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Sample records for underground gran sasso

  1. Low background Ge spectrometry at Gran Sasso underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preusse, W. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Bucci, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Arpesella, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    Under the shelter of 1400 m limestone rock the Gran Sasso underground laboratories in the Apennines (110 km north-east of Rome at a turn-off inside the Gran Sasso motorway tunnel) were designed for running large experiments in the field of neutrino, particle and astrophysics by international collaborations. These experiments have in common the basic requirement to be capable to detect very rare events like e.g. neutrino interactions and double beta decays. Due to this their permanent demands for selecting radiopure materials have led to the equipping of a Ge detector laboratory - at present with 6 large detectors. (orig./DG)

  2. Tidal tilts observations in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.; Milyukov, V.

    2001-01-01

    A new tilt meter, based on the technology for building a space-borne high-sensitivity accelerometer and manufactured at IFSI/CNR, has a been operating during several years in the INFN Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The results of the analysis of a three-year data set, processed with the program package ETERNA, to estimate earth tidal parameters are reported. For the best series of data (1998) tide measurement accuracies are: 0.5-1% for the M 2 (lunar principal) amplitude and 3-4% for the O 1 (lunar declination) amplitude. The tilt meter installed at a depth of 1400 m shows no clear evidence of meteorological effects. Observed tidal parameters are compared with theoretical tidal parameters predicted for a non-hydrostatic inelastic Earth model and demonstrate good agreement for the M 2 component. Due to the high accuracy of the tidal components prediction (better than 1%) tidal measurements were used to estimate the long-term stability of the instrument response

  3. Simultaneous observation of extensive air showers and underground muons at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present new combined data from the MACRO underground detector located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory and the EAS-TOP surface array located on top of the mountain above MACRO at a zenith angle of 27.5 degree and separated by 3100 meters water equivalent (mwe) of rock. Discussed are the method of the event correlation and the characteristics of the reconstructed events. 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Gran Sasso, laboratorio sigillato

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Giorgio, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    The authorities closed half of the Gran Sasso Centre and the experiments were stopped yesterday after faults were discovered in the security system in one of the three halls of the Laboratory (1 page)

  5. Operation and performance of the ICARUS-T600 cryogenic plant at Gran Sasso underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M.; Baibussinov, B.; Boffelli, F.; Bubak, A.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieślik, K.; Cline, D.B.; Cocco, A.G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dermenev, A.; Disdier, J.M.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Stefan, D.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Torti, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.G.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K.

    2015-12-04

    ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber is the first large mass electronic detector of a new generation able to combine the imaging capabilities of the old bubble chambers with the excellent calorimetric energy measurement. After the three months demonstration run on surface in Pavia during 2001, the T600 cryogenic plant was significantly revised, in terms of reliability and safety, in view of its long-term operation in an underground environment. The T600 detector was activated in Hall B of the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory during Spring 2010, where it was operated without interruption for about three years, taking data exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso long baseline neutrino beam and cosmic rays. In this paper the T600 cryogenic plant is described in detail together with the commissioning procedures that lead to the successful operation of the detector shortly after the end of the filling with liquid Argon. Overall plant performance and stability during the long-term underground operation are discusse...

  6. Seasonal variations of the rate of multiple-muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronga F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the rate of cosmic ray muons depends on the atmospheric temperature, and that for events with a single muon the peak of the rate is in summer, in underground laboratories in the northern hemisphere. In 2015 the MINOS experiment, in USA, found that, for small distances between the multiple-muons, the rate of multiple-muons peaks in the winter and that the amplitude of the modulation is smaller than in the case of a single muon. I have done a re-analysis of data of the past MACRO experiment. The result is that under Gran Sasso the rate of multiple-muons at small distances peaks in the summer. This difference with MINOS could be explained by differences in the atmospheric temperature due to latitude. This results could be of interest for dark matter experiments looking to dark matter seasonal modulation due to the Earth’s motion.

  7. The ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Detector Operation in the Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 Module is the largest liquid argon detector (760 t LAr mass) ever realized to study neutrino oscill ations and matter stability in the deep underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. One of t he key elements for the detector performance is the liquid argon purity: residual electronegative compounds in argon have to be kept as low as 0.1 part s per billion all over the detector run. The T600 Module design was finalized by the ICARUS Collaboration after years of R&D studies that brought to the viable and scalable industrial solutions necessary for sized experiments with severe safety prescriptions for the underground operation . We present the T600 Module successful commissioning and the 3-years efficient, stable and continuous operation with extraordinary LAr purity, high performance and zero dead time data taking . This result demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of activation and long-term run in safe conditions of sized cryogenic detectors even in a confined underground location and r...

  8. CNGS: Opening the way to Gran Sasso

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The excavation and concreting of the underground structures of the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project has just been completed. The way to Gran Sasso is now open and, to mark the occasion, we are publishing a special two-part Bulletin report on the CNGS project. The first part, which appears this week, covers the facility which will allow a beam of neutrinos to be sent from CERN to INFN's underground laboratory at Gran Sasso in Italy in 2006. The second part, to appear in next week's issue, will feature the two CNGS experiments, OPERA and ICARUS.

  9. Hydraulic pressure variations of groundwater in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory during Amatrice earthquake of August 24th, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano De Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since May 2015, hydraulic pressure, temperature and electrical conductivity of groundwater are in continuos recording near the deep underground laboratories of Gran Sasso of INFN. We used the S13 borehole that have pressure varying in the range of 24-28 bar during the year; these values mean that we have at least 300 m of water table above. The sampling of these parameters was brought until to 50 Hz using a 3 channels 24-bit ADC. During the period May 2015 – September 2016 (17 months we detected hydraulic pressure signals from 12 earthquakes at different surface distances (from 12.000 to 30 km and different magnitudes (from 8.3 to 4.3 Mw. For the Amatrice mainshock, we present, as first results, the hydroseismograph recorded at the S13 hydraulic pressure device compared to the time history recorded at GIGS station located both in the deep core of the Gran Sasso chain.

  10. A large area transition radiation detector to measure the energy of muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and built a transition radiation detector of 36 m 2 area in order to measure the residual energy of muons penetrating in the Gran Sasso cosmic ray underground laboratory up to the TeV region. It consists of three adjacent modules, each of 2x6 m 2 area. Polystyrene square tubes, filled with a argon-carbon dioxide gas mixture, and polyethylene foam layers are used as proportional detectors and radiators respectively. We cover such a large surface with only 960 channels that provide adequate energy resolution and particle tracking for the astroparticle physics items to investigate. The detector has been calibrated using a reduced size prototype in a test beam. Results from one module exposed to cosmic rays at sea level are shown. (orig.)

  11. Developments at the Gran Sasso laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The INFN Laboratory at Gran Sasso is a sanctuary for neutrinos. Located 963 metres over the sea level, it is protected by the 1400 metres of the rock of Gran Sasso mountain, next to the road tunnel of the same name, 120 km from Rome in Italy. It was from this underground location, ideal for receiving a high-energy neutrino beam from CERN, that first sprang the idea for the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project. However, an accident which occurred in one of the Laboratory's three experimental halls last August resulted in its temporary closure, leaving a question mark over the project's future. Today, following a legal ruling, certain scientific activities are now starting up again. Angelo Scribano, the vice-president of INFN, takes stock of the situation. "After a difficult year, it seems that an air of optimism is back in the INFN laboratories at Gran Sasso. On 17th June 2003, the competent court of the city of Teramo agreed to certain scientific activities starting up again in Hall C as requested b...

  12. Search for time modulations in the decay constant of 40K and 226Ra at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Di Carlo, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Menegazzo, R.

    2018-05-01

    Time modulations at per mil level have been reported to take place in the decay constant of several nuclei with period of one year (most cases) but also of about one month or one day. On the other hand, experiments with similar or better sensitivity have been unable to detect any modulation. In this letter we give the results of the activity study of two different sources: 40K and 226Ra. The two gamma spectrometry experiments have been performed underground at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, this way suppressing the time dependent cosmic ray background. Briefly, our measurements reached the sensitivity of 3.4 and 3.5 parts over 106 for 40K and 226Ra, respectively (1 sigma) and they do not show any statistically significant evidence of time dependence in the decay constant. We also give the results of the activity measurement at the time of the two strong X-class solar flares which took place in September 2017. Our data do not show any unexpected time dependence in the decay rate of 40K in correspondence with the two flares. To the best of our knowledge, these are the most precise and accurate results on the stability of the decay constant as function of time.

  13. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2 sigmas. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a s...

  14. Gran Sasso, laboratori fermi per inquinamento

    CERN Multimedia

    Arachi, Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    An experimental hall at the Gran Sasso laboratory has been closed by the Courts after a river was found contaminated. The institute decided to close all the installations in order to protect the health of citizens (1 page)

  15. GRAN SASSO: Enriched germanium in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Two large crystals of carefully enriched germanium, one weighing 1 kilogram and the other 2.9 kilograms, and worth many millions of dollars, are being carefully monitored in the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory in the continuing search for neutrinoless double beta decay

  16. DUBNA-GRAN SASSO: Satellite computer link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In April a 64 kbit/s computer communication link was set up between the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russia) and Gran Sasso (Italy) Laboratories via nearby ground satellite stations using the INTELSAT V satellite. Previously the international community of Dubna's experimentalists and theorists (high energy physics, condensed matter physics, low energy nuclear and neutron physics, accelerator and applied nuclear physics) had no effective computer links with scientific centres worldwide

  17. Risk analysis and reliability of the GERDA Experiment extraction and ventilation plant at Gran Sasso mountain underground laboratory of Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Mara; Garzia, Fabio; Guarascio, Massimo; Giovannone, Enzo Paolo; Giampaoli, Antonio; Musti, Mafalda; Ranalli, Maria Teresa; Perruzza, Roberto; Tartaglia, Roberto, E-mail: mara.lombardi@uniroma1.it, E-mail: fabio.garzia@uniroma1.it, E-mail: massimo.guarascio@uniroma1.it [Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza-Engineering Roma (Italy); Corpo Nazionale Vigili del Fuoco L' Aquila (CNVF) (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori del Gran Sasso L' Aquila, Abruzzo (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    The aim of this study is the risk analysis evaluation about argon release from the GERDA experiment in the Gran Sasso underground National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The GERDA apparatus, located in Hall A of the LNGS, is a facility with germanium detectors located in a wide tank filled with about 70 m{sup 3} of cold liquefied argon. This cryo-tank sits in another water-filled tank (700 m{sup 3} ) at atmospheric pressure. In such cryogenic processes, the main cause of an accidental scenario is lacking insulation of the cryo-tank. A preliminary HazOp analysis has been carried out on the whole system. The risk assessment identified two possible top-events: explosion due to a Rapid Phase Transition - RPT and argon runaway evaporation. Risk analysis highlighted a higher probability of occurrence of the latter top event. To avoid emission in Hall A, the HazOp, Fault Tree and Event tree analyses of the cryogenic gas extraction and ventilation plant have been made. The failures related to the ventilation system are the main cause responsible for the occurrence. To improve the system reliability some corrective actions were proposed: the use of UPS and the upgrade of damper opening devices. Furthermore, the Human Reliability Analysis identified some operating and management improvements: action procedure optimization, alert warnings and staff training. The proposed model integrates the existing analysis techniques by applying the results to an atypical work environment and there are useful suggestions for improving the system reliability. (author)

  18. Origin and status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter (DM), neutrinoless double beta decay (2β0ν) and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  19. Laboratorio Gran Sasso : riprendono le attività

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Tests have begun again in the Gran Sasso Laboratory after it's recent closure due to river contamination : some improvements have been made, such as insulation, and testing of water systems and storage areas (1 paragraph)

  20. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giachero A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towards CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.

  1. Gran Sasso National Laboratory: Outreach and communication activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, R.; Di Giovanni, A.; Galeota, M.; Sebastiani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its fascinating structures, the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) offers huge opportunities for communication and outreach activities conceived for students and general public. A great effort is devoted to the organisation of the "OPEN DAY", in which the scientific staff of Gran Sasso introduces non expert people to the main relevant research topics of the laboratory through interactive demonstrations and particle detectors. In particular, a portable cosmic rays telescope has been realized: the detector is used by LNGS team in pubblic events as well as to promote the scientific activities of the Laboratory. In order to point out the importance of the scientific culture for young people, LNGS is involved in the organisation of several training courses for students and teachers focused on the improvement of the knowledge on modern physics topics. Since May 2008 is operating in Teramo the "Galileium", an interactive museum for physics and astrophysics.

  2. Multiple muon physics with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The first supermodule of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory has been operating since the end of February 1989. About 245,000 muon triggers have been collected in the first three months of data taking corresponding to ∼1890 hours of live-time. Presented here are the measured vertical muon flux as well as the lateral spread and multiplicity distribution of muon bundles. 4 refs., 5 figs

  3. A new proton spill from CERN to Gran Sasso

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Since 21 October, CERN has been sending a new type of neutrino beam to Gran Sasso. The new configuration is intended to allow the experiments to define the departure time of the neutrinos more accurately and thus check the previous results obtained using the nominal beam configuration.   The CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam no longer operates using the standard beam time structure. Instead, a new type of proton pulse is being produced by CERN’s accelerators and sent to the graphite target to generate neutrinos. “We are now producing extremely short beam pulses,” explains Edda Gschwendtner, the physicist in charge of the CNGS secondary beam. “During a CNGS cycle we now have a LHC type bunched beam with four bunches, each about 2 ns long. Each bunch contains more than 2.5 x 1011 protons; bunches are spaced by 500 ns. In total, this makes about 1012 protons on target for each extraction from the SPS.” The CNGS beam was originally designed to m...

  4. Atmospheric neutrino oscillation results with macro at Gran Sasso laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is here presented updated results of the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flux with the Macro detector at Gran Sasso, using three data sets spread in a large energy range. In the high energy range, the upgoing throughgoing muon data set is in favor of νμ→ντ oscillation hypothesis with a probability of 36.6% against the 0.36% for the no oscillation hypothesis. In the low energy range, the two data set are also in favor to the oscillation hypothesis showing a large deficit for IU events and a reduced deficit for US+ID events, since only the US events (=50%) are expected to oscillate. Assuming a νμ→ντ oscillation scheme, the results suggest a large range of the parameter values centered around Δm 2= 0.0025 e V 2, sin 22 θ=1

  5. Il futuro di tutto l'Universo alle pendici del Gran Sasso Un esperimento del Cern in Ginevra e dell'Istituto di Fisica nuclear a base di "neutrini"

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 11 september in the morning, a neutrino beam is gone form Cern in Geneva to Gran Sasso Laboratories. It have taken 2,5 milliseconds, travelling underground, for the 732 km between the two cities. (1,5 page)

  6. Trent'anni di Gran Sasso = Thirty years of Gran Sasso volume in onore di Antonino Zichichi = a volume in honour of Antonino Zichichi

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This volume - in honour of Antonino Zichichi - is a collection of papers that have appeared in various journals, proceedings and books published by the Italian Physical Society over the last few decades about the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The articles reproduced in the book come from Il Nuovo Saggiatore, Il Nuovo Cimento and from the Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" of Varenna. A few other relevant articles from special volumes have been included for the sake of completeness.

  7. Test of a SiPM-scintillator-based muon detector at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, I.; Könye, V.; Antolini, R.; Arneodo, F.; Boeltzig, A.; Candela, A.; Di Giovanni, A.; Fülöp, Zs; Junker, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the characteristics of a tracking scintillation detector by measuring cosmic muons above- and underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). The detector has been designed for demonstrational purposes and had never been involved in scientific research before. It is a compact, layered detector using plastic scintillator bars and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). In the present setup no energy information is used. In the underground laboratory we had to deal with a very low rate of muons (6 orders of magnitude less than on the surface). For this reason we optimized the trigger configuration. During the evaluation process we designed and optimized a maximum likelihood line fitting method which is able to deal with the high dark count rate and the non optimized detection efficiency of the detector. We also carried out simulations to calculate the actual flux and intensity from the measured ones. Finally, we compared our results with the literature and they were found to be in agreement.

  8. The slow control system of the GERDA double beta decay experiment at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnera, R; Garfagnini, A; Gigante, G; Hemmer, S; Zinato, D; Costa, F; Lippi, I; Michelotto, M; Ur, C

    2012-01-01

    GERDA is an experiment designed and built to study double beta decays of 76 Ge. It is currently in operation at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories (LNGS). A custom slow control system has been designed to monitor and control all the critical parameters for the proper functioning of the experiment. The main sub-components of the experiment (Cryostat, Clean Room, Water Tank, electronic crates and temperatures, High Voltage Systems, Radon Monitor and Source Insertion System) are constantly monitored by several distributed clients which write acquired data to a relational database (PostgreSQL). The latter allows to maintain a history of the whole experiment and, performing correlation between different and independent components, is useful to debug possible system malfunctions. The system is complemented by a Web server, a lightweight and efficient interface to the user on shifts and to the on-call experts, and by a dedicated Alarm dispatcher which distributes the errors generated by the components to the users allowing to react in short time. The whole project has been built around open source and custom software.

  9. Neutrinos sent from CERN in Geneva "photographed" at the Gran Sasso laboratory after a travel of 730 km under the Earth Crust

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "There was a lot of excitement and joy among the neutrino physicists of the OPERA experiment, when the first neutrino event occurred on Tuesday October 2, at 5:04 p.m.. One of the many millions of neutrinos produced at the CERN accelerator complex (CNGS) during its operation hit the OPERA deteftor at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian Institute for Nuclear Research (INFN), 730 km away from CERN...." (1,5 page)

  10. UNO STUDIO SUL TERREMOTO DEL GRAN SASSO D' ITALIA DEL 5 SETTEMBRE 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marcelli

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente lavoro si espongono i risultati della prima parte diuno studio sul terremoto del Gran Sasso d'Italia avvenuto il 5 settembre10.50. Si riportano le notizie macrosismiche, e viene tracciatala rete delle isosiste. Calcolata la magnitudo, l'energia, l'epicentro incoordinate ortogonali e geografiche, le velocità delle Pg, Pn, Sg, Sncon le relative dromocrone, il tempo origine,

  11. Proposed tests for minimal SU(5) supergravity at Fermilab, Gran Sasso, SuperKamiokande, and LEP

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L; Pois, H; Zichichi, Antonino

    1993-01-01

    A series of predictions are worked out in order to put the minimal $SU(5)$ supergravity model under experimental test. Using the two-loop gauge coupling renormalization group equations, with the inclusion of supersymmetric threshold corrections, we calculate a new value for the proton decay rate in this model and find that SuperKamiokande and Gran Sasso should see the proton decay mode $p\\to\\bar\

  12. The Milano-Gran Sasso double beta decay experiment: toward a 20-crystal array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-01-01

    TeO 2 thermal detectors are being used by the Milano group to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130 Te. An upper limit for neutrinoless decay half life of 2.1 x 10 22 yr at 90% CL obtained with a 334 g TeO 2 detector has been previously reported. To improve the sensitivity of the experiment an array of twenty 340 g TeO 2 crystals will be realised in the next future. As a first step toward the realisation of that experiment a 4 crystal detector has been tested in the Gran Sasso refrigerator. Detector performances, data acquisition and analysis are discussed. (orig.)

  13. GRAN SASSO/GRENOBLE: Artificial neutrino source confirms solar neutrino result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Gallex experiment announced the first observation of the neutrinos produced in the primary proton-proton fusion reaction in the core of the Sun, reaction at the origin of the energy production by our star (September 1992, page 1). The Gallex team stressed that the observed neutrino flux was only about two-thirds of the predicted level, confirming the deficit observed by the two pioneering experiments, Ray Davis' chlorine-based detector in the USA and the Kamiokande study in Japan (which are only sensitive to neutrinos from subsidiary solar fusion processes). This deficit demands explanation, and could considerably modify our understanding of how stars shine and/or of neutrino physics. But before drawing conclusions, the Gallex result had to be checked. Gallex, installed in the Italian Gran Sasso underground Laboratory, is a radiochemical experiment using neutrino interactions to transform gallium-71 into germanium-71. The latter is radioactive and decays with a half-life of 11.4 days. Counting the germanium-71 atoms extracted from the target tank measures the neutrino flux to which the detector is exposed. Neutrinos are famous for their reluctance to interact. 65 billion per square centimetre per second on the surface of the Earth produce only one germanium-71 atom in the Gallex target containing 30 tons of gallium. This is at the limit of homeopathy (extracting few atoms of germanium-71 from a solution containing 10 30 atoms) and needs careful checking. Since it is not possible to switch off the Sun, the only recourse was to build an artificial neutrino source more powerful than the Sun as a benchmark. This was done last summer. Last May, 36 kilograms of chromium grains were placed in the Siloe reactor of the French Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, Grenoble. The chromium had been previously enriched to 40% chromium-50 by the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow (natural chromium contains only 4.5% chromium-50). A dedicated core was built for

  14. First results from the DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Agnes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first results of DarkSide-50, a direct search for dark matter operating in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS and searching for the rare nuclear recoils possibly induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs. The dark matter detector is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber with a (46.4±0.7 kg active mass, operated inside a 30 t organic liquid scintillator neutron veto, which is in turn installed at the center of a 1 kt water Cherenkov veto for the residual flux of cosmic rays. We report here the null results of a dark matter search for a (1422±67 kgd exposure with an atmospheric argon fill. This is the most sensitive dark matter search performed with an argon target, corresponding to a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 6.1×10−44 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 100 Gev/c2.

  15. Paleoseismology of silent faults in the Central Apennines (Italy: the Campo Imperatore Fault (Gran Sasso Range Fault System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleoseismological analyses were performed along the Campo Imperatore Fault (part of the Gran Sasso Range Fault System in order to define the seismogenic behaviour (recurrence interval for surface faulting events, elapsed time since the last activation, maximum expected magnitude. Four trenches were excavated across secondary faults which are related to the main fault zone. The youngest event (E1 occurred after 3480-3400 years BP; a previous event (E2 occurred between 7155-7120/7035-6790 years BP and 5590-5565/5545-5475 years BP, while the oldest one (E3 has a Late Pleistocene age. The chronological interval between the last two displacement events ranges between 1995 and 6405 years. The minimum elapsed time since the last activation is 800 years, due to the absence of historical earthquakes which may have been caused by the Campo Imperatore Fault and based on the completeness of the historical catalogues for the large magnitude events in the last eight centuries. Based on the length of the fault surficial expression, earthquakes with M 6.95 may be expected from the activation of the entire Gran Sasso Range Fault System. The effects of the fault activation were investigated through the simulation of a damage scenario obtained by means of the FaCES computer code, made by the National Seismic Survey for civil protection purposes. The damage scenario shows that the activation of the Gran Sasso Range Fault System may be responsible for an earthquake with epicentral intensity I0 10.5 MCS, with a number of collapsed buildings ranging between 7900 and 31100 and a number of damaged buildings ranging between 99 000 and 234 000. The investigated case defines, therefore, a high risk level for the region affected by the Campo Imperatore Fault.

  16. C2GT intercepting CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso in the Gulf of Taranto to measure $\\theta_13$

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, A E; Camilleri, L L; Catinaccio, A; Chelkov, G A; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Frandsen, Poul Kjaer; Gostkin, M I; Grant, A; Guskov, A; Joram, C; Krumshtein, Z; Müller, H; Postema, H; Price, M; Rovelli, T; Schinzel, D; Séguinot, Jacques; Valenti, G; Voss, R; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Today's greatest challenge in accelerator-based neutrino physics is to measure the mixing angle \\thonethree\\ which is known to be much smaller than the solar mixing angle \\thonetwo\\ and the atmospheric mixing angle \\thtwothree . A non-zero value of the angle \\thonethree\\ is a prerequisite for observing CP violation in neutrino mixing. In this paper, we discuss a deep-sea neutrino experiment with 1.5~Mt fiducial target mass in the Gulf of Taranto with the prime objective of measuring \\thonethree. The detector is exposed to the CERN neutrino beam to Gran Sasso in off-axis geometry. Monochromatic muon-neutrinos of $\\approx 800$~MeV energy are the dominant beam component. Neutrinos are detected through quasi-elastic, charged-current reactions in sea water; electrons and muons are detected in a large-surface, ring-imaging Cherenkov detector. The profile of the seabed in the Gulf of Taranto allows for a moveable experiment at variable distances from CERN, starting at 1100 km. From the oscillatory pattern of the dis...

  17. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  18. Time-Shift in the OPERA set-up: proof against superluminal neutrinos without the need of knowing the CERN-LNGS distance and Reminiscences on the origin of the Gran Sasso Lab, of the 3rd neutrino and of the "Teramo Anomaly"

    CERN Document Server

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    The LVD time stability allows to establish a time-shift in the OPERA experiment, thus providing the first proof against Superluminal neutrinos, using the horizontal muons of the "Teramo Anomaly". This proof is particularly interesting since does not need the knowledge of the distance between the place where the neutrinos are produced (CERN) and the place where they are detected (LNGS). Since the Superluminal neutrinos generated in the physics community a vivid interest in good and bad behaviour in physics research, the author thought it was appropriate to recall the origin of the Gran Sasso Lab, of the 3rd neutrino, of the horizontal muons due to the "Teramo Anomaly" and of the oscillation between leptonic flavours, when the CERN-Gran Sasso neutrino beam was included in the project for the most powerful underground Laboratory in the world.

  19. Gran Sasso: Gallex underway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Although the experiment actually started collecting its solar neutrino data last Summer, November 30 saw the official inauguration of the Gallex experiment. A collaboration between Heidelberg, Karlsruhe and Munich in Germany, Saclay and Nice in France, Milan and Rome in Italy, Rehovot in Israel and Brookhaven in the US, Gallex uses 30 tonnes of gallium (as gallium chloride solution) to intercept neutrinos from the sun

  20. High-sensitivity strain measurements from underground interferometric stations: geodynamic phenomena at Gran Sasso and first records from Canfranc

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Verdiana

    2013-01-01

    2011 - 2012 Earth's surface and interior continuously deform as a result of geological and geophys- ical processes. To study these phenomena and to understand better the rheological properties of the Earth, measurements of Earth's deformation become of fundamental importance, providing a critical link between Earth's structure and dynamics, also in order to optimize the response to natural hazards and identify potential risk areas. The study of crustal deformation is a compl...

  1. GRAN SASSO: Roman lead or physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascolini, Alessandro

    1991-01-01

    On June 15 at Oristano (Sardinia) a formal ceremony marked the start of an underwater archaeological campaign sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) to recover the load of a Roman freighter (navis oneraria) which sank off Sardinia carrying an exceptionally large load of lead

  2. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  3. Progress of the Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator for nuclear astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Bemmerer, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cowan, T. E.; Grieger, M.; Hensel, T.; Junghans, A. R.; Ludwig, F.; Müller, S. E.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Schulz, S.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Low-background experiments with stable ion beams are an important tool for putting the model of stellar hydrogen, helium, and carbon burning on a solid experimental foundation. The pioneering work in this regard has been done by the LUNA collaboration at Gran Sasso, using a 0.4 MV accelerator. In the present contribution, the status of the project for a higher-energy underground accelerator is reviewed. Two tunnels of the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, Germany, are currently being ...

