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Sample records for underground conduits distributed

  1. Erosion of cohesive soil layers above underground conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Li-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently developed 2D numerical modelling that combines Discrete Element (DEM and Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM, we simulate the destabilisation by an hydraulic gradient of a cohesive granular soil clogging the top of an underground conduit. We aim to perform a multi-scale study that relates the grain scale behavior to the macroscopic erosion process. In particular, we study the influence of the flow conditions and the inter-particle contact forces intensity on the erosion kinetic.

  2. Electrical Conduit Distributes Weld Gas Evenly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrisco, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Purge-gas distributor, made from flexible electrical conduit by drilling small holes along its length, provides even gas flow for welding. Flexible conduit adjusts to accomodate almost any shape and is used for gas coverage in other applications that previously needed formed and drilled solid tubing.

  3. Development of a comprehensive inventory management system for underground fiber optic conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Major State Departments of Transportation operate and maintain networks of thousands of miles of conduits, many : carrying fiber optic cables that are vital to State communication systems. These conduits are located alongside or : across highways and...

  4. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  5. Habitat features and distribution of Salamandra salamandra in underground springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are among the less known terrestrial habitats, but can reveal an unexpected biodiversity, and can play an underestimated role for amphibians. The fire salamander Salamandra salamandra is sometimes found in underground environments, but the factors affecting its distribution in subterranean spaces remain substantially unexplored. We repeatedly surveyed some hypogeous springs, such as draining galleries and “bottini” in NW Italy, in order to evaluate the relationship between environmental features and distribution of S. salamandra in these underground springs. We performed visual encounter surveys to assess the occurrence of larvae, juveniles or adults in springs. We also recorded four habitat variables: easy of access, isolation, macrobenthos richness and forest cover of the surrounding landscape. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the relationships between habitat features and occurrence of larvae. We observed larvae of S. salamandra in 13 out of 22 springs; their presence was associated to springs with high easy of access and with relatively rich macrobenthos communities. In underground springs, larval development apparently required longer time than in nearby epigeous streams. Nevertheless, S. salamandra can attain metamorphosis in this environment. The occurrence of S. salamandra in underground environments was not accidental, but repeated in the time and interesting from an ecological point of view, confirming the high plasticity of the species.

  6. Life cycle assessment of overhead and underground primary power distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumby, Sarah; Druzhinina, Ekaterina; Feraldi, Rebe; Werthmann, Danae; Geyer, Roland; Sahl, Jack

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power can be distributed in overhead or underground systems, both of which generate a variety of environmental impacts at all stages of their life cycles. While there is considerable literature discussing the trade-offs between both systems in terms of aesthetics, safety, cost, and reliability, environmental assessments are relatively rare and limited to power cable production and end-of-life management. This paper assesses environmental impacts from overhead and underground medium voltage power distribution systems as they are currently built and managed by Southern California Edison (SCE). It uses process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 (2006) and SCE-specific primary data to the extent possible. Potential environmental impacts have been calculated using a wide range of midpoint indicators, and robustness of the results has been investigated through sensitivity analysis of the most uncertain and potentially significant parameters. The studied underground system has higher environmental impacts in all indicators and for all parameter values, mostly due to its higher material intensity. For both systems and all indicators the majority of impact occurs during cable production. Promising strategies for impact reduction are thus cable failure rate reduction for overhead and cable lifetime extension for underground systems.

  7. Voltage Sags Matching to Locate Faults for Underground Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAKAR, A. H. A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A voltage sags matching to locate a fault for underground distribution network is presented in this paper. Firstly the method identifies the faulted section by matching a voltage sags measured at the primary substation during a fault with pre-developed voltage sag database. From the identified faulted section, the distance of a fault from sending-end is calculated. The problem of multiple sections is addressed by ranking approach. Test results on an underground distribution network shows most faults can be located by the first attempt within high accuracy distance. Only few faulted sections found by the second attempt. Since the method is using only voltage sag data, monitored at the primary substation, the method is considers economical to be implemented for a rural distribution network.

  8. Survey on depth distribution of underground structures for consideration of human intrusion into TRU waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Muneaki; Sugimoto, Junichiro; Ohishi, Kiyotaka; Okishio, Masanori; Shimizu, Haruo.

    1996-01-01

    Depth distributions of some kinds of underground structure in Japan have been investigated to get an information about suitable depth of underground repository for TRU waste that is arising from reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication plants. The underground structures investigated in this work were foundation pile of multistoried building, that of elevated expressway, that of JR shinkansen railway, tunnel of subway and wells. The major depth distribution of the underground structures except for the wells was in range from 30 to 50m, and their maximum depth was less than 100m. On the other hand, the 99% of wells was less than 300m in depth. Maximum depth of the other underground structures has been also investigated for a survey of the utilization of underground by artificial structures in Japan. (author)

  9. Development and Improvement of an Intelligent Cable Monitoring System for Underground Distribution Networks Using Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintae Cho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With power systems switching to smart grids, real-time and on-line monitoring technologies for underground distribution power cables have become a priority. Most distribution components have been developed with self-diagnostic sensors to realize self-healing, one of the smart grid functions in a distribution network. Nonetheless, implementing a real-time and on-line monitoring system for underground distribution cables has been difficult because of high cost and low sensitivity. Nowadays, optical fiber composite power cables (OFCPCs are being considered for communication and power delivery to cope with the increasing communication load in a distribution network. Therefore, the application of distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology on OFCPCs used as underground distribution lines is studied for the real-time and on-line monitoring of the underground distribution power cables. Faults can be reduced and operating ampacity of the underground distribution system can be increased. This paper presents the development and improvement of an intelligent cable monitoring system for the underground distribution power system, using DTS technology and OFCPCs as the underground distribution lines in the field.

  10. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  11. Distribution of phthalate esters in underground water from power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the distribution of phthalateacid esters (PAEs) in groundwater from some power stations in Delta State. Groundwater samples were collected from eight power transmission and distribution stations. Concentrations (μg/L) of six phthalate acid esters compounds in the groundwater ranged from ...

  12. Underground Water Distribution System, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Leak Detection Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The survey was conducted by myself, Donald Muir, Operations Coordinator, and required 12.25 working days. This was not a survey of the entire water distribution system but instead a survey of water mains 8 inch and larger...

  13. Aerosol concentration and particle size distributions in underground excavations of a hard coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubacz, Krystian; Wojtecki, Łukasz; Urban, Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Deposition of aerosols in the respiratory system depends inter alia on their size and the respiratory tract deposition is appreciable for nanometer-sized particles. This article presents the results of measurements of size distributions of aerosols in the range of several nanometers up to about 20 μm in the underground mine excavations of an active hard coal mine. The study included practically all particles of a respirable fraction. The results showed that a high concentration of fine and ultrafine aerosols occurs in key underground workplaces especially during mining machine operations, although their contribution to total mass concentration is usually negligible.

  14. Probability distribution of pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Velazquez, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400, La Habana (Cuba); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The probability distributions of external-corrosion pit depth and pit growth rate were investigated in underground pipelines using Monte Carlo simulations. The study combines a predictive pit growth model developed by the authors with the observed distributions of the model variables in a range of soils. Depending on the pipeline age, any of the three maximal extreme value distributions, i.e. Weibull, Frechet or Gumbel, can arise as the best fit to the pitting depth and rate data. The Frechet distribution best fits the corrosion data for long exposure periods. This can be explained by considering the long-term stabilization of the diffusion-controlled pit growth. The findings of the study provide reliability analysts with accurate information regarding the stochastic characteristics of the pitting damage in underground pipelines.

  15. Research on distributed temperature sensor (DTS) applied in underground tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanlong; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Zaixuan; Shen, Changyu; Jin, Yongxing; Jin, Shangzhong

    2011-11-01

    A distributed temperature sensor (DTS) system with a sensing distance of 4 km was developed for applications in tunnel temperature measurement and fire alarm. Characteristics of DTS and experiment results are introduced. The results show that DTS system can play an important role in tunnel fire alarm.

  16. Geant4 Simulation Study of Deep Underground Muons: Vertical Intensity and Angular Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground muon intensities up to 10000 m.w.e. and angular distribution up to 6500 m.w.e. in standard rock have been investigated using Geant4 simulation package. Muons with energies above 100 GeV were distributed from the ground level taking into account the muon charge ratio of ~1.3 at sea level. The simulated differential muon intensities are in good agreement with the intensities given in the literature. Furthermore, the simulation results for the integrated intensities are consistent with the experimental data, particularly at depths above 4000 m.w.e., where the simulation gives slightly smaller intensities than the experimental ones. In addition, the simulated exponent n at different underground depths agrees well with the experimental points, especially above ~2000 m.w.e.

  17. Controlling the Distribution of Cold Water in Air Cooling Systems of Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Piergies, Kazimierz

    2016-12-01

    In Polish underground mines in which excavations are subjected to high heat load, central and group cooling systems based on indirect cooling units are implemented. Chilled water, referred to as cold water and produced in chillers, is distributed through a pipeline network to air coolers located in mining and development districts. The coolers are often moved to other locations and the pipeline network undergoes constant modification. In such a system, parameters of cold water in different branches of the pipeline network need to be controlled. The article presents the principles for controlling the cooling capacity of air coolers installed in an underground mine. Also, the authors propose automatic control of water flow rate in underground pipeline network and in particular coolers, depending on the temporary cooling load in the system. The principles of such a system, controlling cold water distribution, and the functions of its individual components are described. Finally, an example of an automatic control of water flow rate in a central cooling system currently implemented in a mine is presented.

  18. Quality frontier of electricity distribution: Supply security, best practices, and underground cabling in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Kuosmanen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Electricity distribution is a prime example of local monopoly. In most countries, the costs of electricity distribution operators are regulated by the government. However, the cost regulation may create adverse incentives to compromise the quality of service. To avoid this, cost regulation is often amended with quality incentives. This study applies theory and methods of productivity analysis to model the frontier of service quality. A semi-nonparametric estimation method is developed, which does not assume any particular functional form for the quality frontier, but can accommodate stochastic noise and heteroscedasticity. The empirical part of our paper examines how underground cabling and location affect the interruption costs. As expected, higher proportion of underground cabling decreases the level of interruption costs. The effects of cabling and location on the variance of performance are also considered. Especially the location is found to be a significant source of heteroscedasticity in the interruption costs. Finally, the proposed quality frontier benchmark is compared to the current practice of Finnish regulation system. The proposed quality frontier is found to provide more meaningful and stable basis for setting quality targets than the average practice benchmarks currently in use. - Highlights: • Cost regulation may create adverse incentives to lower the service quality. • We model the frontier of service quality using a semi-nonparametric approach. • Our nonparametric frontier accounts for stochastic noise and heteroscedasticity. • We estimate how underground cabling and location affect interruption costs. • We compare our quality frontier with the current quality regulation in Finland.

  19. The lateral distribution of muons in showers at 40 mwe underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, L.; Castagnoli, C.; Dardo, M.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Visentin, R.; Sitte, K.; Freiburg Univ.

    1975-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution of muon showers at 40 mwe underground was studied with a 4 m 2 spark chamber telescope. The observed frequencies deviate systematically from those calculated with the 'standard' lateral distributions of Vernov or of Greisen. Agreement can be attained if an enhancement of the muon component at small shower sizes is assumed, in accordance with the assumptions of a two-component theory of cosmic ray origin. It is improved by introducing an age dependence of the lateral structure function. (orig.) [de

  20. Underground measurements of aerosol in radon and thoron progeny activity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Bandi, F.; Phillips, C.R.; Duport, P.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol and activity distributions of 218 Polonium, 214 Lead, 214 Bismuth, and 212 Lead were determined in two different underground mining environments by means of an optimized time-delay counting scheme and diffusion batteries. In one environment, diesel equipment was operating; and in the other, electrically powered equipment. The two environments differed significantly in total aerosol concentration. In the diesel environment, in particular, aerosol concentrations were unsteady, and fluctuated with vehicular traffic and mining activities. As measured by radon progeny disequilibrium, the age of the air ranged from about 25 to 60 minutes. Thoron working levels were of the same order as radon working levels. In this paper, comparisons are made between the aerosol and activity size distributions in both the diesel and electric mine

  1. A Comparison of Impedance-Based Fault Location Methods for Power Underground Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Personal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the Smart Grid paradigm presence has increased within power systems. These new kinds of networks demand new Operations and Planning approaches, following improvements in the quality of service. In this sense, the role of the Distribution Management System, through its Outage Management System, is essential to guarantee the network reliability. This system is responsible for minimizing the consequences arising from a fault event (or network failure. Obviously, knowing where the fault appears is critical for a good reaction of this system. Therefore, several fault location techniques have been proposed. However, most of them provide individual results, associated with specific testbeds, which make the comparison between them difficult. Due to this, a review of fault location methods has been done in this paper, analyzing them for their use on underground distribution lines. Specifically, this study is focused on an impedance-based method because their requirements are in line with the typical instrumentation deployed in distribution networks. This work is completed with an exhaustive analysis of these methods over a PSCADTM X4 implementation of the standard IEEE Node Test Feeder, which truly allows us to consistently compare the results of these location methods and to determine the advantages and drawbacks of each of them.

  2. A risk measurement tool for an underground electricity distribution system considering the consequences and uncertainties of manhole events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Thalles Vitelli; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a risk measure of underground vaults that considers the consequences of arc faults. The increasing use of underground systems, together with the aging of networks, the lack of maintenance and interference from other (third party) underground systems nearby have caused many accidents in urban areas, thus endangering human life. The involvement of a large number (hundreds or thousands) of underground vaults with different characteristics, the lack of historical data on modes of failure, the rarity of the occurrence of some faults, the magnitude of their consequences and the involvement of a complex environment surrounding the hazard zone make risk management even more complex and uncertain. Furthermore, given that the (monetary, time, staff, etc.) resources of an electrical power company are limited and scarce, it is necessary to use decision-making tools that aggregate the consequences and the uncertainties to assess the risks jointly with the preference structure of the company, thus solving the problem more realistically. Therefore, this paper puts forward the use of an additional risk analysis for manhole events in underground electrical distribution networks with a view to its being used as a decision aid tool in risk management. As an illustration of the use of the risk measurement tool proposed, a numerical application is presented. The result rather than showing a ranking of underground vaults, gives a measure of the risk used that can show the decision-maker (DM) how much better one group of alternatives (formed by alternatives with quite similar risk values) is than other groups, based on the DM’s attitude to risk and grounded on the axiomatic structure of utility theory. - Highlights: • The paper proposes a risk measure of underground vaults for manhole events. • It makes risk analysis in underground electrical distribution networks. • It makes more than show a risk ranking of underground vaults. • It can show to the DM how

  3. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-07-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77{+-}11) % protons and (23{+-}11) % iron nuclei with a {chi}{sup 2}-probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88{+-}8) % protons and (12{+-}8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a {chi}{sup 2} -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  4. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground: Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tcaciuc, Rodica

    2006-01-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e + e − storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV e nergies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive a ir showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimete r of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at dis tances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, m ultiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muo ns. The experimental data were compared with predictions from d ifferent Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distrib ution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for prot on, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77 ± 11) % protons and (23 ± 11) % iron nuclei with a χ 2 - probability of 84 % was d...

  5. Particle size distribution of the radon progeny and ambient aerosols in the Underground Tourist Route "Liczyrzepa" Mine in Kowary Adit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszczuk, Katarzyna; Skubacz, Krystian

    2018-01-01

    Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, in cooperation with Central Mining Institute performed measurements of radon concentration in air, potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), particle size distribution of the radon progeny and ambient aerosols in the Underground Tourist-Educational Route "Liczyrzepa" Mine in Kowary Adit. A research study was developed to investigate the appropriate dose conversion factors for short-lived radon progeny. The particle size distribution of radon progeny was determined using Radon Progeny Particle Size Spectrometer (RPPSS). The device allows to receive the distribution of PAEC in the particle size range from 0.6 nm to 2494 nm, based on their activity measured on 8 stages composed of impaction plates or diffusion screens. The measurements of the ambient airborne particle size distribution were performed in the range from a few nanometres to about 20 micrometres using Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) spectrometer and the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer (SMPS).

  6. Comparison between Underground Cable and Overhead Line for a Low-Voltage Direct Current Distribution Network Serving Communication Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the differences in economic feasibility and dynamic characteristics between underground (U/G cable and overhead (O/H line for low-voltage direct current (LVDC distribution. Numerous low loaded long-distance distribution networks served by medium-voltage alternative current (MVAC distribution lines exist in the Korean distribution network. This is an unavoidable choice to compensate voltage drop, therefore, excessive cost is expended for the amount of electrical power load. The Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO is consequently seeking a solution to replace the MVAC distribution line with a LVDC distribution line, reducing costs and providing better quality direct current (DC electricity. A LVDC distribution network can be installed with U/G cables or O/H lines. In this paper, a realistic MVAC distribution network in a mountainous area was selected as the target model to replace with LVDC. A 30 year net present value (NPV analysis of the economic feasibility was conducted to compare the cost of the two types of distribution line. A simulation study compared the results of the DC line fault with the power system computer aided design/electro-magnetic transient direct current (PSCAD/EMTDC. The economic feasibility evaluation and simulation study results will be used to select the applicable type of LVDC distribution network.

  7. Conduit Stability and Collapse in Explosive Volcanic Eruptions: Coupling Conduit Flow and Failure Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, B.; Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can exhibit abrupt changes in physical behavior. In the most extreme cases, high rates of mass discharge are interspaced by dramatic drops in activity and periods of quiescence. Simple models predict exponential decay in magma chamber pressure, leading to a gradual tapering of eruptive flux. Abrupt changes in eruptive flux therefore indicate that relief of chamber pressure cannot be the only control of the evolution of such eruptions. We present a simplified physics-based model of conduit flow during an explosive volcanic eruption that attempts to predict stress-induced conduit collapse linked to co-eruptive pressure loss. The model couples a simple two phase (gas-melt) 1-D conduit solution of the continuity and momentum equations with a Mohr-Coulomb failure condition for the conduit wall rock. First order models of volatile exsolution (i.e. phase mass transfer) and fragmentation are incorporated. The interphase interaction force changes dramatically between flow regimes, so smoothing of this force is critical for realistic results. Reductions in the interphase force lead to significant relative phase velocities, highlighting the deficiency of homogenous flow models. Lateral gas loss through conduit walls is incorporated using a membrane-diffusion model with depth dependent wall rock permeability. Rapid eruptive flux results in a decrease of chamber and conduit pressure, which leads to a critical deviatoric stress condition at the conduit wall. Analogous stress distributions have been analyzed for wellbores, where much work has been directed at determining conditions that lead to wellbore failure using Mohr-Coulomb failure theory. We extend this framework to cylindrical volcanic conduits, where large deviatoric stresses can develop co-eruptively leading to multiple distinct failure regimes depending on principal stress orientations. These failure regimes are categorized and possible implications for conduit flow are discussed, including

  8. Underground atom gradiometer array for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, B.

    2015-12-01

    After more than 20 years of fundamental research, atom interferometers have reached sensitivity and accuracy levels competing with or beating inertial sensors based on different technologies. Atom interferometers offer interesting applications in geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry, Earth rotation rate measurements), inertial sensing (submarine or aircraft autonomous positioning), metrology (new definition of the kilogram) and fundamental physics (tests of the standard model, tests of general relativity). Atom interferometers already contributed significantly to fundamental physics by, for example, providing stringent constraints on quantum-electrodynamics through measurements of the hyperfine structure constant, testing the Equivalence Principle with cold atoms, or providing new measurements for the Newtonian gravitational constant. Cold atom sensors have moreover been established as key instruments in metrology for the new definition of the kilogram or through international comparisons of gravimeters. The field of atom interferometry (AI) is now entering a new phase where very high sensitivity levels must be demonstrated, in order to enlarge the potential applications outside atomic physics laboratories. These applications range from gravitational wave (GW) detection in the [0.1-10 Hz] frequency band to next generation ground and space-based Earth gravity field studies to precision gyroscopes and accelerometers. The Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA) presented here is a large-scale matter-wave sensor which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. The MIGA consortium gathers 18 expert French laboratories and companies in atomic physics, metrology, optics, geosciences and gravitational physics, with the aim to build a large-scale underground atom-interferometer instrument by 2018 and operate it till at least 2023. In this paper, we present the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the

  9. EVALUATION METHOD OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF CABLE IN SUPERANNUATED TELECOMMUNICATION CONDUITS REINFORCED BY PVC LINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji; Okutsu, Masaru; Yamazaki, Yasushi; Katagiri, Shin; Suzuki, Takanobu; Sugiyama, Toshiyuki

    The telecommunication conduits are needed to protect underground cables from damages due to earthquakes.However, the seismic capacity is being degraded due to the superannuated conduits that were constructed during the high-growth economic period.To sustain the reliability of the conduits efficiently through maintenance is the current challenge. In this paper, we have evaluated to determine whether the seismic capacity can be improved by reinforcing inside tube wall of conduit with PVC lining by grasping as well as analyzing the damages of the telecommunication conduit due to the Chuetsu Offshore Earthquake in Niigata Prefecture through field study and using seismic deformation method. As the result, it was confirmed that the enhancement of the seismic capacity is indeed possible by applying PVC lining to the superannuated conduits.

  10. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

  11. Code de conduite

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    irocca

    le respect de telles normes. Ce faisant, nous contribuons à la bonne réputation et à l'intégrité du Centre et allons dans le sens du Code de valeurs et d'éthique du secteur public du gouvernement du Canada. Je vous invite à prendre connaissance de cette nouvelle mouture du Code de conduite et à appliquer ses principes ...

  12. Investigation of transient overvoltages in heavily meshed low-voltage underground distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Ulerio, Reynaldo Odalis

    The analysis of overvoltages in electrical distribution networks is of considerable significance since they may damage the power system infrastructure and the associated electrical equipment. Overvoltages in distribution networks arise due to switching transients, resonance, lightning strikes and ground faults, among other causes. The operation of network protectors (NWP), low voltage circuit breakers with directional power relay, in a secondary network prevents the continuous flow of reverse power. There are three modes of operation for the network protectors: sensitive, time delayed, and insensitive. In case of a fault, although all of the network protectors sense the fault at the same time, their operation is not simultaneous. Many of them open very quickly with opening times similar to those of the feeder breaker. However, some operate a few cycles later, others take several seconds to open and a few might even fail to operate. Therefore, depending on the settings of the network protectors, faults can last for significantly long time due to backfeeding of current from the low voltage (LV) network into the medium voltage (MV) network. In this work, low voltages are defined as 208V/460V and medium voltage are defined as 25kV/35kV. This thesis presents overvoltages which arise because of the occurrence of a single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault on the MV side (connected in delta) of the system. The thesis reveals that overvoltage stresses are imposed on insulation, micro-processor controlled equipment, and switching devices by overvoltages during current backfeeding. Also, it establishes a relationship between overvoltage magnitude, its duration, and the network loading conditions. Overvoltages above 3 p.u. may be developed as a result of a simultaneous occurrence of three phenomena: neutral displacement, Ferranti effect, and magnetic current chopping. Furthermore, this thesis exposes the possibility of occurrence of the ferro-resonance phenomena in a distribution

  13. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  14. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  15. Solution for automation of underground distribution reticulate network; Solucao para automacao de redes reticuladas de distribuicao subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Sa, Cedric; Franco, Carlos Augusto Barreto; Ferraz, Marcelo de Campos [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohl, Victor G. [Electronic Technology Inc., Delmar, NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The paper reports the System for Supervision and Control of Transform Chambers which view the solution the necessities of supervision of the environmental conditions of underground transformer chambers and the technological advance in supervision and control systems conceived for that finality.

  16. Particle size distribution of the radon progeny and ambient aerosols in the Underground Tourist Route “Liczyrzepa” Mine in Kowary Adit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołoszczuk Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, in cooperation with Central Mining Institute performed measurements of radon concentration in air, potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC, particle size distribution of the radon progeny and ambient aerosols in the Underground Tourist-Educational Route “Liczyrzepa” Mine in Kowary Adit. A research study was developed to investigate the appropriate dose conversion factors for short-lived radon progeny. The particle size distribution of radon progeny was determined using Radon Progeny Particle Size Spectrometer (RPPSS. The device allows to receive the distribution of PAEC in the particle size range from 0.6 nm to 2494 nm, based on their activity measured on 8 stages composed of impaction plates or diffusion screens. The measurements of the ambient airborne particle size distribution were performed in the range from a few nanometres to about 20 micrometres using Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS spectrometer and the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer (SMPS.

  17. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors...

  18. The influence of particle size distribution on dose conversion factors for radon progeny in the underground excavations of hard coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubacz, Krystian; Wojtecki, Łukasz; Urban, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    In Polish underground mines, hazards caused by enhanced natural radioactivity occur. The sources of radiation exposure are short-lived radon decay products, mine waters containing radium 226 Ra and 228 Ra and the radioactive sediments that can precipitate out of these waters. For miners, the greatest exposure is usually due to short-lived radon decay products. The risk assessment is based on the measurement of the total potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) and the evaluation of the related dose by using the dose conversion factor as recommended by relevant legal requirements. This paper presents the results of measurements of particle size distributions of ambient aerosols in an underground hard coal mine, the assessment of the radioactive particle size distribution of the short-lived radon decay products and the corresponding values of dose conversion factors. The measurements of the ambient airborne particle size distribution were performed in the range from a few nanometers to about 20 μm. The study therefore included practically the whole class of respirable particles. The results showed that the high concentration of ultrafine and fine aerosols measured can significantly affect the value of the dose conversion factors, and consequently the corresponding committed effective dose, to which the miners can be exposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  20. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  1. Non-Newtonian flow of bubbly magma in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; Papale, Paolo; Montagna, Chiara Paola

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of magma ascent along volcanic conduits towards the Earth's surface affects eruptive styles and contributes to volcanic hazard. The rheology of ascending magmatic mixtures is known to play a major role on mass flow rate as well as on pressure and exit velocity at the vent, even determining effusive vs explosive eruptive behaviour. In this work we explore the effects of bubble-induced non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of magma flow in volcanic conduits. We develop a quasi-2D model of magma ascent that incorporates a rheological constitutive equation describing the strain-dependent effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of the multiphase magma. Non-Newtonian magma flow is investigated through a parametric study where the viscosity of the melt and the water content are varied over natural ranges. Our results show that non-Newtonian rheology leads to greater exit velocity, mass flow, and density. The pressure distribution along the conduit remains very similar to the Newtonian case, deviating only at the conduit exit. Plug-like velocity profiles develop approaching the conduit exit, when mixture velocity is high, and are favored by smaller liquid viscosity. Since the mass flow rate, the density and the velocity of the mixture exiting from the conduit are fundamental for quantifying and assessing the transport and emplacement dynamics, neglecting the non-Newtonian effect of bubble-bearing magmas may result in misinterpretation of the deposit and, consequently, eruptive behavior.

