplacement layout proposed in this project represents an important innovation for repositories in horizontal drifts. The fact of filling the upper part of the gap between the canister and the rock with a pellets-based type of material makes the emplacement operation much simpler, eliminating some of the most critical aspects of such operation. The experiment is carried out in a gallery excavated in the shaly facies of the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. The geometry of the test site is a horseshoe section, 2,55 m high, 3 m wide and 15 m long. A dummy canister of the same dimensions and weight than the reference one was installed on the top of a compacted bentonite blocks bed, and the gap canister-rock was backfilled with compacted bentonite pellets. The experimental area was isolated by a concrete plug. An artificial hydration system was installed to accelerate the hydration process. In order to monitor the evolution of the system and record the values of different parameters, a data acquisition system was installed. (authors)

  20. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  1. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  2. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring

  3. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  4. Fluvial sediment in the little Arkansas River basin, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, C.D.; Stramel, G.J.

    1966-01-01

    Characteristics and transport of sediment in the Little Arkansas River basin in south-central Kansas were studied to determine if the water from the river could be used as a supplemental source for municipal supply or would provide adequate recharge to aquifers that are sources of municipal and agricultural water supplies. During periods when overland 1low contributed a significant amount to streamflow, the suspended sediment in the Little Arkansas River at Valley Center averaged about 85 percent of clay, about 13 percent of silt, and about 2 percent of sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharge for the water years 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1961 was about 306,000 tons, and about 80 percent of the load was transported during 133 days of the 1,461-day period. The average daily water discharge of 352 cubic feet per second for the period 1958-61 was more than the long-term (i}9-year) average of 245 cfs; therefore, the average annual sediment load for 1958-61 was probably greater than the average annual load for the same long-term period. Studies of seepage in a part of the channel of Kisiwa Creek indicated that an upstream gravel-pit operation yielded clays which, when deposited in the channel, reduced seepage. A change in plant operation and subsequent runoff that removed the deposited clays restored natural seepage conditions. Experiments by the Wichita Water Department showed that artificial recharge probably cannot be accomplished by using raw turbid water that is injected into wells or by using pits. Recharge by raw turbid water on large permeable areas or by seepage canals may be feasible. Studies of chemical quality of surface water at several sites in the Little Arkansas River basin indicate that Turkey. Creek is a major contributor of chloride and other dissolved solids to the Little Arkansas River and that the dissolved-solids content is probably highest during low-flow periods when suspended-sediment concentration is low. Data collected by the Wichita

  5. Development of a smart rock bolt for underground monitoring operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moema, JS

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of magnetic methods in measuring the stress or microstructural transformation in an individual bolt in both laboratory and underground environment. The corrosion performance of the smart bolt alloy was evaluated in synthetic mine water and compared...

  6. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  7. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  8. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Bauluz, B; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; MartInez, M; Morales, J; Solorzano, A Ortiz de; Pobes, C; Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions are given

  9. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Bauluz, B [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); GarcIa, E [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); MartInez, M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Solorzano, A Ortiz de [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and ({alpha}, n) reactions are given.

  10. Life cycle guideline of petrochemical plant underground piping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Jeng-Ywan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics of petrochemical plant disaster, the type of underground pipeline leakage is the highest proportion, for example, Kaohsiung gas explosion in 2014 is a typical case. Therefore, improvement strategy of petrochemical plant underground piping system from both engineering and management becomes an important issue. Through reviewing regulations as well as surveying questionnaire, including kinds of piping materials, 3D drawing files, operation procedures, information sharing, etc., the findings show lack contact of integrated management with engineering executive and insufficient technical requirements are major defects. Overviewing current problems of domestic petrochemical plant underground piping system management, and comparing to international criteria and specifications, this research focuses on the of piping design, construction, operations, maintenance, and inspection. Then management procedures and engineering technical feasibility strategies are suggested. In addition, the proposed life cycle guideline in order to reduce the disaster incidence of petrochemical plant underground pipelines.

  11. The evolution of groundwater management paradigms in Kansas and possible new steps towards water sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Marios