  4. Results of ultra-low level 71ge counting for application in the Gallex-solar neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Huebner, M.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Schneider, K.; Schlotz, R.

    1985-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the Ultra-Low-Level Counting System for the Gallex solar neutrino experiment is capable of measuring the expected solar up silon-flux to plus or minus 12% during two years of operation.

  5. Underground test of quantum mechanics - the VIP2 experiment arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Johann; Bassi, A.; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; Donadi, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Milotti, E.; Pichler, A.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    We are experimentally investigating possible violations of standard quantum mechanics predictions in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. We test with high precision the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the collapse of the wave function (collapse models). We present our method of searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) for electrons, through the search for anomalous X-ray transitions in copper atoms, produced by fresh electrons (brought inside the copper bar by circulating current) which can have the probability to undergo Pauli-forbidden transition to the 1 s level already occupied by two electrons and we describe the VIP2 (VIolation of PEP) experiment under data taking at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. In this paper the new VIP2 setup installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory will be presented. The goal of VIP2 is to test the PEP for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to a limit in the probability that PEP is violated at the level of...

  6. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  7. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  8. CERN to Gran Sasso An ideal distance for superbeam?

    CERN Document Server

    Minakata, H; Minakata, Hisakazu; Nunokawa, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We use the CP trajectory diagram as a tool for pictorial representation of the genuine CP and the matter effects to explore the possibility of an in situ simultaneous measurement of \\delta and the sign of \\Delta m^2_{13}. We end up with a low-energy conventional superbeam experiment with a megaton-class water Cherenkov detector and baseline length of about 700 km. A picturesque description of the combined ambiguity which may arise in simultaneous determination of \\theta_{13} and the above two quantities is given in terms of CP trajectory diagram.

  9. INFN halts the activities of Gran Sasso Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Due to the rising doubts about the tightness of the sewers, the executive board of INFN has decided as a precaution to halt all activities requiring manipulation of any kind of liquid over the whole Laboratories (1 paragraph).

  10. The OPERA cosmic ray test facility at the Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Dal Corso, F.; De Deo, M.; Degli Esposti, L.; D'Incecco, M.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Garfagnini, A.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Moro, R.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zauner, B.

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA experiment foresees the use of about 3000m2 of RPCs, that will be tested before the installation in a dedicated cosmic ray test facility. The test facility is composed of 2 triggering walls selecting horizontal cosmic rays muons. Each wall houses 64 glass RPCs equipped with 128 horizontal Flat Cable Strips. The z-coordinate is measured with a standard digital chain, while the x-coordinate is obtained by measuring the propagation time of the signals along the strips. In this paper the performance of the trigger walls and the first results of the RPC debug are presented

  11. The neutrino's road to Gran Sasso gets ready!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The decay tunnel for CNGS has just been finished. This is a big step for the project. Since last July, some 2,700 metres have been excavated. These include access galleries, the TT41 transfer line for protons, the target chamber and the decay tunnel.

  12. Love waves trains observed after the MW 8.1 Tehuantepec earthquake by an underground ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, A.; Belfi, J.; Beverini, N.; Di Virgilio, A.; Giacomelli, U.; De Luca, G.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    We report the observation and analysis of the MW 8.1 Tehuantepec earthquake-induced rotational ground motion as observed by the Gingerino ring laser gyroscope (RLG).This instrument is located inside the National laboratory of the "Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare" in Gran Sasso (Italy) in a deep underground environment.We compare the vertical rotation rate with the horizontal acceleration measured by a co-located broadband seismometer. This analysis, performed by means of a wavelet-based correlation method, permits to identify the G1,G2,G3,G4 onsets of the surface Love waves in the 120 to 280 seconds period range.

  13. Progress of the Felsenkeller Shallow-Underground Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cowan, T. E.; Grieger, M.; Hensel, T.; Junghans, A. R.; Ludwig, F.; Müller, S. E.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Schulz, S.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    Low-background experiments with stable ion beams are an important tool for putting the model of stellar hydrogen, helium, and carbon burning on a solid experimental foundation. The pioneering work in this regard has been done by the LUNA collaboration at Gran Sasso, using a 0.4 MV accelerator. In the present contribution, the status of the project for a higher-energy underground accelerator is reviewed. Two tunnels of the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, Germany, are currently being refurbished for the installation of a 5 MV high-current Pelletron accelerator. Construction work is on schedule and expected to complete in August 2017. The accelerator will provide intense, 50 µA, beams of 1H+, 4He+, and 12C+ ions, enabling research on astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions with unprecedented sensitivity.

  14. Gran Torino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gárate

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Las obra del ex-rudo del cine de los 70’ y 80’ no nos deja de sorprender por su sensibilidad y mirada crítica sobre la sociedad norteamericana actual. Clint Eastwood parece seguir actuando de sí mismo; siempre un duro, pero ya anciano, con achaques, dolores y tantas heridas en el cuerpo y en el alma que sólo cabe esperar su redención ante el indefectible paso del tiempo y los golpes de la vida. “Gran Torino” sigue la ruta trazada de “Million Dollar Baby” (2004 o incluso de aquel inolvidable...

  15. Nuclear Astrophysics in underground laboratories: the LUNA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonuclear reactions responsible for powering the stellar engine and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. At astrophysical energies the cross section of nuclear processes is extremely reduced by the effect of the Coulomb barrier. The low value of cross sections prevents their measurement at stellar energies on Earth surface and often extrapolations are needed. The Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) is placed under the Gran Sasso mountain and thanks to the cosmic-ray background reduction provided by its position can investigate cross sections at energies close to the Gamow peak in stellar scenarios. Many crucial reactions involved in hydrogen burning has been measured directly at astrophysical energies with both the LUNA-50kV and the LUNA-400kV accelerators, and this intense work will continue with the installation of a MV machine able to explore helium and carbon burnings. Based on this progress, currently there are efforts in several countries to construct new underground accelerators. In this talk, the typical techniques adopted in underground nuclear astrophysics will be described and the most relevant results achieved by LUNA will be reviewed. The exciting science that can be probed with the new facilities will be highlighted.

  16. Underground operation of the ICARUS T600 LAr-TPC: first results

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, C.; Aprili, P.; Baibussinov, B.; Ceolin, M. Baldo; Barze, L.; Benetti, P.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieslik, K.; Cline, D.B.; Cocco, A.G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dequal, D.; Dermenev, A.; Dolfini, R.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Gibin, D.; Berzolari, A. Gigli; Gninenko, S.; Golan, T.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Karbowniczek, P.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Lantz, M.; Mania, S.; Mannocchi, G.; Mauri, F.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Otwinowski, S.; Palamara, O.; Palczewski, T.J.; Periale, L.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Prata, M.; Przewlocki, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Sala, P.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Stefan, D.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wachala, T.; Wang, H.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zaremba, K.; Zmuda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Open questions are still present in fundamental Physics and Cosmology, like the nature of Dark Matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry and the validity of the particle interaction Standard Model. Addressing these questions requires a new generation of massive particle detectors exploring the subatomic and astrophysical worlds. ICARUS T600 is the first large mass (760 ton) example of a novel detector generation able to combine the imaging capabilities of the old famous "bubble chamber" with an excellent energy measurement in huge electronic detectors. ICARUS T600 now operates at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, studying cosmic rays, neutrino oscillation and proton decay. Physical potentialities of this novel telescope are presented through few examples of neutrino interactions reconstructed with unprecedented details. Detector design and early operation are also reported.

  17. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgner, Ch. [Nuclear Astrophysics group, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  18. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  19. Underground Study of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the Precision Era of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavino, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Big Bang Nucleosinthesis (BBN) theory provides definite predictions for the abundance of light elements produced in the early universe, as far as the knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes of the BBN chain is accurate. At BBN energies (30 ≲ Ecm ≲ 300 MeV) the cross section of many BBN processes is very low because of the Coulomb repulsion between the interacting nuclei. For this reason it is convenient to perform the measurements deep underground. Presently the world's only facility operating underground is LUNA (Laboratory for Undergound Nuclear astrophysics) at LNGS ("Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso", Italy). In this presentation the BBN measurements of LUNA are briefly reviewed and discussed. It will be shown that the ongoing study of the D(p, γ)3He reaction is of primary importance to derive the baryon density of universe Ωb with high accuracy. Moreover, this study allows to constrain the existence of the so called "dark radiation", composed by undiscovered relativistic species permeating the universe, such as sterile neutrinos.

  20. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    facilities needed for next generation of underground assessments and experiments. There are growing interests in developing multi-disciplinary programs in DULs and some URLs have rooms set aside for physics experiments. Examples of DULs and URLs with interactions between earth sciences and physics include Gran Sasso in Italy, Kaimioka in Japan, Canfranc in Spain, LSBB in France, WIPP in New Mexico, DUSEL in South Dakota, and Jing Ping deep tunnel underground laboratory proposal in China. Instruments of common interests include interferometers, laser strain meters, seismic networks, tiltmeters, gravimeters, magnetometers, and other sensors to detect signals over different frequencies and water chemical analyses, including radon concentrations. Radon emissions are of concern for physics experiments and are studied as possible precursors of earthquakes. Measuring geoneutrino flux and energy spectrum in different locations is of interests to both physics and earth sciences. The contributions of U and Th in the crust and the mantle to the energy production in the Earth can be studied. One final note is that our ongoing reviews are aimed to contribute to technological innovations anticipated through inter-disciplinary interactions.

  1. The water purification system for the low background counting test facility of the Borexino experiment at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balata, M.; Cadonati, L.; Laubenstein, M.; Heusser, G.; Giammarchi, M.G.; Scardaoni, R.; Torri, V.; Cecchet, G.; De Bari, A.; Perotti, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Borexino experiment, for the study of solar neutrino physics, requires radiopurity at the level of 5 x 10 -16 g/g 238 U equivalent (or 6 x 10 -9 Bq/kg) on a detector mass of many tons of scintillator. Feasibility studies are performed in a counting test facility now operating at LNGS, which consists of 4 t of liquid scintillator viewed by 100 photomultipliers and shielded by 100 t of water. The accomplishment of this goal requires the shielding liquid, water, to be at the 10 -13 g/g contamination level (1.2 x 10 -6 Bq/kg) or better. This paper describes the water purification system; it consists of a combination of several purification processes to remove particulate, radioactive ions, dissolved gases and other impurities. Residual contaminations are measured by analytical or direct-counting techniques. For radon measurement, particularly challenging at this low activity levels, a low background counting method has been developed. (orig.)

  2. A new study of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction deep underground: Feasibility, setup and first observation of the 186 keV resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Ferraro, F.; Prati, P.; Depalo, R.; Menzel, M.L.; Anders, M.; Aliotta, M.; Bruno, C.G.; Davinson, T.; Scott, D.A.; Bemmerer, D.; Szuecs, T.; Broggini, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Caciolli, A.; Di Leva, A.; Imbriani, G.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Somorjai, E.; Formicola, A.; Junker, M.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Trezzi, D.; Gustavino, C.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.

    2014-01-01

    The 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle is active in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as in novae and contributes to the nucleosythesis of neon and sodium isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainties in the predicted nucleosynthesis yields, new experimental efforts to measure the 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na cross section directly at the astrophysically relevant energies are needed. In the present work, a feasibility study for a 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na experiment at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy, is reported. The ion-beam-induced γ-ray background has been studied. The feasibility study led to the first observation of the E p =186 keV resonance in a direct experiment. An experimental lower limit of 0.12 x 10 -6 eV has been obtained for the resonance strength. Informed by the feasibility study, a dedicated experimental setup for the 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na experiment has been developed. The new setup has been characterized by a study of the temperature and pressure profiles. The beam heating effect that reduces the effective neon gas density due to the heating by the incident proton beam has been studied using the resonance scan technique, and the size of this effect has been determined for a neon gas target. (orig.)

  3. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator providing {sup 1}H{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, and {sup 12}C{sup +} beams for underground nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, Stefan; Cowan, Thomas E.; Grieger, Marcel; Ludwig, Felix; Rath, Ferdinand; Roeder, Marko; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Bemmerer, Daniel; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan E.; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Accelerator-based experiments at the 0.4 MV LUNA underground accelerator at Gran Sasso have enabled great progress for studies of Big Bang and solar fusion reactions. However, to complete the picture of solar fusion reactions and open up helium and carbon burning reactions to study, higher beam energies are required. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator will be installed in the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden. It will allow both, tandem mode operations for {sup 12}C{sup +} beams and the use of a radio frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal for {sup 1}H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} beams. The beam from the RF ion source is fed in with a remotely controlled electrostatic deflector. In addition, a large, ultra-sensitive high-purity germanium detector for offline measurements will be installed at Felsenkeller. The final timeline of the project will be shown, as well as the science case for in-house research and the capabilities available to external scientific users.

  4. Crean 'antimateria' en gran cantidad

    CERN Multimedia

    Macedo, C

    2002-01-01

    "Como si se tratara de una historia de ciencia ficcion, un grupo de cientificos del Laboratorio Europeo de Fisica de Particulas (CERN), en Ginebra, anuncio que produjo por primera vez una gran cantidad de antimateria de hidrogeno, lo que representa un gran paso para entender la formacion del Universo" (1 page).

  5. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  6. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  7. The Second-phase Development of the China JinPing Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianmin; Ji, Xiangdong; Haxton, Wick; Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    During 2013-2015 an expansion of the China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) will be undertaken along a main branch of a bypass tunnel in the JinPing tunnel complex. This second phase of CJPL will increase laboratory space to approximately 96,000 m3, which can be compared to the existing CJPL-I volume of ∼ 4,000 m3. One design configuration has eight additional hall spaces, each over 60 m long and approximately12 m in width, with overburdens of about 2.4 km of rock, oriented parallel to and away from the main water transport and auto traffic tunnels. There are additional possibilities for further expansions at a nearby second bypass tunnel and along the entrance and exit branches of both bypass tunnels, potentially leading to an expanded CJPL comparable in size to Gran Sasso. Concurrent with the excavation activities, planning is underway for dark matter and other rare-event detectors, as well as for geophysics/engineering and other coupled multi-disciplinary sensors. In the town meeting on 8 September, 2013 at Asilomar, CA, associated with the 13th International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP), presentations and panel discussions addressed plans for one-ton expansions of the current CJPL germanium detector array of the China Darkmatter EXperiment (CDEX) collaboration and of the duel-phase xenon detector of the Panda-X collaboration, as well as possible new detector initiatives for dark matter studies, low-energy solar neutrino detection, neutrinoless double beta searches, and geoneutrinos. JinPing was also discussed as a site for a low-energy nuclear astrophysics accelerator. Geophysics/engineering opportunities include acoustic and micro-seismic monitoring of rock bursts during and after excavation, coupled-process in situ measurements, local, regional, and global monitoring of seismically induced radon emission, and electromagnetic signals. Additional ideas and projects will likely be developed in the next few years

  8. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  9. Observation of a first $\

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.; Altinok, O.; Ambrosio, M.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bendhabi, A.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunet, F.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavski, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chukanov, A.; Ciesielki, R.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Di Giovanni, A.; Dmitrievsky, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.A.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goldberg, J.; Gollnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, A.M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Lippi, I.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Mannai, K.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Policastro, G.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Repellin, J.P.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo dellariccia, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sakatani, Y.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Trabelsi, A.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Yoshioka, T.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino detector in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) has been designed to perform the first detection of neutrino oscillations in direct appearance mode through the study of the $\

  10. Il neutrino alla velocità della luce E' cominciato con un successo il test per capire la storia dell'universo dal big bang fino a oggi

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A neutrino beam sent from Cern in Geneva is arrived in 2,5 milliseconds, travelling underground, to Gran Sasso: the first test to try to understand the invisible neutrino and its metamorphoses (1 page)

  11. OPERA Resistive Plate Chambers underground test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Degli Esposti, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Di Troia, C.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Felici, G.; Gambarara, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gatta, M.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.

    2006-01-01

    The OPERA experiment [M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000; M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP 30/2001 Add. 1/01, August 21, 2001] will study ν μ ->ν τ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 Km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 44 layers of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Each layer covers about 70 m 2 . Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behaviour of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality tests performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m 2 . Single an multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with expectations

  12. FOREWORD: Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Eugenio; Pandola, Luciano; Fornengo, Nicolao; Aloisio, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh meeting of the TAUP Workshop series, TAUP 2009, was held in Rome on 1-5 July 2009, organized by the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). The workshop venue was originally L'Aquila. The earthquake of 6 April changed our plans. The earthquake killed about 300 people, wounded about 15,000, made homeless about 60,000 and destroyed a large part of the built environment, as well as essential infrastructures. The LNGS buildings were not seriously affected by the event, and the underground site not at all. But after the event most of the LNGS staff were homeless and the local hotels were damaged. So we were forced to move the Workshop to Rome, and found a good venue in the Angelicum, the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, in the very center of Rome. This University, founded in 1580, has its historical roots in the medieval House of Studies of the Dominican Order in Rome, and we think that all the TAUP participants enjoyed the spiritual atmosphere which emanated from the ancient walls of the building and the cloister. All the various aspects of our interdisciplinary field of research at the intersection of Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, named Astroparticle Physics, have been covered: Dark Components of the Universe, Gravitational Waves, Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysics, Cosmic Rays and Gamma-Rays Astronomy. Exciting scientific results were presented and the main issues of the field debated in the plenary and parallel sessions. The program also included a Session on Outreach and Education, with contributions from major Laboratories, Experimental Collaborations and International Organizations. Unhappily, the sad news from Zaragoza of the passing of our dear colleague and friend Julio Morales, to whom these Proceedings are dedicated, marked the last day of the Workshop. On behalf of the Organizing Committee of TAUP 2009, we thank all the Speakers and Conveners, who made possible a detailed vision of the

  13. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  14. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  15. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  16. Nuclear astrophysics deep underground the case of the 15N(p,γ)16O reaction at LUNA

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzocchi, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Measuring nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest at the relevant energies is not always possible on the Earth’s surface because of the cosmic-ray background that dominates the spectra. The LUNA collaboration exploits the lowbackground enviroment of Gran Sasso National Laboratory to study these reactions at or close to the Gamow peak. The latest experimental efforts included the measurement of the 15N(p,γ)16O at beam energies between 77 and 350 keV. The status of these measurements is summarised in this contribution.

  17. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  18. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A; Oluremi, O I A; Ekpo, E I

    2018-03-17

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2  = 0.961, adjusted R 2  = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2  = 0.966; adjusted R 2  = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  19. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A.; Oluremi, O. I. A.; Ekpo, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2 = 0.961, adjusted R 2 = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2 = 0.966; adjusted R 2 = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  20. Rotational motions from the 2016, Central Italy seismic sequence, as observed by an underground ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Andreino; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Di Virgilio, Angela; Maccioni, Enrico; De Luca, Gaetano; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    We present analyses of rotational and translational ground motions from earthquakes recorded during October-November, 2016, in association with the Central Italy seismic-sequence. We use co-located measurements of the vertical ground rotation rate from a large ring laser gyroscope (RLG), and the three components of ground velocity from a broadband seismometer. Both instruments are positioned in a deep underground environment, within the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). We collected dozen of events spanning the 3.5-5.9 Magnitude range, and epicentral distances between 40 km and 80 km. This data set constitutes an unprecedented observation of the vertical rotational motions associated with an intense seismic sequence at local distance. In theory - assuming plane wave propagation - the ratio between the vertical rotation rate and the transverse acceleration permits, in a single station approach, the estimation of apparent phase velocity in the case of SH arrivals or real phase velocity in the case of Love surface waves. This is a standard approach for the analysis of earthquakes at teleseismic distances, and the results reported by the literature are compatible with the expected phase velocities from the PREM model. Here we extend the application of the same approach to local events, thus exploring higher frequency ranges and larger rotation rate amplitudes. We use a novel approach to joint rotation/acceleration analysis based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Wavelet coherence (WTC) is used as a filter for identifying those regions of the time-period plane where the rotation rate and transverse acceleration signals exhibit significant coherence. This allows retrieving estimates of phase velocities over the period range spanned by correlated arrivals. Coherency among ground rotation and translation is also observed throughout the coda of the P-wave arrival, an observation which is interpreted in

  1. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  2. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  3. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  4. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  5. The Sasso Pizzuto landslide dam and seismically induced rockfalls along the Nera River gorge (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Saverio; Di Matteo, Lucio; Melelli, Laura; Cencetti, Corrado; Dragoni, Walter; Fredduzzi, Andrea; De Rosa, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    The seismically induced landslides are among the most destructive and dangerous effects of an earthquake. In the Italian contest, this is also documented by a national catalogue that collects data related to earthquake-induced ground failures in the last millennium (CEDIT database). In particular, Central Italy has been affected by several historical landslides triggered by significant earthquakes, the last of which occurred in August-October 2016, representing the Italian strongest event after the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (Mw 6.9). The study presents the effects of recent seismically induced rockfalls occurred within the Central Italy seismic sequence (October 30, 2016) along the Nera River gorge between Umbria and Marche. The study area is completely included in the Monti Sibillini National Park, where the highest mountain chain in the Umbrian-Marchean Apennine is located. Most of rockfalls have affected the "Maiolica" formation, a stratified and fractured pelagic limestone dating to the Early Cretaceous. The seismic sequence produced diffuse instabilities along the SP 209 road within the Nera River gorge: boulders, debris accumulations and diffuse rockfalls have been mapped. Most of boulders have size ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 m in diameter. Although several strong quakes (Mw > 5) occurred during the August-October sequence, only the main quake triggered the Sasso Pizzuto rockfall producing a landslide dam along the Nera River. The landslide appears to have originated as a wedge failure, which evolved to free fall when the rock block lost the contact with the stable rock mass. In other words, the quake produced the "explosion" of the rock wall allowing the rockfall process. Once the rock mass reached the toe of the slope, it was broken triggering a rock avalanche that obstructed both the Nera River and SP 209 road. With the aim to estimate the total volume of involved rock, a field survey was carried out by using a laser rangefinder. Remote measures were acquired

  6. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  7. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  8. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  9. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  10. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  11. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  12. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  13. Underground mining operation supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusid, M.B.; Kozel, A.M.

    1980-12-10

    Underground mining operation supports include the supporting layer surrounded by a cylindrical jacket of cemented rock. To decrease the loss of support material due to the decreasing rock pressure on the supporting layer, the cylindrical jacket of cemented rock has an uncemented layer inside, dividing it into 2 concentric cylindrical parts.

  14. Global model of the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Lopez-Tarruella, F. Javier; Fernandez Ibarz, Jose M.

    2002-07-01

    During the conceptual design of the GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) it was suggested to develop a Global Model of the behaviour of the GTC system to be used as a tool for the system engineering. This Global Model should be a dynamical simulation capable to predict the pointing, tracking, guiding and image quality of the GTC system in several simulation scenarios depending on the behavior of each subsystem. It was decided to develop the simulation in the Matlab/Simulink« environment. The kernel of the Global Model was a Simulink® model of the telescope mechanics. The model included the structural dynamics, control loops of the main axis (azimuth, elevation and rotators), and load models (wind, gravity, seism). Each component included error sources inherent to it (cogging and ripple on motors, encoding errors, bearing run-out, etc). The model permitted large rotations in elevation axis, which was necessary to test pointing performances. A specific simulation was developed within the project office for the analysis of the image quality of the optical system. It includes polishing defects of the optical surfaces (M1 segments, M2 and M3), low spatial frequency distortions of the optical surfaces (due to fabrication, gravity of instability) and misalignment between the primary mirror segments.

  15. Universidad de Leeds - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlin, -

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Located 1,500 m from the center of the city, the Leeds University complex actively participates in city life. Designed in the 60's and built later on, this architectonic complex is outstanding because it offers an «ideal» city, perfectly integrated in the «real» city and conditioned to its own needs, to a great extent. In the beginning, this challenge of converting this university complex with a capacity for 10,000 students, in an architectonically attractive urban center met with difficulties referring to traffic and parking problems corresponding to a city as large as the one projected; this obstacle was overcome by adequate organization of underground and overhead traffic arteries which reserved large garden areas exclusively for pedestrians, freeing them from the traffic congestion and offering the pleasant and relaxed atmosphere required. The large «campus» ¡s sub-divided into different garden areas, connected one to the other and In the center of each one we have a varied and complementary architecture, which breaks with the conventional monolithic style.Situado a 1.500 m del centro de la ciudad, el conjunto universitario de Leeds participa activamente de la misma. Concebido en la década de los 60, y construido posteriormente, este complejo arquitectónico se destaca por encerrar una propuesta de ciudad «ideal», perfectamente integrada en la ciudad «real» y sujeta en buena medida a sus mismas necesidades. La alternativa de convertir a este conjunto universitario, con capacidad para 10.000 estudiantes, en un núcleo urbano arquitectónicamente atractivo, tropezó inicialmente con los condicionamientos surgidos del tráfico, circulación y estacionamiento de vehículos, correspondientes a la magnitud de la ciudad proyectada; impedimento que fue resuelto de forma adecuada mediante la organización de una red subterránea y superficial de circulación vehicular, que reserva grandes espacios verdes para la circulaci

  16. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  17. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  18. Internet de las cosas y la ingeniería de sistemas: un gran poder conlleva una gran responsabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Presentación de la conferencia "Internet de las cosas y la ingeniería de sistemas: un gran poder conlleva una gran responsabilidad" impartida en las IV Jornadas Informáticas UTE, celebradas el 15 y 16 de junio de 2017 y organizadas por la Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial (Quito, Ecuador).