  2. Spatial distribution and fruiting phenology of Protium heptaphyllum (Burseraceae) determine the design of the underground foraging system of Atta sexdens L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, P S D; Leal, I R; Wirth, R; Tabarelli, M

    2012-08-01

    Leaf-cutting ants have long been recognized to forage via complex trail systems but the nature and the ecological drivers of the different foraging strategies adopted remain a key topic. Here, we described the spatiotemporal use of belowground foraging galleries by Atta sexdens L. in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and examined the adaptive advantages of this foraging strategy. Protium heptaphyllum adult trees (DBH > 10 cm), seed/seedling clumps and ant gallery entrances were mapped across two 1-ha plots during two consecutive fruiting seasons (2002 and 2004). We recorded 75 ca. 40 cm deep gallery entrances beneath 26 P. heptaphyllum trees at nest distances ranging from 14 to 57 m. Furthermore, gallery abundance and galleries associated with seed/seedling clumps correlated positively with P. heptaphyllum density. Our results indicate that A. sexdens was able to set a permanent system of underground galleries targeting P. heptaphyllum trees and their seeds on the ground. Such network of galleries was spatially arranged according to both the spatial distribution and abundance of P. heptaphyllum trees in a way that most gallery entrances were disposed beneath or in close periphery of P. heptaphyllum crowns. Our findings suggest that underground trail systems shaped by fruit resources represent a foraging strategy clearly more common than existing literature on the subject would suggest. In addition, it reinforces the notion that the spatiotemporal availability of resources combined with predation risk largely influence trail configurations as well as overall foraging strategies adopted by leaf-cutting ants.

  3. 26 CFR 1.58-2 - General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General rules for conduit entities; partnerships...; partnerships and partners. (a) General rules for conduit entities. Sections 1.58-3 through 1.58-6 provide rules... example, if a trust has $100,000 of capital gains for the taxable year, all of which are distributed to A...

  4. Gas slug ascent through rheologically stratified conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Antonio; James, Mike R.; Lane, Steve J.

    2016-04-01

    Textural and petrological evidence has indicated the presence of viscous, degassed magma layers at the top of the conduit at Stromboli. This layer acts as a plug through which gas slugs burst and it is thought to have a role in controlling the eruptive dynamics. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments which detail the range of slug flow configurations that can develop in a rheologically stratified conduit. A gas slug can burst (1) after being fully accommodated within the plug volume, (2) whilst its base is still in the underlying low-viscosity liquid or (3) within a low-viscosity layer dynamically emplaced above the plug during the slug ascent. We illustrate the relevance of the same flow configurations at volcanic-scale through a new experimentally-validated 1D model and 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations. Applied to Stromboli, our results show that gas volume, plug thickness, plug viscosity and conduit radius control the transition between each configuration; in contrast, the configuration distribution seems insensitive to the viscosity of magma beneath the plug, which acts mainly to deliver the slug into the plug. Each identified flow configuration encompasses a variety of processes including dynamic narrowing and widening of the conduit, generation of instabilities along the falling liquid film, transient blockages of the slug path and slug break-up. All these complexities, in turn, lead to variations in the slug overpressure, mirrored by changes in infrasonic signatures which are also associated to different eruptive styles. Acoustic amplitudes are strongly dependent on the flow configuration in which the slugs burst, with both acoustic peak amplitudes and waveform shapes reflecting different burst dynamics. When compared to infrasonic signals from Stromboli, the similarity between real signals and laboratory waveforms suggests that the burst of a slug through a plug may represent a viable first-order mechanism for the generation of

  5. Electric power underground distribution at the campus of the Sao Paulo university - project, installation and operation; Distribuicao subterranea no campus da Cidade Universitaria da USP - projeto, instalacao e operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kleber; Bussolini, Miguel [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the new electric power distribution system at the main campus of the University of Sao Paulo - Brazil. This system aims to attain a high level of reliability in the electric power supply, with costs less than the present underground system.

  6. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  7. An lesson learned from the consultation activity with community regarding the Mizunami Underground Laboratory project. From a viewpoint of procedural and distributive justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Kazuhisa; Osawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has promoted the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (Mizunami URL) as one of generic URL to perform basic research of waste disposal technology for about twenty years. JAEA had carried out consultation activities with local people and community from 1995 when the plan of Mizunami URL opened at the time, because an early approach of JAEA caused a sense of social distrust and concern, which the study area of Mizunami URL would be candidate site of real repository. In this paper, we conducted normative analysis intended for the consultation activities from a viewpoint of procedural justice and distributed justice, used as the social psychological framework in terms of public NIMBY facility. The results show that it is important to develop local partnership, composed of representative local people and organization, at early start in the light of procedural justice and to support deliberation regarding distributive justice and so on by local partnership in the aspect of information and financial administration. (author)

  8. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  9. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  10. A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Gilcrease, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    A one-dimensional heat-transport model for conduit flow in karst aquifers is presented as an alternative to two or three-dimensional distributed-parameter models, which are data intensive and require knowledge of conduit locations. This model can be applied for cases where water temperature in a well or spring receives all or part of its water from a phreatic conduit. Heat transport in the conduit is simulated by using a physically-based heat-transport equation that accounts for inflow of diffuse flow from smaller openings and fissures in the surrounding aquifer during periods of low recharge. Additional diffuse flow that is within the zone of influence of the well or spring but has not interacted with the conduit is accounted for with a binary mixing equation to proportion these different water sources. The estimation of this proportion through inverse modeling is useful for the assessment of contaminant vulnerability and well-head or spring protection. The model was applied to 7 months of continuous temperature data for a sinking stream that recharges a conduit and a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in western South Dakota. The simulated conduit-flow fraction to the well ranged from 2% to 31% of total flow, and simulated conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d.

  11. The underground UPS power distribution for the LHC A highly reliable network to feed your very critical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, J

    2002-01-01

    The construction of the new accelerator (LHC) at CERN will involve the upgrade of many existing electrical installations and the construction of new ones. In this context the UPS power distribution project will play a vital role. This new installation is intended to cover the future power needs of several thousands electronic units. These equipment's are of the highest importance for the safety and operation of the new accelerator. The study of this project not only covers feasibility and financial aspects but also shows and justifies technically the different solutions adopted for the various constraints found.

  12. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  13. Conduit for regeneration of biological material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a conduit comprising a first material, having 1) a through-going hole, 2) fibers aligned along the long-axis in the through-going hole, each fiber having a diameter in the range 200-2000 nm. The conduit is preferably for regeneration of biological material, even...

  14. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  15. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  16. Optimal planning and management of underground mines by the interpretation of geological data and their automatic processing during mining. Planification et conduite optimisees des exploitations fondees sur l'interpretation des donnees geologiques et leur traitement automatique en cours de l'exploitation; Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, R.; Vaesen, W.; Maquet, J.M.; Lorenzi, G.; Triplot, G.; Halleux, I. (Institut National des Industries Extractives, Liege (Belgium))

    1991-01-01

    This research project focused on predicting the composition of several coal seams currently being worked in different coal faces, within two neighbouring collieries of the Campine coal field (N.V. Kempense Steenkolenmijnen). This prediction is based on the interpretation of computer-processed geological data collected from the colliery archives or obtained during mining operations. Existing software packages were adapted to process the geological data. The different computer-generated graphic documents have been evaluated for their use as predictive tools in coal mining. It is noted that the reliability of subsurface geological observations is an absolute requirement for optimal underground coal mining operations. 27 refs., 54 figs.

  17. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  18. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  19. Bentall Operation with Valved Homograft Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shiv K.; Talwar, Sachin; Kumar, A. Sampath

    2000-01-01

    Lesions of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease are usually treated by implanting a prosthetic valved conduit (Bentall procedure). In this report, we present our experience in which a valved homograft conduit was used for the procedure. Six patients underwent a Bentall procedure with the use of a cryopreserved valved homograft conduit. Two of the patients had annuloaortic ectasia, 2 had Marfan syndrome, and 1 had an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the aorta. One patient had severe aortic stenosis due to a bicuspid aortic valve, along with an aneurysm and localized dissection of the ascending aorta. In all of the patients, the aortic annulus was substantially dilated, with accompanying moderate-to-severe aortic regurgitation. A standard procedure was performed with moderate hypothermia, cardiopulmonary bypass, and aortic and bicaval cannulation. The ascending aorta and the aortic valve were replaced with a cryopreserved valved homograft conduit (aortic in 5 patients and pulmonary in 1). The native coronary ostia were anastomosed directly to the homograft. Echocardiography, which was performed intraoperatively, before discharge from the hospital, and at follow-up visits (1 to 36 months), revealed good valve function without dilatation of the homograft conduits. There was 1 late death due to Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis, 6 months postoperatively. In 1 patient, magnetic resonance imaging performed at 24 months revealed normal caliber of the homograft conduit. We conclude that the Bentall procedure can be performed, safely and with excellent results, using cryopreserved homograft conduits. PMID:11198310

  20. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  1. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  2. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  3. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  4. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  5. Method and apparatus for the in situ decontamination of underground water with the aid of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, Thomas R.; McCann, Larry D.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the in situ decontamination of underground water containing -volatile contaminants comprising continuously contacting in situ underground water containing non-volatile contaminants with a liquid-absorbent material possessing high capillary activity, allowing the non-volatile contaminants to deposit in the material while the water moves upwardly through the material by capillary action, allowing substantially decontaminated water to be volatilized by impinging solar radiation, and then allowing the volatilized water to escape from the material into the atmosphere. An apparatus for the in situ decontamination of underground water containing non-volatile contaminants comprising at least one water-impermeable elongated conduit having an upper portion and first and second open ends and containing a homogeneous liquid-absorbent material possessing high capillary activity, means for supporting said conduit, and means for accelerating the escape of the volatilized decontamined water from the material, said means being detachably connected to the second end of the elongated conduit; wherein when underground water contaminated with non-volatile contaminants is continuously contacted in situ with the material contained in the first end of the conduit and the second end of the conduit is placed in contact with atmospheric air, non-volatile contaminants deposit in said material as the water moves upwardly through the material by capillary action, is then volatilized by impinging solar energy and escapes to the atmosphere.

  6. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  7. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  8. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  9. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  10. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  11. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Angelo; Drewniany, Edward

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  12. Convection in a volcanic conduit recorded by bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca J.; Manga, Michael; Degruyter, Wim; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Swanson, Donald; Houghton, Bruce F.; Orr, Tim R.; Patrick, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Microtextures of juvenile pyroclasts from Kīlauea’s (Hawai‘i) early A.D. 2008 explosive activity record the velocity and depth of convection within the basaltic magma-filled conduit. We use X-ray microtomography (μXRT) to document the spatial distribution of bubbles. We find small bubbles (radii from 5 μm to 70 μm) in a halo surrounding larger millimeter-size bubbles. This suggests that dissolved water was enriched around the larger bubbles—the opposite of what is expected if bubbles grow as water diffuses into the bubble. Such volatile enrichment implies that the volatiles within the large bubbles were redissolving into the melt as they descended into the conduit by the downward motion of convecting magma within the lava lake. The thickness of the small bubble halo is ∼100–150 μm, consistent with water diffusing into the melt on time scales on the order of 103 s. Eruptions, triggered by rockfall, rapidly exposed this magma to lower pressures, and the haloes of melt with re-dissolved water became sufficiently supersaturated to cause nucleation of the population of smaller bubbles. The required supersaturation pressures are consistent with a depth of a few hundred meters and convection velocities of the order of 0.1 m s−1, similar to the circulation velocity observed on the surface of the Halema‘uma‘u lava lake.

  13. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  14. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  15. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  16. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  17. Underground mining operation supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusid, M.B.; Kozel, A.M.

    1980-12-10

    Underground mining operation supports include the supporting layer surrounded by a cylindrical jacket of cemented rock. To decrease the loss of support material due to the decreasing rock pressure on the supporting layer, the cylindrical jacket of cemented rock has an uncemented layer inside, dividing it into 2 concentric cylindrical parts.

  18. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  19. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  20. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  1. France’s State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo’s severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution. PMID:28608831

  2. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  3. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  4. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  5. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  6. Magma wagging and whirling in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Bercovici, David; Jellinek, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Seismic tremor characterized by 0.5-7 Hz ground oscillations commonly occur before and during eruptions at silicic volcanoes with widely ranging vent geometries and edifice structures. The ubiquitous characteristics of this tremor imply that its causes are potentially common to silicic volcanoes. Here we revisit and extend to three dimensions the magma-wagging model for tremor (Jellinek and Bercovici, 2011; Bercovici et al., 2013), wherein a stiff magma column rising in a vertical conduit oscillates against a surrounding foamy annulus of bubbly magma, giving rise to tremor. While prior studies were restricted to two-dimensional lateral oscillations, here we explore three-dimensional motion and additional modes of oscillations. In the absence of viscous damping, the magma column undergoes 'whirling' motion: the center of each horizontal section of the column traces an elliptical trajectory. In the presence of viscous effect we identify new 'coiling' and 'uncoiling' column bending shapes with relatively higher and comparable rates of dissipation to the original two-dimensional magma wagging model. We also calculate the seismic P-wave response of the crustal material around the volcanic conduit to the new whirling motions and propose seismic diagnostics for different wagging patterns using the time-lag between seismic stations. We test our model by analyzing pre-eruptive seismic data from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. In addition to suggesting that the occurrence of elliptical whirling motion more than 1 week before the eruption, our analysis of seismic time-lags also implies that the 2009 eruption was accompanied by qualitative changes in the magma wagging behavior including fluctuations in eccentricity and a reversal in the direction of elliptical whirling motion when the eruption was immediately impending.

  7. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  8. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  9. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  10. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  11. Underground super highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Clear communication is key. And quality communications and information equipment is now, more than ever before, integral in mine development as the industry moves towards greater remote control and automation of machinery and mining processes. In an underground mine, access to communications and information equipment has often been limited due to thermal extremes, physical hazards and dangerous chemicals. On top of this, copper conductors that are often used for communication equipment do not operate as efficiently because of the excessive noise generated by mining equipment, and may also puse a safety hazard. However, the design of extremely rugged fibre optic cables is now enabling ten gigabit transmission links in places that were never before thought possible in mining. One place though, has still proved a challenge for the expansion of fibre optic net-works, and that is in an underground coal mine. Until now. Optical Cable Corporation (OCC) has developed the rugged tight buffered breakout fibre optic cables for transmission links in harsh mining environments. Working at depths of over 300 metres below ground, and having seen roof falls actually bury the cable between rocks and still, the cables are able to operate in a myriad of conditions

  12. Inverse Dipolar Magnetic Anomaly Over the Volcanic Cone Linked to Reverse Polarity Magnetizations in Lavas and Tuffs - Implications for the Conduit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Trigo-Huesca, A.

    2012-12-01

    A combined magnetics and paleomagnetic study of Toluquilla monogenetic volcano and associated lavas and tuffs from Valsequillo basin in Central Mexico provides evidence on a magnetic link between lavas, ash tuffs and the underground volcanic conduit system. Paleomagnetic analyses show that lavas and ash tuffs carry reverse polarity magnetizations, which correlate with the inversely polarized dipolar magnetic anomaly over the volcano. The magnetizations in the lava and tuff show similar southward declinations and upward inclinations, supporting petrological inferences that the tuff was emplaced while still hot and indicating a temporal correlation for lava and tuff emplacement. Conduit geometry is one of the important controlling factors in eruptive dynamics of basaltic volcanoes. However volcanic conduits are often not, or only partly, exposed. Modeling of the dipolar anomaly gives a reverse polarity source magnetization associated with a vertical prismatic body with southward declination and upward inclination, which correlates with the reverse polarity magnetizations in the lava and tuff. The study documents a direct correlation of the paleomagnetic records with the underground magmatic conduit system of the monogenetic volcano. Time scale for cooling of the volcanic plumbing system involves a longer period than the one for the tuff and lava, suggesting that magnetization for the source of dipolar anomaly may represent a long time average as compared to the spot readings in the lava and tuff. The reverse polarity magnetizations in lava and tuff and in the underground source body for the magnetic anomaly are interpreted in terms of eruptive activity of Toluquilla volcano at about 1.3 Ma during the Matuyama reverse polarity C1r.2r chron.

  13. A Simple and Robust Method for Simultaneous Consideration of Overland and Underground Space in Urban Flood Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Long Son

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed two methods, boundary-type and pond-type, to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling. The boundary-type treats the exit of underground space as an interface for inflow of floodwater by imposing open boundary condition and pond-type considers underground space as an underground pond by configuring pond terrain. The effect of underground space in urban flood inundation was examined by coupling one-dimensional (1D stormwater management model (SWMM and two-dimensional (2D overland flood model. The models were applied to the Hyoja drainage basin, Seoul, Korea where urban flood occurred due to heavy rainfall in 21 September 2010. The conduit roughness coefficient of SWMM was calibrated to minimize the difference between observed and predicted water depth of pipe. In addition, the surface roughness coefficient of 2D model was calibrated by comparing observed and predicted flood extent. Then, urban flood analysis was performed on three different scenarios involving a case not considering underground (Case 1 and cases considering underground, boundary-type (Case 2 and pond-type (Case 3. The simulation results have shown that the boundary-type is simple but robust method with high computational efficiency to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling.

  14. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3 s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m

  15. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  17. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  18. Electromagnetic nondestructive testing at high lift-off using a magnetic image conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Yi; Jun, Jong Woo; Kim, Jung Min; Le, Min Hhuy

    2013-01-01

    To protect sensors from the extreme environments, such as, heat, moisture, pollution and radiation, cracks must be inspected for; this can be done by measuring the distribution of magnetic fields at high lift-off through nondestructive electro-magnetic testing. However, as the intensity of an electro-magnetic field is inversely proportional to the square of the lift-off, it becomes increasingly difficult to effective inspect a crack as the lift-off increases. In this paper, a magnetic image conduit to minimize the intensity loss of an electro-magnetic field at high lift-off is proposed, and the effectiveness of a conduit for magnetic imaging is verified by means of both theoretical and experimental approaches.

  19. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  20. Artificial urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskowski, Tomasz; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Incontinent urinary diversion using an ileal conduit is the most popular method used by urologists after bladder cystectomy resulting from muscle invasive bladder cancer. The use of gastrointestinal tissue is related to a series of complications with the necessity of surgical procedure extension which increases the time of surgery. Regenerative medicine together with tissue engineering techniques gives hope for artificial urinary conduit construction de novo without affecting the ileum. In this review we analyzed history of urinary diversion together with current attempts in urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods. Based on literature and our own experience we presented future perspectives related to the artificial urinary conduit construction. A small number of papers in the field of tissue engineered urinary conduit construction indicates that this topic requires more attention. Three main factors can be distinguished to resolve this topic: proper scaffold construction along with proper regeneration of both the urothelium and smooth muscle layers. Artificial urinary conduit has a great chance to become the first commercially available product in urology constructed by regenerative medicine methods.

  1. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  2. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  3. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Platform pose (localization and orientation) information is a key requirement for autonomous mobile systems. The severe natural conditions and complex terrain of underground mines diminish the capability of most pose estimation systems, especially...

  4. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie [Palo Alto, CA

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  5. Application of regression tress for prediction of water conduits failure rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyłowska, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of predicting the failure rate of water distribution pipes and house connections in a selected city in Poland by means of regression trees. Several regression tree models were built as part of modelling. Optimal models were selected (separately for each of the water conduit types) via an analysis of the so-called costs. The regression tree structure comprised independent variables, i.e. predictors (length, diameter, year of construction and material). The failure rates of the two types of water conduits were the dependent variable. The optimal models were characterized by the lowest costs and a relatively simple tree architecture. Operational data from the years 2001-2012 were used to determine the experimental (real) values of the failure rate and to build regression tree models. The optimal models included eight divided nodes and nine end nodes. The ranking of the significance of the parameters showed that length was the predictor responsible for division on the successive tree levels. The obtained high consistency (0.99) of the real data with the predicted ones indicates that the regression tree method can be used to analyze and assess the failure rate of water conduits.

  6. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  7. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  8. Pipe locator for imaging underground pipelines (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Wasa, Y.; Mori, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Recently, it becomes more important to locate the complex piping patterns such as tee, bend, riser, and the others with high accuracy for maintenance and protection of city gas pipelines. Hence, we have developed a new pipe locator system for imaging the complex underground pipelines using magnetic remote sensing techniques. The main framework of this development is the application of the pattern recognition of the magnetic field distribution to the location of buried pipelines in urban areas. The first step for imaging the complex pipelines is to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field distribution with high accuracy which is generated by the passage of the alternating signal current through buried pipeline. For this purpose a portable trolley unit which is capable of scanning the ground to collect data, the 10 three-axes coil sensors with a sensitivity of 1 μG which are aligned in the unit, and a filter system using a FFT signal processor which eliminates urban magnetic noise as high as 10 mG in some cases, were developed. The second step is to process the magnetic field distribution data, to extract the feature of the underground pipeline using the contour diagram and the three-dimensional drawing of the magnetic field, and to identify the complex piping patterns. Further, we recognized that a nonlinear least-square method algorithm for calculation of the pipeline's position was useful to improve the location accuracy.

  9. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. 75.811 Section 75.811 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. [Statutory Provisions] Frames, supporting...

  10. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  11. Experimental constraints on degassing and permeability in volcanic conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgisser, Alain; Gardner, James E.

    2004-12-01

    This study assesses the effect of decompression rate on two processes that directly influence the behavior of volcanic eruptions: degassing and permeability in magmas. We studied the degassing of magma with experiments on hydrated natural rhyolitic glass at high pressure and temperature. From the data collected, we defined and characterized one degassing regime in equilibrium and two regimes in disequilibrium. Equilibrium bubble growth occurs when the decompression rate is slower than 0.1 MPa s-1, while higher rates cause porosity to deviate rapidly from equilibrium, defining the first disequilibrium regime of degassing. If the deviation is large enough, a critical threshold of super-saturation is reached and bubble growth accelerates, defining the second disequilibrium regime. We studied permeability and bubble coalescence in magma with experiments using the same rhyolitic melt in open degassing conditions. Under these open conditions, we observed that bubbles start to coalesce at ~43 vol% porosity, regardless of decompression rate. Coalescence profoundly affects bubble texture and size distributions, and induces the melt to become permeable. We determined coalescence to occur on a time scale (~180 s) independent of decompression rate. We parameterized and incorporated our experimental results into a 1D conduit flow model to explore the implications of our findings on eruptive behavior of rhyolitic melts with low crystal contents stored in the upper crust. Compared to previous models that assume equilibrium degassing of the melt during ascent, the introduction of disequilibrium degassing reduces the deviation from lithostatic pressure by ~25%, the acceleration at high porosities (>50 vol%) by a factor 5, and the associated decompression rate by an order of magnitude. The integration of the time scale of coalescence to the model shows that the transition between explosive and effusive eruptive regimes is sensitive to small variations of the initial magma ascent

  12. Past, Present, and Future of Nerve Conduits in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikeremujiang Muheremu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With significant advances in the research and application of nerve conduits, they have been used to repair peripheral nerve injury for several decades. Nerve conduits range from biological tubes to synthetic tubes, and from nondegradable tubes to biodegradable tubes. Researchers have explored hollow tubes, tubes filled with scaffolds containing neurotrophic factors, and those seeded with Schwann cells or stem cells. The therapeutic effect of nerve conduits is improving with increasing choice of conduit material, new construction of conduits, and the inclusion of neurotrophic factors and support cells in the conduits. Improvements in functional outcomes are expected when these are optimized for use in clinical practice.

  13. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  14. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  15. Análise comparativa dos custos de diferentes redes de distribuição de energia elétrica no contexto da arborização urbana Costs of aerial electricity conventional distribution networks, aerial compact distribution networks and underground networks in arboriculture context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Del Nero Velasco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de estudar as podas feitas em árvores urbanas e analisar novas técnicas possíveis de serem utilizadas para reduzir o número de podas e melhorar a convivência das espécies com a fiação elétrica, além de permitir à árvore desempenhar plenamente suas funções ecológicas, buscou-se levantar dados referentes aos três tipos principais de redes de distribuição de energia elétrica (aérea convencional, aérea compacta e subterrânea, em quatro concessionárias de energia elétrica, a fim de compilá-los em um só trabalho. Foram levantados custos de implantação das redes convencional, compacta e subterrânea, assim como custos de manutenção e de poda de árvores. O custo de implantação de rede convencional (primária e secundária variou de R$54.188,39 a R$67.571,43. O custo de implantação da rede compacta (primária e secundária foi em média R$62.215,99. Já o custo de implantação de uma rede subterrânea é, em média, de R$436.585,04. A rede compacta já é totalmente viável, principalmente por ter custo de implantação praticamente igual à rede convencional e ter custo de manutenção 80% menor. A rede subterrânea, embora com custo de implantação aproximadamente 10 vezes maior quando comparado com o custo da convencional, por ter reduzido custo de manutenção e alta confiabilidade do sistema elétrico, seu uso já pode ser viável em diversas ocasiões.In order to study the pruning carried out in urban trees and analyze new techniques that may be used to reduce pruning, improve the relationship between the species and the networks, and allow trees to fulfill their proper ecological functions, studies concerning the three main types of electric power distribution were carried out: aerial conventional distribution networks, aerial compact distribution networks and underground networks in four electric power companies. The study showed the implementation costs of the three named networks as well as

  16. Evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration through biomaterial conduits via micro-CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, Sarah K; Hopkins, Tracy M; Little, Kevin J; Hom, David B

    2016-12-01

    Hollow nerve conduits made of natural or synthetic biomaterials are used clinically to aid regeneration of peripheral nerves damaged by trauma or disease. To support healing, conduit lumen patency must be maintained until recovery occurs. New methods to study conduit structural integrity would provide an important means to optimize conduits in preclinical studies. We explored a novel combined technique to examine structural integrity of two types of nerve conduits after in vivo healing. Micro-CT imaging with iodine contrast was combined with histological analysis to examine two different nerve conduits after in vivo nerve reconstruction in rats. Sciatic nerve gaps in adult Lewis rats were reconstructed with poly(caprolactone) (PCL, 1.6 cm gap, 14-week survival) or silicone (1 cm gap, 6-week survival) conduits (N = 12 total). Conduits with regenerating tissues were imaged by micro-CT with iodine contrast and compared to the histology (hematoxylin and eosin, immunostaining for axons) of regenerated tissues after iodine removal. PCL nerve conduits showed extensive breakage throughout their length, but all showed successful nerve growth through the conduits. The silicone conduits remained intact, although significant constriction was uniquely detected by micro-CT, with 1 of 6 animals showing incomplete tissue regeneration. Micro-CT with iodine contrast offers a unique and valuable means to determine 3D structural integrity of nerve conduits and nerve healing following reconstruction. Furthermore, this paper shows that even if conduit compression and degradation occur, nerve regeneration can still take place.