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of key water-related laws and management practices in Kansas, from the enactment of the Kansas Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1945 to the present, in order to highlight the state's efforts to create a more sustainable water future and in hopes that others will benefit from Kansas' experience. The 1945 Act provides the basic framework of water law (prior appropriation) in Kansas. Progression of groundwater management in the state encompasses local Groundwater Management Districts (GMDs) and their water-management programs, minimum-streamflow and TMDL standards, water-use reporting and water metering programs, use of modified safe-yield policies in some GMDs, the subbasin water-resources-management program, the integrated resource planning/aquifer storage and recovery project of the city of Wichita, the Central Kansas Water Bank, enhanced aquifer subunits management, and various water conservation programs. While these have all contributed to the slowing down of declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and in associated ecosystems, they have not yet succeeded in halting those declines. Based on the assumption that the different management approaches have to operate easily within the prevailing water rights and law framework to succeed, a number of steps are suggested here that may help further diminish or reverse the declines of the High Plains aquifer. These include eliminating the "use it or lose it" maxim in the prior-appropriation framework, broadening the definition of "beneficial use," regulating domestic and other "exempt" wells, encouraging voluntary "sharing the shortage" agreements, and determining to what extent water rights may be regulated in the public interest without a compensable "taking". Further measures include establishing artificial recharge and/or aquifer storage and recovery projects wherever feasible and determining to what extent water-rights holders might be

  12. Kansas legislators prioritize obesity but overlook nutrition and physical activity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Stephen, Mellina O; Vaughan, Katherine B; Kellogg, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    State-level policymakers play an important role in the fight against obesity because of their ability to create policies that influence opportunities for physical activity and nutrition. In 2011, we investigated how Kansas policymakers regarded obesity, nutrition, and physical activity in comparison to other issues. This study used a cross-sectional design. This study was conducted in Kansas, a predominately rural and Republican Midwestern state. All 181 state-level policymakers in Kansas were mailed a cover letter and survey. Policymakers were asked to identify and rate the importance of issues or problems in need of attention for Kansas. The 2011 state legislative report was content analyzed and coded to match the survey. Comparisons were made by political party. Of the 49 policymakers who completed a survey, 37 were Republicans and 43 were elected to their position. Although obesity-related issues were rated second highest after jobs, physical activity- and nutrition-related issues were not seen as important problems; moreover, little corresponding legislation was introduced. Other key issues identified by policymakers included budget/spending/taxes, education, jobs/economy, and drug abuse, with more legislation reflecting these problems. The Democrats ranked 11 issues as more significant problems than did the Republicans: quality of public education, poverty, access to health care, lack of affordable housing, ethics in government, lack of public health training, access to healthy groceries, lack of pedestrian walkways/crosswalks/sidewalks, pedestrian safety, air pollution, and global warming (P < .05). There is a need to provide more public health education on the relationship between nutrition and physical activity issues and obesity for Kansas policymakers. Issues identified may be similar for other predominately rural and Republican states.

  13. Efficiency evaluation of agricultural underground dam in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, W.; Song, S. H.; Yong, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in severe droughts in a rice-planting season (i.e., April to June) in South Korea since 2012. Therefore, all time high-amount water resources in rice-farming seasons (i.e., April to October) were required against natural crises like droughts. The underground dam, which is able to increase groundwater amounts in the alluvium aquifer, has been considered to be an alternative for securing more groundwater resources. In this study, irrigation efficiencies of five pre-existing agricultural underground dams in South Korea were evaluated during the drought periods. A total amount of groundwater storage capacities in alluvial aquifers of these five ones were estimated approximate 15 × 107 m3: above 4 × 106 m3 for two underground dams (Ian, Namsong), 2 3 × 106 m3, for 2 dams (Oksung, Wooil), below 2 × 106 m3 for 1 dam (Gocheon), respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for three underground dams (Ian, Namsong, Gocheon), supplied in rice-farming season are 8.5 × 105 m3/year, 8.3 × 105 m3/year, 6.3 × 105 m3/year, respectively. The total demand of agricultural water in these underground dams is 2.0 × 106 m3/year, 1.9 × 106 m3/year, 2.2 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for whole of rice-farming area in South Korea is 4.3 × 108 m3/year whereas total demand of agricultural water is 9.4 × 109 m3/year. Groundwater were pumped from the radial collector wells located in the upstream from the underground dams. Oksung underground dam, one representative underground dam located in Chungnam province in South Korea, irrigated approximate 3 × 105 m3 during a dried rice-planting season (between April to June) in 2017. It was three times more than usual (9 × 104 m3). Groundwater levels during the same period maintained above 5.55 m, which was slightly lower than usual (6.00 m). Results of Oksung underground dam demonstrated that underground dams in South Korea were effectively operated against

  14. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground water quality of Abia state, Nigeria - physico-chemical properties. ... than a mean value of 5.17 ± 0.09 obtained for Umuahia. Underground waters of high population density areas had mean pH value of 4.29 ± 0.16 which differed significantly from 4.88 ± 0.13

  15. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  16. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  17. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic el...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcel boundaries for Johnson County Kansas based off of legal description. Used to show spatial reference to parcel boundaries of Johnson County Kansas., Published in 2007, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2007. Parcel boundaries for Johnson County Kansas based off of legal description. Used to show spatial reference to...

  19. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  20. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)