  19. La Supervivencia del Gran Periodismo Financiero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Gutiérrez, Elvira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En español: Tradicionalmente, el periodismo económico internacional ha tenido en los grupos anglosajones Dow Jones (EE.UU. y Pearson (Gran Bretaña, editores de The Wall Street y Financial Times respectivamente, sus grandes referentes mundiales. Sin embargo, el nuevo siglo ha traído enormes convulsiones al sector de las que no se han librado ni los periódicos de élite ni las grandes agencias especializadas en información económica como Reuters, Thomson o Bloomberg. A la batalla en Internet, se suman la expansión del poder informativo económico y los cambios de mentalidad tanto de las empresas como de las audiencias. Todo ello ha derivado en una guerra encarnizada, protagonizada por los grandes líderes que, con más de un siglo de tradición algunos, han sido objeto de ventas o fusiones, operaciones financieras imprescindibles para poder adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la trayectoria del gran periodismo económico, con especial dedicación a dos frentes: uno, conocer cómo se están posicionando estos periódicos de élite en la red; otro, la disyuntiva entre continuar siendo un periodismo de calidad, riguroso, cosmopolita y caro de mantener, o cambiar hacia un periodismo ideológico, truculento o amarillista que, como en otras especialidades, también se ha extendido entre el periodismo financiero. In english: Traditionally, the economic international journalism has had in the Anglo-Saxon groups Dow Jones (USA and Pearson (Great Britain, publishers of The Wall Street and Financial Times respectively, his big world models. Nevertheless, the new century has brought enormous convulsions to the sector, to the newspapaers of elite and big agencies specialized in economic information as Reuters, Thomson or Bloomberg. To the battle in Internet, there add the expansion of the informative economic power and the changes of mentality of the companies and of the audiences. All this has derived in a fierce

  20. The Large Millimeter Telescope- Gran Telescopio Milimetrico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.

    2004-11-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope/Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (LMT) project is a collaboration between the University of Massachusetts and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Óptica y Electrónica to build a 50 m diameter telescope that will have good efficiency at wavelengths as short as 1 mm. The LMT will have an overall effective surface accuracy of 70 micrometers and an ultimate pointing accuracy of better than 1 arcsec, and will thus be the largest millimeter-wavelength telescope in the world. The LMT site is Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, at 4,640 meters above sea level in Central Mexico. At 18° 59' N latitude, it offers good sky coverage of both hemispheres. The normally low humidity will allow operation of the radio telescope at frequencies as high as 345 GHz. The LMT will make use of recent advances in structural design and active control of surface elements to achieve the required surface and pointing accuracy. At the site the alidade has been erected and the back structure for the main reflector has been assembled, while the monitor and control system has been successfully tested on another telescope. The schedule calls for acceptance tests in 2006. The initial complement of instruments will include a 32 element, heterodyne focal plane array at 3mm; a large format, focal plane bolometer array; a unique wide band receiver and spectrometer to determine the redshifts of primordial galaxies, and a 4 element receiver for the 1mm band. With its excellent sensitivity and mapping speed, the LMT/GTM will be a powerful facility for planetary science. In particular, it will enable key observations of comets, planetary atmospheres, asteroids and KBOs.

  1. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  2. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  3. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  4. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  5. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  6. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  7. Underground super highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Clear communication is key. And quality communications and information equipment is now, more than ever before, integral in mine development as the industry moves towards greater remote control and automation of machinery and mining processes. In an underground mine, access to communications and information equipment has often been limited due to thermal extremes, physical hazards and dangerous chemicals. On top of this, copper conductors that are often used for communication equipment do not operate as efficiently because of the excessive noise generated by mining equipment, and may also puse a safety hazard. However, the design of extremely rugged fibre optic cables is now enabling ten gigabit transmission links in places that were never before thought possible in mining. One place though, has still proved a challenge for the expansion of fibre optic net-works, and that is in an underground coal mine. Until now. Optical Cable Corporation (OCC) has developed the rugged tight buffered breakout fibre optic cables for transmission links in harsh mining environments. Working at depths of over 300 metres below ground, and having seen roof falls actually bury the cable between rocks and still, the cables are able to operate in a myriad of conditions

  8. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile.

  9. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  11. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  12. Nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Ferdinando, Donato

    2009-01-01

    The use of emulsions as particles detector has a long and successful life. The recent development of fast automatized analysis systems has allowed the use of huge amount of emulsions films with no precedence in the history of particle physics. The OPERA experiment, running in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), for the confirmation of the neutrino oscillation in the $\

  13. World's leading physics lab shut for poisoning water

    CERN Multimedia

    Popham, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Gran Sasso National Laboratory, the most advanced laboratory in the world for underground research into astroparticle physics, has been shut after polluting the environment. The laboratory, deep beneath the Apenninnes is said to have poisoned an aqueduct with waste from its equipment and committed numerous other infringements and ommissions (1 page)

  14. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  15. ICARUS 600 ton: A status report

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C; Badertscher, A; Barbieri, E; Benetti, P; Borio di Tigliole, A; Brunetti, R; Bueno, A; Calligarich, E; Campanelli, Mario; Carli, F; Carpanese, C; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Chen, C; Chen, Y; Cinquini, C; Cline, D; De Mitri, I; Dolfini, R; Favaretto, D; Ferrari, A; Gigli Berzolari, A; Goudsmit, P; He, K; Huang, X; Li, Z; Lu, F; Ma, J; Mannocchi, G; Mauri, F; Mazza, D; Mazzone, L; Montanari, C; Nurzia, G P; Otwinowski, S; Palamara, O; Pascoli, D; Pepato, A; Periale, L; Petrera, S; Piano Mortari, Giovanni; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Revol, J P; Rico, J; Rossella, M; Rossi, C; Rubbia, C; Rubbia, A; Sala, P; Scannicchio, D; Sergiampietri, F; Suzuki, S; Terrani, M; Ventura, S; Verdecchia, M; Wang, H; Woo, J; Xu, G; Xu, Z; Zhang, C; Zhang, Q; Zheng, S

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the ICARUS Project is the installation of a multi-kiloton LAr TPC in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. The programme foresees the realization of the detector in a modular way. The first step is the construction of a 600 ton module which is now at an advanced phase. It will be mounted and tested in Pavia in one year and then it will be moved to Gran Sasso for the final operation. The major cryogenic and purification systems and the mechanical components of the detector have been constructed and tested in a 10 m3 prototype. The results of these tests are here summarized.

  16. The OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, M.

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) experiment aims to observe an ν μ ↔ ν τ oscillation in the parameter region allowed by previous experiments. The OPERA detector will be installed in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, where the CNGS (CERN Neutrino beam to Gran Sasso) ν μ beam will be produced. The signature of the presence of ν τ 's in the ν μ beam will be detection of τ leptons produced by ν τ interactions. Nuclear emulsions will be used for precise event reconstruction, while electronic detectors will be used for triggering [ru

  17. The OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jollet, C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the OPERA experiment is to provide unambiguous evidence for the ν μ ↔ ν τ oscillation by looking at the appearance of ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. This oscillation will be sought in the region of the oscillation parameters indicated by the atmospheric neutrino results. The experiment is part of the CNGS (CERN Neutrino beam to Gran Sasso) project. The νμ beam produced at CERN will be sent towards the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, where the OPERA detector is under construction. The detector, the physics potential, and performance for neutrino oscillation studies including the subleading ν μ ↔ ν ε search are presented

  18. The OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavino, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    OPERA is a neutrino oscillation experiment designed to perform a ν τ appearance search in the future CNGS beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. The identification of the τ lepton produced by a CC ν τ interaction is based on the use of the nuclear emulsion technique. The OPERA detector is presently under construction in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, 730 km from CERN, and will receive its first neutrinos in 2006. The experimental technique is reviewed and the development of the project described. Foreseen performances in measuring ν τ appearance and also in searching for ν e appearance are discussed

  19. The OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, M.

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA (oscillation project with emulsion-tracking apparatus) experiment aims to observe an unambiguous ν μ ↔ ν τ oscillation in the parameter region allowed by previous experiments. The OPERA detector will be installed in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, 732 km away from CERN, where the CNGS (CERN neutrino beam to Gran Sasso) ν μ beam will be produced. The signature of the presence of ν τ 's in the ν μ beam will be the detection of τ leptons produced by ν τ interactions. Nuclear emulsions will be used for precise event reconstruction, while electronic detectors will be used for triggering

  20. ICARUS 600 ton: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, C.; Arneodo, F.; Badertscher, A.; Barbieri, E.; Benetti, P.; di Tigliole, A. Borio; Brunetti, R.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Campanelli, M.; Carli, F.; Carpanese, C.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.; Cinquini, C.; Cline, D.; De Mitri, I.; Dolfini, R.; Favaretto, D.; Ferrari, A.; Berzolari, A. Gigli; Goudsmit, P.; He, K.; Huang, X.; Li, Z.; Lu, F.; Ma, J.; Mannocchi, G.; Mauri, F.; Mazza, D.; Mazzone, L.; Montanari, C.; Nurzia, G. P.; Otwinowski, S.; Palamara, O.; Pascoli, D.; Pepato, A.; Periale, L.; Petrera, S.; Piano-Mortari, G.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rebuzzi, D.; Revol, J. P.; Rico, J.; Rossella, M.; Rossi, C.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Suzuki, S.; Terrani, M.; Ventura, S.; Verdecchia, M.; Wang, H.; Woo, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zheng, S.

    2000-05-01

    The goal of the ICARUS Project is the installation of a multi-kiloton LAr TPC in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. The programme foresees the realization of the detector in a modular way. The first step is the construction of a 600 ton module which is now at an advanced phase. It will be mounted and tested in Pavia in one year and then it will be moved to Gran Sasso for the final operation. The major cryogenic and purification systems and the mechanical components of the detector have been constructed and tested in a 10 m 3 prototype. The results of these tests are here summarized.

  1. submitter The X-ray machine for the examination of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Curceanu, Catalina; Bassi, Angelo; Bazzi, Massimiliano; Bertolucci, Sergio; Berucci, Carolina; Bragadireanu, Alexandru Mario; Cargnelli, Michael; Clozza, Alberto; De Paolis, Luca; Di Matteo, Sergio; Donadi, Sandro; D'uffizi, Alessandro; Egger, Jean-Pierre; Guaraldo, Carlo; Iliescu, Mihail; Laubenstein, Matthias; Marton, Johann; Milotti, Edoardo; Pichler, Andreas; Pietreanu, Dorel; Piscicchia, Kristian; Ponta, Titus; Scordo, Alessandro; Shi, Hexi; Sirghi, Diana; Sirghi, Florin; Sperandio, Laura; Doce, Oton Vazquez; Zmeskal, Johann

    2016-01-01

    By performing X-rays measurements in the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, LNGS-INFN, we test a basic principle of quantum mechanics: the Pauli exclusion principle (PEP). In the future, we aim to use a similar experimental technique to search for X-rays as a signature of the spontaneous collapse of the wave function predicted by continuous spontaneous localization theories. We present the achieved results of the VIP experiment and the future plans to gain two orders of magnitude in testing PEP with the recently VIP2 setup installed at Gran Sasso.

  2. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  3. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  4. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Platform pose (localization and orientation) information is a key requirement for autonomous mobile systems. The severe natural conditions and complex terrain of underground mines diminish the capability of most pose estimation systems, especially...

  5. El Gran Catharro de 1580 ¿gripe o pertussis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camaño Puig, Ramón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The gran Catharro (1580 is considered the first influenza epidemic. The analysis of various testimonies of the time may offer some doubts about whether or not it was so; and data strongly support that it was a pertussis epidemic.

    El Gran Catharro (1580 es considerado como la primera epidemia de gripe. El análisis conjunto de los datos contenidos en diferentes testimonios, suscita dudas respecto a que se tratara de una epidemia de gripe y apoyan la posibilidad de que se tratara de una de tos ferina.

  6. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  7. Studying Abroad: The Fundacion Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, James E.

    The Fundacion Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, a large Venezuelan scholarship program that sends students to study in the United States and other countries, is discussed. Information on program objectives, issues, and problems was obtained from work with students at the University of Pittsburgh, the literature, program records, and interviews with…

  8. Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenous chicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P meat from roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with

  9. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  10. The definition of the western boundary of the Guarani Aquifer System (Gran Chaco, Argentina): technical or conventional; Definicion del limite occidental del Sistema Acuifero Guarani (Gran Chaco, Argentina): tecnico o convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodello, E. A.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-11-01

    Unlike the eastern, northern and southern borders of the Guarani aquifer system (GAS), which extends beneath considerable regions of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, the western boundary, within the Gran Chaco, has no clear hydrogeologic definition that can be recognized at either the surface or subsurface. For this reason, the precise location of the aquifer in this area is open to many different possibilities, depending upon the factors or interests involved. Thus technical specialists have proposed locations that include or exclude, according to their own criteria, large sections of the Argentine Gran Chaco, the management and use of which, from an administrative point of view, imply diverse economic consequences. The Lomadas de Otumpa, located near the border between the Santiago del Estero and Chaco provinces, are gently sloping hills, rising to a height of no more than 110 m above the wide expanse of surrounding plains comprising the Gran Chaco. They trend NNE and are 200 km long and from 20 to 80 km in width, reflecting the presence of the regional Otumpa alignment. The Lomadas de Otumpa are clearly defined at the surface and thus they allow a geographical boundary to be imposed on the GAS sequences according to: i) their notable structural features at the surface, and ii) the close matching of the thinning and/or absence of the associated sedimentary record underground. Because the definition of the limits of the GAS has an influence on its evaluation, management, use and conservation, both at a technical and administrative level, it is of great importance to ascertain its hydrogeologic boundaries. (Author)

  11. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  12. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  13. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  14. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    The ninth meeting of the TAUP Workshop Series, TAUP 2005, was organized by the University of Zaragoza and Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc, jointly with the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). It was dedicated to the memory of professor Angel Morales, co-founder of the TAUP Series and a central figure in the scientific shaping and organization of the TAUP conferences since their inception in 1989. He and his group of collaborators laid, twenty years ago, the foundations of underground physics in Spain. To have TAUP 2005 hosted by the University of Zaragoza was a tangible way of honouring his memory. The Conference was concluded by a visit to the new installations of the Canfranc Laboratory, where a memorial ceremony was held in honour of Angel Morales, the driving force for the creation of that Laboratory. In TAUP 2005 all the various aspects of Astroparticle Physics have been covered, from Cosmology and Dark Constituents, to Gravitational Waves, to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics, to High Energy Astrophysics, to Cosmic Rays and Gamma-Rays Astronomy. New and important scientific results were presented and debated in the plenary review talks and in a very large number of contributions in topical parallel sessions. As editors of these proceedings, we hope that this volume, which contains most of the talks and contributions presented at TAUP 2005, will provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of Astroparticle Physics. We thank all the invited speakers and contributors who made this possible. Full coverage of the transparencies presented at the conference can be found on the website http://www.unizar.es/taup2005. At TAUP 2005 a memorial lecture was delivered by Art McDonald to commemorate John Bahcall, who passed away prematurely in August 2005. In this talk, his figure, as a pioneer and leader in the fields of Neutrino Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics and as a man of great personal

  15. Gran method for end point anticipation in monosegmented flow titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Emerson V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic potentiometric monosegmented flow titration procedure based on Gran linearisation approach has been developed. The controlling program can estimate the end point of the titration after the addition of three or four aliquots of titrant. Alternatively, the end point can be determined by the second derivative procedure. In this case, additional volumes of titrant are added until the vicinity of the end point and three points before and after the stoichiometric point are used for end point calculation. The performance of the system was assessed by the determination of chloride in isotonic beverages and parenteral solutions. The system employs a tubular Ag2S/AgCl indicator electrode. A typical titration, performed according to the IUPAC definition, requires only 60 mL of sample and about the same volume of titrant (AgNO3 solution. A complete titration can be carried out in 1 - 5 min. The accuracy and precision (relative standard deviation of ten replicates are 2% and 1% for the Gran and 1% and 0.5% for the Gran/derivative end point determination procedures, respectively. The proposed system reduces the time to perform a titration, ensuring low sample and reagent consumption, and full automatic sampling and titrant addition in a calibration-free titration protocol.

  16. INTERNET Y CONTROL SOCIAL. ENTRE RIZOMA Y GRAN HERMANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ragnedda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gran hermano y rizoma son metáforas cada vez más utilizadas cuando se habla de Internet. En la red estamos continuamente monitorizados: se recogen y catalogan datos e información como si se tratase de un cyberpanopticón: de ahí la metáfora del gran hermano electrónico. La red siente la necesidad de imponer un control cuyo objetivo es uniformar el comportamiento de los usuarios. Pero Internet es, además, una estructura rizomática difícilmente encajable en modelos rígidos. Internet rechaza, por su propia naturaleza, la centralización del poder en beneficio de la autogestión. ¿Cómo pueden coexistir un sistema de vigilancia tipo gran hermano con las características rizomáticas de la red? Estas este artículo se analizan ambas metáforas y se busca una síntesis de ambos conceptos.

  17. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  18. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  19. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  20. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  1. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and..., floor or walls in any underground work area for more than a 24-hour period; or (ii) The history of the... inches (304.8 mm) ±0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor or walls in any underground work area...

  2. 2 Hoteles en Almería - Gran Hotel Almería –Alcazaba Gran Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, F.

    1970-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the above two hotels, one of which is a town hotel, namely the «Gran Hotel Almería », and the other a touristic hotel situated near the beach and close to sporting facilities. Both hotels are of 1. A classification, and have been carefully designed; they have basic characteristics that are common to both, but have many secondary features that are specific of each, depending on their emplacement and use.En este artículo se describen dos instalaciones hoteleras: una, de carácter urbano, «Gran Hotel Almería»; otra, eminentemente deportiva y de playa, «Alcazaba Gran Hotel». Ambos edificios son de categoría cuatro estrellas y se han estudiado cuidadosamente, plasmando características básicas y fundamentales comunes, pero con detalles distintivos que las diferencian, en función de su emplazamiento y utilización.

  3. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  4. Accidente Isquémico Transitorio: la gran oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Fernández Couto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El ictus constituye la primera causa de muerte en mujeres y la segunda causa de muerte global en España1, así como la primera causa de discapacidad adquirida en la edad adulta y la segunda causa de demencia por detrás de la enfermedad de Alzheimer. El accidente isquémico transitorio (AIT precede al ictus isquémico en un 23% de los casos2. Esta señal de alarma, lejos de poder considerarse banal, constituye una gran oportunidad para la prevención.

  5. Hirschman: Un gran científico social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Blanco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Albert Hirschman fue un gran científico social comprometido con la justicia y la democracia. Este artículo, un pequeño homenaje en su memoria, analiza su libro principal, La estrategia del desarrollo económico, y sus reflexiones sobre la industrialización tardía, la inflación, el déficit de balanza de pagos, la hipótesis de los eslabonamientos y la relación entre la teoría del desarrollo y la teoría económica.

  6. Radon in Groundwater of the Northeastern Gran Canaria Aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Héctor; Cruz-Fuentes, Tatiana; Rubiano, Jesús; González-Guerra, Jonay; Cabrera, María; Arnedo, Miguel; Tejera, Alicia; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco; Martel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    222Rn has been detected in 28 groundwater samples from the northeast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and an AquaKIT set that transfers dissolved radon in the water samples to the air within the circuit. Radon concentration in the water samples studied varies between 0.3 and 76.9 Bq/L. Spanish radiological protection regulations lim...

  7. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  8. Treatment of an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.E.; Braden, W.B. Jr.

    1974-03-12

    A method is described for treating underground formations, especially those containing clays or clay-like materials which are sensitive to fresh water. The treatment densensitizes the clays so they will not swell or disperse on contact with fresh water. The procedure consists of contacting the clay-containing formation with solutions which accomplish the electroless deposition of metal on the clay particles. Optionally, the formation can be resin coated prior to electroless plating. (9 claims)

  9. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  10. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  11. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  12. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  13. The distance from CERN to LNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M; Crespi, M; Colosimo, G; Mazzoni, A; Durand, S

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the distance from CERN to Gran Sasso involves the combination of three independent sets of measurements: the calculation of the distance between pillars included in the geodetic reference network at CERN and the Lab Nationale Gran Sasso (LNGS); and the transfer on each site of coordinates, from the geodetic surface network, underground into the tunnel or experiment hall installations. The transfer of coordinates, from the surface, underground at the two sites was not done as part of the CNGS Project. Initial survey concerns for the project were directed towards the orientation of the beamline from CERN to LNGS to within ~100 m. Gyro-theodolite measurements underground were planned at CERN so a transfer would effectively only translate the target point. Given the precision estimated for previous transfers, it was decided not to undertake expensive and time-consuming measurements campaigns for a negligible gain in accuracy. Therefore only GPS measurements at the two sites were carried out. Th...

  14. New underground neutrino observatory-GENIUS-in the new millenium for solar neutrinos, dark matter and double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V

    2001-01-01

    Double beta decay is indispensable to solve the question of the neutrino mass matrix together with nu oscillation experiments. The most sensitive experiment for eight years-the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment in Gran-Sasso-already now, with the experimental limit of (m/sub nu /)<0.26 eV excludes degenerate nu mass scenarios allowing neutrinos as hot dark matter in the Universe for the small angle MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem. It probes cosmological models including hot dark matter already now on the level of future satellite experiments MAP and PLANCK. It further probes many topics of beyond standard model physics at the TeV scale. Future experiments should give access to the multiTeV range and complement on many ways the search for new physics at future colliders like LHC and NLC. For neutrino physics GENIUS will allow to test almost all neutrino mass scenarios allowed by the present neutrino oscillation experiments. At the same time GENIUS will cover a wide range of the parameter space of pred...

  15. Underground siting is a nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, R.K.; Gilbert, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    Underground siting of nuclear power plants is a concept that can be both technologically feasible and economically attractive. To meet both these criteria, however, each underground nuclear plant must be adapted to take full advantage of its location. It cannot be a unit that was designed for the surface and is then buried. Seeking to develop potential commercial programs, Underground Design Consultants (UDC)--a joint venture of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, New York City, Vattenbyggnadsbyran (VBB), Stockholm, Sweden, and Foundation Sciences, Inc., Portland, Oregon--has been studying the siting of nuclear plants underground. UDC has made a presentation to EPRI on the potential for underground siting in the U.S. The summary presented here is based on the experiences of underground nuclear power plants in Halden, Norway; Agesta, Sweden; Chooz, France; and Lucens, Switzerland. Data from another plant in the design phase in Sweden and UDC's own considered judgment were also used

  16. Radon in Brazilian underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques; Eston, Sérgio Médici; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; Francisca, Diego Diegues

    2018-02-14

    Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented. The adopted methodology consisted of three main phases. The first was an extensive bibliographical survey of the concentration levels of radon and RDP, and the radiation dose estimates, considering measurements made heretofore by various Brazilian researchers and exhibiting original measurement work undertaken by the one of the authors (mine O). In the second phase, the values obtained were compared with OELs. In the third phase, it was verified whether any control measures were undertaken in the mines with high exposure of workers to radon and its progeny, and if so, the adopted controls were determined. Data of radon concentration obtained from 52 campaigns in 40 underground mines were analyzed. The results showed that the assessment of the exposure of workers to radon and its progeny was undertaken in many mines at least once, and that in 62.5% of the mines, when visited for the first time, the radon levels throughout them were below the Brazilian OELs. As expected, the main control measure adopted or recommended was the improvement of the ventilation system. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  18. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  19. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  20. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  1. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  2. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  3. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is ab...

  4. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  5. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  6. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  7. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  8. Gran colector bajo el Danubio en Linz – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1977-07-01

    Full Text Available The mission of this huge under-river sewer is to carry the waste water from the left bank of the Danube to the other side of the river where a large sewage treatment plant is being constructed. In order to carry out its 375 m in length and 2.4 m inside diameter, where several drain pipes and ducts for remote heating and supply of electric power are housed, a system of pressure propulsion has been sed. This system is based on a series of hydraulic presses, which gradually insert into the ground the prefabricated reinforced concrete tubular elements, 3 m in length, which form the sewer. The work on the aforementioned sewer is completed with a pumping well located on the left bank and originated by the difference in level between the connections of the respective sewers on each side of the river — as well as a collection well, situated on the right bank, which links up with the main sewer of the treatment plant. Both wells are built with reinforced concrete.La misión de este gran colector subfluvial es la de conducir las aguas residuales procedentes de la orilla izquierda del Danubio al otro lado del río, en donde se está construyendo una gran planta depuradora. Para la realización de sus 373 m de longitud y 2,40 m de diámetro interior, donde se albergan diversas tuberías de desagüe y conductos para calefacción a distancia y suministro de energía eléctrica, se ha empleado un sistema de propulsión a presión. Dicho sistema se basa en una serie de prensas hidráulicas, que van introduciendo en el terreno los elementos tubulares prefabricados de hormigón armado, de 3 m de longitud, que constituyen el colector. Los trabajos del citado colector se completan con un pozo de bombeo —situado en la orilla izquierda y originada por la diferencia de nivel existente entre las acometidas de los respectivos colectores de ambos lados del río— y otro de recogida, emplazado en la orilla derecha, que enlaza con el colector principal de la

  9. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  10. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  11. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  12. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  13. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  14. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  15. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  16. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  17. Underground coal mining section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  18. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  19. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  20. Inversores multinivel para aplicaciones de gran potencia. Estado del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Yznaga Blanco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Los convertidores clásicos de frecuencia construidos a partir de inversores de dos niveles como fuentesde tensión o corriente presentan una serie de inconvenientes que provocan daños a la calidad de laenergía, así como al comportamiento de los equipos eléctricos alimentados por estos, especialmentepara aplicaciones de gran potencia. El convertidor multinivel es, hasta la fecha, la mejor alternativa pararesolver estas dificultades. En el artículo se describen los principios fundamentales de operación de losprincipales tipos de convertidores multinivel y sus aplicaciones.  The classical frequency converter made up from a two level voltage or current source inverter has severalimportant drawbacks that injure the electrical system power quality and the behaviour of the electricalapparatus fed by them specially at high power applications. The multilevel converter is, up to date, thebest choice for solving these problems. This paper describe the elementary principle of operation of themain types of multilevel converters and its applications.

  1. INVERSORES MULTINIVEL PARA APLICACIONES DE GRAN POTENCIA. ESTADO DEL ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Yznaga Blanco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Los convertidores clásicos de frecuencia, construidos a partir de inversores de dos niveles comofuentes de tensión o corriente, presentan una serie de inconvenientes que provocan daños a la calidadde la energía así como al comportamiento de los equipos eléctricos alimentados por los mismos,especialmente para aplicaciones de gran potencia. El convertidor multinivel es, hasta la fecha, lamejor alternativa para resolver estas dificultades. Este artículo describe los principios fundamentalesde operación de los principales tipos de convertidores multinivel y sus aplicaciones.  The classical frequency converter made up from a two level voltage or current source inverterhas several important drawbacks that injure the electrical system power quality and thebehaviour of the electrical apparatus fed by them specially at high power applications. Themultilevel converter is, up to date, the best choice for solving these problems. This paper describethe elementary principle of operation of the main types of multilevel converters and itsapplications.

  2. El empleo del yeso en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, N.

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSección l.-Introducción Resume brevemente la historia del yeso en Gran Bretaña, yacimientos y demanda de este producto después de la guerra. Sección Il.-Tipos de yeso Describe los diferentes tipos y grados de densidad, ligeros premezclados y sus usos principales. Se comparan las características de los yesos de acabado. También se introducen los yesos para paredes delgadas. Sección lll.-Especificaciones para enlucidos Se resumen, en forma de tabla, sistemas convenientes de enlucidos de yeso para distintos soportes. Se indican las propiedades de los soportes que influencian en la elección de la especificación. También se muestran las especificaciones de recubrimientos intermedios y de acabado, teniendo en cuenta el tipo de soporte. Asimismo se incluyen especificaciones para una sola capa para fondos adecuados. Sección IV.-Revoco de hormigón denso Se examinan los factores que afectan la adherencia del yeso para alisar hormigón denso, así como los resultados del trabajo experimental y las investigaciones «in situ» dirigidas por la «Building Research Station». Además, se indican medidas para mejorar la adherencia del yeso al hormigón.