  17. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain 238 U and 232 Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; 226 Ra ( 214 Bi), 232 Th e 40 K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m -3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m -3 . The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a -1 (mean 10 mSv.a -1 ). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  18. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  19. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  20. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  1. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  2. Cable in conduit superconductors with sectoral configuration featuring improved stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torossian, A.; Bessette, D.; Turck, B.; Kaziemiersak, B.

    1993-01-01

    The main feature of a cable in conduit design is to separate the manufacture of the full length of the steel conduit (400 m) and of the cable in order to minimize the industrial risk and consequently the cost. A circular cross section for that cable seems to be the most suitable for that purpose: Axisymmetric cabling with full transposition of strands, cable behaviour independent of the field orientation, less deformation of subcables, cross section remains circular when the cable is under tension and makes the slippage of the cable in the conduit easier, butt welding of 8 m long tubes forming the conduit becomes simpler, the square external shape allows to minimize the amount of insulating material and consequently improves the overall current density of the coil. This conductor is aimed to large poloidal field coils for NET which do not require a high field and in that case NbTi seems to be the best choice with regard to reliability and cost but Nb 3 Sn could be used as well. Stainless steel ribbons are inserted between subcables in order to reduce losses induced by the rapid field changes and also to improve the mechanical behaviour of the cable. (orig.)

  3. Records and information management as a conduit to effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient records and information management (RIM) is becoming an integral component of the management principles and practice of informed organizations. However, what seems lacking is the periodic auditing of the RIM practices by organizations. This paper conceptually looks at auditing as a key conduit for records ...

  4. Effect of SR manipulation on conduit artery dilation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, H.H.; Dawson, E.A.; Birk, G.K.; Spence, A.L.; Naylor, L.H.; Cable, N.T.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Green, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of manipulating shear stress on conduit artery vasodilation has not been comprehensively described in vivo. We hypothesized that manipulation of SR through the brachial and radial arteries would be associated with corresponding changes in diameter. We performed a series of studies

  5. Load on Buried Pressure Conduits with Reference to Selection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of asbestos-cement pressure conduits is becoming popular even in developing countries. Asbestos-cement pipe can withstand internal pressure of up to 1.4 MPa and is unaffected by corrosion. Its other virtues are that it is light in weight, could be easily cut and filed, is not easily fractured if properly cradled, and can ...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and..., floor or walls in any underground work area for more than a 24-hour period; or (ii) The history of the... inches (304.8 mm) ±0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor or walls in any underground work area...

  7. Sleep and quality of life in people with ileal conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, Ikbal; Temiz, Zeynep; Ozbas, Ayfer; Can, Gulbeyaz; Tarhan, Fatih; Findik, Ummu Yildiz; Kutlu, Fatma Yasemin; Akyuz, Nuray

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sleep quality and the association between sleep quality and quality of life in people with ileal conduit. A descriptive and cross-sectional design was adopted. The study sample comprised 111 people with ileal conduit operated on in urology clinics in a state hospital between January 2011 and May 2014. Six months after the operation, they were called by telephone to participate in the study. Data for the study were collected using a questionnaire form, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Stoma Quality of Life Scale (SQLS). The mean ± SD total PSQI score of the people with ileal conduit was 10.20 ± 2.95, mean total score of SQLS was 43.63 ± 7.21, mean Work/Social Function domain score was 37.27 ± 5.80 and mean Stoma Function domain score was 50.0 ± 12.56. The total sleep quality had a low degree of negative correlation with total SQLS score, a medium degree of negative correlation with Work/Social Function (r = -0.327, p  .001). People using a night drainage system had higher sleep quality. This study determined that quality of life and sleep deteriorate in people with ileal conduit. The quality of life decreases when the sleep quality is poor, and decreased quality of life affects quality of sleep in people with ileal conduit.

  8. Hemiresective reconstruction of a redundant ileal conduit with severe bilateral ileal conduit-ureteral re fl ux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tetsuya; Minowada, Shigeru; Kishi, Hiroichi; Hamasaki, Kimihisa; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Tadaichi

    2005-10-01

    A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital with high fever and anuria. Since undergoing a total pelvic exenteration due to bladder-invasive sigmoid colon cancer, urinary tract infections had frequently occurred. We treated with the construction of a bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN), and chemotherapy. Although we replaced the PCN with a single J ureteral catheter after an improvement of infection, urinary infection recurred because of an obstruction of the catheter. Urological examinations showed that an ileal conduit-ureteral reflux caused by kinking of the ileal loop was the reason why frequent pyelonephritis occurred. We decided to resect the proximal segment to improve conduit-ureteral reflux for the resistant pyelonephritis. After the surgery, the excretory urogram showed improvement and the urinary retention at the ileal conduit disappeared. Three years after the operation, renal function has been stable without episodes of pyelonephritis. Here we report a case of open repair surgery of an ileal conduit in a patient with severe urinary infection.

  9. Satellite radar data reveal short-term pre-explosive displacements and a complex conduit system at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Jacqueline; Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas; Sudhaus, Henriette; Reyes-Dávila, Gabriel; Bretón, Mauricio; Arambula, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    The geometry of the volcanic conduit is a main parameter controlling the dynamics and the style of volcanic eruptions and their precursors, but also one of the main unknowns. Pre-eruptive signals that originate in the upper conduit region include seismicity and deformation of different types and scales. However, the locality of the source of these signals and thus the conduit geometry often remain unconstrained at steep sloped and explosive volcanoes due to the sparse instrumental coverage in the summit region and difficult access. Here we infer the shallow conduit system geometry of Volcán de Colima, Mexico, based on ground displacements detected in high resolution satellite radar data up to seven hours prior to an explosion in January 2013. We use Boundary Element Method modeling to reproduce the data synthetically and constrain the parameters of the deformation source, in combination with an analysis of photographs of the summit. We favour a two-source model, indicative of distinct regions of pressurization at very shallow levels. The location of the upper pressurization source coincides with that of post-explosive extrusion; we therefore attribute the displacements to transient (elastic) pre-explosive pressurization of the conduit system. Our results highlight the geometrical complexity of shallow conduit systems at explosive volcanoes and its effect on the distribution of pre-eruptive deformation signals. An apparent absence of such signals at many explosive volcanoes may relate to its small temporal and spatial extent, partly controlled by upper conduit structures. Modern satellite radar instruments allow observations at high spatial and temporal resolution that may be the key for detecting and improving our understanding of the generation of precursors at explosive volcanoes.

  10. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  11. Bubble Rise and Break-Up in Volcanic Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Rosi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The continual passive degassing occurring at open-vent mafic volcanoes is often punctuated by bursts of active degassing. The latter are generally thought to be the result of slug flow: large, conduit-filling bubbles periodically rising up the feeder conduit and bursting at the magma-air interface. Existing models of volcanic degassing systems make the simplifying assumption that the conduit is cylindrical; however, while this may be true at shallow levels, a flaring probably connects it to a dyke-like geometry at depth. The overall goal of this research is to assess the influence of conduit geometry on the speed and stability of bubbles rising in open-vent systems, and ultimately to devise a model to infer conduit shape from emerging bubbles size. In order to do that an analogue experimental approach was used. All of the experiments were two-phase (melt+volatiles); the analogue materials of choice were golden syrup-water mixtures ranging in viscosity from 10-1 to 104 Pa*s and air. Two experimental apparatuses were used: a bi-dimensional and a tri-dimensional one. The bi-dimensional set-up is a cell made of two flat transparent PVC plates (44x23cm) 10mm or 5mm apart (the front one having a hole at the bottom permitting bubble injection) containing a variety of parallelepipeds apt to outline different plumbing system geometries. The tri-dimensional one consists of a cylindrical tube (r=1,5cm; l=7cm) allowing bubble injection through the bottom rubber tap and terminating into a square tank (l=22cm). Results indicate that conduit geometry directly controls the slug rise velocity and the surrounding liquid descending speed, which in turn control the slug stability. Small enough bubbles simply deform as they go through the flaring, while bigger ones split into two daughter bubbles. A regime diagram has been constructed, illustrating the bubble break-up threshold dependence on the flare geometry and initial slug size, the two main controlling factors. The phenomenon of

  12. A Corrosion Risk Assessment Model for Underground Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Fraser, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Systems Manager at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has embarked on a project to collect data and develop risk assessment models to support risk-informed decision making regarding future inspections of underground pipes at ARC. This paper shows progress in one area of this project - a corrosion risk assessment model for the underground high-pressure air distribution piping system at ARC. It consists of a Corrosion Model of pipe-segments, a Pipe Wrap Protection Model; and a Pipe Stress Model for a pipe segment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the combined models provides a distribution of the failure probabilities. Sensitivity study results show that the model uncertainty, or lack of knowledge, is the dominant contributor to the calculated unreliability of the underground piping system. As a result, the Pressure Systems Manager may consider investing resources specifically focused on reducing these uncertainties. Future work includes completing the data collection effort for the existing ground based pressure systems and applying the risk models to risk-based inspection strategies of the underground pipes at ARC.

  13. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. During ascent, magma may slip and undergo melting along the conduit margin. In the process the shear resistance of the slip zone is increased, acting as a viscous brake halting slip (the "stick" of stick-slip motion). Sufficient buoyancy-driven pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the melt-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a

  14. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  15. Treatment of an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.E.; Braden, W.B. Jr.

    1974-03-12

    A method is described for treating underground formations, especially those containing clays or clay-like materials which are sensitive to fresh water. The treatment densensitizes the clays so they will not swell or disperse on contact with fresh water. The procedure consists of contacting the clay-containing formation with solutions which accomplish the electroless deposition of metal on the clay particles. Optionally, the formation can be resin coated prior to electroless plating. (9 claims)

  16. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  17. Opportunities for Energy Development in Water Conduits: A Report Prepared in Response to Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Reiser, Sonya L. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy LLC, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bailey, Andrea C. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Frank, Anthony [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2014-09-01

    In Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act (HREA) of 2013 (P.L. 113-23), Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an analysis of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States and to present case studies that describe the potential energy generation from these types of hydropower projects. Those analyses have been included in a new DOE report to Congress, and this ORNL/TM provides additional technical details supporting that report. Conduit hydropower offers important new ways to enhance renewable energy portfolios in the United States, as well as to increase the energy efficiency of water delivery systems. Conduit hydropower projects are constructed on existing water-conveyance structures, such as irrigation canals or pressurized pipelines that deliver water to municipalities, industry, or agricultural water users. Although water conveyance infrastructures are usually designed for non-power purposes, new renewable energy can often be harvested from them without affecting their original purpose and without the need to construct new dams or diversions. Conduit hydropower differs from more conventional hydropower development in that it is generally not located on natural rivers or waterways and therefore does not involve the types of environmental impacts that are associated with hydropower. The addition of hydropower to existing water conduits can provide valuable new revenue sources from clean, renewable energy. The new energy can be used within the existing water distribution systems to offset other energy demands, or it can be sold into regional transmission systems.

  18. Minimum quench power dissipation and current non-uniformity in international thermonuclear experimental reactor type NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor samples under direct current conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolando, G.; van Lanen, E.P.A.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2012-01-01

    The level of current non-uniformity in NbTi cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) sections near the joints in combination with the magnetic field profile needs attention in view of proper joint design. The strand joule power and current distribution at quench under DC conditions of two samples of ITER

  19. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  20. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  1. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  2. Confort 15 model of conduit dynamics: applications to Pantelleria Green Tuff and Etna 122 BC eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, S.; Romano, C.; Mastin, L. G.; Vona, A.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations are useful tools to illustrate how flow parameters and physical processes may affect eruption dynamics of volcanoes. In this paper, we present an updated version of the Conflow model, an open-source numerical model for flow in eruptive conduits during steady-state pyroclastic eruptions (Mastin and Ghiorso in A numerical program for steady-state flow of magma-gas mixtures through vertical eruptive conduits. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 00-209, 2000). In the modified version, called Confort 15, the rheological constraints are improved, incorporating the most recent constitutive equations of both the liquid viscosity and crystal-bearing rheology. This allows all natural magma compositions, including the peralkaline melts excluded in the original version, to be investigated. The crystal-bearing rheology is improved by computing the effect of strain rate and crystal shape on the rheology of natural magmatic suspensions and expanding the crystal content range in which rheology can be modeled compared to the original version ( Conflow is applicable to magmatic mixtures with up to 30 vol% crystal content). Moreover, volcanological studies of the juvenile products (crystal and vesicle size distribution) of the investigated eruption are directly incorporated into the modeling procedure. Vesicle number densities derived from textural analyses are used to calculate, through Toramaru equations, maximum decompression rates experienced during ascent. Finally, both degassing under equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions are considered. This allows considerations on the effect of different fragmentation criteria on the conduit flow analyses, the maximum volume fraction criterion ("porosity criterion"), the brittle fragmentation criterion and the overpressure fragmentation criterion. Simulations of the pantelleritic and trachytic phases of the Green Tuff (Pantelleria) and of the Plinian Etna 122 BC eruptions are performed to test the upgrades in

  3. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb 3 Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  4. Biocarbon urinary conduit: laboratory experience and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, L I; Raible, D A

    1980-07-01

    A new urinary conduit utilizing pure vitreous carbon has been used successfully in dogs. Pure carbon appears to be inert with respect to urine and urothelium. Lack of urinary salt encrustation on the exposed surface provides a well-functioning urinary conduit for vesical drainage. Twenty-one vesicostomies were performed in dogs. Careful follow-up and histologic studies of removed specimens were done to establish the biocompatibility of pure carbon. All vesicostomies functioned well. A description of the device, protocol, and results of laboratory experimentation are outlined. The surgical procedure is explained in detail. Results encourage the clinical trial of these devices in humans. Indications include patients with neurogenic vesicla dysfunction and those with total urinary incontinence, both of which require permanent indwelling catheters.

  5. Aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile: exemple des candidats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était d'évaluer l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique, qui s'est déroulée à Libreville pendant la période du 4 avril 2012 au 14 juillet 2012 (soit 4 mois et 10 jours). La population d'étude concernait ...

  6. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  7. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    . Within the framework of research programs devoted to recognition of sinkholes in Apulia, and addressed to the evaluation of the sinkhole hazard, this paper examines in detail the distribution of sinkholes related to underground quarrying in Salento, the southern part of Apulia, where the presence of subterranean quarries is particularly high. Through description of some case studies, the main problems related to underground quarries, and the development of sinkholes are discussed, even taking into account civil protection issues, that is in terms of the effects these phenomena may have on the local communities.

  8. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  9. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2014-08-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  10. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  11. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipu Sultan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV reactor chamber and each case consisted of four UV lamps that were simulated once symmetrically and four times asymmetrically. The results of the four asymmetric cases were compared with the symmetric one. Moreover, these results were evaluated by using CFD simulations of a closed-conduit UV reactor. The fluence rate model, UVCalc3D was employed to validate the simulations results. The simulation results provide detailed information about the dose distribution, pathogen track modeling and RED. The RED value was increased by approximately 15% by using UVCalc3D fluence rate model. Additionally, the asymmetric lamp positioning of the UV lamps had more than 50% of the pathogens received a better and a higher UV dose than in the symmetric case. Consequently, the system dose performance was improved by asymmetric lamp positioning. It was concluded that the performance parameters (higher RED and system dose performance were improved by using asymmetric lamp positioning.

  12. Underground siting is a nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, R.K.; Gilbert, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    Underground siting of nuclear power plants is a concept that can be both technologically feasible and economically attractive. To meet both these criteria, however, each underground nuclear plant must be adapted to take full advantage of its location. It cannot be a unit that was designed for the surface and is then buried. Seeking to develop potential commercial programs, Underground Design Consultants (UDC)--a joint venture of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, New York City, Vattenbyggnadsbyran (VBB), Stockholm, Sweden, and Foundation Sciences, Inc., Portland, Oregon--has been studying the siting of nuclear plants underground. UDC has made a presentation to EPRI on the potential for underground siting in the U.S. The summary presented here is based on the experiences of underground nuclear power plants in Halden, Norway; Agesta, Sweden; Chooz, France; and Lucens, Switzerland. Data from another plant in the design phase in Sweden and UDC's own considered judgment were also used

  13. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  14. Permeability and 3-D melt geometry in shear-induced high melt fraction conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Cordonnier, B.; Qi, C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium-series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. Formation of high melt fraction conduits could result from mechanical shear, pyroxene dissolution, and lithological partitioning. Deformation experiments (e.g. Holtzman et al., 2003) demonstrate that shear stress causes initially homogeneously distributed melt to segregate into an array of melt-rich bands, flanked by melt-depleted regions. At the same average melt fraction, the permeability of high melt fraction conduits could be orders of magnitude higher than that of their homogenous counterparts. However, it is difficult to determine the permeability of melt-rich bands. Using X-ray synchrotron microtomography, we obtained high-resolution images of 3-dimensional (3-D) melt distribution in a partially molten rock containing shear-induced high melt fraction conduits. Sample CQ0705, an olivine-alkali basalt aggregate with a nominal melt fraction of 4%, was deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa to a shear strain of 13.3. A sub-volume of CQ0705 encompassing 3-4 melt-rich bands was imaged. Microtomography data were reduced to binary form so that solid olivine is distinguishable from basalt glass. At a spatial resolution of 160 nm, the 3-D images reveal the shape and connectedness of melt pockets in the melt-rich bands. Thin melt channels formed at grain edges are connected at large melt nodes at grain corners. Initial data analysis shows a clear preferred orientation of melt pockets alignment subparallel to the melt-rich band. We use the experimentally determined geometrical parameters of melt topology to create a digital rock with identical 3-D microstructures. Stokes flow simulations are conducted on the digital rock to obtain the permeability tensor. Using this digital rock physics approach, we determine how deformation

  15. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  16. Radon in Brazilian underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques; Eston, Sérgio Médici; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; Francisca, Diego Diegues

    2018-02-14

    Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented. The adopted methodology consisted of three main phases. The first was an extensive bibliographical survey of the concentration levels of radon and RDP, and the radiation dose estimates, considering measurements made heretofore by various Brazilian researchers and exhibiting original measurement work undertaken by the one of the authors (mine O). In the second phase, the values obtained were compared with OELs. In the third phase, it was verified whether any control measures were undertaken in the mines with high exposure of workers to radon and its progeny, and if so, the adopted controls were determined. Data of radon concentration obtained from 52 campaigns in 40 underground mines were analyzed. The results showed that the assessment of the exposure of workers to radon and its progeny was undertaken in many mines at least once, and that in 62.5% of the mines, when visited for the first time, the radon levels throughout them were below the Brazilian OELs. As expected, the main control measure adopted or recommended was the improvement of the ventilation system. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  18. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  19. Picos de Europa National and Regional parks (Northern Spain): the karst underground landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst caves represent an environmental with a high value from the Geoheritage and Geodiversity points of view given by hidden underground landscape practically reserved to the speleologists. Nevertheless, cave surveys, 3d models of caves and DEMs, and pictures can be used to approach the endokarst geoheritage characterization. The Picos de Europa National and Regional parks include the 14% of World's Deepest Caves (>1 km depth); moreover these parks shows a high environmental value related with seven protection figures: Biosphere Reserve, Special Protection Area, the Site of Community Importance, and four Natural Monument. The aim of this work is to present the Geoheritage values of the underground landscape of the Picos de Europa National and Regional parks. These parks involve several alpine karst massifs up to 700 km2 and 2,600 m asl, as the Picos de Europa mountains (declared Global Geosite by its geomorphological interest), the Mampodre Massif, and the Peñas Pintas and Yordas peaks (sited in Riaño dam area). The alpine karst involves a large underground landscape formed by more than 3,700 epigenic caves with 403 km of conduits. The 95 % of the cave conduits are located in the Picos de Europa mountains and correspond to caves up to 18.9 km length and 1.6 km depth; the 5 % of cave conduits are sited in other small karst areas and include caves up to 1.5 km length and 200 m depth. The karst caves present high natural, scientific and cultural values. The natural value corresponds to the singularity and the spectacular vertical development of the caves and a very high Geodiversity of cave features. The karst shows a high concentration of deep caves (81 caves deeper than 500 m) that is twice higher than the concentration of other karst areas, as Arabika Massif (Western Caucasus). The natural value is mainly related to the presence of geomorphological and hydrogeological features, highlighting high vadose canyons and shafts, old phreatic and epiphreatic conduits

  20. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  1. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  2. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  3. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  4. Novel drug delivering conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroo, Pratima; Shea, Jill; Edwards, Kyle; Ho, Scott; Davis, Brett; Sant, Himanshu; Goodwin, Isak; Gale, Bruce; Agarwal, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Objective. This paper describes the design of a novel drug delivery apparatus integrated with a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nerve guide conduit for controlled local delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and application in peripheral nerve gap injury. Approach. An NGF dosage curve was acquired to determine the minimum in vitro concentration for optimal neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells; PLGA based drug delivery devices were then designed and tested in vitro and in vivo across 15 mm rat sciatic nerve gap injury model. Main results. The drug delivery nerve guide was able to release NGF for 28 d at concentrations (0.1–10 ng ml‑1) that were shown to enhance DRG neurite growth. Furthermore, the released NGF was bioactive and able to enhance DRG neurite growth. Following these tests, optimized NGF-releasing nerve conduits were implanted across 15 mm sciatic nerve gaps in a rat model, where they demonstrated significant myelination and muscle innervation in vivo as compared to empty nerve conduits (p  nerve guide can release NGF for extended periods of time and enhance axon growth in vitro and in vivo and has the potential to improve nerve regeneration following a peripheral nerve injury. Significance. This integrated drug delivering nerve guide simplifies the design process and provides increased versatility for releasing a variety of different growth factors. This innovative device has the potential for broad applicability and allows for easier customization to change the type of drugs and dosage of individual drugs without devising a completely new biomaterial–drug conjugate each time.

  5. From rock to magma and back again: The evolution of temperature and deformation mechanism in conduit margin zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Violay, Marie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    Explosive silicic volcanism is driven by gas overpressure in systems that are inefficient at outgassing. The zone at the margin of a volcanic conduit-thought to play an important role in the outgassing of magma and therefore pore pressure changes and explosivity-is the boundary through which heat is exchanged from the hot magma to the colder country rock. Using a simple heat transfer model, we first show that the isotherm for the glass transition temperature (whereat the glass within the groundmass transitions from a glass to an undercooled liquid) moves into the country rock when the magma within the conduit can stay hot, or into the conduit when the magma is quasi-stagnant and cools (on the centimetric scale over days to months). We then explore the influence of a migrating viscous boundary on compactive deformation micromechanisms in the conduit margin zone using high-pressure (effective pressure of 40 MPa), high-temperature (up to 800 °C) triaxial deformation experiments on porous andesite. Our experiments show that the micromechanism facilitating compaction in andesite is localised cataclastic pore collapse at all temperatures below the glass transition of the amorphous groundmass glass Tg (i.e., rock). In this regime, porosity is only reduced within the bands of crushed pores; the porosity outside the bands remains unchanged. Further, the strength of andesite is a positive function of temperature below the threshold Tg due to thermal expansion driven microcrack closure. The micromechanism driving compaction above Tg (i.e., magma) is the distributed viscous flow of the melt phase. In this regime, porosity loss is distributed and is accommodated by the widespread flattening and closure of pores. We find that viscous flow is much more efficient at reducing porosity than cataclastic pore collapse, and that it requires stresses much lower than those required to form bands of crushed pores. Our study therefore highlights that temperature excursions can result in a

  6. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is ab...

  7. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  8. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  9. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  10. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  11. Short-term outcomes after incontinent conduit for gynecologic cancer: comparison of ileal, sigmoid, and transverse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbaa, Zaid M; Janco, Jo Marie T; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Cliby, William A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the overall rates of significant incontinent conduit-related complications and compare rates between conduit types. This was a retrospective review of 166 patients who underwent incontinent urinary diversion from April 1993 through April 2013. Patients were categorized by conduit type-ileal, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon. Significant conduit-related complications were assessed at 30 and 90days after surgery. Significant conduit-related complication was defined as any of the following: ureteral stricture, conduit leak, conduit obstruction, conduit ischemia, ureteral anastomotic leak, stent obstruction requiring intervention via interventional radiology procedure or reoperation, and renal failure. A total of 166 patients underwent formation of an incontinent urinary conduit, most commonly during exenteration for gynecologic malignancy. There were 129 ileal, 11 transverse colon, and 26 sigmoid conduits. The overall significant conduit-related complication rate within 30days was 15.1%. Complication rates for ileal, transverse and sigmoid conduits were 14.7%, 0%, and 23.1%, respectively (Fisher's exact test, p=0.24). By 90days, the Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of significant complications were 21.8% overall, and 22.3%, 0%, and 28.9%, respectively, by conduit type (log-rank test, p=0.19). The most common significant conduit-related complications were conduit or ureteral anastomotic leaks and conduit obstructions. By 1 and 2years following surgery, the Kaplan-Meier estimated overall rate of significant conduit-related complication increased to 26.5% and 30.1%, respectively. Our study suggests that there are multiple appropriate tissue sites for use in incontinent conduit formation, and surgical approach should be individualized. Most significant conduit-related complications occur within 90days after surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conduit dynamics in transitional rhyolitic activity recorded by tuffisite vein textures from the 2008-2009 Chaitén eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eSaubin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of hazardous silicic eruptions are controlled by complex, poorly-understood conduit processes. Observations of recent Chilean rhyolite eruptions have revealed the importance of hybrid activity, involving simultaneous explosive and effusive emissions from a common vent. Such behaviour hinges upon the ability of gas to decouple from magma in the shallow conduit. Tuffisite veins are increasingly suspected to be a key facilitator of outgassing, as they repeatedly provide a transient permeable escape route for volcanic gases. Intersection of foam domains by tuffisite veins appears critical to efficient outgassing. However, knowledge is currently lacking into textural heterogeneities within shallow conduits, their relationship with tuffisite vein propagation, and the implications for fragmentation and degassing processes. Similarly, the magmatic vesiculation response to upper conduit pressure perturbations, such as those related to the slip of dense magma plugs, remains largely undefined. Here we provide a detailed characterization of an exceptionally large tuffisite vein within a rhyolitic obsidian bomb ejected during transitional explosive-effusive activity at Chaitén, Chile in May 2008. Vein textures and chemistry provide a time-integrated record of the invasion of a dense upper conduit plug by deeper fragmented magma. Quantitative textural analysis reveals diverse vesiculation histories of various juvenile clast types.Using vesicle size distributions, bubble number densities, zones of diffusive water depletion, and glass H2O concentrations, we propose a multi-step degassing/fragmentation history, spanning deep degassing to explosive bomb ejection. Rapid decompression events of ~3-4 MPa are associated with fragmentation of foam and dense magma at ~200-350 metres depth in the conduit, permitting vertical gas and pyroclast mobility over hundreds of metres. Permeable pathway occlusion in the dense conduit plug by pyroclast accumulation

  13. Evidence for Arbovirus Dissemination Conduits from the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Midgut

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romoser, William

    2004-01-01

    .... Experiments using Venezuelan equine encephalitis viral replicon particles, which express the green fluorescent protein gene in cells, indicate the operation of tissue conduits, possibly involving...