  3. Radon in Groundwater of the Northeastern Gran Canaria Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alonso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn has been detected in 28 groundwater samples from the northeast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and an AquaKIT set that transfers dissolved radon in the water samples to the air within the circuit. Radon concentration in the water samples studied varies between 0.3 and 76.9 Bq/L. Spanish radiological protection regulations limit the concentration of 222Rn for drinking water to 100 Bq/L, therefore the values obtained for all the analyzed samples are below this threshold. The hydrogeological study reveals a significant correspondence between the radon activity concentration and the material characteristics of the aquifer. For a selected group of samples with high radon concentrations, gross alpha activity has been determined to have values higher than the prescriptive screening level (0.1 Bq/L.

  4. Casa en Feock, Cornwall - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers, R.

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to integrate the house as much as possible with the surrounding landscape. From its interior there is an excellent view of the beautiful countryside, and the inside distribution provides facilities for exhibiting a fine collection of painting and modern sculpture, as well as a large number of books, possessed by the house owners. This building is designed round two main axes. One leads from the road and parking site, across a bridge, to the main gate; whilst the other coincides with a broad gallery, which besides connecting all the rooms, serves for the exhibition of the painting and sculptures mentioned previously.El proyecto ha sido orientado al logro de una máxima integración de la casa en el paisaje circundante. Desde su interior se disfruta de las bellas vistas panorámicas exteriores, y la distribución iennite que sus propietarios puedan lucir una excepcional colección de pinturas y esculturas modernas y gran número de libros que poseen. En esta edificación pueden distinguirse dos ejes: uno que conduce desde la carretera y la zona de aparcamiento —a través de un puente—, a la puerta principal; y otro, materializado por una galería que, además de relacionar todas las dependencias, sirve para la exhibición de cuadros y esculturas antes citados.

  5. Las remesas indianas en Gran Canaria en el primer cuarto del siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa TORRES SANTANA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las remesas indianas, del dinero que bien en efectivo o en joyas afluía a la isla de Gran Canaria procedente del continente americano, ha sido un problema que ha preocupado en gran medida a los historiadores canarios. Sin embargo, su análisis siempre ha resultado problemático, por varias razones.

  6. Valuing Water in a Changing Climate and Economy in the Gran ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Valuing Water in a Changing Climate and Economy in the Gran Chaco Americano. Climate change and deforestation are causing extreme drought, intense rainfall, and flooding in the Gran Chaco Americano. This vast plain extends through northern Argentina, southeastern Bolivia, northwestern Paraguay, and into ...

  7. El «Edificio Central» en las Palmas de Gran Canaria – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Duerto, A.

    1972-11-01

    Full Text Available A description is given of the program, characteristics, and building solutions for this unique building, situated in downtown Las Palmas. The building complex is composed of two underground levels for parking, a ground-floor and mezzanine for commercial purposes, and open plaza with swimming pool, dressing rooms, cafeteria, restaurant, dance spot, playground, and a block of 15 floors containing 137 apartments of varying size arranged so as to minimize sun overexposure and maximize privacy. The structure is of reinforced concrete and lightweight slabs, and enjoys quality fixtures which assure excellent functioning.Se describe el programa, características y solución constructiva de este edificio singular, situado en el centro cívico de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Se compone de: — dos plantas de sótano para estacionamiento de vehículos; planta baja comercial; — entreplanta comercial; — planta libre ajardinada con piscina, vestuarios-aseos, cafetería, restaurante, club de baile, juego de niños, guardería, etc.; — un bloque de 15 plantas con 137 apartamentos, de superficie variada, y dispuesto de forma que evite perjuicios de soleamiento y vistas a los edificios circundantes. Estructura de hormigón armado y losas aligeradas, con toda suerte de instalaciones que aseguren su perfecto funcionamiento.

  8. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  9. Review of technical features in underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Deep underground laboratories are multidisciplinary research infrastructures. The main feature of these laboratories is the reduced cosmic ray muons flux. This characteristic allows searching for rare events such as proton decay, dark matter particles or neutrino interactions. However, biology in extreme environments and geophysics are also studied underground. A number of ancillary facilities are critical to properly operate low background experiments in these laboratories. In this work we review the main characteristics of deep underground laboratories and discuss a few of the low background facilities.

  10. Teatro Nacional de Londres Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasdun, Denys

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available The building located by the Thames, near Waterloo Bridge, houses three theatres: the Olivier, the Lyttelton and the Cottesloe, each provided with all facilities required, such as actors' dressing rooms, rehearsal rooms, offices, costuming and wigs stores, ample lobbies, restaurants, bars, car park and other amenities. The entire structure is reinforced concrete throughout the building and the outside walls of this important complex are also a whitish concrete. The two stage towers stand out gracefully from the ample, step terraced lower body creating shadowed areas and visual facets of great beauty visible from the not too distant City: the River and Waterloo Bridge at one side, and St. Paul's Cathedral at the other.

    Situado en las orillas del Támesis y junto al puente de Waterloo comprende tres teatros: Olivier, Lyttelton y Cottesloe dotados de todos los servicios auxiliares necesarios, tales como camerinos, salas de ensayo, despachos, almacenes de vestuarios, pelucas, etc.; amplios vestíbulos, restaurantes, bares, y aparcamientos de automóviles. Toda la estructura resistente es de hormigón armado y la fisonomía exterior del importante complejo es igualmente de hormigón blanquecino. Las dos torres de escenarios destacan airosamente de la parte baja, amplía y con terrazas escalonadas, que crean zonas de sombra y facetas plásticas, de gran belleza, de cara a la ciudad, más o menos próxima: el río y el puente por un lado y la Catedral de San Pablo por otro.

  11. Repensando el Caribe: valoraciones sobre el gran Caribe hispano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Santana Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Todo intento de estudiar las ideas y su evolución histórica en lo que hoy en día se denomina Caribe, exige siempre un esfuerzo adicional para el estudioso: el pensar y repensar el Caribe, debido a la diversidad de criterios y puntos de vista que existen sobre la región y los países que la integran. El problema no se hace menor cuando se reduce el referente al contexto del Caribe hispano, pues, en este caso, existe igualmente disparidad de opiniones. El presente estudio se propone explorar las diferentes interpretaciones existentes en la historiografía del concepto Caribe y determinar cuales son los elementos y factores comunes en la misma. Foco de atención principal es el Gran Caribe Hispano. Por tanto, lo que se tratará es en pensar y redefinir el Caribe.Palabras Clave: Caribe; Hispanoamérica; Historiografía; Pensamiento; Identidad y Cultura. Rethink the Caribbean: valuations on the great Hispanic CaribbeanAbstractAll attempt to study the ideas and their historical evolution in which nowadays we denominated the Caribbean, always demands an additional effort for the student: thinking and rethink the Caribbean, due to the diversity of criteria and country and points of view that exist on the region that integrate it. The problem is not made minor when the referring one to the context of the Hispanic Caribbean is reduced, then, in this case, also exists disparity of opinions. The present study sets out to explore the different existing interpretations in the historiography from the Caribbean concept and to determine as they are the elements and factors common in the same one. Main center of attention is the Great Hispanic Caribbean. Therefore, which will treat is in thinking and redefining the Caribbean.Keywords: The Caribbean; Hispano-America; Historiography; Thought; Identity and Culture. 

  12. El Chicamocha: Río del Vino de Gran Altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Quijano Rico

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro proyecto de viticultura tropical de calidad se inició en la Loma de Puntalarga, en el Valle del Sol en 1982. Los viñedos están situados a gran altura entre los 2400 y los 2600 metros, en terrenos inclinados, consuelos de buena vocación vitícola, bastante brillo solar, calor diurno, frío nocturno y déficit hídrico; condiciones necesarias para producir uvas de alta calidad para vinificación. El cultivo se viene extendiendo desde los años noventa por diversos lugares. En este proceso el río Chicamocha parece ejercer un efecto similar al de otros ríos del vino. Entre los ríos más representativos del hábitat tradicional de las variedades cultivadas en la región, Riesling blanca y Pinot noir, están respectivamente el Rin en Alemania y el Saona en Francia. La distribución geográfica del desarrollo vitícola sigue la dirección del curso del río Chicamocha y prácticamente recubre a la de en claves poblacionales que influenciaba el centro religioso de Sogamoso, antes de la llegada de los españoles en 1537. Algo similar sucede con la distribución de cepas descendientes de la variedad Mission, probablemente introducida por jesuitas a Firavitoba en el siglo XVII. Parece que estos fenómenos podrían relacionarse en menor o mayor grado con la historia geológica regional, en particular la del río Chicamocha. Su conocimiento puede proporcionar valiosas claves sobre los fundamentos del “terroir” y contribuir a acrecentar el carisma, asentado en la calidad, que ya revela el vino regional.

  13. HOMENAJE PÓSTUMO A UN GRAN COLOMBIANO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eraso López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    HOMENAJE PÓSTUMO A UN GRAN COLOMBIANO

    Jaime Eraso López

    A la edad de 99 años, falleció la semana pasada en Bogotá el Académico y maestro de la medicina Dr. Hernando Groot Liévano conocido por ser un científico e investigador de talla continental, por lo que la comunidad nacional e internacional han lamentado profundamente este aciago acontecimiento. Como su labor de investigador estuvo ligada al departamento de Nariño cuando permaneció dos meses en la ciudad de Pasto en 1939 con el fin de descubrir la causa de una epidemia que mató a más de 8.000 personas en la zona del Guáitara, en compañía de otros tres médicos que se desplazaron desde Bogotá, mientras se desempeñaba como Jefe del Laboratorio de Salud Pública el Dr. Luis Eduardo Martínez, es justo rendirle un homenaje póstumo que permita, además, trazar en pocas líneas la semblanza de su incomparable trayectoria.

    La epidemia a la que me referí, de carácter infecciosa, fue el resultado de la acción de una bacteria llamada Bartonella, de ahí el nombre de bartonelosis o enfermedad de Carrión, que se expande a través de un mosquito transmisor y produce la destrucción de los glóbulos rojos de la sangre conllevando a la aparición de una anemia severa y a la ulterior muerte. Su descubrimiento tuvo lugar en Sandoná cuando se logró identificar la bacteria bajo el lente del microscopio; bacteria parecida al parásito del paludismo.

    Hace 7 años nos visitó nuevamente el Dr. Groot y durante su magistral conferencia detalló los hallazgos de su investigación con gran dominio del tema, cualidad propia de una inteligencia superior, sin olvidar los nombres de cada uno de los médicos de la época. Aquel evento fue ocasión para que los académicos pastusos le hiciéramos entrega de una hermosa placa a madera condecorativa de agradecimiento por su amor a Nariño y como muestra de su gran calidad humana, cuando se

  14. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  15. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  16. A minimal Beta Beam with high-Q ions to address CP violation in the leptonic sector

    CERN Document Server

    Coloma, P; Migliozzi, P; Lavina, L Scotto; Terranova, F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a Beta Beam setup that tries to leverage at most existing European facilities: i.e. a setup that takes advantage of facilities at CERN to boost high-Q ions (8Li and 8B) aiming at a far detector located at L = 732 Km in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The average neutrino energy for 8Li and 8B ions boosted at \\gamma ~ 100 is in the range E_\

  17. BOREX: Solar neutrino experiment via weak neutral and charged currents in boron-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.; Mitchell, J.W.; Raghavan, P.

    1989-01-01

    Borex, and experiment to observe solar neutrinos using boron loaded liquid scintillation techniques, is being developed for operation at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. It aims to observe the spectrum of electron type 8 B solar neutrinos via charged current inverse β-decay of 11 B and the total flux solar neutrinos regardless of flavor by excitation of 11 B via the weak neutral current. 14 refs

  18. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  19. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  20. EXPERIENCE IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Kaufman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives examples of underground construction of hydropower station inNepaland sewer tunnel in the USA. These projects pay attention to influence of geotechnical risks and their consequences.

  1. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  2. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  3. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  4. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  5. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  6. La «Gran Depresión» versus la «Gran Recesión». Cracs financieros y crisis industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Parejo Barranco, José Antonio; Sudrià, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo analiza y compara la evolución del sector industrial durante la «Gran Depresión» de la década de 1930 y la «Gran Recesión» que comenzó en 2007, utilizando el mejor indicador sintético disponible, el Índice de la Producción Industrial. El objetivo principal es actualizar y ampliar el ejercicio presentado por Barry Eichengreen y Kevin O’Rourke en 2009 y 2010 en el sitio web voxEU. Además de ampliar el análisis de la «Gran Recesión» con los últimos datos mensuales disponibles a niv...

  7. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  8. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  9. Baroque Apocalypse in Homero Aridjis’ «Gran teatro del fin del mundo»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Pagacz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article provides a (neobaroque reading of the dystopic and postapocalyptic universe of Homero Aridjis’ (Mexico, 1940 Gran teatro del fin del mundo. The use of dystopia and allegory subverts the Western anthropologic paradigm: utopias of continuous progress and triumphant individualism can be read in reverse. The analysis is structured in three parts: first part establishes the nature of intertextual relationship with Calderón’s baroque piece El gran teatro del mundo; second part describes ironic dystopia in Gran teatro del fin del mundo; third part highlights the logic of reversed aridjian aesthetics.

  10. Vivienda unifamiliar - Londres - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest, John

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available This home, designed by the architect himself as his place of residence with his wife and two children, is sited in a large garden belonging to the former home of the family, situated in an area relatively close to the center of London. The program of the dwelling, which includes: five bedrooms, bathrooms, playroom for children, living room, dining room, kitchen and music room, is resolved in two floors and a semibasement. The house is basically oriented towards the rear garden, in order to integrate the garden areas into the interior spaces, which is achieved by means of large terraces and Windows. Other characteristics of this construction are the luminosity —achieved by means of glass facades and an adequate selection of the covering materials—, the low maintenance costs and the abundance of space, which tend to counteract the negative effects of the large city ¡n which it is immersed.

    Esta vivienda, diseñada por el propio arquitecto para vivir en ella con su mujer y sus dos hijos, se encuentra emplazada en un amplio jardín perteneciente al antiguo hogar de la familia, situado en una zona relativamente próxima al centro de Londres. El programa de la vivienda, que comprende: cinco dormitorios, cuartos de baño, sala de juego para niños, salón, comedor, cocina y sala de música, está resuelto en dos plantas y un semisótano. La casa se ha orientado fundamentalmente hacia el jardín posterior, con el fin de integrar sus zonas verdes en los espacios interiores, lo que se consigue mediante amplias terrazas y ventanales. Otras características de esta construcción son la luminosidad —obtenida mediante el acristalamiento de las fachadas y una adecuada elección de los materiales de revestimiento—, los bajos costos de mantenimiento y la abundancia de espacio, que tienden a contrarrestar los efectos negativos de la gran ciudad en la que se halla inmersa.

  11. Sistemas de control de vibraciones en estructuras de gran altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanaro, Maria Inés

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of big cities with a great population density, flows to the multiplication of light and thin towers in very high buildings, with an small natural damping. So, those buildings are exposed to the wind oscillations and to the earthquakes. Those oscillations could produce damages in the structure, affect its functionality and/or to be a cause of discomfort. In order to reduce the structural risk of excessive deformations or accelerations, we want to bring up here a solution lied with the dissipation of vibrational energy in the structural dampers. The objective of this work is to bring a c1ear and complete c1assification and description of all isolation and vibration controls known till the moment and their main application' fields. The definition of those systems is completed with graphics, characteristics and structures examples. This c1assification will allow a real interpretation of advantages and disadvantages of all isolation and vibration controls concerning structural applications.El aumento de la densidad poblacional y de las grandes urbes ha incrementado la necesidad de las torres de edificios de gran altura, las cuales tienden a ser muy livianas y delgadas, por lo tanto poseen un amortiguamiento natural muy pequeño, lo que los hace más propensos a las oscilaciones del viento y los sismos. Dichas oscilaciones pueden causar daño a la estructura, afectar su funcionalidad y/o causar incomodidad. Una solución planteada para reducir el riesgo estructural de experimentar deformaciones excesivas o aceleraciones es la disipación de energía vibracional en los amortiguadores estructurales. El objetivo de este trabajo es brindar una clasificación clara y completa de todos los sistemas de aislación y control de vibraciones existentes hasta al momento, además de una descripción de los mismos y sus principales campos de aplicación. La definición de los sistemas incluye gráficos, características y ejemplos de estructuras

  12. Global Reservoir and Dam Database, Version 1 (GRanDv1): Reservoirs, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) Database, Version 1.1 contains 6,862 records of reservoirs and their associated dams with a cumulative storage capacity of 6,197...

  13. Hotel de la Torre Londres - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Wood, Renton

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been built on the banks of the Thames, and owes its name to its nearness to the Tower of London, which also gave its name to the old Tower Bridge, located over the river and a few metres from the building. The rear frontage of the hotel faces the nearby Saint Catherine's Dock, completing an attractive surrounding in one of the paradoxically least developed areas of the city, and which has been taken least advantage of. Total construction occupies an area of 36,560 m2 arranged in 15 storeys, on the ground floor, plus a basement for mechanical installations and car-parks. The programme includes: 704 double rooms; 111 single rooms; 8 suites; 95 rooms for hotel staff; restaurant facilities; bar and cafeteria; three conference rooms; a public gallery for different uses; kitchens, several floors for mechanical installations; underground garage; canteen and rooms for staff, and management offices.

    Ha sido construido a orillas del Támesis, y debe su nombre a la proximidad de la Torre de Londres, que igualmente nominó al antiguo Tower Bridge, puente sobre el río, situado a escasos metros del edificio. La fachada posterior del hotel se orienta hacia la inmediata Dársena de Santa Catalina, completando un entorno atractivo en una de las zonas paradójicamente peor aprovechadas de la ciudad. La construcción ocupa una edificabilidad total de 36.560 m2 organizados en 15 plantas, sobre rasante, más un sótano dedicado a las instalaciones mecánicas y a aparcamientos. El programa comprende: 704 habitaciones dobles; 111 individuales; 8 suites; 95 habitaciones para el personal del hotel; servicios de restaurante; bar y cafetería; tres salas de conferencias; una galería pública de funcionamiento diverso; cocinas; varias plantas mecánicas de instalaciones; garaje subterráneo; comedor y salas para el personal, y oficinas de administración.

  14. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  15. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke

    The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured during 2 weeks at an underground station in central Stockholm. The instrument, an automatic TEOM monitor (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance), was placed on the platform in the centre of the station. During weekdays between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 470 and 260 μg/ m3, respectively. These levels are a factor 5 and 10 times higher than the corresponding values measured in one of the busiest streets in central Stockholm. The concentrations in the underground followed closely the train traffic intensity. The levels were very similar from one day to the next. During Saturdays and Sundays the levels decreased slightly due to less frequent train passages. Additional measurements were performed right after the tunnel had been washed. Tunnel walls and railway tracks between the platforms of the underground system were washed using water. Only a slight reduction of the PM 10 levels (approximately 13%) could be observed during a few days after the water treatment. For PM 2.5 the reduction was even less, about 10% lower levels could be seen. This might indicate that particles from tunnel walls and tracks make only a minor contribution to the observed levels. These results confirm earlier unpublished measurements showing high levels of PM in the underground of Stockholm. Substantially, elevated particle exposure levels have also been reported in several earlier studies in the underground of London, UK.

  16. Bioremediation of Benzene-contaminated Underground Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoh

    Contamination of underground aquifers with gasoline occurs frequently. Among the gasoline constituents, benzene is of great environmental concern, since it is carcinogenic, water-soluble and persistent under anaerobic conditions. We have analyzed a gasoline-contaminated underground aquifer undergoing natural attenuation, where benzene was degraded, albeit slowly, under anaerobic conditions. RNA-based stable-isotope probing identified that bacteria affiliated with the genus AZOARCUS was responsible for benzene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. This result was confirmed by isolating an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium AZOARCUS sp. strain DN11. This strain degraded benzene at relatively low concentrations (as low as 10 ppb). It could also degrade toluene and xylenes. In laboratory bioaugmentation experiments using benzene-contaminated groundwater, it was demonstrated that supplementation with DN11 significantly accelerated benzene degradation under a nitrate-reducing condition. These results indicate that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  17. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  18. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  19. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  20. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  1. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  2. Underground Study of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the Precision Era of Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavino Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Bang Nucleosinthesis (BBN theory provides definite predictions for the abundance of light elements produced in the early universe, as far as the knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes of the BBN chain is accurate. At BBN energies (30 ≲ Ecm ≲ 300 MeV the cross section of many BBN processes is very low because of the Coulomb repulsion between the interacting nuclei. For this reason it is convenient to perform the measurements deep underground. Presently the world’s only facility operating underground is LUNA (Laboratory for Undergound Nuclear astrophysics at LNGS (“Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso”, Italy. In this presentation the BBN measurements of LUNA are briefly reviewed and discussed. It will be shown that the ongoing study of the D(p, γ3He reaction is of primary importance to derive the baryon density of universe Ωb with high accuracy. Moreover, this study allows to constrain the existence of the so called “dark radiation”, composed by undiscovered relativistic species permeating the universe, such as sterile neutrinos.

  3. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  4. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  5. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  6. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  7. Zen Communist: Breyten Breytenbach's view from underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an interview after his release from prison, Breyten Breytenbach describes himself, at the time he became involved in underground politics, as a Zen Communist. He returns occasionally to this interaction of Marxist ideas of social revolution and Buddhist ideas of non-attachment, but never attempts to explain the resulting ...

  8. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  9. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  10. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Underground application of magnetic resonance soundings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available that characterize the orientation of the mine wall. There is a geometric enhancement of the MRS signal under typical mining conditions for the locations studied. However, the loop size is severely restricted in underground conditions, limiting the feasible target...

  12. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ) is the project lead unit and is developing the sensors needed for underground data acquisition related to the safety application. The body of the robot is being developed by the Mechatronics and Micro-Manufacturing (MMM) group. The software component is being...

  13. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to dat...

  14. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  15. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  16. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  18. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  19. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  20. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  1. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?...

  2. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  3. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  4. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  5. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  6. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  7. Ribeiro's typology, genomes, and Spanish colonialism, as viewed from Gran Canaria and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cátira Bortolini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four biallelic and six multiallelic Y-chromosome polymorphisms were investigated in 59 Gran Canarian, 60 North African Berber and 46 Spanish subjects. These new data were merged with equivalent literature information to obtain the parental Y-chrosomomal contribution in Gran Canarians, Colombians, and Venezuelans. The results were then compared, for Gran Canarians and Colombians, to those derived from autosomal and mtDNA. In both groups, the Spanish Y-chromosome contribution was much more marked than that estimated using mtDNA. This analysis showed a usual trend in the Spanish Colonial history, characterized by a demographic collapse of the aboriginal population, but with considerable introgression of genes through native women. In accordance to D. Ribeiro's typology for peoples subjected to Colonialism, the Y-chromosomes of these admixed populations are classified as transplanted, their mtDNA as witness, and their autosome sets as new.

  8. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants in Gran Canaria Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N F; Carranza, C; Bolaños, M; Pérez-Arellano, J L; Gutierrez, C

    2010-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonosis with worldwide occurrence. In the Canary Islands, the overall seroprevalence in humans has been estimated to be 21.5%. Gran Canaria island concentrates the highest ruminant population in the archipelago and the prevalence of the human infection is 23.5%. To evaluate the seroprevalence in livestock and the affected areas in Gran Canaria island, a total of 1249 ruminants were randomly selected for this study (733 goats, 369 sheep and 147 cattle). The samples were evaluated using an indirect ELISA Kit. The results showed seroprevalences of 60.4%, 31.7% and 12.2% in goats, sheep and cattle, respectively. Based on these results, Q fever could be considered as endemic in Gran Canaria island. Sanitary measures should be taken at the farm level to minimize the risk of exposure of C. burnetii to humans.

  9. From cosmic OPERA to neutrino ballet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    View of the OPERA detector (on the CNGS facility) with its two identical Super Modules, each of which contains one target section and one spectrometer.As the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project prepares to send its high intensity neutrino beam, some 730 km away in Italy, the OPERA collaboration is beginning to commission its electronic detectors in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). OPERA is ready to come on stage. Based in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, 732 km from CERN, the experiment will commission its electronic detectors with the high intensity neutrino beam sent by CNGS (see Bulletin n°29-30/2006). The OPERA Collaboration, which comprises 170 physicists from 35 research institutes and universities worldwide, aims to clear up the mystery of neutrino oscillation. The installation of the OPERA detector began in 2003 in Hall C of the underground laboratory at the LNGS. The detector is made of two identical Super Modules, each one containing one target section and ...

  10. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  11. Colección El Gran Nayar del Ini y el Cemca

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fotografías del Nayar y de California 1893-1900, de Léon Diguet (1991) Por tierras occidentales. Entre sierras y barrancas, de Léon Diguet (1992) Bibliografía del Gran Nayar : antropología, arqueología, historia, Jesús Jáuregui, editor (1992) Ensayos sobre El Gran Nayar: entre coras, huicholes y tepehuanos, de Philip Weigand (1992) [en este volumen fue también institución coeditora El Colegio de Michoacán] Visita de las misiones del Nayarit, de José Antonio Bugarín (1993) Los huicholes en la ...

  12. Gran minería y conflictos socioambientales : el caso del distrito de Espinar, Cusco

    OpenAIRE

    Huamaní Paccaya, Wilber

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Ecología Aplicada Uno de los problemas que enfrenta Espinar es la presencia de conflictos relacionados con la actividad expansiva de la gran minería. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer y determinar las causas-implicancias y las relaciones de los conflictos socio-ambientales de la gran minería en Espinar (1980- 2013). Para ello, primero se recopiló información sobre la historia de la minería, se identificó y se ca...

  13. Distribution and importance of the family anacardiaceae timber in The Gran Chaco of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Verónica Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gran Chaco is the second green support continent presents an alarming loss of biodiversity, on the other hand, the short-termconservation of such valuable species as are the representatives of the family Anacardiaceae, are uncertain, in spite be invaluable participation in native forest ecosystems, lack of resource management for years has put at risk many species, moving to integrate the IUCN Red List (International Union for Conservation of Nature. This work, through an extensive literature review, aims to reassess the use and importance of the Anacardiaceae family components that are widely distributed in the Gran Chaco Argentino.