  14. A silk sericin/silicone nerve guidance conduit promotes regeneration of a transected sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongjian; Yang, Wen; Chen, Jianghai; Zhang, Jinxiang; Lu, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xiaobo; Huang, Kun; Li, Huili; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-28

    Peripheral nerve gap defects lead to significant loss of sensory or motor function. Tissue engineering has become an important alternative to nerve repair. Sericin, a major component of silk, is a natural protein whose value in tissue engineering has just begun to be explored. Here, the first time use of sericin in vivo is reported as a long-term implant for peripheral nerve regeneration. A sericin nerve guidance conduit is designed and fabricated. This conduit is highly porous with mechanical strength matching peripheral nerve tissue. It supports Schwann cell proliferation and is capable of up-regulating the transcription of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in Schwann cells. The sericin conduit wrapped with a silicone conduit (sericin/silicone double conduits) is used for bridging repair of a 5 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. The sericin/silicone double conduits achieve functional recovery comparable to that of autologous nerve grafting as evidenced by drastically improved nerve function and morphology. Importantly, this improvement is mainly attributed to the sericin conduit as the silicone conduit alone only produces marginal functional recovery. This sericin/silicone-double-conduit strategy offers an efficient and valuable alternative to autologous nerve grafting for repairing damaged peripheral nerve. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  16. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  17. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  18. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  19. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  20. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  1. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  2. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  3. Underground coal mining section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  4. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  5. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  6. Hydraulic Roughness and Flow Resistance in a Subglacial Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Liu, X.; Mankoff, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    The hydraulic roughness significantly affects the flow resistance in real subglacial conduits, but has been poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, this paper first proposes a procedure to define and quantify the geometry roughness, and then relates such a geometry roughness to the hydraulic roughness based on a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results indicate that by using the 2nd order structure function, the roughness field can be well quantified by the powers of the scaling-law, the vertical and horizontal length scales of the structure functions. The vertical length scale can be further chosen as the standard deviation of the roughness field σr. The friction factors calculated from either total drag force or the linear decreasing pressure agree very well with those calculated from traditional rough pipe theories when the equivalent hydraulic roughness height is corrected as ks = (1.1 ˜ 1.5)σr. This result means that the fully rough pipe resistance formula λ = [2 log(D0/2ks) + 1.74]-2, and the Moody diagram are still valid for the friction factor estimation in subglacial conduits when σr /D020%.

  7. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  8. Experimental sintering of ash at conduit conditions and implications for the longevity of tuffisites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Watkins, James M.; Coumans, Jason P.

    2018-03-01

    Escape of gas from magma in the conduit plays a crucial role in mitigating explosivity. Tuffisite veins—ash-filled cracks that form in and around volcanic conduits—represent important gas escape pathways. Sintering of the ash infill decreases its porosity, eventually forming dense glass that is impermeable to gas. We present an experimental investigation of surface tension-driven sintering and associated densification of rhyolitic ash under shallow conduit conditions. Suites of isothermal (700-800 °C) and isobaric H2O pressure (20 and 40 MPa) experiments were run for durations of 5-90 min. Obsidian powders with two different size distributions were used: 1-1600 μm (mean size = 89 μm), and 63-400 μm (mean size = 185 μm). All samples evolved similarly through four textural phases: phase 1—loose and cohesion-less particles; phase 2—particles sintered at contacts and surrounded by fully connected tortuous pore space of up to 40% porosity; phase 3—continuous matrix of partially coalesced particles that contain both isolated spherical vesicles and connected networks of larger, contorted vesicles; phase 4—dense glass with 2-5% fully isolated vesicles that are mainly spherical. Textures evolve faster at higher temperature and higher H2O pressure. Coarse samples sinter more slowly and contain fewer, larger vesicles when fully sintered. We quantify the sintering progress by measuring porosity as a function of experimental run-time, and find an excellent collapse of data when run-time is normalized by the sintering timescale {λ}_s=η \\overline{R}/σ , where η is melt viscosity, \\overline{R} is mean particle radius, and σ is melt-gas surface tension. Because timescales of diffusive H2O equilibration are generally fast compared to those of sintering, the relevant melt viscosity is calculated from the solubility H2O content at experimental temperature and pressure. We use our results to develop a framework for estimating ash sintering rates under shallow

  9. Manufacture of porous biodegradable polymer conduits by an extrusion process for guided tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, M. S.; Gupta, P. K.; Lu, L.; Meszlenyi, R. K.; Evans, G. R.; Brandt, K.; Savel, T.; Gurlek, A.; Patrick, C. W. Jr; Mikos, A. G.; hide

    1998-01-01

    We have fabricated porous, biodegradable tubular conduits for guided tissue regeneration using a combined solvent casting and extrusion technique. The biodegradable polymers used in this study were poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). A polymer/salt composite was first prepared by a solvent casting process. After drying, the composite was extruded to form a tubular construct. The salt particles in the construct were then leached out leaving a conduit with an open-pore structure. PLGA was studied as a model polymer to analyze the effects of salt weight fraction, salt particle size, and processing temperature on porosity and pore size of the extruded conduits. The porosity and pore size were found to increase with increasing salt weight fraction. Increasing the salt particle size increased the pore diameter but did not affect the porosity. High extrusion temperatures decreased the pore diameter without altering the porosity. Greater decrease in molecular weight was observed for conduits manufactured at higher temperatures. The mechanical properties of both PLGA and PLLA conduits were tested after degradation in vitro for up to 8 weeks. The modulus and failure strength of PLLA conduits were approximately 10 times higher than those of PLGA conduits. Failure strain was similar for both conduits. After degradation for 8 weeks, the molecular weights of the PLGA and PLLA conduits decreased to 38% and 43% of the initial values, respectively. However, both conduits maintained their shape and did not collapse. The PLGA also remained amorphous throughout the time course, while the crystallinity of PLLA increased from 5.2% to 11.5%. The potential of seeding the conduits with cells for transplantation or with biodegradable polymer microparticles for drug delivery was also tested with dyed microspheres. These porous tubular structures hold great promise for the regeneration of tissues which require tubular scaffolds such as peripheral nerve

  10. Linear permeability evolution of expanding conduits due to feedback between flow and fast phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lichun; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2017-05-01

    Conduits are ubiquitous and critical pathways for many fluids relevant for geophysical processes such as magma, water, and gases. Predicting flow through conduits is challenging when the conduit geometry coevolves with the flow. We theoretically show that the permeability (k) of a conduit whose walls are eroding due to fast phase change increases linearly with time because of a self-reinforcing mechanism. This simple result is surprising given complex feedbacks between flow, transport, and phase change. The theory is congruent with previous experimental observations of fracture dissolution in calcite. Supporting computational fracture dissolution experiments showed that k only slightly increases until the dissolution front reaches the narrowest conduit constriction, after which the linear evolution of k manifests. The theory holds across multiple scales and a broad range of Peclet and Damkohler numbers and thus advances the prediction of dynamic mass fluxes through expanding conduits in various geologic and environmental settings.Plain Language SummaryGeological conduits are ubiquitous present in the subsurface. In many situations, these conduits may enlarge through time due to erosion of its walls by dissolution and melting. This leads to strongly coupled flow and reactive transport processes where the flow dictates the wall's erosion and vice versa. As the conduit expands, so does its permeability and thus flow. Thus, predicting fluid flow and relevant transport processes through expanding conduits is challenging. In this study, we presented a theory for the linear time dependence of permeability for expanding conduits. The theory is congruent with previous observations from fracture dissolution in calcite. An additional series of our own computational experiments also aligns with the theory. The theory will be of interest to geoscientists and engineers in many fields such as hydrology, glaciology, and petroleum engineering, to name a few.

  11. Fault and conduit controlled burial dolomitization of the Devonian west-central Alberta deep Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.G. [BP America, Houston, TX (United States); Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2005-06-01

    A semi-regional comparison of dolomites from 3 stratigraphic horizons were studied to better understand the geometry of dolomite bodies and the link between dolomites at different stratigraphic horizons. The timing, mechanisms and geochemistry of pervasive dolomites of the west-central Alberta deep basin were clarified along with the distribution and mechanisms of dolomitization in deep gas reservoirs. This study contributes to more efficient hydrocarbon exploration in the deep basin of western Alberta where pervasive dolomite occurs in the Devonian reservoirs in the Swan Hills, Leduc and Wabamun formations. This study showed that pervasive dolomite in the Swan Hills Formation is restricted to zones of primary porosity and permeability near the buildup margins that decrease quickly towards the interior of the buildups. Two petrographic types of dolomite exist in the study area. Type 1 is a fine crystalline planar dolomite, while type 2 is a more pervasive medium to coarse crystalline dolomite. The wide spread of oxygen isotope values for the two types of dolomites was discussed with reference to how these values were influenced by depositional history. The estimated temperatures of type 2 dolomite ranges from 45 to 75 degrees C, which is equivalent to burial depths of 700 to 1500 m. It was suggested that fault-controlled conduits may have controlled local and restricted dolomite occurrences in the Swan Hills and the middle Wabamun Formation as evidenced by seismic data, log marker correlations and fractured dolomite. It was also suggested that porous Leduc dolomites may have been connected via the underlying dolomitized part of the Lower Leduc platform. This formed a basin-wide channel system through which basin fluids flowed up along vertical faults and laterally updip until they reached a stratigraphically controlled conduit during early basin filling in the late Devonian to Carboniferous Orogeny or early Tertiary Orogeny. 52 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs.

  12. Plumbing the Aquatic Conduit for Terrestrial Carbon: How far can we get with Hydrological Connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, K. H.; Campeau, A.; Billett, M. F.; Wallin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The water cycle is maddeningly difficultyto pin down with the level of detail that is desired for resolving issues about the fate of pollutants, nutrient cycling and the global carbon balance, etc. "Connectivity" is increasingly talked of in hydrology and water resources management as a way to better conceptualize how different parts of the catchment dynamically interact to influence runoff generation and water quality. Runoff is a major C flux (aquatic conduit) that is particularly sensitive to changes in climate and hydrological regimes. This paper uses three dimensions of connectivity (vertical, latitudinal and longitudinal), to plumb the sources of carbon leaving a boreal landscape via the aquatic conduit. We used the distributed sources and age of aquatic C export to help assess the role and stability of a boreal landscape in the global C cycle. We combined hydrometric data and mass balances with isotopic tracers of water and carbon, including both radiogenic (14C) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of DOC, CO2 and CH4 in catchment soils and the stream network to define the connectivity of riparian, peatland and upland sources to the carbon in runoff throughout the year. The radiocarbon age of DOC, CO2 and CH4were predominantly modern, even in peat catotelm, but with localized excursions to millennial ages. The sources and processes that transport dissolved C species varied strongly with flow rates and the associated patterns of connectivity, mediated by seasonal variation that influence carbon cycling. The age of the C and other tracers exported to streams enabled us to "connect" the aquatic C exports to their origins in the mosaic of landscape elements. The effort also identified ways in which the concept of hydrological connectivity can be refined to strengthen the testing of biogeochemical hypotheses across temporal and spatial scales in specific landscapes.

  13. Characterization of molecule and particle transport through nanoscale conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin

    Nanofluidic devices have been of great interest due to their applications in variety of fields, including energy conversion and storage, water desalination, biological and chemical separations, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Although these applications cross the boundaries of many different disciplines, they all share the demand for understanding transport in nanoscale conduits. In this thesis, different elusive aspects of molecule and particle transport through nanofluidic conduits are investigated, including liquid and ion transport in nanochannels, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels, and finally translocation of nanobeads through nanopores. Liquid or solvent transport through nanoconfinements is an essential yet barely characterized component of any nanofluidic systems. In the first chapter, water transport through single hydrophilic nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm is experimentally investigated using a new measurement technique. This technique has been developed based on the capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and is capable of characterizing flow in both single nanoconduits as well as nanoporous media. The presence of a 0.7 nm thick hydration layer on hydrophilic surfaces and its effect on increasing the hydraulic resistance of the nanochannels is verified. Next, ion transport in a new class of nanofluidic rectifiers is theoretically and experimentally investigated. These so called nanofluidic diodes are nanochannels with asymmetric geometries which preferentially allow ion transport in one direction. A nondimensional number as a function of electrolyte concentration, nanochannel dimensions, and surface charge is derived that summarizes the rectification behavior of this system. In the fourth chapter, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels is studied and the theoretical background necessary for understanding enzymatic activity in nanofluidic channels is presented. A

  14. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  15. Underground research laboratory room 209 instrument array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.A.; Everitt, R.A.; Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.

    1988-12-01

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in conjunction with excavation of a tunnel (Room 209) through a near-vertical water-bearing fracture oriented almost perpendicular to the tunnel axis. Encountering a fracture with such desirable characteristics provided a unique opportunity during construction of the URL to try out instrumentation and analytical methods for use in the Excavation Response Experiment (ERE), one of the major URL experiments. This is the first of four reports that cover the excavation response test. This report contains the information provided to the numerical modelling groups before the start of excavation. It includes survey information of the excavations within 30 m of the instrument array; the layout of the instrument array; details of the geology, rock properties, joint characteristics, in situ stresses, and in situ rock temperature distribution; the results of hydrogeological testing and monitoring; the planned excavation sequence; and the format for the modellers to present their results to facilitate easy comparison with the measured responses. Includes 13 excavation charts in back pocket

  16. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  17. Review of technical features in underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Deep underground laboratories are multidisciplinary research infrastructures. The main feature of these laboratories is the reduced cosmic ray muons flux. This characteristic allows searching for rare events such as proton decay, dark matter particles or neutrino interactions. However, biology in extreme environments and geophysics are also studied underground. A number of ancillary facilities are critical to properly operate low background experiments in these laboratories. In this work we review the main characteristics of deep underground laboratories and discuss a few of the low background facilities.

  18. Urological leaks after pelvic exenterations comparing formation of colonic and ileal conduits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, S.C.; Ferenschild, F.T.J.; Solomon, M.J.; Rodwell, L.; Harrison, J.D.; Young, J.M.; Vasilaras, A.; Eisinger, D.; Lee, P.; Byrne, C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess possible risk factors for urinary leakage of a newly formed urinary conduit after a partial or total pelvic exenteration. METHODS: An analysis was conducted from prospectively collected data of patients who underwent a pelvic exenteration with conduit

  19. A 3D-engineered porous conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jie; Hu, Yu; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Xuan; Gou, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Hao; Liu, Qianqi; Zhang, Qianqian; You, Shenglan; Gou, Maling

    2017-04-12

    End-to-end neurorrhaphy is the most commonly used method for treating peripheral nerve injury. However, only 50% of patients can regain useful function after treating with neurorrhaphy. Here, we constructed a 3D-engineered porous conduit to promote the function recovery of the transected peripheral nerve after neurorrhaphy. The conduit that consisted of a gelatin cryogel was prepared by molding with 3D-printed moulds. Due to its porous structure and excellent mechanical properties, this conduit could be collapsed by the mechanical force and resumed its original shape after absorption of normal saline. This shape-memory property allowed a simply surgery process for installing the conduits. Moreover, the biodegradable conduit could prevent the infiltration of fibroblasts and reduce the risk of scar tissue, which could provide an advantageous environment for nerve regeneration. The efficiency of the conduits in assisting peripheral nerve regeneration after neurorrhaphy was evaluated in a rat sciatic nerve transected model. Results indicated that conduits significantly benefitted the recovery of the transected peripheral nerve after end-to-end neurorrhaphy on the static sciatic index (SSI), electrophysiological results and the re-innervation of the gastrocnemius muscle. This work demonstrates a biodegradable nerve conduit that has potentially clinical application in promoting the neurorrhaphy.

  20. Use of tubulization (nerve conduits in repairing nerve defects in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Maria Sénès

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In peripheral nerve repairing in children by using nerve conduits, the outcome has been widely effective even when dealing with mixed and motor nerve, thus nerve tubulization might be considered as an alternative to nerve grafting. Conversely, considering the uncertain result obtained in brachial plexus repairing, the conduits cannot be considered as afirst choice of treatment in brachial plexus reconstruction.

  1. Twenty years of cable-in-conduit conductors: 1975-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews our progress during the last two decades in understanding cable-in-conduit conductors. The emphasis is on the physical principles governing the behavior of cable-in-conduit conductors, and no detailed mathematics is presented. The paper is constructed as a historical narrative

  2. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. [Statutory...

  3. Investigating the influence of conduit residues on polyurethane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Faverzani Magnago

    Full Text Available Abstract Converting waste into a product similar to the original one or into another useful product is to save energy, protect natural resources, and bring back to the production cycle what was discarded. In that direction, new polyurethane-based composites have been developed by incorporating 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% PVC conduit discarded by the construction industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between the phases of waste incorporation and the effect upon the new material properties. The samples were produced by the polycondensation process. Microstructural analysis revealed a reduction in pore size across the polymer matrix. However, there were no changes in thermal insulation, water absorption, compressive strength, and burning rate tests and in the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The results from this study showed that the replacement of raw material by waste did not affect its properties.

  4. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs...... to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should...... attract attention in all European member states. Firstly, it is shown that rules on preliminary injunctions are generally unable to safeguard the significant legitimate interests of third parties, which may be harmed by such relief, and that a proper implementation of Art. 8(3) of the Infosoc Directive...

  5. Hot upwelling conduit beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral conduit, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

  6. Magnetic links among lava flows, tuffs and the underground plumbing system in a monogenetic volcano, derived from magnetics and paleomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Trigo-Huesca, Alfonso; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia

    2012-12-01

    A combined study using magnetics and paleomagnetism of the Toluquilla monogenetic volcano and associated lavas and tuffs from Valsequillo basin in Central Mexico provides evidence on a 'magnetic' link between the lavas, ash tuffs and the underground volcanic conduit system. Paleomagnetic analyses show that the lava and ash tuff carry reverse polarity magnetizations, which correlate with the inversely polarized dipolar magnetic anomaly over the volcano. The magnetizations in the lava and tuff show similar southward declinations and upward inclinations, supporting petrological inferences that the tuff was emplaced while still hot and indicating a temporal correlation for lava and tuff emplacement. Modeling of the dipolar anomaly gives a reverse polarity source magnetization associated with a vertical prismatic body with southward declination and upward inclination, which correlates with the reverse polarity magnetizations in the lava and tuff. The study documents a direct correlation of the paleomagnetic records with the underground magmatic conduit system of the monogenetic volcano. Time scale for cooling of the volcanic plumbing system involves a longer period than the one for the tuff and lava, suggesting that magnetization for the source of dipolar anomaly may represent a long time average as compared to the spot readings in the lava and tuff. The reverse polarity magnetizations in lava and tuff and in the underground source body for the magnetic anomaly are interpreted in terms of eruptive activity of Toluquilla volcano at about 1.3 Ma during the Matuyama reverse polarity C1r.2r chron.

  7. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  8. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  9. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  10. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  11. EXPERIENCE IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Kaufman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives examples of underground construction of hydropower station inNepaland sewer tunnel in the USA. These projects pay attention to influence of geotechnical risks and their consequences.

  12. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  13. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  14. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  15. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  16. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  17. Development and Implementation of a Segment/Junction Box Level Database for the ITS Fiber Optic Conduit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project initiated the development of a computerized database of ITS facilities, including conduits, junction : boxes, cameras, connections, etc. The current system consists of a database of conduit sections of various lengths. : Over the length ...

  18. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  19. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  20. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate

  1. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  2. A new cable-in-conduit conductor magnet with insulated strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Satarou; Yamamoto, Junya; Motojima, Osamu

    1995-09-01

    Many studies have used cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) coils in trying to develop an AC superconducting magnet because of its enormous potential if AC losses were low and insulation voltage was high. The strands in the most recent CICC magnets are coated with chromium or another metal with high electrical resistance to order to induce current re-distribution among the strands and to avoid a quench caused by a current imbalance. Current re-distribution is highly complex and very difficult to analyze because the conditions of the strand surfaces and the contact areas vary greatly with the operation of the conductor. If, however, the cable currents were well-balanced, insulating the strands would be the best way to reduce AC losses. We propose a new CICC magnet structure featuring a current lead that balances the strand currents via its resistance. Having calculated current balances, we find that strand currents are well within the present parameters for nuclear fusion experiments and superconducting magnet energy storages. (author).

  3. A new cable-in-conduit conductor magnet with insulated strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satarou; Yamamoto, Junya; Motojima, Osamu.

    1995-09-01

    Many studies have used cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) coils in trying to develop an AC superconducting magnet because of its enormous potential if AC losses were low and insulation voltage was high. The strands in the most recent CICC magnets are coated with chromium or another metal with high electrical resistance to order to induce current re-distribution among the strands and to avoid a quench caused by a current imbalance. Current re-distribution is highly complex and very difficult to analyze because the conditions of the strand surfaces and the contact areas vary greatly with the operation of the conductor. If, however, the cable currents were well-balanced, insulating the strands would be the best way to reduce AC losses. We propose a new CICC magnet structure featuring a current lead that balances the strand currents via its resistance. Having calculated current balances, we find that strand currents are well within the present parameters for nuclear fusion experiments and superconducting magnet energy storages. (author)

  4. Dynamics of magma flow inside volcanic conduits with bubble overpressure buildup and gas loss through permeable magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, O.; Barmin, A. A.; Sparks, R. S. J.

    2005-05-01

    Many volcanic eruptions show transitions between extrusive and explosive behaviour. We develop a new generic model that considers concurrence between pressure buildup in the bubbles due to the viscous resistance to their growth and gas escape through the bubble network as they become interconnected. When the pressure difference between bubbles and magma reaches the strength of the material fragmentation occurs. The effect of grain size distribution on the flow in gas-particle dispersion is modelled by two populations of particles which strongly influence the velocity of sound in the mixture. Solutions to the steady-state boundary value problem show non-uniqueness. There are at least two regimes for the fixed parameters in the magma chamber. In the low discharge rate regime, fragmentation does not occur and magma rises with partial gas escape. This regime corresponds to extrusive activity. The upper regime corresponds to explosive activity. The simulations using the parameters defined at the workshop produced the following results for a rhyolitic magma composition: discharge rate 5.5×10 7 kg/s; fragmentation at depth of 2585 m with magma vesicularity of 0.74; exit gas velocity varies from 200 to 450 m/s depending on the mass fraction of small particles in the fragmented mixture; exit pressure is in the range 1.5 to 3 MPa. Variation of conduit diameter d in the range 40 to 70 m gives a mass flow rate Q which depends on the diameter as d2.8, less strongly than for the case of viscous flow of Newtonian liquid in a cylindrical pipe where Q˜ d4. With the increase in conduit diameter, fragmentation happens later in the flow and conduit resistance remains high. Changes in magma temperature from 700 to 950 °C lead to increase in discharge rate only by a factor of 4 whereas viscosity decreases by more then 8000 times.

  5. The Incidence of Positive Modifications to Nerve Conduits in Rodent Nerve Repair Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tejas T.; Isaacs, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nerve conduit is a generally accepted tool to facilitate the repair of short nerve gaps. Limitations in effectiveness have been recognized, and a steady stream of possible conduit improvements has been published in the scientific literature. Analysis of this information, particularly when small animal models have been utilized, seems to indicate that nearly any modification of a nerve conduit improves outcomes in repairs of short gaps over standard nerve conduits. This seems statistically and biologically improbable and suggests a bias in the literature. Methods: A standardized systemic review of the scientific literature on rodent model studies assessing conduit modifications was undertaken to determine the incidence of positive or supportive outcomes. Results: Modifications were deemed superior in 97.3% of studies when compared with unmodified conduits and deemed equivalent or superior in 52.1% of studies when compared with autograft. Conclusions: A seemingly disproportionate number of positive results suggest that the literature on nerve conduit modifications may be skewed. We believe that there is a publication bias in the literature, and this warrants further investigation. PMID:27418898

  6. Distributed password cracking

    OpenAIRE

    Crumpacker, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Password cracking requires significant processing power, which in today's world is located at a workstation or home in the form of a desktop computer. Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is the conduit to this significant source of processing power and John the Ripper is the key. BOINC is a distributed data processing system that incorporates client-server relationships to generically process data. The BOINC structu...

  7. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  8. Effect of SR manipulation on conduit artery dilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Howard H; Dawson, Ellen A; Birk, Gurpreet K; Spence, Angela L; Naylor, Louise H; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    The impact of manipulating shear stress on conduit artery vasodilation has not been comprehensively described in vivo. We hypothesized that manipulation of SR through the brachial and radial arteries would be associated with corresponding changes in diameter. We performed a series of studies involving the following: (1) leg cycle exercise at increasing intensities (≈70 and 85% maximum heart rate [HRmax]) with simultaneous bilateral measurement of SR in the radial arteries; (2) leg cycle exercise for 30 minutes at 80% HRmax with simultaneous bilateral measurement of velocity and diameter in the brachial arteries; and (3) bilateral forearm heating for 30 minutes with simultaneous bilateral measurement of brachial artery diameter and blood velocity. Cycling and forearm heating interventions were performed in the presence of unilateral cuff inflation throughout the experiment, or starting during the intervention (15 minutes), to manipulate SR responses. Cuff placement was associated with lower radial artery SR responses (cuffed versus uncuffed, 248±49 versus 349±105 L/s 85% HRmax; P<0.01), and diameter responses were similarly attenuated (2.45±0.30 versus 2.78±0.20 mm 85% HRmax; P<0.05). Exercise performed at 80% HRmax in the presence of unilateral cuff inflation also reduced brachial artery SR (cuffed versus uncuffed; 258±107 versus 454±157 L/s; P<0.01) and diameter (3.96±0.39 versus 4.20±0.45 mm). Finally, cuff inflation decreased the impact of forearm heating on brachial SR (cuffed versus uncuffed; 262±97 versus 440±106 L/s; P<0.01) and diameter (4.35±0.54 versus 4.87±0.47 mm; P<0.05). Similar significant differences between the cuffed and uncuffed limbs in SR and diameter were observed when cuff inflation occurred during exercise or heating. Our findings strongly implicate SR as an important stimulus to increase conduit artery diameter in humans.

  9. Markov chain modelling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Valor, A.; Hallen, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-time, non-homogenous linear growth (pure birth) Markov process has been used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The closed form solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The identification of the transition probability function can be achieved by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. Monte-Carlo simulations previously reported have been used to predict the time evolution of the mean value of the pit depth distribution for different soil textural classes. The simulated distributions have been used to create an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. The proposed model has also been applied to pitting corrosion data from pipeline repeated in-line inspections and laboratory immersion experiments.

  10. Multidimensional Risk Management for Underground Electricity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcez Thalles V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider an electricity provider company that makes decision on allocating resources on electric network maintenance. The investments decrease malfunction rate of network nodes. An accidental event (explosion, fire, etc. or a malfunctioning on underground system can have various consequences and in different perspectives, such as deaths and injuries of pedestrians, fires in nearby locations, disturbances in the flow of vehicular traffic, loss to the company image, operating and financial losses, etc. For this reason it is necessary to apply an approach of the risk management that considers the multidimensional view of the consequences. Furthermore an analysis of decision making should consider network dependencies between the nodes of the electricity distribution system. In the paper we propose the use of the simulation to assess the network effects (such as the increase of the probability of other accidental event and the occurrence of blackouts of the dependent nodes in the multidimensional risk assessment in electricity grid. The analyzed effects include node overloading due to malfunction of adjacent nodes and blackouts that take place where there is temporarily no path in the grid between the power plant and a node. The simulation results show that network effects have crucial role for decisions in the network maintenance – outcomes of decisions to repair a particular node in the network can have significant influence on performance of other nodes. However, those dependencies are non-linear. The effects of network connectivity (number of connections between nodes on its multidimensional performance assessment depend heavily on the overloading effect level. The simulation results do not depend on network type structure (random or small world – however simulation outcomes for random networks have shown higher variance compared to small-world networks.

  11. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke

    The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured during 2 weeks at an underground station in central Stockholm. The instrument, an automatic TEOM monitor (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance), was placed on the platform in the centre of the station. During weekdays between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 470 and 260 μg/ m3, respectively. These levels are a factor 5 and 10 times higher than the corresponding values measured in one of the busiest streets in central Stockholm. The concentrations in the underground followed closely the train traffic intensity. The levels were very similar from one day to the next. During Saturdays and Sundays the levels decreased slightly due to less frequent train passages. Additional measurements were performed right after the tunnel had been washed. Tunnel walls and railway tracks between the platforms of the underground system were washed using water. Only a slight reduction of the PM 10 levels (approximately 13%) could be observed during a few days after the water treatment. For PM 2.5 the reduction was even less, about 10% lower levels could be seen. This might indicate that particles from tunnel walls and tracks make only a minor contribution to the observed levels. These results confirm earlier unpublished measurements showing high levels of PM in the underground of Stockholm. Substantially, elevated particle exposure levels have also been reported in several earlier studies in the underground of London, UK.

  12. Origin of karst conduits in calcareous sandstone and carbonate-silicate rocks: Complex role of insoluble material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiri; Balak, Frantisek; Schweigstillova, Jana; Vojtisek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Carbonate karst is best developed in high-grade limestones and majority of the studies is focused on these rocks. Features developed by dissolution of calcite cement in quartz sandstones and dissolution of various carbonate-silicate rocks are studied far less frequently. Unlike in common karst, the insoluble residuum has to be washed out after dissolution to create high-permeability conduits in these rocks. Aquifers in a Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (BCB), the most important hydrogeological basin in the Czech Republic, consist mainly of quartz and calcareous sandstones to siltstones. These rocks are intercalated by thin layers of calcite-cemented sandstone and low-grade limestone, the latter sometimes partly impregnated by a secondary silica. Results of tracer tests show a high flow velocity in some of the aquifers. Springs with flow rate up to 500 l/s and wells with yield up to 200 l/s occur in these rocks. Dissolution features in BCB were however not yet studied in detail. For identification and characterization of rocks prone to karstification, 350 cores were sampled mostly from boreholes but also from rock outcrops in several areas of BCB. Cores were taken from intervals where: (i) high carbonate content was expected, (ii) conduits and enlarged porosity was observed in rock outcrops or wells, (iii) inflows to boreholes were determined by well logging. Calcium carbonate content was determined by calcimetry in all cores. All cores were leached in hydrochloric acid to observe the degree of disintegration after removal of calcite, which was far dominating portion of total carbonate. Polished sections were prepared from selected cores and Ca, Si, Na, K, Al content was automatically mapped by microprobe to visualize the calcium, silica, feldspar and clay mineral distribution in cores. Conduits were photo documented in the field. Two types of sediments with distinct disintegration characteristics were observed: (i) In sandstone composed of quartz grains cemented by

  13. Filopodia are conduits for melanosome transfer to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Glynis; Leopardi, Sonya; Printup, Stacey; Madden, Brian C

    2002-04-01

    Melanosomes are specialized melanin-synthesizing organelles critical for photoprotection in the skin. Melanosome transfer to keratinocytes, which involves whole organelle donation to another cell, is a unique biological process and is poorly understood. Time-lapse digital movies and electron microscopy show that filopodia from melanocyte dendrites serve as conduits for melanosome transfer to keratinocytes. Cdc42, a small GTP-binding protein, is known to mediate filopodia formation. Melanosome-enriched fractions isolated from human melanocytes expressed the Cdc42 effector proteins PAK1 and N-WASP by western blotting. Expression of constitutively active Cdc42 (Cdc42(V12)) in melanocytes co-cultured with keratinocytes induced a highly dendritic phenotype with extensive contacts between melanocytes and keratinocytes through filopodia, many of which contained melanosomes. These results suggest a unique role for filopodia in organelle transport and, in combination with our previous work showing the presence of SNARE proteins and rab3a on melanosomes, suggest a novel model system for melanosome transfer to keratinocytes.

  14. Transformation of nonvascular acellular tissue matrices into durable vascular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D R; Lust, R M; Sun, Y S; Black, K S; Ollerenshaw, J D

    2001-05-01

    Prosthetic grafts commonly used for vascular reconstruction are limited to synthetics and cross-linked tissue grafts. Within these devices, graft infections are common, compliance mismatch is significant, and handling qualities are poor. Natural biological tissues that are unfixed have been shown to resist infections and be durable and compliant. A natural biological matrix that could be remodeled appropriately after implantation would be a desirable graft for vascular reconstruction. SynerGraft tissue engineering strategies have been used to minimize antigenicity and produce stable unfixed vascular grafts from nonvascular bovine tissues. These grafts have replaced the abdominal aortas of 8 dogs that have been followed for up to 10 months. Early evaluation indicates rapid recellularization by recipient smooth muscle actin positive cells, which become arranged circumferentially, into the media. Arterioles were present in the adventitial areas and endothelial cells were seen to cover lumenal surfaces. After 10 months, grafts were patent and not aneurysmal. These data indicate that SynerGraft processing of animal tissues is capable of producing stable vascular conduits that exhibit long-term functionality in other species.

  15. Bioremediation of Benzene-contaminated Underground Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoh

    Contamination of underground aquifers with gasoline occurs frequently. Among the gasoline constituents, benzene is of great environmental concern, since it is carcinogenic, water-soluble and persistent under anaerobic conditions. We have analyzed a gasoline-contaminated underground aquifer undergoing natural attenuation, where benzene was degraded, albeit slowly, under anaerobic conditions. RNA-based stable-isotope probing identified that bacteria affiliated with the genus AZOARCUS was responsible for benzene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. This result was confirmed by isolating an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium AZOARCUS sp. strain DN11. This strain degraded benzene at relatively low concentrations (as low as 10 ppb). It could also degrade toluene and xylenes. In laboratory bioaugmentation experiments using benzene-contaminated groundwater, it was demonstrated that supplementation with DN11 significantly accelerated benzene degradation under a nitrate-reducing condition. These results indicate that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  16. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  17. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  18. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  19. Drainage Cycles of Water-Filled Crevasses in Jakobshavn Isbræ as a Function of Conduit Creep Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, J., IV; Lampkin, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic shear weakening from direct meltwater injection has the potential to amplify ice flow in marine-terminating outlet glaciers. Recently, water-filled crevasses along the shear margins of Jakobshavn Isbræ have been observed to intermittently fill and drain over the course of a melt season. The hydrologic processes for creating periodicity in crevasse drainage have received little attention. Here, relationships between secondary crevasse drainage cycles and conduit closure rates from creep deformation are examined. We used Landsat-8 OLI panchromatic, high-resolution imagery to monitor the spatio-temporal variability of crevasse groups during the summers of 2014-16. Conduit areas and closure rates were then monitored for various crevasse volumes and drainage rates using a 1-D subglacial hydrology model that routes subglacial water between Röthlisberger channels and an adjacent distributed drainage system. Closure rates via creep deformation were then compared to the temporal variability in observed crevasse drain cycles. This work establishes a relationship between the first crevasse drainage cycle in a melt season and the timing of a secondary filling cycle.

  20. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  1. In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, S; Kruithof, A C; Bouwstra, J; Liebl, H; Tomerius, M; Lademann, J; Meinke, M

    2010-01-01

    Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 μm in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface

  2. In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, S.; Kruithof, A. C.; Liebl, H.; Tomerius, M.; Bouwstra, J.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M.

    2010-03-01

    Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 μm in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface.

  3. Insular species swarm goes underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -group, an insular species swarm distributed in the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canary Islands. We discuss the differences between the new species and their relatives and present information on the subterranean environment of Madeira. An updated overview of the subterranean biodiversity of millipedes...

  4. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  5. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  6. Study on the air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process has a great effect on the polymer drawing, the filament diameter and orientation. A numerical simulation of the process is carried out, and the results are compared with the experimental data, showing good accuracy of the numerical prediction. This research lays an important foundation for the optimal design of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process.

  7. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The survey and research performed from earth surface is begun in fiscal year 2000, and contains physical investigation, trial drilling survey and so on from air and on-earth, by which data on distribution of stratums and dislocations, flowing method and water quality of underground water, strength of stratum and so on were collected, and some forecasting of change on flowing method, water pressure, water quality and so on by construction of underground facility on a base of the obtained data. And, in 2000 fiscal year, as on-site survey, some hearing surveys on using condition of underground water, will also be carried out, under consideration of meteorological condition and so on. (G.K.)

  8. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  9. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mottaghitalab

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  10. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Conduits to care: call lights and patients’ perceptions of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montie M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary Montie,1 Clayton Shuman,1 Jose Galinato,1 Lance Patak,2 Christine A Anderson,1 Marita G Titler1 1Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients’ perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients’ perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Methods: Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated. Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Results: Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients’ perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants’ perceptions of “nurse work”. Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Discussion: Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients’ understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery. Keywords: nurse–patient communication, medical technology, quality of care, qualitative research

  12. Electric field analysis of extra high voltage (EHV) underground cables using finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Mantosh; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    used for the insulator due electrical, thermal or environmental stress. Most of these problems are related to the electric field stress on the insulation of the underground cables. The objective of the electric field analysis by using different numerical techniques is to find electric field stress...... electric field stress and other parameters of EHV underground cables with given boundary conditions using 2-D electric field analysis software package (IES-ELECTRO module) which is based on the finite element method (FEM).......Transmission and Distribution of electric power through underground cables is a viable alternative to overhead lines, particularly in residential or highly populated areas. The electrical stresses are consequences of regular voltages and over voltages and the thermal stresses are related to heat...

  13. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns.

  14. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  15. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  16. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  17. Zen Communist: Breyten Breytenbach's view from underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an interview after his release from prison, Breyten Breytenbach describes himself, at the time he became involved in underground politics, as a Zen Communist. He returns occasionally to this interaction of Marxist ideas of social revolution and Buddhist ideas of non-attachment, but never attempts to explain the resulting ...

  18. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  19. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  20. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Underground application of magnetic resonance soundings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available that characterize the orientation of the mine wall. There is a geometric enhancement of the MRS signal under typical mining conditions for the locations studied. However, the loop size is severely restricted in underground conditions, limiting the feasible target...

  2. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ) is the project lead unit and is developing the sensors needed for underground data acquisition related to the safety application. The body of the robot is being developed by the Mechatronics and Micro-Manufacturing (MMM) group. The software component is being...

  3. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to dat...

  4. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  5. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  7. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  8. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  9. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  10. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?...

  11. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  12. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  13. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  14. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  15. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  16. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-01-01

    analysis (DDA) (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). This new model includes the uncertainty in the three-dimensional spatial distribution of lithology and hydraulic conductivity from the 1999 model as well as the uncertainty in the other flow and transport parameters from the 2000 DDA model. Additionally, the new model focuses on a much smaller region than was included in the earlier models, that is, the subsurface within the UC-1 land withdrawal area where the 1999 model predicted radionuclide transport will occur over the next 1,000 years. The purpose of this unclassified document is to present the modifications to the CNTA groundwater flow and transport model, to present the methodology used to calculate contaminant boundaries, and to present the Safe Drinking Water Act and risk-derived contaminant boundaries for the Faultless underground nuclear test CAU

  17. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-04-01

    analysis (DDA) (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). This new model includes the uncertainty in the three-dimensional spatial distribution of lithology and hydraulic conductivity from the 1999 model as well as the uncertainty in the other flow and transport parameters from the 2000 DDA model. Additionally, the new model focuses on a much smaller region than was included in the earlier models, that is, the subsurface within the UC-1 land withdrawal area where the 1999 model predicted radionuclide transport will occur over the next 1,000 years. The purpose of this unclassified document is to present the modifications to the CNTA groundwater flow and transport model, to present the methodology used to calculate contaminant boundaries, and to present the Safe Drinking Water Act and risk-derived contaminant boundaries for the Faultless underground nuclear test CAU.

  18. A basic study on underground storage of LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kang, Sun-Duck [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    In 1997, import of LNG was 11,378 thousand of about 2.3 billion US dollars. The demand of LNG(Liquefied Natural Gas) in Korea has been increased since 1987 with the rate of 20% annually. It is also estimated that this trend will be continued until 2010. Long-term estimation says that demand will increase with 9.1% and total demand of 2010 will be 23 million ton that is four times larger than that of 1994. Bases of unloading and store of LNG is necessary to complete the network of LNG distribution system to cover all of the country from import to final supply terminal at home. The construction plan of LNG bases with 49 tanks was published and is going on now at three bases, Pyungtaek, Incheon and Tongyoung. The total cost for this construction will be over 5,400 billion Won. All the LNG tanks are planned to build on the surface. The construction of LNG tanks on the surfaces is conventional but it damage the surface green area and is very vulnerable on safety, especially in Korea Peninsula with potentially unstable of military confrontation. And Korea is so small and limited in available land that it is not easy to find proper places for construction of more LNG tanks on surface. Underground LNG stores in rock will be a good alternative for tanks on surface in the view points of environmental and safety. It is also reported that it can be cheaper than that of on surfaces. It is well known that bed rocks in Korea is good to build underground structure like LNG stores. This report is basic research to seek for the possibility of LNG store construction in underground rocks. The important two questions on it is that whether it is possible technically and economically or not. The technical focus in this report is the stability of underground cavern for storage of LNG, energy conservation in operation, tightness against leakage of stored gas to surface and safety. Some statistic on LNG in Korea is given for this study with its future. (author). 25 refs., 36 tabs., 88 figs.

  19. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  20. Excavation responses in underground repositories in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, M.; Pahl, A.; Wallner, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the planning and construction of underground repositories for radioactive wastes in rock salt. The geotechnical stability analysis is a critical part of the safety assessment. Engineering-geological study of the site, laboratory and in-situ experiments, geomechanical modeling, and numerical static calculations comprise such an analysis. With regard to excavation responses the principle features of the rheological processes in rock salt are plasticity, creep and fracturing. Treatment of these features involves geotechnical measurements (laboratory and in-situ), theoretical investigations (continuum mechanics), and microphysical considerations (e. g. dislocations, grain structure). A knowledge of the thermo-mechanical behavior of rock salt is an essential part of any assessment of the stability of underground openings for waste disposal purposes. The integrity of the geological barrier can be assessed only by making calculations with validated geomechanical and hydrogeological models. The proper idealization of the host rock in a computational model is the basis of realistic calculations of thermal-stress distribution and excavation damage. Some results of these calculations for the preliminary repository design of the Gorleben site and the ASSE II research mine are given

  1. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golik Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator’ driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  2. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  3. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  4. Fabrication and Optimization of Gelatin/ Nano Bioglass Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foroutan Koudehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is common in trauma patients and 4.5% of all soft-tissue injuries are accompanied by defects of peripheral nerve. Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Designed conduits com-prised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the construction of damaged tissues. The aim of this project was to prepare nanocomposite conduits from gelatin and bioglass for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study,compound water solution of gelatin and nano bioglass synthesized through sol gel method, was made. After preparing the solution, special mandrels were dipped in solution several times and freeze dried in order to be emptied of wa-ter via sublimation. The conduits had the following dimensions: internal diameter: 1.6 mm, outside diameter: 2.2 mm and length about 12 mm. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility of conduits we used cytotoxicity test by Chinese ovary cells and MTT assay by Miapaca-2 (pancreatic cancer cell line. Results: The prepared nano bioglass and conduits were characterized using transmission elec-tron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of biocompatibility test showed no sign of cytotoxicity and cells were found to be attached to the pore walls offered by the conduits. Conclusion: According to the results, nano bioglass conduits could be a good candidate for peripheral nerve regeneration. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:152-160

  5. Does a third arterial conduit to the right coronary circulation improve survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suvitesh; Leiva-Juárez, Miguel M; Matuszewski, Maciej; Morgan, Ian S; Billing, John S

    2018-03-01

    The long-term benefits of a third arterial conduit to the right circulation in triple-vessel disease remain debatable. This retrospective, single-center, propensity-matched study investigates the impact of a third arterial conduit to the right circulation on early and intermediate survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Data were retrospectively collected from 2004 to 2014 for all surgical revascularizations for triple-vessel disease with at least 2 arterial conduits to the left circulation and a third arterial or venous conduit to the right circulation. A total of 167 pairs were propensity matched to arterial versus venous third conduit to right circulation. Hazard functions were obtained with Cox multivariate regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared between the matched cohorts. Extracardiac arteriopathy, logistic euroSCORE, and left main stem disease were significant predictors of adverse survival. A third arterial conduit to the right circulation was not a significant predictor of improved survival in multivariate analysis (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.34-1.55; P = .411). 30-day mortality was 0.6% in both groups. There was no significant difference in early or intermediate survival in the propensity-matched groups (venous vs arterial, 99.2% vs 99.2%; P = 1.000 at 1 year; 85.2% vs 88.8%; P = .248 at 5 years and 69.2% vs 88.8%; P = .297 at 7 years) CONCLUSIONS: The use of a third arterial versus a venous conduit to the right circulation does not improve early or intermediate survival up to 7 years in triple-vessel coronary artery disease in this study. Longer follow-up and larger cohorts may be needed for differences to emerge. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. [MRI of the heart following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, K M; Langebartels, G; Autschbach, R; Katoh, M; Günther, R W; Krombach, G A

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential of ECG-triggered MRI for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function of the heart and conduit following implantation of a left-ventricular apico-aortic conduit. 5 patients (2 female, 3 male, mean age 72.5 years) were examined using a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) following apico-aortic conduit surgery due to severe aortic valve stenosis. The reason for performing conduit implantation instead of aortic valve replacement was the risk of injuring a bypass graft from prior coronary artery bypass surgery. Cine steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) sequences were used to assess ventricular function, navigator-gated 3D-SSFP and breath-hold, time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used to display the postoperative anatomy, and 2D-gradient echo sequences with an inversion pulse to suppress the signal of the healthy myocardium were used to evaluate potential myocardial scarring. Flow sensitive gradient echo sequences were performed to determine the blood flow in the conduit. In all patients the apico-aortic conduit proved to be open with a maximum flow velocity of 126 (+ 43) cm/s. The postoperative anatomy was able to be evaluated in all patients and perioperative myocardial infarction was able to be ruled out. The mean ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 44.2 + 6.2 % with a mean volume of 80 + 20.6 ml per heart beat. ECG-triggered MRI is a reliable method for the evaluation of postoperative anatomy and function following implantation of a left ventricular apico-aortic conduit.

  7. Variable-density numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifer with well-developed conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Hu, B. X.

    2015-12-01

    Karst aquifer is an important drinking water supply for nearly 25% of the world's population. Well-developed subground conduit systems usually can be found in a well-developed karst aquifer, as a dual permeability system. Hydraulic characteristics of non-laminar flow in conduits could be significantly different from darcian flow in porous medium; therefore, hybrid model and different governing equations are necessary in numerical modeling of karst hydrogeology. On the other hand, seawater intrusion has been observed and studied for several decades, also become a worldwidely problem due to groundwater over-pumping and rising sea level. The density difference between freshwater and seawater is recognized as the major factor governing the movements of two fluids in coastal aquifer. Several models have been developed to simulate groundwater flow in karst aquifer, but hardly describe seawater intrusion through the conduits without coupling variable density flow and solute transport. In this study, a numerical SEAWAT model has been developed to simulate variable density flow and transport in heterogeneous karst aquifer. High-density seawater is verified to intrude further inland through high permeability conduit network rather than porous medium. The numerical model also predicts the effect of different cases on seawater intrusion in coastal karst aquifer, such as rising sea level, tide stages and freshwater discharge effects. A series of local and global uncertainty analysis have been taken to evaluate the sensitivity of hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater pumping, sea level, salinity and dispersivity. Heterogeneous conduit and porous medium hydraulic characteristics play an important role in groundwater flow and solute transport simulation. Meanwhile, another hybrid model VDFST-CFP model is currently under development to couple turbulent conduit flow and variable density groundwater flow in porous media, which provides a new method and better description in

  8. Distribution of Phthalate Esters in Underground Water from Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    reservoir bottle; calibrated syringe; ultrasonic bath; bunsen burner; drying oven; muffle furnace; desiccators; measuring cylinders; test tubes; pasteur pipettes; calibrated pipette. Sample Handling and pre-treatment: Water samples were collected in amber glass containers. Conventional sampling practices were followed. No.

  9. Monitoring underground water leakage pattern by ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 800 MHz antenna frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, T. S. T.; Ismail, M. P.; Ahmad, M. R.; Amin, M. S. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sani, S.; Masenwat, N. A.; Basri, N. S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Water is the most treasure natural resources, however, a huge amount of water are lost during its distribution that leads to water leakage problem. The leaks meant the waste of money and created more economic loss to treat and fix the damaged pipe. Researchers and engineers have put tremendous attempts and effort, to solve the water leakage problem especially in water leakage of buried pipeline. An advanced technology of ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been established as one of the non-destructive testing (NDT) method to detect the underground water pipe leaking. This paper focuses on the ability of GPR in water utility field especially on detection of water leaks in the underground pipeline distribution. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out using 800-MHz antenna, where the performance of GPR on detecting underground pipeline and locating water leakage was investigated and validated. A prototype to recreate water-leaking system was constructed using a 4-inch PVC pipe. Different diameter of holes, i.e. ¼ inch, ½ inch, and ¾ inch, were drilled into the pipe to simulate the water leaking. The PVC pipe was buried at the depth of 60 cm into the test bed that was filled with dry sand. 15 litres of water was injected into the PVC pipe. The water leakage patterns in term of radargram data were gathered. The effectiveness of the GPR in locating the underground water leakage was ascertained, after the results were collected and verified.

  10. The role of the ileal conduit in the development of upper tract dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, D E; Hawkins, T; Gallaugher, A S; Essenhigh, D M; Hall, R R

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the conduit in the development of upper tract dilatation after ileal conduit urinary diversion. Twenty-seven patients with a normal upper tract were compared with 17 who had developed upper tract dilatation. Patients were studied by means of a technique to measure pressure and flow under "steady-state" conditions. Pressure activity was classified into two types. Type I pressure activity (frequency 6.2 +/- 3/min; amplitude 4.7 +/- 3 cm H2O) resulted in to-and-fro movement of contrast and the escape into the appliance of small volumes of contrast. In controls, most of the output from the conduit occurred during type I activity (73 +/- 14%). Type III/IV pressure activity resulted in vigorous aboral peristalsis and occurred infrequently in controls (frequency 5 +/- 4/h). In patients with upper tract dilatation, in contrast, type III/IV peristaltic activity occurred frequently (frequency 37 +/- 30/h; P less than 0.001: amplitude 72 +/- 34 cm H2O) and was responsible for most of the output (70 +/- 17%; P less than 0.001). The findings support the hypothesis that high pressure activity in the conduit is an important factor in the aetiology of upper tract dilatation, and they are compatible with the presence in such patients of functionally important obstructions of the distal conduit.

  11. Measurement of age of underground water, using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio; Kagami, Tadaaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Onuma, Akiko; Shoka, Yasushi

    1978-01-01

    Age of four kinds of underground water in Aichi prefecture was estimated by measuring a concentration of tritium. The tritium concentration was measured by the usual method. The first water-bearing zone of the shallow part, about 50m in depth, of Nobi plain is a new underground water cultivated within 20 years, whereas second water-bearing zone is an old underground water of 20 years old or more. No relationship of water flow between the first and the second water-bearing zone was observed. A very deep underground about 100m or more in depth, of the Nobi plain is confirmed to be infinite years old fossil water by measuring of tritium. The underground water in Atsumi peninsula is mostly a new underground water within 20 years. Only one out of eight showed the existence of old underground water before 20 years or more. The underground water of the granite area at Mikawa district is confirmed to be old underground water before 20 years or more. Alkaline underground water in the granite zone is considered to be very old in view of composition of water. The origin of underground water can be learned by tritium concentration, which shows whether the water is new water in the neighborhood of earth's surface or very old cultivated water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Three-dimensional fluid mechanics of particulate two-phase flows in U-bend and helical conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prashant; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.

    2006-04-01

    The results of numerous studies performed to date have shown that the performance of various hydraulic systems can be significantly improved by using curved conduit geometries instead of straight tubes. In particular, the formation of Dean vortices, which enhance the development of centrifugal instabilities, has been identified as a factor behind reducing the near-wall concentration buildup in particulate flow devices (e.g., in membrane filtration modules). Still, several issues regarding the effect of conduit curvature on local multidimensional phenomena governing fluid flow still remain open. A related issue is concerned with the impact that conduit geometry makes on the concentration distribution of a dispersed phase in two-phase flows in general, and in particulate flows (solid/liquid or solid/gas suspensions) in particular. It turns out that only very limited efforts have been made in the past to understand the fluid mechanics of such flows via advanced computer simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of full three-dimensional (3D) theoretical and numerical analyses of single- and two-phase dilute particle/liquid flows in U-bend and helical curved conduits. The numerical analysis is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed using a state-of-the-art multiphase flow computer code, NPHASE. The major issues discussed in the first part of the paper are concerned with the effect of curved/coiled geometry on the evolution of flow field and the associated wall shear. It has been demonstrated that the primary curvature (a common factor for both the U-bend and helix geometries) may cause a substantial asymmetry in the radial distribution of the main flow velocity. This, in turn, leads to a significant, albeit highly nonuniform, increase in the wall shear stress. Specifically, the wall shear around the outer half of tube circumference may become twice the corresponding value for a straight tube, and gradually decrease to

  13. DaMaSCUS: the impact of underground scatterings on direct detection of light dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris, E-mail: emken@cp3.sdu.dk, E-mail: kouvaris@cp3.sdu.dk [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2017-10-01

    Conventional dark matter direct detection experiments set stringent constraints on dark matter by looking for elastic scattering events between dark matter particles and nuclei in underground detectors. However these constraints weaken significantly in the sub-GeV mass region, simply because light dark matter does not have enough energy to trigger detectors regardless of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section. Even if future experiments lower their energy thresholds, they will still be blind to parameter space where dark matter particles interact with nuclei strongly enough that they lose enough energy and become unable to cause a signal above the experimental threshold by the time they reach the underground detector. Therefore in case dark matter is in the sub-GeV region and strongly interacting, possible underground scatterings of dark matter with terrestrial nuclei must be taken into account because they affect significantly the recoil spectra and event rates, regardless of whether the experiment probes DM via DM-nucleus or DM-electron interaction. To quantify this effect we present the publicly available Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings (DaMaSCUS), a Monte Carlo simulator of DM trajectories through the Earth taking underground scatterings into account. Our simulation allows the precise calculation of the density and velocity distribution of dark matter at any detector of given depth and location on Earth. The simulation can also provide the accurate recoil spectrum in underground detectors as well as the phase and amplitude of the diurnal modulation caused by this shadowing effect of the Earth, ultimately relating the modulations expected in different detectors, which is important to decisively conclude if a diurnal modulation is due to dark matter or an irrelevant background.