  14. Establecimiento de un procedimiento para obtener previsiones de ventas en una empresa de gran consumo

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés, Marc

    2005-01-01

    El proyecto se titula “Establecimiento de un procedimiento para obtener previsiones de ventas en una empresa de gran consumo” y pretende analizar la evolución de los procedimientos logísticos en empresas de gran consumo, centrándose en el estudio del proceso de planificación de la demanda. A tal efecto, se divide en cuatro bloques principales: Descripción y caracterización de la empresa Font Vella, S.A. y el sector al cual pertenece, tendencias del mercado de agua embotellad...

  15. Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranucci, Gioacchino; Alimonti, G.; Arpesella, C.; Beck, H.O.; Balata, M.; Beau, T.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Brigatti, A.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.P.; Cecchet, G.; Chen, M.; De Bari, A.; De Haas, E.; Donghi, O.; Deutsch, M.; Elisei, F.; Etenko, A.; Von Feilitzsch, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Freudiger, B.; Garagiola, A.; Gatti, F.; Gazzana, S.; Giammarchi, M.G.; Giugni, D.; Golubchikov, A.; Goretti, A.; Grieb, C.; Hagner, C.; Hagner, W.; Hampel, W.; Harding, E.; Hartmann, F. X.; Hentig, R. von; Hess, H.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Inzani, P.; Kerret, H. de; Kidner, S.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Korga, G.; Korschinek, G.; Kryn, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Laubenstein, M.; Loeser, F.; Lombardi, P.; Magni, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Maneira, J.; Manno, I.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Mazzucato, U.; Meroni, E.; Musico, P.; Neder, H.; Neff, M.; Nisi, S.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R.S.; Ranucci, G.; Rau, W.; Razeto, A.; Resconi, E.; Riedel, T.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saggese, P.; Salvo, C.; Scardaoni, R.; Schnert, S.; Schuubeck, K. H.; Seidel, H.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sukhotin, S.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Vitale, S.; Woijcik, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zakharov, Y

    2000-01-01

    In the exciting arena of the solar neutrino research a new actor is expected to come soon in the game: Borexino. This massive, calorimetric, liquid scintillation detector, in advanced phase of installation in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, will be focused towards one of the fundamental issues of this field, i.e. the direct determination of the flux of the neutrinos produced in the {sup 7}Be electron capture reaction in the Sun. As a pilot program for the full detector, the Counting Test Facility operated for two years at Gran Sasso, provided the convincing evidence that the fundamental technological challenge of the experiment, the achievement in the scintillator of unprecedented radiopurity levels, can be accomplished successfully, thus opening the way to the realization of the experiment.

  16. High Energy Physics Program: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.C.; McIntrye, P.M.; DiBitonto, D.D.

    1986-11-01

    The prime focus has been work on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), where we have successfully completed the construction and installation of half of the forward/backward hadron calorimeter system in time for the coming data taking runs of CDF this winter. The second research objective has been participation in the MACRO collaboration's efforts to search for the elusive GUT magnetic monopole at the newly constructed underground laboratory at Gran Sasso in Italy. This effort is a natural continuation of the earlier work which was carried out in our own laboratory in Hockley, Texas, and involves building a large cosmic ray detector over the next several years at the Gran Sasso in Italy

  17. Updated results of the OPERA long baseline neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukanov, Artem

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino detector built in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory is designed to detect ν μ → ν τ oscillations in direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the long-baseline CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the source. The experimental setup and ancillary facilities used to extract data recorded in the emulsion will be described, with the special procedures used to locate the interactions vertices and detect short decay topologies. OPERA is taking data since 2008. A first ν τ interaction candidate was already published in 2010. An improved analysis scheme associated with a more detailed simulation has been developed and new results with increased statistics will be presented.

  18. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, J; Berucci, C; Cargnelli, M; Ishiwatari, T; Bartalucci, S; Bragadireanu, M; Curceanu, C; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A Romero; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Bertolucci, S; Matteo, S Di; Egger, J-P; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10 −29 – 10 −30 , thus improving the previous limit by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented

  19. ICARUS T600: Latest physics results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 detector is the largest Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) ever built and operated to date. The detector, assembled underground in the Hall B of the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS), has been collecting neutrino events with the CERN to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam and from cosmic rays from May 2010 to June 2013. The ICARUS excellent spatial and calorimetric resolution, coupled to very refined 3D event reconstruction techniques, allows to search, among others, for ν μ →ν e transitions which may be related to the 'LSND anomaly'. Though no evidence of this is detected, an important region of the parameter space remains unexplored. For this reason the joint ICARUS-NESSiE collaboration is proposing an experiment, at the new foreseen CERN-SPS neutrino beam facility (CENF), to solve the sterile neutrino puzzle.

  20. Upstream from OPERA: extreme attention to detail

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Two weeks ago, at a seminar held at CERN, the OPERA collaboration revealed their astonishing observation: neutrinos might move faster than light. The finding is currently under scrutiny in the scientific community. While the result downstream at Gran Sasso speaks for itself, upstream at CERN things are no less intriguing, with high-tech GPS systems, novel techniques for accurately measuring the time, and unique ways keeping the initial particle beam stable. Take away one ingredient and the accuracy needed for the final measurement is spoiled.   Underground installations of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. First ingredient: a stable beam CERN produces neutrinos by sending a beam of protons to hit a target. The collisions produce a secondary beam, which mostly consists of pions and kaons that decay in flight within an evacuated tunnel. Their decay products are muons and muon-neutrinos. An absorber stops the pions and kaons that do not decay, while the resulting muons are absorb...

  1. Measurement of age of underground water, using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio; Kagami, Tadaaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Onuma, Akiko; Shoka, Yasushi

    1978-01-01

    Age of four kinds of underground water in Aichi prefecture was estimated by measuring a concentration of tritium. The tritium concentration was measured by the usual method. The first water-bearing zone of the shallow part, about 50m in depth, of Nobi plain is a new underground water cultivated within 20 years, whereas second water-bearing zone is an old underground water of 20 years old or more. No relationship of water flow between the first and the second water-bearing zone was observed. A very deep underground about 100m or more in depth, of the Nobi plain is confirmed to be infinite years old fossil water by measuring of tritium. The underground water in Atsumi peninsula is mostly a new underground water within 20 years. Only one out of eight showed the existence of old underground water before 20 years or more. The underground water of the granite area at Mikawa district is confirmed to be old underground water before 20 years or more. Alkaline underground water in the granite zone is considered to be very old in view of composition of water. The origin of underground water can be learned by tritium concentration, which shows whether the water is new water in the neighborhood of earth's surface or very old cultivated water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Alba; Corvisiero, Pietro; Gervino, Gianpiero

    2016-04-01

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed.

  3. Status and Results from DarkSide-50

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Alden; Collaboration, for the DarkSide

    2015-01-01

    DarkSide-50 is the first physics detector of the DarkSide dark matter search program. The detector features a dual-phase underground-argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of 50 kg active mass surrounded by an organic liquid-scintillator neutron veto (30 tons) and a water-Cherenkov muon detector (1000 tons). The TPC is currently fully shielded and operating underground at Gran Sasso National Laboratory. A first run of 1422 kg-day exposure with atmospheric argon represents the most sensitive dark...

  4. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  6. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  7. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  8. Underground Engineering: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzalai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    UNDERGROUND ENGINEERING: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation. Complexity, sustainability, safety, security, versatility, creativity, and innovation are essential themes driving engineering science today. The world is changing rapidly and although the content and methods of engineering are evolving with it, an engineer's professional mission remains the same: to solve problems and make decisions. The application of new software such as BIM, Digital Project and Advanced TBM is shaping the...

  9. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  10. Underground navigation and localisation using RFID tags

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available their locations. The paper will build on previous work done by Forster[8] and Vorst et al.[9] by implementing the proposed hybrid SLAM method on the mining safety platform, which will eventually be used in an underground environment. II. NAVIGATION... AND LOCALISATION SCHEME A. Exploration and clustering The algorithm used for exploring the RFID environment is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Algorithm used for exploring RFID environment Given sufficient (more than 500 steps per 25 square metres) simulation...

  11. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  12. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  14. El oficio de los neveros en Gran Canaria en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Miranda Calderin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A finales del s. XVII el Cabildo Catedral de Canarias, con sede en la capital de Gran Canaria, construyó en la cumbre de la Isla dos pozos de nieve. Allí la recogían y conservaban hasta que era transportada en verano a la ciudad. Las libras de nieve se vendieron en la «nevería» ubicada en la trasera de la Catedral desde 1694 hasta 1866. En este artículo estudiamos el oficio de nevero en Gran Canaria, que había sido olvidado por completo, sus salarios, alimentación y especialidades en el s. XVIII.At the end of XVIIIth century the Canary Cathedral Chapter, settled in Gran Canaria Island capital, built, up in the mountains, two snow wells. Workers collected the snow and filled the wells until it was transported, in summer time, from the top of the island (1.949 meters to the city. Snow pounds were sold in the back of the Cathedral from 1694 to 1866. In this article we study the «neveros» job (snow workers in Gran Canaria, that it had been completely forgotten nowdays, their salaries, food and specialities in XVIIIth century.

  15. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F.

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  16. Reconstructing Holocene vegetation on the island of Gran Canaria before and after human colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Criado, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    We provide the first fossil pollen and charcoal analysis from the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). The pollen record obtained from Laguna de Valleseco (870 m a.s.l.) spans the late Holocene (c. 4500–1500 cal. yr BP) and thereby captures the impact of human colonization. During the earliest...

  17. Interfaces cerebro-máquina, un gran paso hacia la Inteligencia Artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cortés

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la Neurociencia Computacional, la Neuro-ingeniería desarrolla sistemas de comunicación entre una máquina y alguna parte del sistema nervioso. Sin lugar a dudas, estos sistemas constituyen un gran reto científico, ingenieril y ético. Sin embargo, su correcto funcionamiento todavía plantea muchos problemas.

  18. Interfaces cerebro-máquina, un gran paso hacia la Inteligencia Artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Cortés

    2009-01-01

    Dentro de la Neurociencia Computacional, la Neuro-ingeniería desarrolla sistemas de comunicación entre una máquina y alguna parte del sistema nervioso. Sin lugar a dudas, estos sistemas constituyen un gran reto científico, ingenieril y ético. Sin embargo, su correcto funcionamiento todavía plantea muchos problemas.

  19. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  20. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  1. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  2. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  3. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  4. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  5. La Gran Colombia de la Gran Bretaña: la importancia del lugar en la producción de imágenes nacionales, 1819 - 1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina del Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo examina el caso de las imágenes producidas sobre la Gran Colombia (1819-1830 en Londres como parte de los esfuerzos por ganar reconocimiento para la nueva república en el exterior. Demuestra cómo los deseos territoriales y políticos de los líderes pro-independentistas (que a su vez no estuvieron de acuerdo en cuanto a qué forma debería tener la república en la práctica fueron además restringidos por los intereses imperiales de la Gran Bretaña. Por lo tanto, la geopolítica y los intereses diplomáticos jugaron un papel primordial a la hora de determinar la manera como se representó la extensión de la Gran Colombia durante este periodo en Londres. El considerar los materiales visuales y geográficos producidos dentro de este complejo contexto transnacional nos ayudará a entender aspectos poco examinados por los estudiosos de la historia de la ciencia y de la cultura visual sobre América a principios del siglo XIX. Al resaltar cuán complejas y provisionales fueron aquellas imágenes, el ensayo esclarece las negociaciones domésticas e internacionales que se dieron en torno a lo que debería significar una República de Colombia. Menos importante fue el codificar la república cartográficamente como un país Independiente, de y para ciudadanos, que el crear un territorio civilizado, unificado políticamente, y rico en recursos minerales de cara a los poderes imperiales internacionales que, durante este periodo, estaban en pleno proceso de reconfiguración de sus ámbitos de influencia y dominio.

  6. Spatial Tourist and Functional Diversity on the Volcanic Island of Gran Canaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda-Soroczyńska, Eleonora; Olczyk, Hanna

    2017-10-01

    The conducted research is focused on spatial, functional and landscape diversity, the existing tourist potential and the possibilities for further development of a small, volcanic island of Gran Canaria. The discussed island was compared against other islands of the Canarian archipelago (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, El Hierro). Similarly to the remaining Canary Islands, the economy of Gran Canaria is predominantly based on tourism (approx. 4,5-5,0 million tourists visit the Canary Island annually and approx. 2,8 million come to Gran Canaria). Additionally, Puerto de la Luz transhipment centre in Las Palmas plays a very important role because of the goods imported from overseas. It is one of the largest ports in Spain (it reloads almost 2 million containers per year) also being an important Atlantic refuelling station. Apart from tourism, an important role is played here by agriculture, primarily the cultivation of bananas and tomatoes, which represent the most significant export good of the archipelago. The conducted spatial research showed an extensive diversity. This situation is, to a great extent, influenced by the climate. The northern part is cooler and dominated by agriculture, whereas the southern one is much warmer and characterized by a well-developed tourism infrastructure. Site inspections performed out along the outer contour of the island resembling a circle. Numerous architectural and urban sketches, urban analyses and photographic documentation were made. Community surveys were carried out. For a researcher, it was extremely interesting to answer the questions whether Gran Canaria is different from the other Canary Islands, especially in the functional and landscape context, and if so what exactly these differences consist of. What is Gran Canaria in particular characterized by and what kind of role it plays in the economic sector of Spain?

  7. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  8. Gran Canaria temporary broadband seismic network: an study of the seismicity and Earth structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, Javier; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Martinez-Arevalo, Carmen; Carmona, Enrique; Sanchez, Nieves; Heit, Benjamin; Garcia, Alicia; Martin-Leon, Rosa; Buontempo, Luisa; Yuan, Xiahoui

    2010-05-01

    The present project is a joint effort between different institutions to deploy a dense seismic network at Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands, Spain). The interstation distance is around 20 km. The broadband seismic network is composed of one permanent (Guralp CMG-3T 120 s) and five temporary stations (Guralp CMG-3ESP 60 s). The permanent station is a 120 s Guralp CMG-3T and belongs to the Canary Island Seismic Network, run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) of Spain. The temporary stations are 60 s Guralp CMG-3ESP, provided by the GFZ seismic pool. The deployment was carried out in December 2009. The stations will be recording during two years. The improvement of the seismic network allow us to tackle the following issues: the detection and analysis of any local seismicity of tectonic and/or volcanic origin at Gran Canaria island; to contribute to the understanding of the regional seismicity with special interest in the oceanic channel between Tenerife and Gran Canaria Island in collaboration with a project running a dense temporary seismic network in Tenerife; to study the crustal and upper mantle structure, under Gran Canaria to constrain the crustal structure, the source of the volcanism, and better sample the mantle discontinuities and anisotropy. To study the Earth structure, we use receiver function analysis, ambient seismic noise and SKS anisotropy techniques, This project is part of a long-term research of the crustal and the mantle structure of the Canary Islands, which has started with Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands and will eventually continue with the rest of the archipelago. The origin of the Canary Islands is generally attributed to a broad mantle upwelling under a slow moving plate, resulting in spatially and temporally distributed volcanic activity and a large number of seamounts and islands. A controversial discussion has been going on about the factors that control the evolution of the volcanic edifices, the type of the melting

  9. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain 238 U and 232 Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; 226 Ra ( 214 Bi), 232 Th e 40 K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m -3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m -3 . The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a -1 (mean 10 mSv.a -1 ). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  10. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  11. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  12. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; CHENG Ning; LI Zhen-shuang

    2013-01-01

    For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC s...

  13. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  14. The Underground "Fortress" of Bang Tsho Ruler

    OpenAIRE

    Pelgen, Ugyen; Gyeltshen, Tshering

    2004-01-01

    The Bang Tsho village was part of the Kurtoed Province in North Eastern Bhutan. The authors deals with the underground architecture of this village. The article is based on a field visit carried out in November 2002. While the main focus of field work was on discerning the migration routes of the sKur smad speaking population of Lhun rtse rDzong khag to other rDzong khags in particular bKra shsi gang and bKra shis yang rtse the authors visited also the Bang tsho village and examined the ruins...

  15. Passenger noise exposure in London underground

    OpenAIRE

    Garbala, M; Gomez-Agustina, L

    2015-01-01

    The London Underground network carries almost half of London's commuters, and is the most heavily used mode of public transport in London. Its routes are 402 km long in total and it is used by over 1.2 billion passengers annually1. Though very efficient and convenient, travelling by Tube can be a noisy experience which could have potential impact on commuters’ hearing health. There is a wealth of research and information on impacts of occupational noise on hearing health. However, there is ve...

  16. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  17. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  19. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  20. Gran Torino's Hmong Lead Bee Vang on Film, Race, and Masculinity: Conversations with Louisa Schein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Schein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee Vang, of Minneapolis, played the Hmong lead Thao Vang Lor in Clint Eastwood's 2008 Gran Torino. He was sixteen when he shot the film and had no acting training. For 27 days on location in urban Detroit he played before a Hollywood crew opposite an icon of the filmindustry doing multiple takes of each scene and camera angle. The shoot was full of unexpected twists and turns some of which he recounts in these interchanges with Hmong media expert Louisa Schein of the Departments of Anthropology and Women's and Gender Studies at Rutgers University. Over several conversations, condensed here, Vang and Schein talk about Gran Torino, about acting and film critique, about immigrants and stereotypes, about masculinity and sexuality, and about Vang's vision for what needs to change to address problems of race and inequality in and beyond media worlds.

  1. Chronology of the cave interior sediments at Gran Dolina archaeological site, Atapuerca (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, J. M.; Álvarez, C.; Sier, M.; Moreno, D.; Duval, M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Ortega, A. I.; Campaña, I.; Rosell, J.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Carbonell, E.

    2018-04-01

    The so-called "Gran Dolina site" (Atapuerca mountain range, N Spain) is a karstic cavity filled by sediments during the Pleistocene, some of which contain a rich ensemble of archaeological and paleontological records. These sediments have contributed significantly to our understanding of early human dispersal in Europe but, in contrast, older, interior facies deposits have received much less of attention. The stratigraphy of Gran Dolina reveals an abrupt sedimentary change of interior to entrance facies from bottom to top, reflecting a significant paleoenvironmental change that promoted the accumulation of sediments transported from the vicinity of the cave by water or "en masse". Since the major magnetic polarity reversal known as the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (0.78 Ma) was detected within the TD7 unit in the middle of the stratigraphic section, we carried out a new combined paleomagnetic, radiometric (U-Pb), and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating study of the lower part of the sequence in order to constrain the chronology of the interior facies at Gran Dolina. U-Pb analysis of speleothems did not produce age information as the samples proved to be extremely unradiogenic. The magnetic stratigraphy of the cave interior sediments reveals a dominant reverse magnetic polarity, coherent with a Matuyama age, and interrupted by a normal polarity magnetozone interpreted as the Jaramillo Subchron (1.0-1.1 Ma). ESR ages on quartz grains from the upper part of the interior facies sediments are coherent with such an interpretation. We conclude that the fluvial deposits (interior facies) that constitute the cave floor began accumulating before 1.2 Ma. The development of large cave entrances at Gran Dolina occurred shortly after the Jaramillo Subchron but before ca 900 ka ago.

  2. Distribución en gran escala de los cúmulos globulares en Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Para analizar los cúmulos globulares azules y rojos de NGC 1399 asociados con NGC 1399 en particular, o si los cúmulos azules representaban un sistema asociado con el cúmulo de Fornax en general, se obtuvieron imágenes CCD de gran formato con el telescopio de 4m del CTIO, en las bandas C y T1. Se describe el método empleado y lo encontrado.

  3. Gran Bretaña ante Europa. Tormenta en el Canal. El continente aislado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizalde, María Dolores

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El presente artículo estudia el difícil camino de Gran Bretaña hacia la integración en la Comunidad Europea. El trabajo se inicia con un análisis de los factores que determinaron la posición británica ante Europa; explica luego el modelo de Europa deseado por los británicos; y se detiene especialmente en las distintas actitudes adoptadas por Gran Bretaña durante el proceso de integración europea, centrándose en tres ámbitos: la política, la economía y la defensa. En ese marco, el trabajo revisa las razones por las que Gran Bretaña apoyó o rechazó las distintas instituciones europeas que se fueron creando, los motivos de su alejamiento del núcleo inicial de la CEE, y las causas de su posterior incorporación a la estructura comunitaria.

  4. Modernidad y posmodernidad en El gran señor de Enrique Rosas Paravicino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arribasplata Cabanillas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En la novela El Gran Señor de Enrique Rosas Paravicino hay una confluencia de pasado histórico y presente conflictivo, donde el fervor religioso cumple un papel de nucleo integrador. En la sociedad andina ficcionalizada aparece una novedosa galería de tipos sociales, como corresponde a un país, como Perú, en pugna por integrar la modernidad con la tradición cultural. Los Andes se constituyen en el gran escenario de una épica popular, con todo el colorido de sus gentes y el paisaje de su cultura. Todo se mueve en torno a un rasgo que es predominante en la novela: el desplazamiento humano en torno a una devoción en plena Cordillera Oriental: el Cristo de la Nieve Resplandeciente. Aquí el sincretismo religioso da lugar a la presencia de personajes involucrados en el mito, la magia y la tradición oral, a la par que asoman los cambios sociales y políticos impulsados por otros actores embarcados en proyectos mundanos, acordes con ese otro gran mito: el progreso colectivo, en perspectiva al desarrollo nacional.

  5. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  6. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  7. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  8. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  10. Pipe locator for imaging underground pipelines (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Wasa, Y.; Mori, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Recently, it becomes more important to locate the complex piping patterns such as tee, bend, riser, and the others with high accuracy for maintenance and protection of city gas pipelines. Hence, we have developed a new pipe locator system for imaging the complex underground pipelines using magnetic remote sensing techniques. The main framework of this development is the application of the pattern recognition of the magnetic field distribution to the location of buried pipelines in urban areas. The first step for imaging the complex pipelines is to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field distribution with high accuracy which is generated by the passage of the alternating signal current through buried pipeline. For this purpose a portable trolley unit which is capable of scanning the ground to collect data, the 10 three-axes coil sensors with a sensitivity of 1 μG which are aligned in the unit, and a filter system using a FFT signal processor which eliminates urban magnetic noise as high as 10 mG in some cases, were developed. The second step is to process the magnetic field distribution data, to extract the feature of the underground pipeline using the contour diagram and the three-dimensional drawing of the magnetic field, and to identify the complex piping patterns. Further, we recognized that a nonlinear least-square method algorithm for calculation of the pipeline's position was useful to improve the location accuracy.

  11. Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran, ou comment sortir du quotidien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pascale Huglo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dossier/Issue: 1 - Raconter le quotidien aujourd'hui - Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran est un roman à contrainte qui raconte trois Vies d’un couple moyen (la troisième version étant la somme des deux premières. Caractéristiques du retour au récit dans la littérature contemporaine, les Vies de Gran associent le motif du quotidien à la catégorie du romanesque, montrant en quoi le quotidien et le romanesque constituent un couple antithétique mais indissociable. Le quotidien est ici un lieu commun qui a plus à voir avec le langage courant et les catégories littéraires qu’avec une réalité insaisissable. Par là, Gran s’écarte des revendications réalistes propres à de nombreuses explorations du quotidien dans la littérature contemporaine. Dans ce contexte, la contrainte qui gouverne le roman n’est pas une simple prouesse ludique sans intérêt : elle contribue à renforcer l’intrication entre quotidien, langage, récit et procédés littéraires.Based on a formal constraint, Iegor Gran’s Les trois vies de Lucie is a novel which recounts the three Lives of an average married couple (the third version being the sum of the first two. Gran’s Lives are quite typical of the renewed interest in narrative in contemporary literature and they demonstrate how everyday life and novelistic adventures form an antithetical but inseparable pair. According to Gran, everyday life is a commonplace which has more to do with ordinary language and literary categories than with an elusive reality. Gran thus stays away from the realistic claims typical of numerous explorations of everyday life in contemporary literature. The formal constraint which governs the novel is more than just a technical exploit, ludic but deprived of any interest : it reinforces the intricate relationship between everyday life, everyday language, narrative, and literary devices.

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the electroweak gauge group, immune to the usual strong, weak and electromagnetic in- teractions. Mixing of such sterile neutrinos with the sequential ones has also .... є CERN to Gran Sasso: The Gran Sasso laboratory with its rock shielding is ideal for neutrino experiments. It is planned to have a neutrino beam to Gran.

  13. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  14. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    EW-201135) Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage March 2017 This document has been cleared for...09/2011-03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a...v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGWT American Ground Water Trust AHU Air Handling Unit ATES Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage BTES Borehole

  15. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  16. ORGANIZE AN INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERGROUND SPACE OF MEGAPOLISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Pustovoytenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forecasting the trends of urbanization, the main factors influencing the modern methods of organization of development of the underground construction of mega-cities, during the substantiation of field of integrated use and composition of organizational-and-technological schemes of development of underground space, is considered.

  17. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted ...

  18. A new principle for underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan; Paasch, Kasper; Lassen, Benny

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic idea, design considerations and field test results for a novel concept of an energy storage system. The system is of the underground pumped hydro storage (UPHS) type where energy is stored by lifting a mass of soil through the pumping of water into an underground cav...

  19. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  20. Diurnal variations from muon data at Takeyama underground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Imai, K.; Imai, T.; Kudo, S.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    An underground station, Takeyama, is introduced, and some results of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations for the period between 1967 and 1984 are presented. There are clear tendencies of double and single solar cycle variations in the daily variations which are in good accord with those detected by other underground and neutron monitor observations.

  1. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Environment and the Department of Petroleum Resources control underground disposal of wastes in Nigeria with three principal regulations: Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground Injection and the ...

  2. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340 Underground...) Ventilated with intake air that is monitored for carbon monoxide or smoke by an AMS installed and operated...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Involve activation of the fire alarm system; and (3) Include evacuation of all persons from their work... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At...

  4. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  5. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  6. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  7. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  8. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  9. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  10. Cytotaxonomic investigations in some Angiosperms collected in the Valley of Aosta and in the National Park « Gran Paradiso »

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.; Kliphuis, E.

    1970-01-01

    The chromosome number of 53 species of Angiosperms, occurring in the Valley of Aosta and in the National Park « Gran Paradise » was determined. Some notes on the taxonomy of some species are presented in this paper.

  11. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  12. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  13. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  14. Underground openings for in situ experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Korbin, G.

    1982-01-01

    In situ tests include a wide variety of heater experiments with single and multiple arrays at full and reduced scale, block tests, heated room and pillar tests, brine and water migration experiments, permeability tests, fracture hydrology and groundwater chemistry studies, instrumentation development and testing, and other investigations. This article describes the identification of underground openings to accommodate such tests and the concept of a coupled hydrologic-thermomechanical experiment. The hydro/thermomechanical experimental program has five stages: 1) design and fabrication; 2) baseline studies; 3) chamber excavation; 4) test chamber experiment; and 5) data analysis and modeling. From the calculations presented, it was concluded that a large volume of rock (approximately 50 times that in the Stripa full-scale heater test) can be influenced within a reasonable time in the hydro/thermomechanical experiment, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory and repository-sized experiments

  15. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  16. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  17. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  18. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  19. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  20. DEALING WITH TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN UNDERGROUND NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacroix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, 25 people died and more than 150 were seriously injured in Ghislenghien (Belgium because of construction damage to a high pressure gas pipeline. Urban networks are invisible because usually buried between 1 and 1.5 meter underground. They should be identified to prevent such accidents which involve workers and public as well. Rural and urban districts, networks concessionary and contractors; everyone could benefit from their networks becoming safer. To develop software which evaluates the risks in managing both uncertainties and topology is the focus of attention. That’s the reason why we firstly propose to determine the topological relationships between networks; secondly we propose to compute the risks taking into account the various uncertainties such as the security radius or the coordinates accuracy, before giving the different required standards for an artificial intelligence tool in order to obtain high security level.

  1. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  2. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  4. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  5. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  7. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage... underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... as defined in § 280.210; and (b) Does not engage in petroleum production, refining, and marketing as...

  9. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  10. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Á. C.; Carrascal, Luis M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.

    2018-01-01

    [ES] Striking resilience of an island–endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch. Evidence regarding population trends of endangered species in special protection areas and their recovery ability from catastrophic disturbances is scarce. We assessed the population trend of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki), a habitat specialist endemic to the pine forest of Inagua in the Canary Islands, following a devastating wildfire in July 2007. ...

  11. Geodetic parametrisation of the CNGS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Mark; Mayoud, Michel; Wiart, Aude

    2003-01-01

    The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project aims to investigate the oscillation' of neutrinos. A beam extracted from the CERN SPS accelerator will produce a beam consisting uniquely of muon-type neutrinos that will be directed underground to their destination, the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy, 730 km from CERN. For the CNGS project it is evident that our knowledge of the relative position of the two Laboratories, indeed the relative position of the neutrino target at CERN and the detector at Gran Sasso, is essential. Up until the CNGS Project the position of the CERN accelerators on a global scale has not been critical. Two GPS campaigns carried out in 1998, have now resolved this question to a high degree of accuracy, and a GPS survey campaign at Gran Sasso has provided us with the relative position. The parameters for the civil engineering work that started in September 2000 are all based upon the information from these two GPS campaigns. However, consultation with the national surveying bodies in France (IGN) and Switzerland (OFT) showed that the geoid model used for the LEP would probably need to be updated for the alignment of the CNGS accelerator components. Based upon the 1998 Swiss geoid model (CHGEO98) a new model of the geoid and technique for its exploitation has been implemented at CERN (CG2000). The parameters establishing the position of the CERN Laboratory together with those of the CNGS beam line have now been refined again. This new geoid model is currently being incorporated into our various algorithms. (author)

  12. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  13. La Restauración del Templo I “Gran Jaguar” de Tikal (Guatemala)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Muñoz Cosme

    1997-01-01

    La ciudad maya de Tikal, que alcanzó su máximo explendor en los siglos VII y VIII de nuestra era, ha sido declarada por la UNESCO Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad en 1979 y Monumento Universal en 1986. El Templo I de Tikal, tambien conocido con el nombre de Templo del “Gran Jaguar”, constituye hoy en día el emblema de esta ciudad maya de Guatemala. Gaspar Muñoz Cosme, arquitecto, explica los interesantes trabajos de restauración de este Templo I, desarrollados entre 1992 y 1996, planteando...

  14. Factores de riesgo en la salud mental en ancianos de la isla de Gran Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Pascual, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    [ES] Los trastornos psicopatológicos tienen una alta prevalencia (15-25%) y se asocian a numerosas variables. Por otro lado, el envejecimiento poblacional cada vez es mayor y los ancianos constituyen una población de riesgo donde a los factores que afectan a la población adulta se les asocian otros específicos. En este trabajo se evalúa la prevalencia de ansiedad y depresión en la población mayor de 65 años de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y su relación con variables sociodemográficas y psicosoc...

  15. Una manera de nombrar el deseo en Toda esa gran verdad

    OpenAIRE

    List Reyes, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la novela Toda esa gran verdad (2006) del mexicano Eduardo Montagner. El artículo centra su atención en el tema de la sexualidad, particularmente la del personaje principal. La idea es reflexionar acerca de formas disidentes de la sexualidad que rompen con las maneras normativas y que son sancionadas socialmente. En este caso en particular, unas botas de hule son el centro de la atención de un joven de una comunidad rural que dice estar enamorado del dueño de dicho calza...

  16. Emilio Duhart: Seminario del Gran Santiago -1957. Precisiones del Proyecto Urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Berríos Flores

    2013-12-01

    En el año 1957 se realiza en Chile el “Seminario del Gran Santiago”, donde se convoca a diversos especialistas para abordar ampliamente los problemas urbanos que se estaban suscitando en la capital. Entre los expositores se encuentra el arquitecto Emilio Duhart Harosteguy, quien realiza un detallado análisis y propuestas urbanas para Santiago. Se puede detectar a priori una directa influencia de los principios de la arquitectura moderna en su exposición, pero también una cierta autonomía intelectual al momento de proponer estructuras urbanas sobre el espacio público.

  17. The Role of Gay Spaces for a Gay Destination : Gay Tourism in Gran Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Fimiani, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has the aim to evaluate the role of gay spaces in Gran Canaria as a gay tourists destination with particular reference to gay exclusive resorts. The validation of the gay identity is a key motivation for homosexuals to travel, in order to connect with other homosexuals and experience the gay life that they might not be able to experience at home. Gay spaces have been defined both as liberated areas as well as ghettos, where the homosexuals are, in a way, restrained. The method cho...

  18. El Acuífero Guaraní: un gran reservorio en la mira mundial

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Rey, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    El principal problema en torno al agua se debe a que nos encontramos frente a un recurso que antes era considerado infinito y/o renovable en el caso de ser necesario y hoy esas consideraciones han cambiado. El agua es un recurso que se encuentra en el planeta en gran cantidad, pero lo cierto es que en su mayor parte no es apta para el consumo humano. La mayor parte es agua salada y el agua dulce presenta una situación crítica. Hoy día, y desde hace ya varios años, el mundo afronta la escasez ...

  19. {Proteccion del patrimonio natural vs. derecho de los animales: en Gran Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Viera Ruiz, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Las cabras asilvestradas son uno de los problemas ambientales más importantes de la zona suroeste de la isla de Gran Canaria, hecho que ha sido recogido en diferentes documentos técnicos tales como los instrumentos de ordenación de los Espacios Naturales y los planes de conservación de las diferentes especies vegetales que se encuentran en peligro de extinción, tales como la jarilla de Inagua (Helianthemum inaguae), endemismo local con una única población gravemente amenazada por este impacto...

  20. Geomorphology and hydrochemistry of 12 Alpine lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo MARCHETTO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Alpine lakes located in the Gran Paradiso National Park, in the western Italian Alps, were sampled during the ice free period in 2008 and analysed for the main morphological, chemical and physical variables in relation to the characteristics of their watershed, with the aim to create a reference database for present and future ecological studies and to support conservation politics with scientific data. The results highlighted that weathering process and direct precipitation input are the main factors determining the hydrochemistry of the studied lakes; moreover the morphological characteristics highly affects the physical properties of the lakes starting from stratification process. The acidification status, the atmospheric input of N compounds and the supply of nutrients were considered in detail. The studied lakes seem to be well preserved by acidification risk. Comparing data from Gran Paradiso National Park with data from European mountain regions ranging in N deposition rates, allows to consider long range anthropogenic impact: the detection of relative low Total Nitrogen (TN concentration is not necessarily a synonym of a soft impact of long range pollutants, being the final nitrogen concentration dependent from retention process, closely related to catchment characteristics, besides N deposition rates; moreover the dominance of Inorganic Nitrogen (IN on Organic Nitrogen (ON highlights that the lakes are interested by N deposition and probably by long range transport of pollutants produced in the urbanized area surrounding the massif. However the Gran Paradiso National Park area is by far less affected by atmospheric pollutants than other Alpine regions, as the Central Alps. Total Phosphorus (TP concentration in Gran Paradiso lakes (1-13 μg L-1, mean level = 4 μg L-1 is an index of oligotrophic and ultraoligotrophic conditions and according to Redfield's ratio phosphorus is mainly the phytoplankton growth limiting element

  1. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in the lungs of swine in Gran Canaria (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, P.; De la Fe, C.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2005-01-01

    identified as Mycoplasma species. Using different species-specific PCRs, 40, 27, 11 and 7 of the isolates were identified as M hyorhinis, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare, respectively. Nine of the M. hyopneumoniae cultures were found to be in mixed culture with M. flocculare...... as demonstrated by PCR. By use of a M. flocculare antiserum it was possible to eliminate M. flocculare from M. hyopneumoniae mixed cultures. This study is the first report on isolation of porcine mycoplasmas at Gran Canaria (Spain)....

  2. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  3. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  4. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  5. Earthquake resistance of cavern for underground nuclear power plants, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya

    1983-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plants have been studied as one of new siting forms of the nuclear power plants. This form is that some or all of nuclear power plants would be contained in the caverns within the rock mass. Large underground caverns such as the reactor vessel cavern should be excavated at the construction. Therefore, the study on the stability of such large underground caverns containing big important structure will be very important in case of the design of the underground power plants. However the stability analysis of underground caverns during earthquake has almost never been studied. Consequently the analytical methods have not been established. For the purpose of foreseeing the stability analysis of the large underground caverns during earthquake the dynamic analysis of the underground caverns were studied. The characteristics of the rock mass situated in the coastal hillside suitable to the siting conditions of the underground nuclear power plants in Japan were estimated. The stability during earthquake of the reactor vessel caverns of the tunnel type with the width of 32 m, the height of 46 m and the length of 70 m above which the thickness of earth covering is 100 m were analysed. The dynamic stresses at the surrounding rock mass of the caverns under the horizontal earthquake with 407 gal and the vertical earthquake with 204 gal were calculated. It was obtained from the results that the relaxed zone during earthquake was yielded just at the abutment of the underground in case of both the horizontal earthquake and the vertical earthquake, and the depth of the relaxed zone was 10 m at almost from the arch concrete. It is seemed that such relaxed zone can be treated with rock anchors and arch concretes considering the current reinforcement technique. (author)

  6. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  7. First underground light versus heat discrimination for dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Marcillac, P. de; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A

    2003-06-19

    We report on the results of the first underground dark matter search with light versus heat discrimination. It has been performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in the frame of the Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD (ROSEBUD) Collaboration with a double bolometer consisting of a 54 g scintillating CaWO{sub 4} and a thin Ge (0.26 g) for light detection. Its capability to distinguish nuclear against electron recoils has been proved and applied to derive limits for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates.

  8. Gran Torino’s Boys and Men with Guns: Hmong Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Schein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Clint Eastwood film Gran Torino in the context of American popular mis-representations of Hmong and from the perspectives of the film‘s Hmong actors and viewers. The analysis begins from the images of Hmong as ―perpetual warrior, ferocious killers ill-fit for American society, and docile fresh-off-the-boat foreigners needing help and protection by white saviors. The bulk of the article presents an interpretation of the recent box office hit Gran Torino radically different from contemporary mainstream response which has centered on Eastwood‘s character and viewed the film mainly as a vision of multicultural inclusion and understanding. This alternate ―ethnotextual approach, reflecting the conversations of a Hmong studies anthropologist and a Hmong filmmaker/activist, includes the perspectives of Hmong involved in creating the film and considers critical response to the final product within the Hmong community. Despite a script that called on them to portray violent gangbanger and hapless Hmong immigrant stereotypes, Hmong actors encourage us to value their creativity in shaping the film through enacting certain roles, no matter how conventionalized, and to expose the film as a white man‘s fantasy.

  9. Determination of free acid in U(VI)-Al(III) solution by Gran plot titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Moo Yul; Lee, Chang Heon; Sohn, Se Chul; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Won Ho; Eom, Tae Yoon

    1999-01-01

    The determination method of free acid in spent U-Al nuclear fuel solutions by Gran plot titration was described. Effect of U(VI) and Al(III) on the alkalimetric titration of nitric acid was investigation in oxalate complexing media as well as in noncomplexing media. Positive biases were observed in both titration media when the end-point was estimated by the Gran plot method. It was found that the cause of the bias was U(VI) in the oxalate complexing media, but Al(III) in the noncomplexing media. The relative error was less than 1% in the titration of 0.1 M HNO 3 at a U(VI):Al(III):H + mole ratio of up to 2:12:1 as long as the pH of the oxalate titration media was sustained to be below 5.0 at the beginning of titration. The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitric acid in a solution of HANARO reactor fuel with U:Al mole ratio of 1:6

  10. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  11. ONKALO. Underground characterisation and research programme (UCRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the ONKALO Underground Characterisation and Research Programme (UCRP) is to explore Olkiluoto rock conditions and thereby enhance the current geoscientific understanding of the site, to allow the submission of an application for a construction licence for the deep repository. The characterisation programme has the following geoscientific goals: to develop and demonstrate techniques for detailed characterising volumes of rock from the underground, to update the current descriptive model of Olkiluoto bedrock and to increase confidence in this model such that it will serve the needs of construction and the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report (PSAR) in the construction licence application, and to identify volumes of rock that could be suitable for housing parts of the repository. The development of ONKALO will be based on coordinated investigation, design and construction activities. Mapping data from the tunnel front and data obtained from short probe holes will constitute most of the data needed to control the construction of ONKALO. Pilot holes will be drilled along the tunnel profile as the excavation proceeds and investigations will be carried out for geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterisation. Investigations cover more detailed mapping and sampling in parts of the tunnel, mapping and sampling of potential groundwater inflows to the tunnel and investigations from characterisation bore holes drilled from ONKALO. In addition, monitoring is planned in surface-drilled boreholes, in boreholes drilled from ONKALO, and in ONKALO itself. Monitoring will reveal changes in bedrock conditions and thus provide important information for site characterisation. The information collected by characterisation and monitoring will all be assessed in an integrated modelling effort. The aim of this modelling is both to successively enhance the description and understanding of the rock volume around ONKALO and to assess potential

  12. La Gran Vía y la arquitectura española contemporánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El centenario de la Gran Vía madrileña se ha convertido en la oportunidad de conocer con mayor detalle la mayoría de los elementos más significativos, desde el punto de vista de la arquitectura, que jalonan esta arteria, producto de la última gran reforma interior acometida en la ciudad de Madrid. En apenas veinte años, se yerguen los últimos ejemplos de la arquitectura ecléctica historicista, para pasar de un salto como pocas veces en nuestra historiografía arquitectónica, a la construcción del posiblemente mejor ejemplo de arquitectura racionalista, el Edificio Capitol, acompañado de algunos destellos de arquitectura moderna que, tras el traumático paréntesis de la Guerra Civil y la primera posguerra, se verán acompañados por elementos singulares de una arquitectura en búsqueda de un camino sin sentido, promovida por el final de una generación de arquitectos. Esta sensación de aceleración y freno se liga a algunos de los nombres más destacados de la arquitectura española de los primeros dos tercios del siglo XX: Palacios, Anasagasti, Gutiérrez Soto, Fernández-Shaw, Muguruza, Feduchi o Eced entre otros. Este artículo pretende analizar el papel jugado por la Gran Vía madrileña en cuanto a escenario de transformación de nuestra arquitectura contemporánea, así como su papel de faro hasta el despegar que se produce con los nuevos arquitectos cuyo talento es reconocido desde finales de los años 50 hasta nuestros días. El nuevo lenguaje arquitectónico surgido en las décadas de los años veinte y treinta, y mostrado como en pocos entornos en la Gran Vía, se liga necesariamente a elementos de transformación social, económica y cultural que se traducen en nuevas necesidades y nuevas tipologías edificatorias, en nuevos usos derivados de demandas y transformaciones que cambian nuestra Historia contemporánea, acompañado de un nuevo lenguaje arquitectónico, que por un breve momento, nos situó a la par de las nuevas

  13. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  14. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  15. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  16. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  17. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  18. Permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, D.M.; Haynes, C.D.; Whittle, G.P.

    1973-09-01

    The aim of the research performed was to explore methods of permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs that may improve the receptive capacity of a well to a level that will allow continued use of the disposal zone without resorting to elevated injection pressures. The laboratory investigation employed a simulated open-hole completion in a disposal well wherein the entire formation face is exposed to the well bore. Cylindrical core samples from representative reservoir rocks through which a central vertical opening or borehole had been drilled were injected with a liquid waste obtained from a chemical manufacturing plant. This particular waste material was found to have a moderate plugging effect when injected into samples of reservoir rocks in a prior study. A review was made of the chemical considerations that might account for the reduction of permeability in waste injection. Purpose of this study was to ascertain the conditions under which the precipitation of certain compounds might occur in the injection of the particular waste liquid employed. A summary of chemical calculations is contained in Appendix B. The data may be useful in the treatment of wastes prior to injection and in the design of restoration procedures where analyses of waste liquids and interstitial materials are available. The results of permeability restoration tests were analyzed mathematically by curve-fitting techniques performed by a digital computer. A summary of the analyses is set forth in the discussion of test results and examples of computer printouts are included in Appendix A

  19. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  20. Underground research laboratory room 209 instrument array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.A.; Everitt, R.A.; Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.

    1988-12-01

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in conjunction with excavation of a tunnel (Room 209) through a near-vertical water-bearing fracture oriented almost perpendicular to the tunnel axis. Encountering a fracture with such desirable characteristics provided a unique opportunity during construction of the URL to try out instrumentation and analytical methods for use in the Excavation Response Experiment (ERE), one of the major URL experiments. This is the first of four reports that cover the excavation response test. This report contains the information provided to the numerical modelling groups before the start of excavation. It includes survey information of the excavations within 30 m of the instrument array; the layout of the instrument array; details of the geology, rock properties, joint characteristics, in situ stresses, and in situ rock temperature distribution; the results of hydrogeological testing and monitoring; the planned excavation sequence; and the format for the modellers to present their results to facilitate easy comparison with the measured responses. Includes 13 excavation charts in back pocket

  1. Study of the Pasquasia underground cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes have to be verified both by laboratory and on site research, under both surface and underground conditions. The tests carried out under high lithostatic stress can allow extrapolations to be made having absolute value at the depths planned for the construction of the repository. On the area around the Pasquasia mine, a detailed geological mapping (1: 5000 scale) has been carried out. For the purpose of studying the effects induced by the advancement of the excavation's face into the clayey mass and over the cross section of the transversal tunnel, several measurement stations were installed (multibase straingauges, convergency rods, pressure cells, centering and concrete straingauges). Structural observations were made on both the fronts and the walls of the tunnel for the purpose of characterizing the mechanical behaviour of a clayey mass. The 37 cubic blocks, their sides measuring measurement 30cm, along 72 samples collected during the excavation, have been analyzed from different point of view (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, micropaleontological, interstitial water content, thermal properties, etc). After the excavation of the tunnel and the installation of the geotechnical stations, the measurements have been carried on up to March 1987. At this date the work programme has been unfortunately stopped by local authorities unfoundly suspecting Pasquasia mine would be used as waste repository

  2. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  3. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  4. Engineered barrier experiment Mont Terri underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (UPC-CIMNE), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [AITEMIN, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment is being carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland). The aim of the EB experiment is the demonstration of a new concept for the buffer construction of HLW repositories in horizontal drifts, in competent clay formations. The principle of this new buffer construction method is based on the combined use of a lower bed made of compacted bentonite blocks, and an upper backfill made with a bentonite pellets based material. The emplacement layout proposed in this project represents an important innovation for repositories in horizontal drifts. The fact of filling the upper part of the gap between the canister and the rock with a pellets-based type of material makes the emplacement operation much simpler, eliminating some of the most critical aspects of such operation. The experiment is carried out in a gallery excavated in the shaly facies of the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. The geometry of the test site is a horseshoe section, 2,55 m high, 3 m wide and 15 m long. A dummy canister of the same dimensions and weight than the reference one was installed on the top of a compacted bentonite blocks bed, and the gap canister-rock was backfilled with compacted bentonite pellets. The experimental area was isolated by a concrete plug. An artificial hydration system was installed to accelerate the hydration process. In order to monitor the evolution of the system and record the values of different parameters, a data acquisition system was installed. (authors)

  5. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  6. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  7. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  8. Development of a smart rock bolt for underground monitoring operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moema, JS

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of magnetic methods in measuring the stress or microstructural transformation in an individual bolt in both laboratory and underground environment. The corrosion performance of the smart bolt alloy was evaluated in synthetic mine water and compared...

  9. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  10. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  11. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Bauluz, B; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; MartInez, M; Morales, J; Solorzano, A Ortiz de; Pobes, C; Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions are given

  12. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Bauluz, B [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); GarcIa, E [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); MartInez, M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Solorzano, A Ortiz de [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and ({alpha}, n) reactions are given.

  13. Life cycle guideline of petrochemical plant underground piping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Jeng-Ywan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics of petrochemical plant disaster, the type of underground pipeline leakage is the highest proportion, for example, Kaohsiung gas explosion in 2014 is a typical case. Therefore, improvement strategy of petrochemical plant underground piping system from both engineering and management becomes an important issue. Through reviewing regulations as well as surveying questionnaire, including kinds of piping materials, 3D drawing files, operation procedures, information sharing, etc., the findings show lack contact of integrated management with engineering executive and insufficient technical requirements are major defects. Overviewing current problems of domestic petrochemical plant underground piping system management, and comparing to international criteria and specifications, this research focuses on the of piping design, construction, operations, maintenance, and inspection. Then management procedures and engineering technical feasibility strategies are suggested. In addition, the proposed life cycle guideline in order to reduce the disaster incidence of petrochemical plant underground pipelines.

  14. Efficiency evaluation of agricultural underground dam in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, W.; Song, S. H.; Yong, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in severe droughts in a rice-planting season (i.e., April to June) in South Korea since 2012. Therefore, all time high-amount water resources in rice-farming seasons (i.e., April to October) were required against natural crises like droughts. The underground dam, which is able to increase groundwater amounts in the alluvium aquifer, has been considered to be an alternative for securing more groundwater resources. In this study, irrigation efficiencies of five pre-existing agricultural underground dams in South Korea were evaluated during the drought periods. A total amount of groundwater storage capacities in alluvial aquifers of these five ones were estimated approximate 15 × 107 m3: above 4 × 106 m3 for two underground dams (Ian, Namsong), 2 3 × 106 m3, for 2 dams (Oksung, Wooil), below 2 × 106 m3 for 1 dam (Gocheon), respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for three underground dams (Ian, Namsong, Gocheon), supplied in rice-farming season are 8.5 × 105 m3/year, 8.3 × 105 m3/year, 6.3 × 105 m3/year, respectively. The total demand of agricultural water in these underground dams is 2.0 × 106 m3/year, 1.9 × 106 m3/year, 2.2 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for whole of rice-farming area in South Korea is 4.3 × 108 m3/year whereas total demand of agricultural water is 9.4 × 109 m3/year. Groundwater were pumped from the radial collector wells located in the upstream from the underground dams. Oksung underground dam, one representative underground dam located in Chungnam province in South Korea, irrigated approximate 3 × 105 m3 during a dried rice-planting season (between April to June) in 2017. It was three times more than usual (9 × 104 m3). Groundwater levels during the same period maintained above 5.55 m, which was slightly lower than usual (6.00 m). Results of Oksung underground dam demonstrated that underground dams in South Korea were effectively operated against

  15. Las patentes de hormigón armado. Del gran negocio al gran desarrollo tecnológico. Los antecedentes del Movimiento Moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Valenzuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la arquitectura del siglo XX no puede entenderse desasociado de la evolución de las tecnologías de la construcción y los sistemas estructurales. La revolución industrial, sobre todo el segundo período, fue un tiempo de grandes avances tecnológicos y enormes cambios sociales que supusieron la transfor­mación de las ciudades y la creación de nuevos tipos edificatorios que pudiesen dar respuestas a las nuevas necesidades sociales y productivas. Fue también en este período cuando se desarrollaron nuevas técnicas y sistemas que mejoraron los estándares de habitabilidad de los edificios. La invención del hormigón armado a mediados del siglo XIX supuso el mayor avance tecnológico y económico de la arquitectura, generando por primera vez una industria especializada y a gran escala que desarrollaba sistemas de construcción basados, primero en ensayos y posteriormente en profundos estudios científicos. Los inventos de sistemas estructurales basados en el hormigón armado se protegieron celosa­mente mediante patentes que garantizaban a sus creadores importantes ingresos económicos a nivel mundial. En las dos primeras décadas del siglo XX aparecieron las primeras normativas nacionales con el fin de evitar el monopolio de las grandes empresas constructoras, liberando los sistemas estructurales y dando paso a los proyectistas.

  16. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground water quality of Abia state, Nigeria - physico-chemical properties. ... than a mean value of 5.17 ± 0.09 obtained for Umuahia. Underground waters of high population density areas had mean pH value of 4.29 ± 0.16 which differed significantly from 4.88 ± 0.13

  17. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  18. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  19. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic el...

  20. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  1. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  2. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  3. About working of the research program on development of underground space of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartoziya, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Basic proposition relative to the developed federal program on scientific research in the area of assimilating underground space in Russia are presented. The underground objects are divided by their purpose into four groups: 1) underground objects of house-hold purpose (energy and mining complex, industrial enterprises, storages, garages, etc); 2) underground objects of social purpose (libraries, shops, restaurants, etc); 3) underground objects of ecological purpose (storages, disposal sites for radioactive wastes and hazardous substances, dangerous productions, etc); 4) underground objects of defense purpose. Trends in the scientific-research program formation, relative to underground space assimilation are enumerated. 7 refs

  4. La evolución de los sistemas constructivos y estructurales en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria como instrumento de datación de la construcción en Gran Canaria (1478-1950)

    OpenAIRE

    Galtier Barroso, Gazmira

    2016-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: La restauración y rehabilitación arquitectónica. Investigación, tendencias e innovaciones. La fecha de publicación es la fecha de lectura [ES]La presente tesis doctoral analiza la historia de la implantación de los sistemas constructivos y estructurales en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, atendiendo a los factores descritos anteriormente, como caso significativo de la arquitectura realizada en Gran Canaria, en el periodo correspondiente al desarrollo de las formas tradici...