  14. DaMaSCUS: the impact of underground scatterings on direct detection of light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Conventional dark matter direct detection experiments set stringent constraints on dark matter by looking for elastic scattering events between dark matter particles and nuclei in underground detectors. However these constraints weaken significantly in the sub-GeV mass region, simply because light dark matter does not have enough energy to trigger detectors regardless of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section. Even if future experiments lower their energy thresholds, they will still be blind to parameter space where dark matter particles interact with nuclei strongly enough that they lose enough energy and become unable to cause a signal above the experimental threshold by the time they reach the underground detector. Therefore in case dark matter is in the sub-GeV region and strongly interacting, possible underground scatterings of dark matter with terrestrial nuclei must be taken into account because they affect significantly the recoil spectra and event rates, regardless of whether the experiment probes DM via DM-nucleus or DM-electron interaction. To quantify this effect we present the publicly available Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings (DaMaSCUS), a Monte Carlo simulator of DM trajectories through the Earth taking underground scatterings into account. Our simulation allows the precise calculation of the density and velocity distribution of dark matter at any detector of given depth and location on Earth. The simulation can also provide the accurate recoil spectrum in underground detectors as well as the phase and amplitude of the diurnal modulation caused by this shadowing effect of the Earth, ultimately relating the modulations expected in different detectors, which is important to decisively conclude if a diurnal modulation is due to dark matter or an irrelevant background.

  15. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  17. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  18. Underground Engineering: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzalai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    UNDERGROUND ENGINEERING: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation. Complexity, sustainability, safety, security, versatility, creativity, and innovation are essential themes driving engineering science today. The world is changing rapidly and although the content and methods of engineering are evolving with it, an engineer's professional mission remains the same: to solve problems and make decisions. The application of new software such as BIM, Digital Project and Advanced TBM is shaping the...

  19. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  20. Underground navigation and localisation using RFID tags

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available their locations. The paper will build on previous work done by Forster[8] and Vorst et al.[9] by implementing the proposed hybrid SLAM method on the mining safety platform, which will eventually be used in an underground environment. II. NAVIGATION... AND LOCALISATION SCHEME A. Exploration and clustering The algorithm used for exploring the RFID environment is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Algorithm used for exploring RFID environment Given sufficient (more than 500 steps per 25 square metres) simulation...

  1. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  3. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  4. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  5. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  6. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  7. Laser-induced acoustic imaging of underground objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; DiMarzio, Charles A.; McKnight, Stephen W.; Sauermann, Gerhard O.; Miller, Eric L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper introduces a new demining technique based on the photo-acoustic interaction, together with results from photo- acoustic experiments. We have buried different types of targets (metal, rubber and plastic) in different media (sand, soil and water) and imaged them by measuring reflection of acoustic waves generated by irradiation with a CO2 laser. Research has been focused on the signal acquisition and signal processing. A deconvolution method using Wiener filters is utilized in data processing. Using a uniform spatial distribution of laser pulses at the ground's surface, we obtained 3D images of buried objects. The images give us a clear representation of the shapes of the underground objects. The quality of the images depends on the mismatch of acoustic impedance of the buried objects, the bandwidth and center frequency of the acoustic sensors and the selection of filter functions.

  8. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  9. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  10. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hai; Bu, Shoushan; Hua, Lei; Darabi, Mohammad A; Cao, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide(®)). The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4) of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%), and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5), the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG) groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres (GM + CT) group were similar to AG group (P>0.05). Most myelinated nerves were matured and arranged densely with a uniform structure of myelin in a neat pattern along the long axis in the AG and GM + CT groups, however, regenerated nerve was absent in the BLANK group, left the 10 mm gap empty after resection, and the nerve fiber exhibited a disordered arrangement in the collagen tube group. These results indicated that the hybrid system of bilayer collagen conduit and GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres combined with gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogels could serve as a new biodegradable

  11. Transverse colon conduit urinary diversion in patients treated with very high dose pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, R.; Dewan, A.K.; Pandey, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary diversion may be required in patients receiving pelvic irradiation for gynaecological or genitourinary cancers either as part of a planned or salvage surgical procedure or for urological complications of irradiation. Records were reviewed for 30 such patients who underwent transverse colon conduit as a primary form of urinary diversion. Most of the conduits were constructed using refluxing ureterocolic anastomoses with stents. The results showed no operative mortality. Although the procedure was associated with a complication rate of 37% and a re-operation rate of 20%, there were no bowel or urinary anastomotic leaks. The operation could be safely performed on patients with renal failure, with 83% of such patients showing normal or improved serum creatinine levels post operatively. The advantages of transverse colon conduit urinary diversion are the use of non-irradiated bowel and ureters for diversion. It is recommended as a primary form of urinary diversion in these high risk cases. (Author)

  12. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  13. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, Matthew J; McElhinney, Doff B; Kreutzer, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review...... of databases from 3 prospective Melody TPV (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) trials. RESULTS: Among 358 patients who were catheterized with the intent to implant a Melody TPV for RVOT conduit stenosis or regurgitation (PR) as part of 3 prospective multicenter studies, 67 (19%) had a prior Ross procedure...... early outcomes and durable valve function in the majority of Ross patients. Recurrent RVOT obstruction associated with stent fracture was the main reason for reintervention. Coronary compression is not uncommon in Ross patients and should be assessed prior to TPVR....

  14. Collagen-coated polylactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) seeded with neural-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells as a potential nerve conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Ahmad Fadzli; Hassan, Nur Hidayah; Hwei, Ng Min; Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Naicker, Amaramalar Selvi; Abdullah, Shalimar; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Htwe, Ohnmar; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Haflah, Nor Hazla Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafts to bridge nerve gaps pose various drawbacks. Nerve tissue engineering to promote nerve regeneration using artificial neural conduits has emerged as a promising alternative. To develop an artificial nerve conduit using collagen-coated polylactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) and to analyse the survivability and propagating ability of the neuro-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells in this conduit. The PLGA conduit was constructed by dip-molding method and coated with collagen by immersing the conduit in collagen bath. The ultra structure of the conduits were examined before they were seeded with neural-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (nMSC) and implanted sub-muscularly on nude mice thighs. The non-collagen-coated PLGA conduit seeded with nMSC and non-seeded non-collagen-coated PLGA conduit were also implanted for comparison purposes. The survivability and propagation ability of nMSC was studied by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The collagen-coated conduits had a smooth inner wall and a highly porous outer wall. Conduits coated with collagen and seeded with nMSCs produced the most number of cells after 3 weeks. The best conduit based on the number of cells contained within it after 3 weeks was the collagen-coated PLGA conduit seeded with neuro-transdifferentiated cells. The collagen-coated PLGA conduit found to be suitable for attachment, survival and proliferation of the nMSC. Minimal cell infiltration was found in the implanted conduits where nearly all of the cells found in the cell seeded conduits are non-mouse origin and have neural cell markers, which exhibit the biocompatibility of the conduits. The collagen-coated PLGA conduit is biocompatible, non-cytotoxic and suitable for use as artificial nerve conduits.

  15. General regularities of Sr 90 distribution in system soil-plant under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudeliene, I.; Marchiulioniene, D.; Petroshius, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sr 90 distribution in system 'soil - underground part of plant - aboveground part of plant' was investigated. It was determined that Sr 90 activity concentration in underground and aboveground part of plants and in mosses was not dependent on its activity concentration in soil. There was direct dependence of Sr 90 activity concentration in aboveground on underground parts of plants. Sr 90 transfer factor from soil to underground part of plants and mosses was directly dependent on this radionuclide activity concentration in them. (authors)

  16. FDG-PET identification of infected pulmonary artery conduit following tetralogy of fallot (TOF) repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu Yang; Williams, Hadyn; Pucar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common forms of cyanotic congenital heart disease usually managed by serial surgical repairs. The repaired prosthetic valve or conduit is susceptible to life-threatening infection. FDG-PET is an effective alternative to evaluate the source of infection when other examinations are inconclusive. We report an unusual case of an infected pulmonary artery conduit after TOF repair although the echocardiogram was negative for vegetation, which was later confirmed by surgery and pathology. The case highlights the role of FDG-PET as a problem-solving tool for potential endocarditis and cardiac device infection cases after complex cardiac surgery

  17. FDG-PET identification of infected pulmonary artery conduit following tetralogy of fallot (TOF) repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu Yang; Williams, Hadyn; Pucar, Darko [Dept. of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common forms of cyanotic congenital heart disease usually managed by serial surgical repairs. The repaired prosthetic valve or conduit is susceptible to life-threatening infection. FDG-PET is an effective alternative to evaluate the source of infection when other examinations are inconclusive. We report an unusual case of an infected pulmonary artery conduit after TOF repair although the echocardiogram was negative for vegetation, which was later confirmed by surgery and pathology. The case highlights the role of FDG-PET as a problem-solving tool for potential endocarditis and cardiac device infection cases after complex cardiac surgery.

  18. Havery Mudd 2014-2015 Computer Science Conduit Clinic Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspesi, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bai, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Deese, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shin, L [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Conduit, a new open-source library developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, provides a C++ application programming interface (API) to describe and access scientific data. Conduit’s primary use is for inmemory data exchange in high performance computing (HPC) applications. Our team tested and improved Conduit to make it more appealing to potential adopters in the HPC community. We extended Conduit’s capabilities by prototyping four libraries: one for parallel communication using MPI, one for I/O functionality, one for aggregating performance data, and one for data visualization.

  19. [Clinical effect observation of biodegradable conduit small gap tublization repairing peripheral nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-xun; Kou, Yu-hui; Han, Na; Dang, Yu; Xue, Feng; Wang, Tian-bing; Xu, Hai-lin; Chen, Jian-hai; Yang, Ming; Lu, Hao; Yin, Xiao-feng; Bai, Lu; Wang, Yan-hua; An, Shuai; Zhang, Dian-ying; Fu, Zhong-guo; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2012-12-18

    To observe the clinical effect of biodegradable conduit small gap tublization to repair peripheral nerve injury. In the study, 30 cases of fresh peripheral nerve injury in the upper extremities were recruited. After formally informed and obtaining the consent, the recruited patients were divided into the degradable chitin conduit tublization group (experimental group: 15 cases) and traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy group (control group: 15 cases). Their nerve functional recovery conditions were clinically observed according to the standard score methods provided by SHEN Ning-jiang and British Medical Research Council. The excellent and good rates of the overall nerve functional recovery were calculated. The electrophysiologic study was carried out after 6 months. Of the total 30 cases, 28 were followed up, and there were 14 cases in the degradable chitin conduit tublization group and traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy group. The operation procedure was very simple, and the mean suture time [(8.0±0.8) min] was 20% shorter than that of the traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy group [(10.0±0.6) min]. All the wounds in the degradable chitin conduit tublization group healed as expected without rejection, hypersensitive reaction or anomalous draining. Electrophysiology examination results after 6 months displayed that the sensory nerves conduction velocity recovery rate was 77.37% of the normal value, and motor nerve conduction velocity recovery rate was 70.09% in the degradable chitin conduit tublization group. The sensory nerves conduction velocity recovery rate was 61.69% of the normal value, and motor nerve conduction velocity recovery rate was 56.15% in the traditional epineurial neurorrhaphy group. The exact propability methods was applied in the comparison of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity recovery rate, and there was no statistically significant of two groups(sensory nerve conduction velocity recovery rate P=0.678;motor nerve conduction velocity

  20. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huawei; Wen, Weisheng; Hu, Min; Bi, Wenting; Chen, Lijie; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

    2013-01-01

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups...

  1. VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes

  2. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  3. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  4. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  5. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  6. Analysis of roof fall hazards and risk assessment for Zonguldak coal basin underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duezguen, H.S.B. [Geodetic and Geographic Information Technologies, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-10-17

    The roof fall hazards are frequent problems of underground coal mines, which are generally unpredictable due to the associated uncertainties. These uncertainties, which arise from geological and stress conditions and mine environment, make the control of roof fall hazards difficult in underground coal mines. The most efficient method for coping with uncertainties in roof fall hazards is the use of risk assessment techniques. In this study, a risk assessment and management methodology is proposed for roof fall hazards in underground mines of the Zonguldak coal basin. The annual rates of roof falls obtained from the five mines in the basin are statistically analyzed. The components of risk, which are the probability of roof fall and consequences of roof fall hazard are identified and quantified. The probability of roof fall is computed by fitting a distribution function to the annual roof fall, while the consequences of roof falls are quantified based on a cost model. Then a decision analysis methodology for evaluating the performance of possible alternative action to be taken in order to decrease the risk, is developed. The results show that the underground coal mines in the Zonguldak coal basin have considerably high risk levels and hence require comprehensive risk management schemes. (author)

  7. Sensing Property Modeling for the Novel Horizontal-vertical Composite Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to invisibility and complexity of the underground displacement monitoring, there exit few practical monitoring sensors capable of monitoring the underground horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously. A novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor able to monitor both the horizontal and the vertical displacements was proposed in our previous studies and abbreviated as the H-V type sensor. Through comprehensive application of Hall sensing mechanism analysis, 3D magnetic field distribution solution to the permanent magnet, and multidimensional numerical integration method, a model called the Equivalent Magnetic Charge-Numerical Integration Model (EMC-NI is presented in this paper and serves as the H-V type sensor’s Hall voltage measurement model. This model can quantitatively evaluate the complicated relationship among the sensor’s Hall voltage output, its measuring parameters (underground horizontal displacement, vertical displacement and tilt angle at different depth within the monitored soil rock mass and morphological parameters (geometry, shape and property parameters for the sensor units. Comprehensive studies and comparisons have conducted between the experimentally measured and EMC-NI modeled Hall voltage under counterpart conditions, through which not only the model’s modeling effectiveness and calculation accuracy are objectively evaluated, but also some valuable theoretical support is provided for the sensor’ sensing properties evaluation, design optimization, and subsequent study of displacement parameter inversion approach.

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Underground Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents. Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI, overcommitment (OC, perceived physical environment (PPE, work-family conflict (WFC, and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99. Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers’ family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

  9. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  10. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  11. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  12. Intersite Magnitude-Yield Bias Exemplified by the Underground Nuclear Explosions MILROW, BOXCAR and HANDLEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-05

    DISTRIBUTION UNLrtITED. L i" ABSTRACT Estimates of surface-wave and body-wave magnitude were made from all available teleseismic WWSSN recordings of the...event mb magnitudes, J. Geophys, Res., 79, 2967- 2978. Springer, ). L ., and R. L . Kinnaman, 1971. Seismic source summary for U. S. underground nuclear...flux in the immediate area of Amchitka Island was two to three orders of magnitude higher than that around the Nevada Test Site ( Lomnitz , 1974). This

  13. Studies concerning the conditions for underground storage of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Jacobsson, A.; Linder, P.; Holmberg, K.E.

    1978-08-01

    Studies concerning the conditions for underground storage of short-lived radioactive wastes at different places are reported. Thus a literature study of the different factors affecting the radionuclide migration in the ground is reported as well as experiments, in which the distribution constant for radionuclide migration have been determined. Furthermore measuring methods for the determination of different migration parameters are described. (E.R.)

  14. Design and production of stopper made of concrete foam composite used for open channel conduit cover and parking bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Bustami; Sebayang, Alexander; Sebayang, Septian; Muttaqin, Maraghi; Darmadi, Harry; Basuki, WS; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-03-01

    Open channel conduit is designed and produced with the aims to reduce excess water, whether from rain, seepage, or excess irrigation water in an area. It is also included in one of the important components of urban infrastructure in tackling the problem of flooding and waterlogging. On the roadway, e.g. housing complex the open channel conduits should function the same, however conduit covers are needed. The covers should be also designed to function as parking bumper. This paper discusses the design and production of the stoppers using our newly invented materials; the stoppers are structurally tested under static, dynamic, and bump test. Response of the conduit cover are found from structural analysis using finite element software ANSYS MECHANICAL version 17.5. Two types of stoppers are introduced: flat and curvy configuration. It was obtained that both types are suitable for open channel conduit cover and parking bumper.

  15. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; CHENG Ning; LI Zhen-shuang

    2013-01-01

    For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC s...

  16. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  17. The Underground "Fortress" of Bang Tsho Ruler

    OpenAIRE

    Pelgen, Ugyen; Gyeltshen, Tshering

    2004-01-01

    The Bang Tsho village was part of the Kurtoed Province in North Eastern Bhutan. The authors deals with the underground architecture of this village. The article is based on a field visit carried out in November 2002. While the main focus of field work was on discerning the migration routes of the sKur smad speaking population of Lhun rtse rDzong khag to other rDzong khags in particular bKra shsi gang and bKra shis yang rtse the authors visited also the Bang tsho village and examined the ruins...

  18. Passenger noise exposure in London underground

    OpenAIRE

    Garbala, M; Gomez-Agustina, L

    2015-01-01

    The London Underground network carries almost half of London's commuters, and is the most heavily used mode of public transport in London. Its routes are 402 km long in total and it is used by over 1.2 billion passengers annually1. Though very efficient and convenient, travelling by Tube can be a noisy experience which could have potential impact on commuters’ hearing health. There is a wealth of research and information on impacts of occupational noise on hearing health. However, there is ve...

  19. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  20. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  2. 78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ... maintained Y for the generation of electric power and uses for such generation only the hydroelectric... (Y/N) FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by HREA....... The conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, Y... of water for agricultural, municipal, or industrial consumption and not primarily for the generation...

  3. 76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Calleguas Municipal Water District filed with the Commission a petition to... Municipal Water District, 87 FERC ] 62,256 (1999). \\3\\ See filing of July 11, 2011 by Calleguas Municipal...

  4. The Conduit and Whirlpooling: A New Theory of Knowledge Constitution and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Azuka

    2010-01-01

    There is a new epistemological approach for exploring knowledge constitution and dispersal in a dynamic Web ecosystem. The approach has three pivots. The first presents virtual whirlpools as knowledge systems. The second introduces the creator of the system as the Conduit. The third formulates a theory of knowledge that involves the collective…

  5. Heterogeneity in conduit artery function in humans: impact of arterial size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Black, M.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether conduit artery size affects functional responses, we compared the magnitude, time course, and eliciting shear rate stimulus for flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in healthy men (n = 20; 31 +/- 7 yr). Upper limb (brachial and radial) and lower limb (common and superficial femoral) FMD

  6. Development of a new autonomous probe for in situ flow characterization in drowned subsurface conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoun, V.; Pistre, S.; Falgayrettes, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flow in karst aquifers is influenced by the presence of self-organized networks of large conduits. Existing methods which use artificial tracers or tethered robots, provide a limited amount of information on the network's geometry, and on the flow regime that occurs in the conduits. To address hydrogeological problems relative to karst aquifers, the characterization of the flow conditions in the network of conduits is needed. However this is a challenging task. We present a novel wireless probe which is developed to allow remote characterization of main flow directions and regime in subsurface environments. The relatively small (40 mm diameter) spherical autonomous probe is designed to allow transport by the water stream. During its journey in the flow, the non-expensive electronic equipment installed on board measures and records orientation data. Once the probe is retrieved, the recorded measurements can be analyzed. The encouraging preliminary laboratory results indicate that the new probe can accurately characterize different flow directions and regimes. This new autonomous probe offers a chance to help address the challenging task of characterizing flow in unknown drowned karst conduits.

  7. Conduit diameter and wall remodeling in elite athletes and spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowley, N.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; George, K.P.; Whyte, G.P.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Green, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate localized and systemic effects of chronic exercise and inactivity on conduit artery remodeling in humans. METHODS: We recruited elite athletes engaged in predominantly lower limb (LL runners/cyclists, n = 10) or upper limb (UL canoe paddlers, n = 12) exercise

  8. A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the conduit, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... maintained for Y HREA. the generation of electric power and uses for such generation only the hydroelectric... provision Description (Y/N) FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by HREA.. The conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, pipeline, Y aqueduct, flume, ditch, or similar manmade water conveyance that is operated for the...

  10. 78 FR 61986 - City of Santa Barbara, California; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ... maintained for the Y amended by HREA. generation of electric power and uses for such generation only the... Statutory provision Description (Y/N) FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended The conduit the facility uses is a tunnel, canal, pipeline, Y by HREA. aqueduct, flume, ditch, or similar manmade water conveyance that is operated...

  11. 78 FR 66355 - Pleasant Grove City, UT; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The 120 kW Battle Creek Microhydro Power Generation Project... (Y/N) FPA 30(a)(3)(A), as amended by The conduit the facility Y HREA. uses is a tunnel, canal... of water for agricultural, municipal, or industrial consumption and not primarily for the generation...

  12. Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, T.; Birk, S.; Rehrl, C.; Shoemaker, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and conduits. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the conduit system. In contrast, the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for conduits or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  14. Nerve growth factor released from a novel PLGA nerve conduit can improve axon growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keng-Min; Shea, Jill; Gale, Bruce K.; Sant, Himanshu; Larrabee, Patti; Agarwal, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Nerve injury can occur due to penetrating wounds, compression, traumatic stretch, and cold exposure. Despite prompt repair, outcomes are dismal. In an attempt to help resolve this challenge, in this work, a poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nerve conduit with associated biodegradable drug reservoir was designed, fabricated, and tested. Unlike current nerve conduits, this device is capable of fitting various clinical scenarios by delivering different drugs without reengineering the whole system. To demonstrate the potential of this device for nerve repair, a series of experiments were performed using nerve growth factor (NGF). First, an NGF dosage curve was developed to determine the minimum NGF concentration for optimal axonal outgrowth on chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. Next, PLGA devices loaded with NGF were evaluated for sustained drug release and axon growth enhancement with the released drug. A 20 d in vitro release test was conducted and the nerve conduit showed the ability to meet and maintain the minimum NGF requirement determined previously. Bioactivity assays of the released NGF showed that drug released from the device between the 15th and 20th day could still promote axon growth (76.6-95.7 μm) in chick DRG cells, which is in the range of maximum growth. These novel drug delivery conduits show the ability to deliver NGF at a dosage that efficiently promotes ex vivo axon growth and have the potential for in vivo application to help bridge peripheral nerve gaps.

  15. First gas flux measurements of conduit permeability decrease prior to Strombolian eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburello, Giancarlo; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Lo Coco, Eleonora; Delle Donne, Dario; Ripepe, Maurizio; Bitetto, Marcello; D'Aleo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Strombolian eruptions can be described in terms of growth, coalescence, and rise of a gas pocket (aka slug) bursting at the surface of a vent. This model overlooks that the transition to explosive regimes is mostly controlled by the permeability in the upper part of a volcanic conduit. We report here on the first gas flux measurements of Strombolian explosions from a vent that exhibited a significant decrease of passive degassing tens of second prior to the onset of the explosion. This particular explosive activity took place during the July 2014 lava overflows, when the magma level inside the conduit rose up to the crater terrace. The amount of gas that accumulated before the eruption is incredibly similar to the amount of gas ejected during the explosion. This similarity suggests a mechanism of decrease of the shallow conduit permeability and a subsequent accumulation of gas behind a cap of cold magma. The accumulated gas is then released when the over-pressure can open a leak on the cap of cold magma. Our unprecedented results offer key and novel insights into the explosive degassing dynamics within the shallow conduit systems of this open-vent volcano and probably at many other basaltic volcanoes.

  16. Creep behaviour of a polymer-based underground support liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    All underground excavations (tunnels, mines, caverns, etc.) need a form of support to ensure that excavations remain safe and stable for the designed service lifetime. In the last decade, a new support material, thin spray-on liner (TSL) has started to take place of traditional underground surface supports of bolts and shotcrete. TSLs are generally cement, latex, polymer-based and also reactive or non-reactive, multi-component materials applied to the rock surface with a layer of few millimeter thickness. They have the advantages of low volume, logistics, rapid application and low operating cost. The majority of current TSLs are two-part products that are mixed on site before spraying onto excavation rock surfaces. Contrary to the traditional brittle supports, the high plastic behaviour of TSLs make them to distribute the loads on larger lining area. In literature, there is a very limited information exist on the creep behavior of TSLs. In this study, the creep behavior of a polymer-based TSL was investigated. For this purpose, 7-day cured dogbone TSL specimens were tested under room temperature and humidity conditions according to ASTM-D2990 creep testing standard. A range of dead weights (80, 60, 40, and 20 % of the tensile strength) were applied up to 1500 hours. As a result of this study, the time-dependent strain behavior of a TSL was presented for different constant load conditions. Moreover, a new equation was derived to estimate tensile failure time of the TSL for a given loading condition. If the tensile stress acting on the TSL is known, the effective permanent support time of the TSL can be estimated by the proposed relationship.

  17. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  18. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  19. SUIVI DE LA MIGRATION D’AVALAISON DES ANGUILLES PAR UNE CONDUITE DE DEBIT RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEGAULT A.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi de la migration catadrome de l’anguille par une conduite de débit réservé a été réalisé sur le barrage de la retenue de Bois Joli sur le Frémur (dénivelé : 13,7 m ; 3 millions de m3. Une partie des migrateurs utilise cette conduite, au début de la saison de dévalaison quand elle représente la seule voie de transit mais également plus tard, lorsque le barrage déverse et que s’ouvre ainsi une seconde voie de passage. En raison des faibles débits d’alimentation et de l’implantation de l’entrée de la conduite on peut supposer que les anguilles prospectent la retenue pour trouver une voie de transit. L’efficacité de l’équipement, qui s’établit à 12 % de la dévalaison totale, concourt donc pour une part non négligeable au transit des anguilles. La partition des débits entre les différentes voies de migration semblerait essentielle pour définir leur efficacité. Malgré l’aménagement de la conduite, on observe une mortalité de 11 % des anguilles qui l’empruntent. Elle semble essentiellement liée à l’abrasion contre les parois et le papillon de la vanne. Dans de nombreux cas, la mortalité lors du passage dans les conduites de débit réservé doit être très importante, voire totale en raison de leur configuration et de leur mode de gestion. Cette mortalité tend à réduire le nombre des géniteurs produit par le bassin versant. Les anguilles marquées qui ont franchi le barrage grâce à la conduite avant le pic de migration stoppent leur progression en aval. Elles la reprennent quelques semaines plus tard quand le barrage déverse ou l’année suivante. Ce second constat confirme les effets des retenues sur la vitesse de migration. L’utilisation des conduites de débit réservé par les anguilles d’avalaison devrait être prise en compte lors de leur conception et de leur gestion afin de réduire les risques de mortalité.

  20. Double-peaked breakthrough curves as a consequence of solute transport through underground lakes: a case study of the Furfooz karst system, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaide, Lorraine; Collon, Pauline; Poulain, Amaël; Rochez, Gaëtan; Hallet, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    The existence of double-peaked breakthrough curves (BTC), which are the result of the transport of a dye tracer through underground lakes, is reported. Investigations were undertaken on the Furfooz karst system in southern Belgium. In this system, the River Lesse sinks partially into a swallow hole. The water follows a solitary conduit leading to an underground lake that is directly connected to a second underground lake. Double-peaked BTCs were detected in the resurgent water, downstream of this second lake. The report first describes field data (tracer tests in various hydrologic conditions) which point towards the double peak being linked to a nonlinear process that originates within the lakes. Complementary investigations within the lakes show a complex behavior of the dye tracer related to a specific hydrodynamic feature that leads to the separation of the solute plume. A conceptual model of the solute transport within the lakes is proposed. This model emphasizes the physical effect of the lakes on the dye flow-through process.

  1. Thermal image study of detecting near-underground structures by means of infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshizo; Fan, Zuofen; Liu, Chanliang; Inagaki, Terumi

    1995-03-01

    An infrared radiometer is used to detect several flaws of industrial structural elements, as one remote sensing device. The thermal image method (TIM) was carried out to analyze location and dimension of the internal flaws of mechanical components, like piping, vessel, slab and pile. Internal flaws were detected by visualizing abnormal behavior of radiation temperature distribution of the tested surface by solar and artificial heat injection. The induced nonuniform temperature shows the existence of the internal flaws imaged on the CRT display of the infrared radiometer. As one application subject, the TIM method was extensively applied to near-underground buried materials of ancient remains; such as corner stone, stone settlement, shell mound, and tomb. The paper represents basic experimental and analytical results of preliminary and demonstration model tests of the buried materials in the soil and rock by solar, direct, and indirect combustion heaters. After continuous irradiation heating, we measured and recorded transient radiation temperature distribution of the tested ground surface which inserts the model near-underground tests plates of stylene, concrete, stone and gravel, changing width and depth of the test plates. Nonuniform and discontinuous temperature distribution of the tested surface above the inserted plates shows the existence of near- underground buried materials. Furthermore, transient temperature and heat flow behavior was numerically analyzed by solving a transient two-dimensional heat-balance equation. Calculation results were quite useful to analyze the experimental heat flow behavior around the buried object.

  2. Finite element modeling of self-potential signals over conduits and fractures in covered karst terrain Peter Bumpus and Sarah Kruse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    A year of continuous monitoring with two grids of 12-15 electrodes each measured self-potential (SP) over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Various SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: flow in the conduit is faster than through surrounding surficial sediment, flow in the conduit is slower than through surrounding sediment, and conduit flow rates match those through the surrounding sediments. It is further postulated that conduits change permeability with inflow and washing out of sediment, especially associated with rain events. Numerical simulations of the postulated flow regimes were run with 2D simulations using the Comsol finite element modeling code. Simulations show that each regime produces different SP patterns. Models simulate the Tampa field setting in which a 1-2 meter-thick high permeability sand layer overlies a low-permeability clay-rich layer. A funnel-shaped conduit breaches both layers. In the models, when the permeability of the conduit sands is equal to surrounding surficial sands, a small (several mV) negative anomaly manifests locally at the conduit. This negative anomaly can be explained as the result of the depression of the SPS surface (the first sediment surface with a change in conductance or streaming potential coefficient) in the conduit. However a permeability difference of as little as 5 to 20 percent between conduit and background can cause an SP anomaly of tens to several hundred millivolts, either positive or negative. When the permeability is higher in the conduit than the surficial sands, lateral flow into the conduit within the sand layer and through the conduit to the underlying aquifer are both high, and the SP signal over the conduit is positive. This may contradict the concept exemplified in other studies that downward flow creates a negative anomaly. In our case the

  3. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  4. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  5. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  6. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  8. Speleogenetic effects of interaction between deeply derived fracture-conduit flow and intrastratal matrix flow in hypogene karst settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymokhina Elizaveta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In carbonate rocks, especially in those with high primary porosity such as most Cenozoic carbonates, the interaction between deeply derived rising flow through sub-vertical fracture-controlled conduits and intrastratal matrix flow of shallower systems can invoke mixing cor- rosion and result in prominent speleogenetic effects. This paper outlines a conceptual model of such interaction and provides instructive field examples of relevant morphological effects from two different regions within the Prichernomorsky (north Black Sea basin, where karst features are developed in lower Pliocene, Eocene and Paleocene limestones. In the Crimean fore-mountain region, extensive steep to ver- tical limestone scarps formed through recent exposure of hypogenic fracture-controlled conduits provide outstanding possibilities to directly examine details of the original karstic porosity. The morphological effects of the conduit/matrix interaction, documented in both caves and exposed scarps, include lateral widening of sub-vertical conduits within the interaction intervals (formation of lateral notches and niches and the development of side bedding-parallel conduits, pockets and vuggy-spongework zones. Natural convection circulation, invoked by interaction of the two flow systems, spreads the morphological effects throughout the conduit space above the interaction interval. Where the interaction of the two flow systems is particularly strongly localized, such as along junctions of two vertical fracture sets, the resultant morphological effect can take the form of isolated chambers. The variety of speleogenetic features developed through the conduit/matrix interaction, can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1 variously shaped swells of the major fracture conduit itself (morphological fea- tures of its walls – niches and pockets, and 2 features of the vuggy-spongework halo surrounding the conduit. This halo includes clustered and stratiform cavities, spongework

  9. The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, Jason

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

  10. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  11. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    EW-201135) Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage March 2017 This document has been cleared for...09/2011-03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a...v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGWT American Ground Water Trust AHU Air Handling Unit ATES Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage BTES Borehole

  12. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  13. ORGANIZE AN INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERGROUND SPACE OF MEGAPOLISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Pustovoytenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forecasting the trends of urbanization, the main factors influencing the modern methods of organization of development of the underground construction of mega-cities, during the substantiation of field of integrated use and composition of organizational-and-technological schemes of development of underground space, is considered.

  14. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted ...

  15. A new principle for underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan; Paasch, Kasper; Lassen, Benny

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic idea, design considerations and field test results for a novel concept of an energy storage system. The system is of the underground pumped hydro storage (UPHS) type where energy is stored by lifting a mass of soil through the pumping of water into an underground cav...

  16. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  17. Diurnal variations from muon data at Takeyama underground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Imai, K.; Imai, T.; Kudo, S.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    An underground station, Takeyama, is introduced, and some results of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations for the period between 1967 and 1984 are presented. There are clear tendencies of double and single solar cycle variations in the daily variations which are in good accord with those detected by other underground and neutron monitor observations.

  18. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Environment and the Department of Petroleum Resources control underground disposal of wastes in Nigeria with three principal regulations: Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground Injection and the ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340 Underground...) Ventilated with intake air that is monitored for carbon monoxide or smoke by an AMS installed and operated...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Involve activation of the fire alarm system; and (3) Include evacuation of all persons from their work... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At...

  1. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  2. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  3. A Rare Window Into Magmatic Conduit Processes: Time Series Observations From Active Lava Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, E.; Ruprecht, P.; Patrick, M.; Oppenheimer, C.; Peters, N.; Spampinato, L.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Unglert, K.; Barreyre, T.

    2015-12-01

    Time-lapse thermal images of the lake surface are used to investigate the circulation and cooling patterns of three lava lakes: Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater, Mount Erebus, and Nyiragongo. We report results for the time-dependent, two-dimensional velocity and temperature fields of the lake surface. These data sets constrain the locations of flow divergence (upwelling) and convergence (downwelling), the distribution of distinct "plates" and "rifts", the dominant time scales for changes in flow pattern at each lake, and the physical properties of the magma. Upwelling and downwelling locations are strikingly different between the three lakes. Upwelling at Nyiragongo and Erebus occurs dominantly in the interior of the lake, where it is occasionally interrupted by catastrophic downwellings. At Halema'uma'u upwelling and downwelling occur consistently along the perimeter. It remains to be seen whether these differences are dictated merely by the system's geometry or are indicative of intrinsic factors such as melt viscosity, temperature and volatile and crystal content, or of conduit processes such as gas pistoning or slug flow. The availability of high resolution data at Halema'uma'u allows as us to document the evolution of crustal plates and rifts and to investigate the physical properties of the lava and the crust. The physical properties of the lake's surface control lake cooling rates, and thus need to be included in lake circulation and thermal evolution models. We produce time-temperature cooling curves from surface temperature profiles normal to surface rifts and by tracking the cooling of intra-plate bubble bursts. By comparing observations to analytical cooling models, we estimate a porosity of > 80% during the high stand of the lake, slightly higher than estimates of 70% for the upper 120 meters based on gravity data, and close to the porosity of clasts ejected from the lake during recent minor explosions. Furthermore,we find that the number of surface plates

  4. Interstage evaluation of homograft-valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduits for palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Nefthi; Punn, Rajesh; Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Smith, Shea N; Reinhartz, Olaf; Zhang, Yulin; Wright, Gail E; Peng, Lynn F; Wise-Faberowski, Lisa; Hanley, Frank L; McElhinney, Doff B

    2018-04-01

    Palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with a standard nonvalved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit results in an inefficient circulation in part due to diastolic regurgitation. A composite right ventricle pulmonary artery conduit with a homograft valve has a hypothetical advantage of reducing regurgitation, but may differ in the propensity for stenosis because of valve remodeling. This retrospective cohort study included 130 patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent a modified stage 1 procedure with a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit from 2002 to 2015. A composite valved conduit (cryopreserved homograft valve anastomosed to a polytetrafluoroethylene tube) was placed in 100 patients (47 aortic, 32 pulmonary, 13 femoral/saphenous vein, 8 unknown), and a nonvalved conduit was used in 30 patients. Echocardiographic functional parameters were evaluated before and after stage 1 palliation and before the bidirectional Glenn procedure, and interstage interventions were assessed. On competing risk analysis, survival over time was better in the valved conduit group (P = .040), but this difference was no longer significant after adjustment for surgical era. There was no significant difference between groups in the cumulative incidence of bidirectional Glenn completion (P = .15). Patients with a valved conduit underwent more interventions for conduit obstruction in the interstage period, but this difference did not reach significance (P = .16). There were no differences between groups in echocardiographic parameters of right ventricle function at baseline or pre-Glenn. In this cohort of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, inclusion of a valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit was not associated with any difference in survival on adjusted analysis and did not confer an identifiable benefit on right ventricle function. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  5. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. CITEQ creates a transformer for underground electric networks: a joint initiative by Hydro-Quebec and ABB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeau, P.

    1997-01-01

    Advances in technology regarding underground transformers was discussed. After more than 3 years of research, CITEQ (Centre d'innovation sur le transport d'energie du Quebec), a new company founded by Hydro-Quebec and ABB, is on the verge of a breakthrough with a new submersible transformer with solid insulation. This transformer was specially designed for use in underground electric networks. The new transformer is a good alternative to conventional oil transformers which have a high risk of pollution mainly due to corrosion, leaks, explosions or fires. Also, the outer shell of the new transformer is composed of composite material which will eliminate the need for maintenance. The service life of the new transformer is expected to be approximately 30 to 40 years. CITEQ is hoping that this new technology will benefit the residential sector which is powered by underground distribution networks. 1 fig

  7. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  8. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  9. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  10. Data in support of in vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suradip Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present data article we report the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of fabricated nerve conduits described in Das et al. [1]. Green synthesised gold nanoparticles (GNPs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in rat Schwann cells (SCTM41. We also describe herein the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells over the nanofibrous scaffolds. Methods describing surgical implantation of conduits in a rat sciatic nerve injury model, confirming its accurate implantation as well as the porosity and swelling tendency of the nerve conduits are illustrated in the various figures and graphs.

  11. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  12. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  13. Underground openings for in situ experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Korbin, G.

    1982-01-01

    In situ tests include a wide variety of heater experiments with single and multiple arrays at full and reduced scale, block tests, heated room and pillar tests, brine and water migration experiments, permeability tests, fracture hydrology and groundwater chemistry studies, instrumentation development and testing, and other investigations. This article describes the identification of underground openings to accommodate such tests and the concept of a coupled hydrologic-thermomechanical experiment. The hydro/thermomechanical experimental program has five stages: 1) design and fabrication; 2) baseline studies; 3) chamber excavation; 4) test chamber experiment; and 5) data analysis and modeling. From the calculations presented, it was concluded that a large volume of rock (approximately 50 times that in the Stripa full-scale heater test) can be influenced within a reasonable time in the hydro/thermomechanical experiment, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory and repository-sized experiments

  14. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  15. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  16. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  17. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  18. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  19. DEALING WITH TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN UNDERGROUND NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacroix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, 25 people died and more than 150 were seriously injured in Ghislenghien (Belgium because of construction damage to a high pressure gas pipeline. Urban networks are invisible because usually buried between 1 and 1.5 meter underground. They should be identified to prevent such accidents which involve workers and public as well. Rural and urban districts, networks concessionary and contractors; everyone could benefit from their networks becoming safer. To develop software which evaluates the risks in managing both uncertainties and topology is the focus of attention. That’s the reason why we firstly propose to determine the topological relationships between networks; secondly we propose to compute the risks taking into account the various uncertainties such as the security radius or the coordinates accuracy, before giving the different required standards for an artificial intelligence tool in order to obtain high security level.

  20. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  1. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  3. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  4. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are phloem sieve tubes leaky conduits supported by numerous aquaporins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Ryan C; Hacke, Uwe G; Laur, Joan

    2017-05-01

    Aquaporin membrane water channels have been previously identified in the phloem of angiosperms, but currently their cellular characterization is lacking, especially in tree species. Pinpointing the cellular location will help generate new hypotheses of how membrane water exchange facilitates sugar transport in plants. We studied histological sections of balsam poplar ( Populus balsamifera L.) in leaf, petiole, and stem organs. Immuno-labeling techniques were used to characterize the distribution of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies of aquaporins along the phloem pathway. Confocal and super resolution microscopy (3D-SIM) was used to identify the localization of aquaporins at the cellular level. Sieve tubes of the leaf lamina, petiole, and stem were labeled with antibodies directed at PIP1s and PIP2s. While PIP2s were mostly observed in the plasma membrane, PIP1s showed both an internal membrane and plasma membrane labeling pattern. The specificity and consistency of PIP2 labeling in sieve element plasma membranes points to high water exchange rates between sieve tubes and adjacent cells. The PIP1s may relocate between internal membranes and the plasma membrane to facilitate dynamic changes in membrane permeability of sieve elements in response to changing internal or environmental conditions. Aquaporin-mediated changes in membrane permeability of sieve tubes would also allow for some control of radial exchange of water between xylem and phloem. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Technologies to apply optic fibers to an underground cable system; Chichu cable system eno hikari fiber oyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-10

    Discussions were given for the purpose of realizing automation of facility operation and automatic monitoring of facilities by using optical electronics technologies in underground power transmission facilities. In sensing technologies using optic fibers, an optic fiber distribution type sensor was found suitable for monitoring underground power transmission lines as a sensor to measure temperature distribution and pressure distribution along the optic fibers. In sensor signal transmission technologies using optic fibers, laying ultra-high voltage transmission lines over a distance of several ten kilometers is becoming used generally in underground transmission paths, with the environmental requirements on electromagnetic fields becoming more stringent. Under these restraints, an optical transmission system is more advantageous that has longer-distance and wider-area transmission capabilities, and high-insulation and non-induction performances. In technologies to lay optic fiber cables in underground cable paths, contrivances are given on the cable construction for cases where optic fibers and power cables, each varying in mechanical strength are to be integrated. 151 refs., 155 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  8. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage... underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... as defined in § 280.210; and (b) Does not engage in petroleum production, refining, and marketing as...

  10. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  11. Actively evolving subglacial conduits and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, R.; Pattyn, F.; Hewitt, I. J.; Ng, F. S. L.; Berger, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Helm, V.; Bergeot, N.; Favier, L.; Neckel, N.

    2017-05-01

    Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water conduits, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial conduits and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability.

  12. Actively evolving subglacial conduits and eskers initiate ice shelf channels at an Antarctic grounding line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, R; Pattyn, F; Hewitt, I J; Ng, F S L; Berger, S; Matsuoka, K; Helm, V; Bergeot, N; Favier, L; Neckel, N

    2017-05-09

    Ice-shelf channels are long curvilinear tracts of thin ice found on Antarctic ice shelves. Many of them originate near the grounding line, but their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we use ice-penetrating radar data from Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, to infer that the morphology of several ice-shelf channels is seeded upstream of the grounding line by large basal obstacles indenting the ice from below. We interpret each obstacle as an esker ridge formed from sediments deposited by subglacial water conduits, and calculate that the eskers' size grows towards the grounding line where deposition rates are maximum. Relict features on the shelf indicate that these linked systems of subglacial conduits and ice-shelf channels have been changing over the past few centuries. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation and ice-shelf stability.

  13. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, R; Florescu, IP; Coroiu, V; Oancea, A; Lungu, M

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determi...

  14. Enhancing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with a Novel Drug-Delivering Nerve Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for at least 30 days to improve rate of nerve regeneration. We have successfully...deliver nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for at least 30 days to improve the nerve regeneration. The...regeneration, nerve conduits, autograft, drug delivery device, nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neutrophic factor, polytetrafluoroethylene

  15. Enhancing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with a Novel Drug Delivering Nerve Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    stump. Silicone sealant and a PDMS plug are used to seal and fix the two tubes. First generation device: Due to its relatively short half life...tubes of the PLGA nerve conduit. A polyether sulfone (PES) filter membrane, a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) plug and silicone sealant (RTV silicone , Dow...filled with the desired drug and sealed using the PDMS plug end with silicone sealant . The device was dried for 1 hour and then mounted individually

  16. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Tipu Sultan; Zeshan Ahmad; Zahid Anwar; Muhammad Shahzad Khurram

    2017-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV) reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED) and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV rea...

  17. Imaging analysis of platelet deposition on the extracardiac valved conduit in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, H.; Matsuda, H.; Isaka, Y.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuwaka, R.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuki, O.; Nakano, S.; Kimura, K.; Kawashima, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In 14 patients (aged 2-29 yr) with Hancock (n = 11) or Carpentier-Edwards extracardiac valved conduits (n = 3), platelet deposition (PD) was investigated using indium 111 ( 111 In) platelet imaging. Repeated studies were performed in five patients. By visual analysis, 71% (5/7) of the imagings (7 images/5 patients) showed PD at early study 1-3 months after surgery, 9% (1/11) at intermediate study at 6-46 months (mean 21 mon) (11 images/10 patients) and 0% at late study at 81-132 months (3 images/3 patients). Quantitative analysis was made using relative ratio of radioactivity at the graft area to the area of the brachiocephalic artery (platelet accumulation index or PAI). The PAI was 1.85 ± 0.47 (mean ± SD) at early study, 1.51 ± 0.23 at intermediate, and 1.36 ± 0.37 at late study (NS). There was no significant difference in the late pressure gradients across the conduit (16-68 mon postoperatively) between the two groups with (n = 3) and without (n = 5) PD at the early stage (1-18 mon postoperatively, n = 8). The result may indicate that PD to the valved conduit in the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract occurs early postoperatively (mostly within 3 mon). The relationship of the PD detected by this method to late obstruction was not clarified in this study

  18. The Norwood procedure: in favor of the RV-PA conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David J

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the Norwood procedure has culminated in there currently being three treatment strategies available for initial management: the 'classical' Norwood (utilizing a Blalock-Taussig shunt), the Norwood with right-ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit, and the 'hybrid' Norwood procedure utilizing bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting. Each variant has its potential advantages and disadvantages, and this paper looks to examine the evidence in favor of each strategy, with emphasis on the supportive data for the RV-PA conduit. The 'classical' procedure has the benefit of the greatest accumulated surgical experience and avoids any incision into the ventricle. However, the diastolic run-off of the Blalock-Taussig shunt can cause hemodynamic instability and unpredictable coronary steal phenomenon. The RV-PA conduit has the advantage of maintaining diastolic pressure with a more stable postoperative course, but at the cost of a ventriculotomy that may have detrimental long-term sequelae. The 'hybrid' procedure has the advantage of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, but does not always secure coronary blood flow and has a high inter-stage morbidity and reintervention rate. The evidence shows that each technique may have its place in future management, and that treatment algorithms could emerge that direct the choice of procedure for specific patient groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of aortic root surgery with composite mechanical aortic valve conduit and valve-sparing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Mejia, Omar Asdrubal Vilca; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Dias, Altamiro Ribeiro; Mady, Charles; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of early and late results of aortic root reconstruction with aortic valve sparing operations and the composite mechanical valve conduit replacement. From November 2002 to September 2009, 164 consecutive patients with mean age 54 ± 15 years, 115 male, underwent the aortic root reconstruction (125 mechanical valve conduit replacements and 39 valve sparing operations). Sixteen percent of patients had Marfan syndrome and 4.3% had bicuspid aortic valve. One hundred and forty-four patients (88%) were followed for a mean period of 41.1 ± 20.8 months. The hospital mortality was 4.9%, 5.6% in operations with valved conduits and 2.6% in the valve sparing procedures (P valve sparing operations, respectively (95% CI = 70% - 95%, P = 0.001), (95% CI = 82% - 95% P = 0.03) and (95% CI = 81% - 95%, P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dl, Cabrol operation and renal dialysis were predictors of mortality, respectively, with occurrence chance of 6 (95% CI = 1.8 - 19.5, P = 0.003), 12 (95% CI = 3 - 49.7, P = 0.0004) and 16 (95% CI = 3.6 - 71.3, P = 0.0002). The aortic root reconstruction has a low early and late mortality, high survival free of complications and low need for reoperation. During the late follow-up, valve sparing aortic root reconstructions presented fewer incidences of bleeding, thromboembolic events and endocarditis.

  20. Skeletonization of radial and gastroepiploic conduits in coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darzi Ara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of a skeletonized internal thoracic artery in coronary artery bypass graft surgery has been shown to confer certain advantages over a traditional pedicled technique, particularly in certain patient groups. Recent reports indicate that radial and gastroepiploic arteries can also be harvested using a skeletonized technique. The aim of this study is to systematically review the available evidence regarding the use of skeletonized radial and gastroepiploic arteries within coronary artery bypass surgery, focusing specifically on it's effect on conduit length and flow, levels of endothelial damage, graft patency and clinical outcome. Four electronic databases were systematically searched for studies reporting the utilisation of the skeletonization technique within coronary revascularisation surgery in humans. Reference lists of all identified studies were checked for any missing publications. There appears to be some evidence that skeletonization may improve angiographic patency, when compared with pedicled vessels in the short to mid-term. We have found no suggestion of increased complication rates or increased operating time. Skeletonization may increase the length of the conduit, and the number of sequential graft sites, but no clear clinical benefits are apparent. Our study suggests that there is not enough high quality or consistent evidence to currently advocate the application of this technique to radial or gastroepiploic conduits ahead of a traditional pedicled technique.

  1. Skeletonization of radial and gastroepiploic conduits in coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Rachel M; Warren, Oliver J; Szczeklik, Michal; Wallace, Sophie; Leff, Daniel R; Kokotsakis, John; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2007-06-05

    The use of a skeletonized internal thoracic artery in coronary artery bypass graft surgery has been shown to confer certain advantages over a traditional pedicled technique, particularly in certain patient groups. Recent reports indicate that radial and gastroepiploic arteries can also be harvested using a skeletonized technique. The aim of this study is to systematically review the available evidence regarding the use of skeletonized radial and gastroepiploic arteries within coronary artery bypass surgery, focusing specifically on it's effect on conduit length and flow, levels of endothelial damage, graft patency and clinical outcome. Four electronic databases were systematically searched for studies reporting the utilisation of the skeletonization technique within coronary revascularisation surgery in humans. Reference lists of all identified studies were checked for any missing publications. There appears to be some evidence that skeletonization may improve angiographic patency, when compared with pedicled vessels in the short to mid-term. We have found no suggestion of increased complication rates or increased operating time. Skeletonization may increase the length of the conduit, and the number of sequential graft sites, but no clear clinical benefits are apparent. Our study suggests that there is not enough high quality or consistent evidence to currently advocate the application of this technique to radial or gastroepiploic conduits ahead of a traditional pedicled technique.

  2. Evaluation of venous and arterial conduit patency by 16-slice spiral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, E; Romagnoli, A; D'Eliseo, A; Tomassini, M; Razzini, C; Sperandio, M; Simonetti, G; Romeo, F; Mehta, J L

    2004-11-16

    Computed tomography has been shown to be useful in the evaluation of aortocoronary bypass grafts (CABG). This is the first prospective study to evaluate the accuracy of a new-generation scanner in the detection of patency and significant stenoses (>50% decrease in diameter) of venous and arterial grafts in patients with previous CABG. In 96 patients (80 males, mean age 62 years) with previous CABG, a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scan was performed (collimation 16x0.625 mm). Patients with atrial fibrillation, renal failure, severe respiratory disease, severe heart failure, heart rate >70 bpm despite therapy, or unstable angina were excluded. A total of 285 conduits implanted on the native coronary arteries at the time of CABG were evaluated. MSCT data were analyzed by 2 independent radiologists and compared with the results of conventional angiography. Three patients were excluded from analysis. All conduits were judged evaluable in 84 patients. Among these patients, MSCT correctly diagnosed 54 occluded grafts and 4 significant stenoses on the body of the grafts. Of the 17 significant anastomotic lesions, MSCT correctly diagnosed 15. For these 84 patients, diagnostic accuracy was 99%, sensitivity was 97%, and specificity was 100%. When all 93 patients were considered, the sensitivity of MSCT in diagnosing significant stenoses was 96%. MSCT with the new-generation scanner allows for accurate assessment of venous and arterial conduits in patients with previous CABG with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Exclusion criteria and radiation exposure remain limitations of the method.