  5. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  6. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  7. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  8. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  9. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  10. Multidimensional Risk Management for Underground Electricity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcez Thalles V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider an electricity provider company that makes decision on allocating resources on electric network maintenance. The investments decrease malfunction rate of network nodes. An accidental event (explosion, fire, etc. or a malfunctioning on underground system can have various consequences and in different perspectives, such as deaths and injuries of pedestrians, fires in nearby locations, disturbances in the flow of vehicular traffic, loss to the company image, operating and financial losses, etc. For this reason it is necessary to apply an approach of the risk management that considers the multidimensional view of the consequences. Furthermore an analysis of decision making should consider network dependencies between the nodes of the electricity distribution system. In the paper we propose the use of the simulation to assess the network effects (such as the increase of the probability of other accidental event and the occurrence of blackouts of the dependent nodes in the multidimensional risk assessment in electricity grid. The analyzed effects include node overloading due to malfunction of adjacent nodes and blackouts that take place where there is temporarily no path in the grid between the power plant and a node. The simulation results show that network effects have crucial role for decisions in the network maintenance – outcomes of decisions to repair a particular node in the network can have significant influence on performance of other nodes. However, those dependencies are non-linear. The effects of network connectivity (number of connections between nodes on its multidimensional performance assessment depend heavily on the overloading effect level. The simulation results do not depend on network type structure (random or small world – however simulation outcomes for random networks have shown higher variance compared to small-world networks.

  11. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  12. La Restauración del Templo I “Gran Jaguar” de Tikal (Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Muñoz Cosme

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad maya de Tikal, que alcanzó su máximo explendor en los siglos VII y VIII de nuestra era, ha sido declarada por la UNESCO Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad en 1979 y Monumento Universal en 1986. El Templo I de Tikal, tambien conocido con el nombre de Templo del “Gran Jaguar”, constituye hoy en día el emblema de esta ciudad maya de Guatemala. Gaspar Muñoz Cosme, arquitecto, explica los interesantes trabajos de restauración de este Templo I, desarrollados entre 1992 y 1996, planteando en las conclusiones los costosos problemas de conservación propios de estas arquitecturas, y los objetivos que debe contemplar un programa restaurador.

  13. ¿Estás nervioso? Las elecciones desde una villa del Gran Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Ferraudi Curto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendo explorar la política en el Gran Buenos Aires a partir de un análisis de las elecciones legislativas de 2009 desde mi etnografía en una villa de La Matanza en proceso de urbanización. A partir de allí, intentaré dar cuenta de una serie de perspectivas que quedan opacadas en los análisis centrados en procesos electorales. Mientras éstos enfocan hacia las estrategias de campaña de los candidatos y los entramados políticos desde los cuales construyen apoyos para explicar los resultados electorales (o intentar predecirlos, el punto central de este artículo consiste en mostrar cómo las elecciones se imponen y son apropiadas localmente a partir de una perspectiva centrada en la urbanización de la villa.

  14. El chocolate antes de la Gran Guerra: una perspectiva desde los sistemas abiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar M. Granados

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo evalúa la transformación del consumo global de chocolate en el periodo previo a la Gran Guerra (1870-1914. La investigación revela que el consumo de chocolate, más allá de una relación causal del mejoramiento en el ingreso y la búsqueda de un mejor estatus social, emergió de una interacción continua de diversos elementos como la innovación chocolatera, el emprendimiento, el comercio, la banca, la economía política y la política imperial. Por lo tanto, el consumo de chocolate funcionó como un sistema abierto.

  15. El suelo urbano y los asentamientos informales en el gran resistencia. 1. Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Magnano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se describe un creciente proceso de ocupaciones ilegales de terrenos por parte de familias sin hogar en Gran Resistencia del Chaco, Argentina. Luego la ocupación es seguida por gestiones legislativas que traspasan al Estado la responsabilidad de expropiar en beneficio de las familias ocupantes. La realidad demuestra que este último no ejecuta sus compromisos legales por carencia de recursos, con el agravante que los precarios presupuestos habitacionales locales no sólo son disminuidos, sino que en los últimos años se han suprimido varios, dejando sin atención necesidades urgentes de las familias sin casa. Los autores concluyen el artículo proponiendo un temario a debatir públicamente en torno las situaciones más críticas, urgentes y de interés local con la participación de todos los sectores vigentes de la institucionalidad.

  16. Colombia y Gran Bretaña al borde de la guerra (1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Pabón Núñez

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo pasado y aún a principios del actual, los países europeos con el pretexto de proteger las vidas y los intereses de sus súbditos residentes en países hispanoamericanos, constituidos como naciones independientes, practicaron la violenta presión contra quienes eran acusados de no dar protección suficiente a tales súbditos . No fue la Gran Bretana una excepción de este régimen de atropellos y de descaradas amenazas; ni estuvo nuestra patria exenta de estos peligros. Un caso típico fue el de las reclamaciones del "procónsul" de "Su Majestad Británica" José Russell en Panamá.

  17. Contribución al estudio de los túneles ferroviarios de gran longitud

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Montero, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    En las últimas décadas estamos viviendo un fenómeno de expansión de las líneas ferroviarias de alta velocidad en todo el mundo. Los exigentes trazados de este tipo de líneas obligan a construir túneles de gran longitud y a grandes profundidades para poder atravesar los sistemas montañosos más importantes. La construcción de túneles de más de 20 kilómetros de longitud con coberteras superiores a los 1.000 metros, sigue siendo, a pesar del elevado número de proyectos de grandes túneles ejec...

  18. Una manera de nombrar el deseo en Toda esa gran verdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio List

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la novela Toda esa gran verdad (2006 del mexicano Eduardo Montagner. El artículo centra su atención en el tema de la sexualidad, particularmente la del personaje principal. La idea es reflexionar acerca de formas disidentes de la sexualidad que rompen con las maneras normativas y que son sancionadas socialmente. En este caso en particular, unas botas de hule son el centro de la atención de un joven de una comunidad rural que dice estar enamorado del dueño de dicho calzado. Él va aprendiendo que un sujeto fetichista requiere de su objeto para disfrutar del placer erótico.

  19. The hope of the universe: Bolivarianism in the era of Gran Venezuela (1974-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Straka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews Venezuelan Bolivarianism and its relationship with the political discourses and projects during what has been called “Gran Venezuela” (Great Venezuela, 1974- 1983. During this period, Venezuela enjoyed a combination of two decades of democratic stability and high oil prices, becoming an exceptionally prosperous, free and peaceful country in Latin-America. In this context, democratic governments used political Bolivarian historicism in order to legitimize their apparent success as proof that they were complying with the vision set out by Simón Bolívar, traditionally associated with conservative thought and dictatorship. It also used Bolivarianism to project its status as an emerging power in the Third World.

  20. Desarrollo urbano e inundaciones en la ciudad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria(1869-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Máyer Suárez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En la ciudad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria los episodios de lluvia facilitan la manifes-tación de riesgos geomorfológicos. El de las inundaciones constituye uno de los más impor-tantes y ha estado presente desde los orígenes de esta ciudad. Las peculiares característicasdel medio físico, tanto desde el punto de vista topográfico como desde el geológico-geomor-fológico; las distintas formas de ocupación del espacio, con áreas de crecimiento planificadasy otras de crecimiento espontáneo, y las diversas intervenciones en áreas consolidadas, quepotencian o agravan estas inundaciones, hacen de esta ciudad una amalgama en la que el aná-lisis de las causas de las inundaciones resulta un proceso complejo

  1. El feminismo y el pacifismo en tiempos de la Gran Guerra europea (1914-19181

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Himelda Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una reinterpretación de los cambios en la vida de las mujeres durante las movilizaciones de la Gran Guerra europea (1914-1918, desde la perspectiva de las redefiniciones de las relaciones de género. Se realiza un recorrido por una selección de historiografía feminista, por fragmentos de la historia crítica de la familia y por datos biográficos y autobiográficos de activistas de los movimientos sufragistas y pacifistas. Se aprecian las reacciones de adhesión de las mujeres a la causa beligerante suscitadas por el patriotismo, su solidaridad con los combatientes sobrevivientes y con sus familias, así como sus críticas pacifistas al militarismo.

  2. The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Sánchez, Beatriz; Bringas, Vicente; Espejo, Carlos; Flores, Rubén; Chapa, Oscar; Lara, Gerardo; Chavoya, Armando; Anguiano, Gustavo; Arciniega, Sadot; Dorantes, Ariel; Gonzalez, José L.; Montoya, Juan M.; Toral, Rafael; Hernández, Hugo; Nava, Roberto; Devaney, Nicolas; Castro, Javier; Cavaller, Luis; Farah, Alejandro; Godoy, Javier; Cobos, Francisco; Tejada, Carlos; Garfias, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    In March 2004 was accepted in the site of Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in La Palma Island, Spain, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) for the GTC. During the GTC integration phase, the CI will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes-imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature Wave-front sensing (WFS), and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomia UNAM in Mexico City and the Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) in Queretaro, Qro under a GRANTECAN contract after an international public bid. Some optical components were built by Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (CIO) in Leon Gto and the biggest mechanical parts were manufactured by Vatech in Morelia Mich. In this paper we made a general description of the CI and we relate how this instrument, build under international standards, was entirely made in Mexico.

  3. Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Sánchez, Beatriz; Bringas, Vicente; Espejo, Carlos; Flores, Rubén; Chapa, Oscar; Lara, Gerardo; Chavoya, Armando; Anguiano, Gustavo; Arciniega, Sadot; Dorantes, Ariel; Gonzalez, José Luis; Montoya, Juan Manuel; Toral, Rafael; Hernández, Hugo; Nava, Roberto; Devaney, Nicholas; Castro, Javier; Cavaller, Lluis; Farah, Alejandro; Godoy, Javier; Cobos, Francisco; Tejada, Carlos; Garfias, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    In March 2004, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) for the GTC was accepted in the site of The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) located in La Palma Island, Spain. During the GTC integration phase, the CI will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes-imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature Wave-front sensing (WFS), and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. The imaging mode permits to qualify the GTC image quality. The Pupil Mode permits estimate the GTC stray light. The segments figure, alignment and cophasing verifications are made with both WFS modes. In this work we describe the Commissioning Instrument and show some tests results obtained during the site acceptance process at the GTC site.

  4. Zooplankton biomass and indices of feeding and metabolism in island-generated eddies around Gran Canaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-León, S.; Almeida, C.; Gómez, M.; Torres, S.; Montero, I.; Portillo-Hahnefeld, A.

    2001-08-01

    Zooplankton biomass and indices of grazing (gut fluorescence), respiration (electron transfer system, ETS), ammonia excretion (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH) and growth (aspartate transcarbamylase, ATC) were studied around the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) during the so-called "late winter bloom". Four size classes (100-200, 200-500, 500-1000 and >1000 μm) were studied to assess the contribution of each size fraction to the mesoscale plankton distribution around the island. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were observed downstream the island transporting and entraining water rich in chlorophyll. Zooplankton biomass showed a high variability around the island but it was dramatically lower in the core of the cyclonic eddy induced by the island, probably due to the divergent effect produced by the physical structure. A filament of relatively cold-water was also found reaching the island from the upwelling area off northwest Africa. High zooplankton biomass was observed in association with the filament water and in the vicinity of the anticyclonic eddy shed by the island. Specific gut content showed higher values in the boundaries of the cyclonic structures, while ETS and GDH activities where higher windward of the island, in both the cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies depending on the size fraction considered. With the restrictions of using those indices, control of primary production by grazing was 11-22% and up to 41% of the calculated ingestion from the indices of metabolism and growth could be supported by nonpigmented food. Calculated excretion rates could support about 8% of primary production. The low impact of zooplankton on autotrophic production, the low values of the index of growth and the distribution of biomass in relation to the presence of eddies downstream of Gran Canaria suggest that accumulation was the causative mechanism for the presence of high zooplankton biomass leeward of the island.

  5. Violence in paradise: Cranial trauma in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Darias, Teresa; Alberto-Barroso, Verónica; Velasco-Vázquez, Javier

    2018-01-04

    This paper addresses the prevalence and pattern of physical violence in the prehispanic society of Gran Canaria and discusses its link with the social structure and insular context in which that people lived. 347 prehispanic crania from Guayadeque Ravine (575-1415 AD) have been examined in order to determine the frequency, types, location, and timing of trauma. Craniofacial injuries are present in 27.4% of the crania examined. Only 2% display perimortem trauma. Most of the injuries (84.3%) correspond to depressed blunt force trauma, with an ellipsoidal or circular shape. Most of these are in the anterior aspect of the cranium. Males are significantly more affected than females. The aboriginal population of Gran Canaria show a high frequency of traumatic injuries to the skull compared to other archaeological groups. Their frequent location in the anterior aspect suggests regular face-to-face confrontations. However, the lethal injuries typically occurring in large-scale combat are scarce. Practices such as ritualized combat, mentioned in ethnohistorical sources, would help to channel and mitigate inter-group conflict. The predominance of depressed blunt force trauma is in accordance with the weapons used by those populations: hand-thrown stones, clubs and sticks. The higher frequency in males indicates that they took part in direct violence more than females did. The hierarchical organization of their society may have led to frequent situations of conflict. The insular nature of a territory barely 1,500 m 2 in size was a determining factor in competition for access to food resources, especially at times of climate crises or population growth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Upgrading of automobile shredder residue via innovative granulation process 'ReGran'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthaus, Philip; Kappes, Moritz; Krumm, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Stricter regulatory requirements concerning end-of-life vehicles and rising disposal costs necessitate new ways for automobile shredder residue utilisation. The shredder granulate and fibres, produced by the VW-SICON-Process, have a high energy content of more than 20 MJ kg -1 , which makes energy recovery an interesting possibility. Shredder fibres have a low bulk density of 60 kg m -3 , which prevents efficient storing and utilisation as a refuse-derived fuel. By mixing fibres with plastic-rich shredder granulate and heating the mixture, defined granules can be produced. With this 'ReGran' process, the bulk density can be enhanced by a factor of seven by embedding shredder fibres in the partially melted plastic mass. A minimum of 26-33 wt% granulate is necessary to create enough melted plastic. The process temperature should be between 240 °C and 250 °C to assure fast melting while preventing extensive outgassing. A rotational frequency of the mixing tool of 1000 r min -1 during heating and mixing ensures a homogenous composition of the granules. During cooling, lower rotational frequencies generate bigger granules with particles sizes of up to 60 mm at 300 r min -1 . To keep outgassing to a minimum, it is suggested to melt shredder granulate first and then add shredder fibres. Adding coal, wood or tyre fluff as a third component reduces chlorine levels to less than 1 wt%. The best results can be achieved with tyre fluff. In combination with the VW-SICON-Process, ReGran produces a solid recovered fuel or 'design fuel' tailored to the requirements of specific thermal processes.

  7. The DarkSide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, Ivone Freire Da Mota; Alexander, Thomas R.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, Henning O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, Bianca; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, Severino; Cadeddu, Matteo; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, Macro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, Sandro; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, Mario; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, Giuseppe; Edkins, E.; Empl, Anton; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A.; Granato, Francesco; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, Edward; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, Alexander; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, Alissa; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, James; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, Marco; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, Andrew; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Savarese, Claudio; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Singh, Parth; Skorokhvatov, Mikhail; Smirnov, Oleg; Sotnikov, Albert; Stanford, Chris; Suvorov, Yura; Tartaglia, Roberto; Tatarowicz, John; Testera, Gemma; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, Eugenii; Vishneva, Alina; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, Masayuki; Walker, Susan E.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, James; Wojcik, M.; Xiang, Xin; Xu, Jingke; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zec, Adam; Zhong, W. L.; Zhu, Chengliang; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    DarkSide is a graded experimental project based on radiopure argon, and is now, and will be, used in direct dark matter searches. The present DarkSide-50 detector, operating at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is a dual-phase, 50 kg, liquid argon time-projection-chamber surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto. It is designed to be background free in 3 years of operation. DS-50 performances, when filled with atmospheric argon, are reported. However DS-50 filled with underground argon, shows impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope. The application of this powerful technology in a future generation of the DarkSide program is discussed.

  8. First physics results from WARP 2.3 litre prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, INFN e Universita di Pavia, Via A. Bassi 6, 1-27100, Pavia (Italy); Acciarri, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN e Universita dell' Aquila, v. Vetoio loc. Coppito, 1-67010, L' Aquila (Italy); Belluco, M.; Calligarich, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, INFN e Universita di Pavia, Via A. Bassi 6, 1-27100, Pavia (Italy); Calaprice, F. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Cambiaghi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, INFN e Universita di Pavia, Via A. Bassi 6, 1-27100, Pavia (Italy); Carbonara, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, INFN e Universita Federico II, Via Cinthia, 1-80126, Napoli (Italy); Cavanna, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell' INFN, S.S. 17 bis km 18.910, 1-67010, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Cocco, A.G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, INFN e Universita Federico II, Via Cinthia, 1-80126, Napoli (Italy); Di Pompeo, F.; Ferrari, N. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell' INFN, S.S. 17 bis km 18.910, 1-67010, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Fiorillo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, INFN e Universita Federico II, Via Cinthia, 1-80126, Napoli (Italy); Galbiati, C. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Grandi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, INFN e Universita di Pavia, Via A. Bassi 6, 1-27100, Pavia (Italy); Ianni, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell' INFN, S.S. 17 bis km 18.910, 1-67010, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Mangano, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, INFN e Universita Federico II, Via Cinthia, 1-80126, Napoli (Italy); Montanari, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, INFN e Universita di Pavia, Via A. Bassi 6, 1-27100, Pavia (Italy); and others

    2011-12-15

    A method to measure the low energy nuclear recoils induced by weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs) has been achieved by means of an ultra pure Liquid Argon detector. The simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization occurring in the liquid Argon allow to obtain a very high rejection power against background sources. The first preliminary upper bounds on WIMP parameters obtained with a small 2.3 liter test chamber with an accumulated fiducial exposure of about 100 kg Dot-Operator day at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is reported. This supports the validity of this method for a larger detector presently under construction with correspondingly increased sensitivities.

  9. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D.; Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G.; Incicchitti, A.; Montecchia, F.; Ye, Z.P.

    2014-01-01

    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  10. The Detection Of Neutrino Interactions In The OPERA Experiment: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizii, Laura

    2009-01-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment built to provide the final and unambiguous proof of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis in the atmospheric sector by observing ν τ emerging from the CNGS ν μ beam. The detector is a hybrid apparatus installed in the Hall C of the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy. Runs with CNGS neutrinos were successfully carried out in 2007 and 2008. In this paper the detector and the analysis strategy are briefly described and the status of the analysis of the 2008 run events is discussed.

  11. Summary of the OPERA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, C

    2011-01-01

    The OPERA experiment is located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory and designed to directly detect the appearance of ν τ in a pure ν μ beam by observing the decay of charged τ leptons produced in ν τ charged current interactions. The OPERA detector is a hybrid detector, containing electronic detectors (ED) and high resolution nuclear emulsions. A short introduction to the detector is presented. The analysis procedures will be described, including the analysis flow chain and the vertex decay search procedure. First results will be presented, including the main kinematic measurements obtained until now and the cross checks made on the background expectation.

  12. Status of the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2005-01-01

    OPERA, CNGS1, is a long base line neutrino oscillation experiment intend to detect ν τ appearance among the neutrino flux traveling from CERN. This appearance detection will be the clear and final evidence of the ν μ ->ν τ oscillation strongly suggested by the Super-Kamiokande. At present, OPERA is in the construction stage, emulsion films are in production and in the process of refreshing. The underground detector at Gran Sasso is under construction. The detector will be ready at the middle of 2006, when the CNGS beam is on

  13. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2014-03-15

    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  14. Test of Electric Charge Conservation with Borexino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Appel, S; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Di Noto, L; Drachnev, I; Empl, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Gromov, M; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K; Kaiser, M; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Marcocci, S; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montuschi, M; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Neumair, B; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Roncin, R; Rossi, N; Schönert, S; Semenov, D; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Thurn, J; Toropova, M; Unzhakov, E; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Weinz, S; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wurm, M; Yokley, Z; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2015-12-04

    Borexino is a liquid scintillation detector located deep underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). Thanks to the unmatched radio purity of the scintillator, and to the well understood detector response at low energy, a new limit on the stability of the electron for decay into a neutrino and a single monoenergetic photon was obtained. This new bound, τ≥6.6×10^{28}  yr at 90% C.L., is 2 orders of magnitude better than the previous limit.

  15. Tests on OPERA RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergnoli, A.; Borsato, E.; Brugnera, R.; Buccheri, E.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Corradi, G.; D'Incecco, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Degli Esposti, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Felici, G.; Gambarara, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mastropietro, F.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zauner, B.

    2006-01-01

    OPERA is an experiment for the observation of ν μ into ν τ oscillations through τ appearance using a 730 km baseline ν μ beam from CERN to Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with high resistivity bakelite RPCs operated in streamer mode. The RPC installation ended in March 2005. As the detectors will be inaccessible during the operation, we performed long term operation as well as quality control tests. The results of the long term and of the Quality Control tests are presented

  16. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, A. C.; Carrascal, L. M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.

    2018-01-01

    Marcada resiliencia de una especie de ave insular endémica después de una perturbación intensa: el caso del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria Son pocos los datos disponibles sobre la tendencia demográfica de las especies en peligro de extinción en zonas de protección especial y su capacidad de recuperarse de perturbaciones catastróficas. Se estudia la tendencia demográfica del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria (Fringilla polatzeki), un especialista de hábitat endémico de las Islas Canarias, restrin...

  17. Rumbo al Gran Banco: una etnohistoria de la pesca industrial del bacalao en los Bancos de Terranova

    OpenAIRE

    García Orellán, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    [ES]Rumbo al Gran Banco parte de los comienzos de la pesca industrial del bacalao española en el primer tercio del siglo XX, la situación que allí encontraron, los avatares humanos y los avances tecnológicos que se van incorporando, la Guerra Civil y la guerra mundial, la bonanza pesquera, la incorporación de las parejas, la concurrencia, así como la exploración de todo el Gran Banco. La gestión por parte de Canadá de las doscientas millas marinas y la moratoria del bacalao....

  18. Conciertos escolares de la Fundación Orquesta Filarmónica de Gran Canaria: 1992-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Santana, Sergio A.

    2017-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Formación del Profesorado. La fecha de publicación es la fecha de lectura. [ES]La Orquesta Filarmónica de Gran Canaria siempre ha estado vinculada a lo largo de su historia con la pedagogía musical. Durante los años setenta, Gran Canaia se convirtió en un perfecto laboratorio articulando propuestas de sensibilización musical entre los jóvenes en edades escolares que sirvió de base para la futura creación de los Conciertos Escolares de la Fundación Orquesta Filarmónic...

  19. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  20. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  1. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  2. MINING SECURITY PIPE© (TSM© WITH UNDERGROUND GPS GLOBAL© (RSPG© ESCAPE SECURITY DEVICE IN UNDERGROUND MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrionuevo GIMÉNEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available TSM is escape pipe in case of collapse of terrain. The TSM is a passive security tool placed underground to connect the work area with secure area (mining gallery mainly. TSM is light and hand able pipe made with aramid (Kevlar, carbon fibre, or other kind of new material. The TSM will be placed as a pipe line network with many in/out entrances/exits to rich and connect problem work areas with another parts in a safe mode. Different levels of instrumentation could be added inside such as micro-led escape way suggested, temperature, humidity, level of oxygen, etc.. The open hardware and software like Arduino will be the heart of control and automation system.

  3. Henderson Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: Unearthing the secrets of the Universe, underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Henderson Mine near Empire, Colorado is proposed to be the site to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which will have a rich program for forefront research in physics, biology, geosciences, and mining engineering. The mine is owned by the Climax Molybdenum Company (CMC). It is located about 50 miles west of Denver and is easily accessible via major highways. The mine is modern and has extensive infrastructure with reserve capacity well-suited to the demands of DUSEL. CMC owns all land required for DUSEL, including the tailings site. It also has all environmental and mining permits required for DUSEL excavation, core drilling, and rock disposal. The mine owners are enthusiastic supporters of this initiative. In support of the Henderson DUSEL project, the State of Colorado has pledged substantial funding for surface construction.

  4. Evaluation method of radon preventing effect in underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shaodong; Deng Yuequan; Dong Faqin; Qu Ruixue; Xie Zhonglei

    2014-01-01

    Background: It's difficult to evaluate the radon prevention effect because of the short operating time of measuring instrument under the circumstances of high humidity in underground construction. Purpose: A new rapid method to evaluate the radon prevention efficiency of underground construction was introduced. Methods: The radon concentrations before and after shielding operation were determined, and according to the regularity of radon decay, the shielding rate can be calculated. Results: The results showed that radon shielding rate in underground construction remains generally stable with variation of time, and the actual relatively standard deviation was 3.95%. So the rapid determination and evaluation of radon preventing effect under special conditions in underground construction can be realized by taking shielding rate in a short time for the final shielding rate. Compared with those by the local static method in ground lab, the results were similar. Conclusion: This paper provided a prompt, accurate and practicable way for the evaluation of radon prevention in underground construction, having a certain reference value. (authors)

  5. THE JOSEF REGIONAL UNDERGROUND RESEARCH CENTRE (JOSEF URC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pacovská

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Josef Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Josef Underground Educational Facility (Josef UEF, which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre (Josef URC which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research center is to provide practical in-situ instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency has added the Josef URC to its prestigious list of international training canters involved in the “Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities – A Network of Centers of Excellence” project.

  6. Dynamic response of underground openings in discontinuous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, H.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report examines the behaviour of underground openings in discontinuous rock in response to seismic waves associated with either earthquakes or rock bursts. A literature search revealed that well-constructed underground structures, such as would be expected for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, underground pumped-storage or nuclear plants, have an extremely high resistance to damage from seismic motion. To complement these qualitative results, it was necessary to examine the basic mechanisms of the entire progression of seismic motion, from wave generation and propagation, to wave interaction with the underground opening. From these investigations, it was found that unless a seismic event occurs very close to the installation, the stresses generated will be low with respect to the excavation stresses, because high stress waves are rapidly attenuated in travelling through rock. As well, an earthquake may generate extremely high accelerations, but is limited in the maximum amount of stress that it can create. The question, however, of the actual specific nature of underground seismic motions still remains essentially unanswered, although it is expected that there is a reduction in peak motions with depth due to the effect of the free surface of the earth

  7. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Yue, Q; Chen, Y H; Shen, M B; Wu, S Y

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory - China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  8. Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodym Oldøich

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process focuses on methods of presentation of an underground mine technologies in intranet technology. It shows usage of platform independent VRML client for presentation of static and dynamic information about technological process. Bi-directional interactions between client and process information database are solved.Based on analysis of technological process of underground mine a database structure was designed. It is skeleton for storing all information about any underground mine. This skeleton can be modified in any direction. Data in this "static model" of underground mine can be applied for visualization in VRML environment. In this way it is possible to simplify and unify a user's front-end for all kinds of tasks.All designed scenes can be interactively displayed in full view or in any detail view, so that a user is able to recognize every important part of installed equipment, its stage, technical parameters and other information. If manufacturers of mining equipment will supply VRML model of their real products everybody would be able to place it into VRML scene and learn everything about it.This work explores and tries to enlighten some of the areas and available approaches compliant with VRML 97 specification of modifying static scene by its browser. Concepts of animation pipeline, inside and outside scripting in scene displayed and authoring of VRML targeted geometry are discussed including database connectivity.

  9. THE GENERATING AND COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the informal sector, an analysis addressing the relationships and links between the morphology and etiology of the underground economy, on the one hand, and its effects on the economic, social or legal, on the other hand is required. The double identity, that of cause phenomenon and effect phenomenon, that the underground economy has, gives it a special status in explaining certain phenomena which vitiates the economic and social life. The generating and complementary effects of the underground area covered in this study are analyzed in terms of the following vectors of analysis: tax evasion, illegal work and money laundering. Tax evasion represents the central core of the underground economy and faithfully expresses the fiscal monetary policies ,the fiscal mortality and the degree of compliance of the taxpayer. Undeclared work is an indicator of the labor market in the informal economy and is a good barometer for analyzing the demand and supply of labor in the visible economy. Money laundering defines the level of economic and financial crime and reflects the level of illegal use of capital on the black market. Tax evasion, money laundering and illegal work can only develop on a framework provided by illicit markets for goods, services and labor. Beyond the, unidirectional or bidirectional relationships between phenomena, the paper consists in a plea for an interdependent, multi-causal analysis of the phenomena and operating mechanisms of the relationships within and outside the underground economy.

  10. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-05-22

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  11. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  12. Mercado metropolitano de trabajo y desigualdades sociales en el Gran Santiago: ¿Una ciudad dual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. de Mattos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios estructurales en los mercados metropolitanos de trabajo bajo los procesos de reestructuración-informacionalización-globalización, se han situado como un tema central para el estudio de la transformación de las ciudades durante las últimas décadas. Desde esta perspectiva, el presente trabajo analiza los impactos que los procesos de modernización capitalista en Chile han tenido sobre su mercado de trabajo y sobre la evolución de la distribución del ingreso, y sobre esta base, observa sus efectos sobre la estructuración socio-territorial del Gran Santiago, discutiendo especialmente la pertinencia de la tesis de la dualización para este caso particular. Para ello, en una primera parte se esbozan los rasgos fundamentales de esta tesis, se analizan los fundamentos con los que ha sido presentada y las causas que se le atribuyen. En la segunda parte se revisan las principales transformaciones producidas en esta fase de modernización capitalista en Chile, y la evolución de las desigualdades sociales y la segregación urbana en el Gran Santiago a la luz de las transformaciones producidas en su mercado de trabajo. En la tercera y última parte, se plantea la discusión sobre la aplicabilidad de la tesis de la dualización al caso chilenoStructural changes in metropolitan labour markets under the process of reestructutration-informationalization-globalization, had become a central issue for the study of the transformation of the cities during the last decades. According to this perspective, this article analizes the impacts that the capitalist modernization in Chile has had on their labor market and the evolution of income distribution, and upon this base, observes their effects on socio-territorial estructuration of the Great Santiago, specially discussing the pertinence of the dualization theory for this particular case. For that, main characteristics of this theory are drawn; at the same time, the basis with that has been

  13. The underground storages of carbon dioxide. Juridical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, F.

    2006-04-01

    In the framework of the reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions in the air, the underground storage of the CO 2 is studied. Some experimentation are already realized in the world and envisaged in France. This document aims to study the juridical aspects of these first works in France. After a presentation of the realization conditions and some recalls on the carbon dioxide its capture and storage, the natural CO 2 underground storages and the first artificial storages are discussed. The CO 2 waste qualification, in the framework of the environmental legislation is then detailed with a special task on the Lacq region. The problem of the sea underground storages is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    on studied geotechnical conditions of the region. In this paper, a method of risk level assessment for various types of structures, such as frame and masonry structures, and various types of foundation, such as continuous and isolated, is well defined and the risk level is classified. Moreover, the value......The tunnel of the Tabriz urban railway line 2 (TURL2), Iran, will pass through an underground commercial center on its way. Too little distance between the tunnel crown and the underground structure foundation will probably cause collapse or excessive settlement during the tunnel construction based...... of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  16. Detection of underground pipeline based on Golay waveform design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Xu, Dazhuan

    2017-08-01

    The detection of underground pipeline is an important problem in the development of the city, but the research about it is not mature at present. In this paper, based on the principle of waveform design in wireless communication, we design an acoustic signal detection system to detect the location of underground pipelines. According to the principle of acoustic localization, we chose DSP-F28335 as the development board, and use DA and AD module as the master control chip. The DA module uses complementary Golay sequence as emission signal. The AD module acquisiting data synchronously, so that the echo signals which containing position information of the target is recovered through the signal processing. The test result shows that the method in this paper can not only calculate the sound velocity of the soil, but also can locate the location of underground pipelines accurately.

  17. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed.

  18. Performance of underground coal mines during the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 costs 242 000 lives and was responsible for 164 000 serious injuries and structural damage of immense proportion. The area has eight coal mines, which together form the largest underground coal mining operation in China. Approximately 10 000 miners were working underground at the time of the earthquake. With few exceptions they survived and returned safely to the surface, only to find their families and belongings largely destroyed. Based on a comprehensive survey of the miners' observations, subsurface intensity profiles were drawn up. The profiles clearly indicated that seismic damage in the underground mines was far less severe than at the surface. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  20. Safety aspects of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, W.; Schatz, A.

    1981-01-01

    During the recent years design-principles of underground-sited nuclear power stations have been investigated mainly in the USA and the Fed. Rep. Germany. It was hoped that the consequences of extremely remote accidents could be generally reduced by such designs. It is pointed out in this article that underground-siting, however, does not only lead to many disadvantages, some of them also safety-related, but at best results in only slight reductions of the consequences of internal accidents. It is the author's impression that, due to high additional cost and important delays of licensing- and construction-times underground-siting of nuclear power stations is no meaningful and suitable safety measure. (orig.) [de

  1. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  2. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in english

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Esposito, William

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in english, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  3. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in french

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Brodski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in french, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  4. Solubility studies of Np(V) in simulated underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Ren Lihong; Jiao Haiyang; Yao Jun; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2000-01-01

    The solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water has been measured with the variation of pH, storage time (0-100 days). All experiments were performed in an Ar glove box which contained high purity Ar, with an oxygen content of less than 5 ppm. Experimental results show that the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water decreased with increasing pH value of solution; the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water determined at different pH are: pH=6.96, [Np(V)]=(3.52±0.37) x 10 -4 mol/l; pH=8.04, [Np(V)]=(8.24±0.32) x 10 -5 mol/l; pH=9.01, [Np(V)]=(3.04±0.48) x 10 -5 mol/l, respectively

  5. A survey of the underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1979-12-01

    The idea of locating nuclear power plants underground is not new, since in the period of time between the late fifties and the early sixties, four small nuclear plants have been built in Europe in rock cavities. Safety has been, in general, the main motivation for such a siting solution. In the last years several factors such as increasing power transmission costs, decreasing number of suitable sites above ground, increased difficulties in obtaining site approval by the licensing authorities, increasing opposition to nuclear power, increasing concern for extreme - but highly improbable - accidents, together with the possibility of utilizing the waste heat and the urban siting concept have renewed the interest for the underground siting as an alternative to surface siting. The author presents a survey of the main studies carried out on the subject of underground siting. (Auth.)

  6. Proceedings of the 6th underground operators conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosinski, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference presents recent development in underground mining operations. A large number of papers reported on underground mining practice in the Eastern Goldfields area of Western Australia and in the traditional mining centres of Mount Isa and Broken Hill. These are supplemented by papers reporting on other underground mining developments all throughout Australia and in several overseas countries known for advanced mining expertise. Apart from papers dealing with metalliferous mining, a number of papers related to coal mining present recent developments related to the topic. The papers are grouped into sessions relating to ground control, rock mechanics, management and human resources, mining methods, mining equipment, control and communications, mine backfill, mining operations, drilling and blasting and coal mining. Relevant papers have been individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  7. The hazardous nature of small scale underground mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small scale mining continues to contribute significantly to the growth of Ghana's economy. However, the sector poses serious dangers to human health and the environment. Ground failures resulting from poorly supported stopes have led to injuries and fatalities in recent times. Dust and fumes from drilling and blasting of ore present health threats due to poor ventilation. Four prominent small scale underground mines were studied to identify the safety issues associated with small scale underground mining in Ghana. It is recognized that small scale underground mining in Ghana is inundated with unsafe acts and conditions including stope collapse, improper choice of working tools, absence of personal protective equipment and land degradation. Inadequate monitoring of the operations and lack of regulatory enforcement by the Minerals Commission of Ghana are major contributing factors to the environmental, safety and national security issues of the operations.

  8. Impact of climate change on the stability of underground cavities. Status of knowledge. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, C.; Al Heib, M.; Gombert, P.; Charmoille, A.; Watelet, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    After having described the impact of global warming on climate parameters (possible climate evolution, impact on temperatures and precipitations in France) and presented underground cavities in France (nature and localisation, expected instability), this report discusses the impact of climate change on underground waters: impact on water cycle, on underground water level variation, and on the power of dissolution by underground waters. Then, it more particularly addresses the impact of water on underground cavity stability: impact of water on the behaviour of underground works, examples (iron mines, water sheet rising, quarry collapsing, and so on, in France, Belgium and USA), development of natural cavities. It finally outlines the perspectives, knowledge gaps, and required researches

  9. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, A; Cherrie, J; Dennekamp, M; Donaldson, K; Hurley, J F; Tran, C L

    2005-06-01

    To assess hazards associated with exposure to dust in the London Underground railway and to provide an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. Concentrations of dust, as mass (PM2.5) and particle number, were measured at different underground stations and in train cabs; its size and composition were analysed; likely maximal exposures of staff and passengers were estimated; and in vitro toxicological testing of sample dusts in comparison with other dusts was performed. Concentrations on station platforms were 270-480 microg/m3 PM2.5 and 14,000-29,000 particles/cm3. Cab concentrations over a shift averaged 130-200 microg/m3 and 17,000-23,000 particles/cm3. The dust comprised by mass approximately 67% iron oxide, 1-2% quartz, and traces of other metals, the residue being volatile matter. The finest particles are drawn underground from the surface while the coarser dust is generated by interaction of brakes, wheels, and rails. Taking account of durations of exposure, drivers and station staff would have maximum exposures of about 200 microg/m3 over eight hours; the occupational exposure standard for welding fume, as iron oxide, is 5 mg/m3 over an eight hour shift. Toxicology showed the dust to have cytotoxic and inflammatory potential at high doses, consistent with its composition largely of iron oxide. It is unjustifiable to compare PM2.5 exposure underground with that on the surface, since the adverse effects of iron oxide and combustion generated particles differ. Concentrations of ultrafine particles are lower and of coarser (PM2.5) particles higher underground than on the surface. The concentrations underground are well below allowable workplace concentrations for iron oxide and unlikely to represent a significant cumulative risk to the health of workers or commuters.

  10. The China Jinping Underground Laboratory and Its Early Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Yuan-Jing; Yue, Qian; Zeng, Zhi; Chen, Yun-Hua; Wu, Shi-Yong; Ji, Xiang-Dong; Wong, Henry T.

    2017-10-01

    The China Jinping Underground Laboratory, inaugurated in 2010, is an underground research facility with the deepest rock overburden and largest space by volume in the world. The first-generation science programs include dark matter searches conducted by the CDEX and PandaX experiments. These activities are complemented by measurements of ambient radioactivity and the installation of low-background counting systems. Phase II of the facility is being constructed, and its potential research projects are being formulated. In this review, we discuss the history, key features, results, and status of this facility and its experimental programs, as well as their future evolution and plans.

  11. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics experiment JUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Direct measurement of the cross sections for the key nuclear reactions in hydrostatic stellar evolution within Gamow window, which makes use of low background at deep underground laboratory, is crucial to solve key scientific questions in nuclear astrophysics. JUNA project aims at direct measurement of (α,γ), (α,n) reactions in hydrostatic helium burning and (p, γ), (p, α) reactions in hydrostatic hydrogen burning based on Jinping deep underground laboratory in China. The progress of experimental techniques, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be presented.

  12. Technological innovations on underground coal gasification and CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Gama, Carlos D; Navarro T, Vidal; Falcao N, Ana P

    2010-01-01

    A brief description of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process, combined with the possibility of CO 2 sequestration, is presented. Although nowadays there are very few active industrial UCG plants, a number of new projects are under way in different parts of the world aimed to produce regular gas fuel derived from in situ coal combustion, despite the environmental advantages resulting from this process. A brief review of those projects is included. The possibility of underground CO 2 storage, either with or without simultaneous UCG, is analyzed by taking into consideration the main challenges of its application and the risks associated with integrated solutions, thus requiring innovative solutions.

  13. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  14. Calculation of vibration reduction design for underground sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarev, Stanislav A.; Rybak, Samuil A.; Makhortykh, Sergey A.

    2003-10-01

    The problems of ecology situation control near intensive underground acoustical sources is considered. Studied vibration absorbers are modeled by multi-component system of connected oscillators with damping. Obtained oscillatory equation system was investigated numerically. Frequency dependencies of absorbers efficiency have been calculated. An influence of the physical-mechanical parameters of the surrounding ground on the value of vibration reduction has been determined. Some variants of principal realization of vibration absorbers for the case of underground railway are discussed. [Work supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches Grants Nos. 01-02-16127, 02-02-17143.

  15. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland

  16. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  17. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES ON THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against shadow economy must be addressed not only as a permanent concern of economic analysts and decision-makers, but rather as a problematic ethical-moral nature affecting economic and interpersonal relations, as strategic and operational object. The authors attempt outline an institutional management strategy geared towards underground economy combating has as objective the strands establishment without having exhaustiveness claim. We make a case for extending the implementation of a coherent program, strategic and operational, and its adoption as a way of institutional management in the context it really wants to launch a concerted offensive to combat the underground economy.

  19. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  20. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.

  1. Discovery Mondays - Neutrinos: journeying with the phantom particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    There was a record attendance at the last Discovery Monday! Neutrinos and the CNGS facility (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso). There was a record attendance at the last Discovery Monday! Neutrinos and the CNGS facility (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso). A dozen physicists and engineers were stationed at six stands with models and posters.

  2. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D.; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in “deforestation havens.” We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation “hot spot” in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching. PMID:27035995

  3. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancort, J.F.; Lomoschitz, A.; Meco, J.

    2016-07-01

    Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  4. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancort, J.F.; Lomoschitz, A.; Meco, J.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  5. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Betancort

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain. These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Massive decline of Cystoseira abies-marina forests in Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valdazo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown macroalgae within the genus Cystoseira are some of the most relevant “ecosystem-engineers” found throughout the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic coasts. Cystoseira-dominated assemblages are sensitive to anthropogenic pressures, and historical declines have been reported from some regions. In particular, Cystoseira abies-marina, thriving on shallow rocky shores, is a key species for the ecosystems of the Canary Islands. In this work, we analyse changes in the distribution and extension of C. abies-marina in the last decades on the island of Gran Canaria. This alga dominated the shallow rocky shores of the entire island in the 1980s; a continuous belt extended along 120.5 km of the coastline and occupied 928 ha. In the first decade of the 21st century, fragmented populations were found along 52.2 km of the coastline and occupied 12.6 ha. Today, this species is found along 37.8 km of the coastline and occupies only 7.4 ha, mainly as scattered patches. This regression has been drastic around the whole island, even in areas with low anthropogenic pressure; the magnitude of the decline over time and the intensity of local human impacts have not shown a significant correlation. This study highlights a real need to implement conservation and restoration policies for C. abies-marina in this region.

  7. Las configuraciones sociales de la crianza en barrios populares del Gran Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Santillán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo propongo una exploración antropológica sobre la crianza y la educación infantil en contextos de desigualdad social. El interés es discutir una serie de supuestos que suelen limitar las prácticas educativas de los sectores subalternos a "pautas tradicionales" y "privativas del mundo familiar". Sin embargo, en las iniciativas domésticas sobre la crianza y el cuidado infantil que analizo, intervienen actores esperables para ello y también un conjunto de sujetos e instituciones no formalizadas pero que se tornan relevantes en la cotidianeidad de los territorios de pertenencia de los niños y niñas. Para el análisis me basaré en las entrevistas y en los registros de tipo etnográfico que llevé a cabo en asentamientos ubicados en la zona norte del Gran Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  8. Mensaje y audiencias: el programa Gran Hermano. El sueño de Orwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fernández Torres, Bárbara González Atienza, Esther Menacho Dorado, Luisa Noguera y Antonio Rossi - Coordinación: Dr. Ramón Reig

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el formato televisivo del programa Gran Hermano, emitido entre abril y junio de 2000. La finalidad de esta investigación está relacionada con la detección de los elementos formales que convierten un espacio en un producto de éxito, así como la respuesta que puede generar en los telespectadores. La vivienda artificial enclavada en las proximidades de Soto del Real (Madrid se convirtió en una ventana que abría la vida cotidiana del prójimo a la curiosidad de millones de hogares. Este experimento televisivo, que no científico, es la excusa programada por un complejo financiero de cifras y letras que marcó un precedente en la historia de la pequeña pantalla. La filosofía del liberalismo mediático limita en unas reglas donde la intimidad forma parte del mercado. Ahora, la demanda televisiva se vende en un "mercado" orquestado por las emociones.ABSTRACTThis article analyses the elements from the Big Brother's broadcast, the TV program emited from April to June in Telecinco. The purpose of this research is explaining the key points of these production an their influence over the audience. The artificial house created for this play seems a window where people look their neighbour's life. Big Brother's experience supposes a way from th media's liberalism, because it opens a commercial behaviour that is based in emotions.

  9. La Gran Guerra y sus impactos locales. Rosario, Argentina 1914-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M. Pascual

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el impacto de la Gran Guerra en la ciudad de Rosario, Argentina. Releva sus impactos económicos y los significados que se les asignaron. Analiza las formas en que los actores sociales intentaron hacer frente a los efectos críticos del conflicto mundial: encarecimiento de los productos primarios, desabastecimiento y desocupación. En este campo resultan importantes la producción de ferias francas, la construcción de mercados municipales y el abasto directo de productos primarios por parte del municipio. Ante la dimensión y duración del paro, las autoridades comenzaron a tejer nuevas estrategias para intervenir sobre este fenómeno. Se observa una transición de unas estrategias gubernamentales basadas en la represión y la segregación a otras emparentadas con la asistencia y la ayuda social. Si bien estas nuevas herramientas de intervención no tendieron a perdurar y manifestaron su carácter coyuntural y paliativo, una vez superada la crisis, hacia mediados de los años 1920, organizaron el debate sobre la producción de nuevas políticas municipales y del reformismo local.

  10. Contrasting recruitment seasonality of sea urchin species in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GARCIA-SANZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite sea-urchins can play an important role affecting the community structure of subtidal bottoms, factors controlling the dynamics of sea-urchin populations are still poorly understood. We assessed the seasonal variation in recruitment of three sea-urchin species (Diadema africanum, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula at Gran Canaria Island (eastern Atlantic via monthly deployment of artificial collectors throughout an entire annual cycle on each of four adjacent habitat patches (seagrasses, sandy patches, ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens and macroalgal-dominated beds within a shallow coastal landscape. Paracentrotus lividus and A. lixula had exclusively one main recruitment peak in late winter-spring. Diadema africanum recruitment was also seasonal, but recruits appeared in late summer-autumn, particularly on ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens with large abundances of adult conspecifics. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated non-overlapping seasonal recruitment patterns of the less abundant species (P. lividus and A. lixula with the most conspicuous species (D. africanum in the study area.

  11. Disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Villarroel, Richard; Uhart, Marcela M; Karesh, William B

    2004-01-01

    Samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia, were collected during June-August 1999. All 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. Gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus and four Leptospira interrogans serovars, with questionable results for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes 1 and 2. No antibodies were detected to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Babesia odocoilei, bluetongue virus (serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17), bovine viral diarrhea virus, Brucella abortus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and parainfluenza-3 virus. Sixty-four percent (7/11) of the deer had endoparasites. Amblyomma spp. ticks were found on seven deer, flies of the family Hippoboscidae on six deer, and lice on six deer.

  12. IMPLICACIONES TERRITORIALES DE UNA GRAN OBRA HIDRÁULICA: EL EMBALSE DEL TRANCO (CABECERA DEL GUADALQUIVIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Araque Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Situado en la cabecera del Guadalquivir, el embalse del Tranco fue durante muchos años el de mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua de toda Andalucía. Sus aportaciones resultaron fundamentales para el sostenimiento del regadío en el gran valle bético, al tiempo que con sus aguas pudo generarse una parte de la energía eléctrica que se precisaba para la modernización del aparato productivo andaluz y la mejora de las condiciones de vida en multitud de hogares en el valle del Guadalquivir. Frente a estas perspectivas tan halagüeñas, las aguas embalsadas en el Tranco apenas tuvieron repercusiones socioeconómicas positivas para la Sierra de Segura. Las expropiaciones masivas a las que dio origen tanto la construcción del embalse como la repoblación forestal que lo acompañó, propiciaron la emigración masiva de centenares de vecinos, muchas veces en condiciones de extrema precariedad. Por otro lado, las aguas del Tranco nunca se utilizaron para la expansión del regadío por algunos de los fértiles valles próximos al embalse, ni la electricidad generada a pie de presa llegó a los hogares serranos, que siguieron careciendo de este servicio durante muchos años.

  13. DIMENSIÓN ESPACIAL DE LA MOVILIDAD COTIDIANA UNIVERSITARIA: EL CASO DEL GRAN VALPARAÍSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Soto C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo obedece a la necesidad de conocer los patrones de movilidad cotidiana universitaria desde los lugares de residencia hacia el campus universitario y como estos han ido cambiando debido a la creciente infl uencia en las dinámicas de cambio del contexto urbano metropolitano del Gran Valparaíso. Estas dinámicas de cambios se caracterizan por desequilibrios funcionales al interior de la estructura metropolitana, y a un incremento sustantivo en la accesibilidad global producto de programas de inversión en infraestructura vial en sus principales corredores de transporte, llevando a desarrollos urbanos desiguales y crecientes. Estos cambios vistos desde una comunidad móvil específica como es el habitante universitario, nos permite visualizar nuevas tendencias de movilidad, asociadas a un modelo más centrífugo que "externaliza" crecientemente la residencia de los alumnos hacia el contexto urbano metropolitano, cuyas consecuencias sociales y urbano-ambientales pretende develar la investigación.

  14. Precios inflexibles y la gran depresión Inflexible prices and the great depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Frederick S.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo expone la teoria y la tesis de precios administrados de Gardiner Means, analiza sus efectos sobre la gran depresion y presenta las criticas y propuestas de los defensores de la teoria neoclasica. Revisa empiricamente la propuesta de Means y señala sus limitaciones y verdaderos alcances. Por ultimo, muestra que si la tesis Means y las propuestas Keynesianas se hubiesen unido en 1940, la sintesis resultante habria dado lugar a una teoria coherente, con solidos funadamentos empiricos, alternativa a la teoria neoclasica tradicional.This article presents Gardiner Means' theory and thesis of administeredprices, analyzes their effects on the Great Depression, andpresents the critiques and proposals of the defenders of Neoclassical Theory. It reviews Means' proposal empirically, and indicates its limitations as well as its real significance. Finally, it shows thatif the Means thesis and Keynesian proposals had been joined togetherin 1940, the resulting synthesis would have provided a coherent alternative to traditional Neoclassical Theory with solid empirical foundations.

  15. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Plans of investigations during shaft and drift excavation (Construction of underground facilities: Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned for over 20 years to establish the scientific and technical basis for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The investigations are conducted by JNC in three phases, from the surface (Phase I), during the construction of the underground facilities (Phase II), and using the facilities (Phase III). This report concerns the investigation plans for Phase II. During excavation of shafts and drifts, detailed geological and borehole investigation will be conducted and the geological model constructed in Phase I is evaluated and revised by newly acquired data of geophysical and geological environment. Detailed in-situ experiments, as well as the effects of shaft excavation, are also done to study long-term changes, rock properties, groundwater flow and chemistry to ensure the reliability of repository technology and establish safety assessment methodology. (S. Ohno)

  16. THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF ELASTOMER SEALS FOR SEALING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Politikova

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The research work on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferro-concrete and pig-iron including the underground tunnel casings is carried out.

  17. THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVE OF HERMETIZATION OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES WITH USE OF RUBBER SEALANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Leshchenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The works on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferroconcrete and pig-iron, including tunnel elements for the underground, are carried out.

  18. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS

  19. Development of excavation technologies at the Canadian underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, Gregory W.; Martino, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    Several countries, Canada being among them, are developing concepts for disposal of used fuel from power generating nuclear reactors. As in underground mining operations, the disposal facilities will require excavation of many kilometres of shafts and tunnels through the host rock mass. The need to maintain the stability of excavations and safety of workers will be of paramount importance. Also, excavations required for many radioactive waste repositories will ultimately need to be backfilled and sealed to maintain stability and minimize any potential for migration of radionuclides, should they escape their disposal containers. The method used to excavate the tunnels and shafts, and the rock damage that occurs due to excavation, will greatly affect the performance characteristics of repository sealing systems. The underground rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering work performed at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has led to the development of excavation technologies that reduce rock damage in subsurface excavations. This paper discusses the excavation methods used to construct the URL and their application in planning for the construction of similar underground laboratories and repositories for radioactive wastes. (author)

  20. Habitat features and distribution of Salamandra salamandra in underground springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are among the less known terrestrial habitats, but can reveal an unexpected biodiversity, and can play an underestimated role for amphibians. The fire salamander Salamandra salamandra is sometimes found in underground environments, but the factors affecting its distribution in subterranean spaces remain substantially unexplored. We repeatedly surveyed some hypogeous springs, such as draining galleries and “bottini” in NW Italy, in order to evaluate the relationship between environmental features and distribution of S. salamandra in these underground springs. We performed visual encounter surveys to assess the occurrence of larvae, juveniles or adults in springs. We also recorded four habitat variables: easy of access, isolation, macrobenthos richness and forest cover of the surrounding landscape. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the relationships between habitat features and occurrence of larvae. We observed larvae of S. salamandra in 13 out of 22 springs; their presence was associated to springs with high easy of access and with relatively rich macrobenthos communities. In underground springs, larval development apparently required longer time than in nearby epigeous streams. Nevertheless, S. salamandra can attain metamorphosis in this environment. The occurrence of S. salamandra in underground environments was not accidental, but repeated in the time and interesting from an ecological point of view, confirming the high plasticity of the species.