  3. Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the pharmacology of rat conduit and resistance intrapulmonary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howarth Frank C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor control of blood glucose in diabetes is known to promote vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Diabetes was recently shown to be linked to an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine how the pharmacological reactivity of intrapulmonary arteries is altered in a rat model of diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by the β-cell toxin, streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg, and isolated conduit and resistance intrapulmonary arteries studied 3–4 months later. Isometric tension responses to the vasoconstrictors phenylephrine, serotonin and PGF2α, and the vasodilators carbachol and glyceryl trinitrate, were compared in STZ-treated rats and age-matched controls. Results STZ-induced diabetes significantly blunted the maximum response of conduit, but not resistance pulmonary arteries to phenylephrine and serotonin, without a change in pEC50. Agonist responses were differentially reduced, with serotonin (46% smaller affected more than phenylephrine (32% smaller and responses to PGF2α unaltered. Vasoconstriction caused by K+-induced depolarisation remained normal in diabetic rats. Endothelium-dependent dilation to carbachol and endothelium-independent dilation to glyceryl trinitrate were also unaffected. Conclusion The small resistance pulmonary arteries are relatively resistant to STZ-induced diabetes. The impaired constrictor responsiveness of conduit vessels was agonist dependent, suggesting possible loss of receptor expression or function. The observed effects cannot account for pulmonary hypertension in diabetes, rather the impaired reactivity to vasoconstrictors would counteract the development of pulmonary hypertensive disease.

  4. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Strategies: Electrically Stimulating Polymer Based Nerve Growth Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew; Shelke, Namdev B.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Yu, Xiaojun; McCullough, Louise D.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of large peripheral nerve damages ranges from the use of an autologous nerve graft to a synthetic nerve growth conduit. Biological grafts, in spite of many merits, show several limitations in terms of availability and donor site morbidity, and outcomes are suboptimal due to fascicle mismatch, scarring, and fibrosis. Tissue engineered nerve graft substitutes utilize polymeric conduits in conjunction with cues both chemical and physical, cells alone and or in combination. The chemical and physical cues delivered through polymeric conduits play an important role and drive tissue regeneration. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been applied toward the repair and regeneration of various tissues such as muscle, tendon, nerve, and articular tissue both in laboratory and clinical settings. The underlying mechanisms that regulate cellular activities such as cell adhesion, proliferation, cell migration, protein production, and tissue regeneration following ES is not fully understood. Polymeric constructs that can carry the electrical stimulation along the length of the scaffold have been developed and characterized for possible nerve regeneration applications. We discuss the use of electrically conductive polymers and associated cell interaction, biocompatibility, tissue regeneration, and recent basic research for nerve regeneration. In conclusion, a multifunctional combinatorial device comprised of biomaterial, structural, functional, cellular, and molecular aspects may be the best way forward for effective peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27278739

  5. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  6. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  7. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  8. Mid-term follow-up of the status of Gore-Tex graft after extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshie; Imoto, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Masato; Kajiwara, Takashi; Sese, Akira; Watanabe, Mamie; Ohno, Takuro; Joo, Kunitaka

    2009-07-01

    Extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure (ECFP) using Gore-Tex graft has been performed with increasing frequency for the patients with functional single ventricle. However, lack of growth potential and longevity of the conduit are consistent concerns and main points of criticism of the ECFP. In this study, we investigated the mid-term status of the Gore-Tex graft used in the ECFP by comparing the internal diameter of the graft with the inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter at 1 month and 5.2 years after the ECFP. Of 79 patients who underwent ECFP using Gore-Tex graft between November 1997 and December 2007, 33 patients who had completed cardiac catheterization at 1 month (21-73 days) and 5.2 years (3.3-9.6 years) after the ECFP were included in this study. We measured the internal diameter of the Gore-Tex graft and IVC at both catheterizations retrospectively. The size of the Gore-Tex graft used in the ECFP was 16 mm in 17 patients, 18 mm in 9 patients, and 20mm in 7 patients. Laminar flow through the conduits was maintained without any stenosis or kinking of the graft in these 33 patients. No intervention or reoperation related to the extracardiac conduit has been required. There were no significant differences in mean cross-sectional area (CSA) of the conduits at 1 month versus 5.2 years after the ECFP for each conduit size, and no significant changes in the conduit-to-IVC CSA ratio (0.98+/-0.40 vs 0.82+/-0.21 for 16 mm, 1.09+/-0.30 vs 0.92+/-0.33 for 18 mm, and 1.16+/-0.55 vs 0.94+/-0.44 for 20mm conduit). The conduit CSA and conduit-to-IVC CSA ratio remained unchanged in small caliber grafts down to 16 mm at 5.2 years after the ECFP. However, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the fate of the Gore-Tex graft and late hemodynamics in the patients with small conduits after they achieve full somatic growth.

  9. Earthquake resistance of cavern for underground nuclear power plants, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya

    1983-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plants have been studied as one of new siting forms of the nuclear power plants. This form is that some or all of nuclear power plants would be contained in the caverns within the rock mass. Large underground caverns such as the reactor vessel cavern should be excavated at the construction. Therefore, the study on the stability of such large underground caverns containing big important structure will be very important in case of the design of the underground power plants. However the stability analysis of underground caverns during earthquake has almost never been studied. Consequently the analytical methods have not been established. For the purpose of foreseeing the stability analysis of the large underground caverns during earthquake the dynamic analysis of the underground caverns were studied. The characteristics of the rock mass situated in the coastal hillside suitable to the siting conditions of the underground nuclear power plants in Japan were estimated. The stability during earthquake of the reactor vessel caverns of the tunnel type with the width of 32 m, the height of 46 m and the length of 70 m above which the thickness of earth covering is 100 m were analysed. The dynamic stresses at the surrounding rock mass of the caverns under the horizontal earthquake with 407 gal and the vertical earthquake with 204 gal were calculated. It was obtained from the results that the relaxed zone during earthquake was yielded just at the abutment of the underground in case of both the horizontal earthquake and the vertical earthquake, and the depth of the relaxed zone was 10 m at almost from the arch concrete. It is seemed that such relaxed zone can be treated with rock anchors and arch concretes considering the current reinforcement technique. (author)

  10. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it

  11. Conduit margin heating and deformation during the AD 1886 basaltic Plinian eruption at Tarawera volcano, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Kennedy, Ben; von Aulock, Felix W; Lavallée, Yan; Damby, David E; Vasseur, Jérémie; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B

    During explosive eruptions, a suspension of gas and pyroclasts rises rapidly within a conduit. Here, we have analysed textures preserved in the walls of a pyroclastic feeder dyke of the AD 1886 Tarawera basaltic Plinian fissure eruption. The samples examined consist of basaltic ash and scoria plastered onto a conduit wall of a coherent rhyolite dome and a welded rhyolitic dome breccia. We examine the textural evidence for the response of the wall material, built of ∼75 vol.% glass and ∼25 vol.% crystals (pore-free equivalent), to mass movement in the adjacent conduit. In the rhyolitic wall material, we quantify the orientation and aspect ratio of biotite crystals as strain markers of simple shear deformation, and interpret juxtaposed regions of vesiculation and vesicle collapse as evidence of conduit wall heating. Systematic changes occur close to the margin: (1) porosity is highly variable, with areas locally vesiculated or densified, (2) biotite crystals are oriented with their long axis parallel to the margin, (3) the biotites have greater aspect ratios close to the margin and (4) the biotite crystals are fractured. We interpret the biotite phenocryst deformation to result from crystal fracture, rotation and cleavage-parallel bookcase translation. These textural observations are inferred to indicate mechanical coupling between the hot gas-ash jet and the conduit wall and reheating of wall rock rhyolite. We couple these observations with a simple 1D conductive heating model to show what minimum temperature the conduit wall needs to reach in order to achieve a temperature above the glass transition throughout the texturally-defined deformed zone. We propose that conduit wall heating and resulting deformation influences conduit margin outgassing and may enhance the intensity of such large basaltic eruptions.

  12. Design and ergonomic guidelines for underground mining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teniswood, C.F.; Mason, L.G.; Clark, D.G.N. (Australian Coal Association, Sydney, NSW (Australia))

    1991-09-01

    Design and ergonomic guidelines for Continuous Miners and Shuttle Cars operating underground in Australian coal mines. These two assessment manuals and their common appendices have been bound as one volume for distribution and use by engineering, safety, management and operation personnel. A worksheet format was adopted wherever possible to encourage staff at the mines to work through procedures and reach identifiable conclusions to problems at the local level. These manuals address the requirements for rating machines and scheduling their modification and rebuilding, together with procedures for evaluating maintainability and repairability. Close attention was given to factors which impact upon the operators of these machines. Worksheets provide for ergonomic assessments of operator compartments, their visual fields and the demands of the workplace upon machine operators. The appendices detail mine surveys, the site modifications already implemented to these machines and suggested changes for future implementation. Reports on the anthropometry of Australian miners and the use of standard and wide angle photographs to assess visual fields. Further aspects of maintainability, repairability and operator related features are covered, and a comprehensive list of references is supplied. Three technology transfer workshops have been held in New South Wales and a seminar introduction to the Queensland industry. Guidelines have been enthusiastically received by participants, who have expressed the desire that other machinery types also be covered.

  13. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  14. Linking observations at active volcanoes to physical processes through conduit flow modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark; Neuberg, Jurgen

    2010-05-01

    Low frequency seismic events observed on volcanoes such as Soufriere hills, Montserrat may offer key indications about the state of a volcanic system. To obtain a better understanding of the source of these events and of the physical processes that take place within a volcano it is necessary to understand the conditions of magma a depth. This can be achieved through conduit flow modelling (Collier & Neuberg, 2006). 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved through a Finite Element approach, for differing initial water and crystal contents, magma temperatures, chamber overpressures and geometric shapes of conduit. In the fully interdependent modelled system each of these variables has an effect on the magma density, viscosity, gas content, and also the pressure within the flow. These variables in turn affect the magma ascent velocity and the overall eruption dynamics of an active system. Of particular interest are the changes engendered in the flow by relativity small variations in the conduit geometry. These changes can have a profound local effect of the ascent velocity of the magma. By restricting the width of 15m wide, 5000m long vertical conduit over a 100m distance a significant acceleration of the magma is seen in this area. This has implications for the generation of Low-Frequency (LF) events at volcanic systems. The strain-induced fracture of viscoelastic magma or brittle failure of melt has been previously discussed as a possible source of LF events by several authors (e.g. Tuffen et al., 2003; Neuberg et al., 2006). The location of such brittle failure however has been seen to occur at relativity shallow depths (relate to in terms of the volcanoes activity. Tuffen, H., Dingwell, D.B., and Pinkerton, H. 2003. Repeated fracture and healing of silicic magma generate flow banding and earthquakes? Geology, 31(12), 1089-1092. Collier, L. and Neuberg, J. 2006. Incorporating seismic observations into 2D conduit flow modelling. Journal of volcanology and

  15. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  16. First underground light versus heat discrimination for dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Marcillac, P. de; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A

    2003-06-19

    We report on the results of the first underground dark matter search with light versus heat discrimination. It has been performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in the frame of the Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD (ROSEBUD) Collaboration with a double bolometer consisting of a 54 g scintillating CaWO{sub 4} and a thin Ge (0.26 g) for light detection. Its capability to distinguish nuclear against electron recoils has been proved and applied to derive limits for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates.

  17. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  18. ONKALO. Underground characterisation and research programme (UCRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the ONKALO Underground Characterisation and Research Programme (UCRP) is to explore Olkiluoto rock conditions and thereby enhance the current geoscientific understanding of the site, to allow the submission of an application for a construction licence for the deep repository. The characterisation programme has the following geoscientific goals: to develop and demonstrate techniques for detailed characterising volumes of rock from the underground, to update the current descriptive model of Olkiluoto bedrock and to increase confidence in this model such that it will serve the needs of construction and the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report (PSAR) in the construction licence application, and to identify volumes of rock that could be suitable for housing parts of the repository. The development of ONKALO will be based on coordinated investigation, design and construction activities. Mapping data from the tunnel front and data obtained from short probe holes will constitute most of the data needed to control the construction of ONKALO. Pilot holes will be drilled along the tunnel profile as the excavation proceeds and investigations will be carried out for geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterisation. Investigations cover more detailed mapping and sampling in parts of the tunnel, mapping and sampling of potential groundwater inflows to the tunnel and investigations from characterisation bore holes drilled from ONKALO. In addition, monitoring is planned in surface-drilled boreholes, in boreholes drilled from ONKALO, and in ONKALO itself. Monitoring will reveal changes in bedrock conditions and thus provide important information for site characterisation. The information collected by characterisation and monitoring will all be assessed in an integrated modelling effort. The aim of this modelling is both to successively enhance the description and understanding of the rock volume around ONKALO and to assess potential

  19. Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion

  20. Computational Studies for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a well proven technology in order to access the coal lying either too deep underground, or is otherwise too costly to be extracted using the conventional mining methods. UCG product gas is commonly used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. During the UCG process, a cavity is formed in the coal seam during its conversion to gaseous products. The cavity grows in a three-dimensional fashion as the gasification proceeds. The UCG process is indeed a result of several complex interactions of various geo-thermo-mechanical processes such as the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, water influx, thermo-mechanical failure, and other geological aspects. The rate of the growth of this cavity and its shape will have a significant impact on the gas flow patterns, chemical kinetics, temperature distributions, and finally the quality of the product gas. It has been observed that there is insufficient information available in the literature to provide clear insight into these issues. It leaves us with a great opportunity to investigate and explore the UCG process, both from the experimental as well as theoretical perspectives. In the development and exploration of new research, experiment is undoubtedly very important. However, due to the excessive cost involvement with experimentation it is not always recommended for the complicated process like UCG. Recently, with the advent of the high performance computational facilities it is quite possible to make alternative experimentation numerically of many physically involved problems using certain computational tools like CFD (computational fluid dynamics). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, modeling strategies have frequently been utilized for the UCG process. Keeping in view the above, the various modeling strategies commonly deployed for carrying out mathematical modeling of UCG process are described here in

  1. Surface Waves and Flow-Induced Oscillations along an Underground Elliptic Cylinder Filled with a Viscous Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, A.

    2015-12-01

    I made a linear analysis of flow-induced oscillations along an underground cylindrical conduit with an elliptical cross section on the basis of the hypothesis that volcanic tremor is a result of magma movement through a conduit. As a first step to understand how the self oscillation occurs because of magma flow, I investigated surface wave propagation and attenuation along an infinitely long fluid-filled elliptic cylinder in an elastic medium. The boundary element method is used to obtain the two-dimensional wave field around the ellipse in the frequency-wavenumber domain. When the major axis is much greater than the minor axis of the ellipse, we obtain the analytic form of the dispersion relation of both the crack-wave mode (Korneev 2008, Lipovsky & Dunham 2015) and the Rayleigh-wave mode with flexural deformation. The crack-wave mode generally has a slower phase speed and a higher attenuation than the Rayleigh-wave mode. In the long-wavelength limit, the crack-wave mode disappears because of fluid viscosity, but the Rayleigh-wave mode exists with a constant Q-value that depends on viscosity. When the aspect ratio of the ellipse is finite, the surface waves can basically be understood as those propagating along a fluid pipe. The flexural mode does exist even when the wavelength is much longer than the major axis, but its phase speed coincides with that of the surrounding S-wave (Randall 1991). As its attenuation is zero in the long-wavelength limit, the flexural mode differs in nature from surface wave. I also obtain a result on linear stability of viscous flow through an elliptic cylinder. In this analysis, I made an assumption that the fluid inertia is so small that the Stokes equation can be used. As suggested by the author's previous study (Sakuraba & Yamauchi 2014), the flexural (Rayleigh-wave) mode is destabilized at a critical flow speed that decreases with the wavelength. However, when the wavelength is much greater than the major axis of the ellipse, the

  2. Assessment of professional risk caused by heating microclimate in the process of un-derground mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Л. Рудаков

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the possibility to apply probit-function to assess professional risks of underground mining under conditions of heating microclimate. Operations under conditions of heating microclimate, whose parameters exceed threshold criteria, can lead to dehydration, fainting and heat stroke for mine workers. Basing on the results of medico-biological research on the effects of microclimate on human body, the authors have assessed probabilistic nature of excessive heat accumulation depending on heat stress index.Using Shapiro-Wilk statistics, an assessment has been carried out in order to test correspondence of experimental data on heat accumulation in the human body to the normal law of distribution for different values of heat stress index, measured in the process of underground mining operations under conditions of heating microclimate.The paper justifies construction of a probit-model to assess professional risks caused by overheating for various types of underground mining operations, depending on their intensity.Modeling results have been verified by way of comparison with a currently used deterministic model of body overheating. Taking into account satisfactory convergence of results, the authors suggest using probit-model to assess professional risks of overheating, as this model allows to obtain a continuous dependency between professional risk and heat stress index, which in its own turn facilitates a more justified approach to the selection of measures to upgrade working conditions of personnel.

  3. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  4. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  5. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  6. Permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, D.M.; Haynes, C.D.; Whittle, G.P.

    1973-09-01

    The aim of the research performed was to explore methods of permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs that may improve the receptive capacity of a well to a level that will allow continued use of the disposal zone without resorting to elevated injection pressures. The laboratory investigation employed a simulated open-hole completion in a disposal well wherein the entire formation face is exposed to the well bore. Cylindrical core samples from representative reservoir rocks through which a central vertical opening or borehole had been drilled were injected with a liquid waste obtained from a chemical manufacturing plant. This particular waste material was found to have a moderate plugging effect when injected into samples of reservoir rocks in a prior study. A review was made of the chemical considerations that might account for the reduction of permeability in waste injection. Purpose of this study was to ascertain the conditions under which the precipitation of certain compounds might occur in the injection of the particular waste liquid employed. A summary of chemical calculations is contained in Appendix B. The data may be useful in the treatment of wastes prior to injection and in the design of restoration procedures where analyses of waste liquids and interstitial materials are available. The results of permeability restoration tests were analyzed mathematically by curve-fitting techniques performed by a digital computer. A summary of the analyses is set forth in the discussion of test results and examples of computer printouts are included in Appendix A

  7. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  8. Study of the Pasquasia underground cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes have to be verified both by laboratory and on site research, under both surface and underground conditions. The tests carried out under high lithostatic stress can allow extrapolations to be made having absolute value at the depths planned for the construction of the repository. On the area around the Pasquasia mine, a detailed geological mapping (1: 5000 scale) has been carried out. For the purpose of studying the effects induced by the advancement of the excavation's face into the clayey mass and over the cross section of the transversal tunnel, several measurement stations were installed (multibase straingauges, convergency rods, pressure cells, centering and concrete straingauges). Structural observations were made on both the fronts and the walls of the tunnel for the purpose of characterizing the mechanical behaviour of a clayey mass. The 37 cubic blocks, their sides measuring measurement 30cm, along 72 samples collected during the excavation, have been analyzed from different point of view (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, micropaleontological, interstitial water content, thermal properties, etc). After the excavation of the tunnel and the installation of the geotechnical stations, the measurements have been carried on up to March 1987. At this date the work programme has been unfortunately stopped by local authorities unfoundly suspecting Pasquasia mine would be used as waste repository

  9. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  10. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  11. Engineered barrier experiment Mont Terri underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (UPC-CIMNE), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [AITEMIN, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment is being carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland). The aim of the EB experiment is the demonstration of a new concept for the buffer construction of HLW repositories in horizontal drifts, in competent clay formations. The principle of this new buffer construction method is based on the combined use of a lower bed made of compacted bentonite blocks, and an upper backfill made with a bentonite pellets based material. The emplacement layout proposed in this project represents an important innovation for repositories in horizontal drifts. The fact of filling the upper part of the gap between the canister and the rock with a pellets-based type of material makes the emplacement operation much simpler, eliminating some of the most critical aspects of such operation. The experiment is carried out in a gallery excavated in the shaly facies of the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. The geometry of the test site is a horseshoe section, 2,55 m high, 3 m wide and 15 m long. A dummy canister of the same dimensions and weight than the reference one was installed on the top of a compacted bentonite blocks bed, and the gap canister-rock was backfilled with compacted bentonite pellets. The experimental area was isolated by a concrete plug. An artificial hydration system was installed to accelerate the hydration process. In order to monitor the evolution of the system and record the values of different parameters, a data acquisition system was installed. (authors)

  12. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  13. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  14. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  15. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  16. Development of a smart rock bolt for underground monitoring operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moema, JS

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of magnetic methods in measuring the stress or microstructural transformation in an individual bolt in both laboratory and underground environment. The corrosion performance of the smart bolt alloy was evaluated in synthetic mine water and compared...

  17. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  18. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Bauluz, B; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; MartInez, M; Morales, J; Solorzano, A Ortiz de; Pobes, C; Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions are given

  19. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Bauluz, B [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); GarcIa, E [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); MartInez, M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Solorzano, A Ortiz de [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and ({alpha}, n) reactions are given.

  20. Life cycle guideline of petrochemical plant underground piping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Jeng-Ywan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics of petrochemical plant disaster, the type of underground pipeline leakage is the highest proportion, for example, Kaohsiung gas explosion in 2014 is a typical case. Therefore, improvement strategy of petrochemical plant underground piping system from both engineering and management becomes an important issue. Through reviewing regulations as well as surveying questionnaire, including kinds of piping materials, 3D drawing files, operation procedures, information sharing, etc., the findings show lack contact of integrated management with engineering executive and insufficient technical requirements are major defects. Overviewing current problems of domestic petrochemical plant underground piping system management, and comparing to international criteria and specifications, this research focuses on the of piping design, construction, operations, maintenance, and inspection. Then management procedures and engineering technical feasibility strategies are suggested. In addition, the proposed life cycle guideline in order to reduce the disaster incidence of petrochemical plant underground pipelines.

  1. Efficiency evaluation of agricultural underground dam in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, W.; Song, S. H.; Yong, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in severe droughts in a rice-planting season (i.e., April to June) in South Korea since 2012. Therefore, all time high-amount water resources in rice-farming seasons (i.e., April to October) were required against natural crises like droughts. The underground dam, which is able to increase groundwater amounts in the alluvium aquifer, has been considered to be an alternative for securing more groundwater resources. In this study, irrigation efficiencies of five pre-existing agricultural underground dams in South Korea were evaluated during the drought periods. A total amount of groundwater storage capacities in alluvial aquifers of these five ones were estimated approximate 15 × 107 m3: above 4 × 106 m3 for two underground dams (Ian, Namsong), 2 3 × 106 m3, for 2 dams (Oksung, Wooil), below 2 × 106 m3 for 1 dam (Gocheon), respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for three underground dams (Ian, Namsong, Gocheon), supplied in rice-farming season are 8.5 × 105 m3/year, 8.3 × 105 m3/year, 6.3 × 105 m3/year, respectively. The total demand of agricultural water in these underground dams is 2.0 × 106 m3/year, 1.9 × 106 m3/year, 2.2 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for whole of rice-farming area in South Korea is 4.3 × 108 m3/year whereas total demand of agricultural water is 9.4 × 109 m3/year. Groundwater were pumped from the radial collector wells located in the upstream from the underground dams. Oksung underground dam, one representative underground dam located in Chungnam province in South Korea, irrigated approximate 3 × 105 m3 during a dried rice-planting season (between April to June) in 2017. It was three times more than usual (9 × 104 m3). Groundwater levels during the same period maintained above 5.55 m, which was slightly lower than usual (6.00 m). Results of Oksung underground dam demonstrated that underground dams in South Korea were effectively operated against

  2. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground water quality of Abia state, Nigeria - physico-chemical properties. ... than a mean value of 5.17 ± 0.09 obtained for Umuahia. Underground waters of high population density areas had mean pH value of 4.29 ± 0.16 which differed significantly from 4.88 ± 0.13

  3. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  4. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  5. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic el...

  6. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  7. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  8. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  9. About working of the research program on development of underground space of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartoziya, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Basic proposition relative to the developed federal program on scientific research in the area of assimilating underground space in Russia are presented. The underground objects are divided by their purpose into four groups: 1) underground objects of house-hold purpose (energy and mining complex, industrial enterprises, storages, garages, etc); 2) underground objects of social purpose (libraries, shops, restaurants, etc); 3) underground objects of ecological purpose (storages, disposal sites for radioactive wastes and hazardous substances, dangerous productions, etc); 4) underground objects of defense purpose. Trends in the scientific-research program formation, relative to underground space assimilation are enumerated. 7 refs

  10. Impact of pacing modality and biventricular pacing on cardiac output and coronary conduit flow in the post-cardiotomy patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, David G

    2012-02-03

    We have previously demonstrated the role of univentricular pacing modalities in influencing coronary conduit flow in the immediate post-operative period in the cardiac surgery patient. We wanted to determine the mechanism of this improved coronary conduit and, in addition, to explore the possible benefits with biventricular pacing. Sixteen patients undergoing first time elective coronary artery bypass grafting who required pacing following surgery were recruited. Comparison of cardiac output and coronary conduit flow was performed between VVI and DDD pacing with a single right ventricular lead and biventricular pacing lead placement. Cardiac output was measured using arterial pulse waveform analysis while conduit flow was measured using ultrasonic transit time methodology. Cardiac output was greatest with DDD pacing using right ventricular lead placement only [DDD-univentricular 5.42 l (0.7), DDD-biventricular 5.33 l (0.8), VVI-univentricular 4.71 l (0.8), VVI-biventricular 4.68 l (0.6)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.023) and VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.001) but there was no significant advantage to DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.45). In relation to coronary conduit flow, DDD pacing again had the highest flow [DDD-univentricular 55 ml\\/min (24), DDD-biventricular 52 ml\\/min (25), VVI-univentricular 47 ml\\/min (23), VVI-biventricular 50 ml\\/min (26)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.006) pacing but not significantly different to VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.109) or DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.171). Pacing with a DDD modality offers the optimal coronary conduit flow by maximising cardiac output. Biventricular lead placement offered no significant benefit to coronary conduit flow or cardiac output.

  11. Numerical modeling and sensitivity analysis of seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability coastal karst aquifer with conduit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill X.; Ye, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance seawater intrusion has been widely observed through the subsurface conduit system in coastal karst aquifers as a source of groundwater contaminant. In this study, seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability karst aquifer with conduit networks is studied by the two-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport SEAWAT model. Local and global sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate the impacts of boundary conditions and hydrological characteristics on modeling seawater intrusion in a karst aquifer, including hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, specific storage, and dispersivity of the conduit network and of the porous medium. The local sensitivity analysis evaluates the parameters' sensitivities for modeling seawater intrusion, specifically in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP). A more comprehensive interpretation of parameter sensitivities, including the nonlinear relationship between simulations and parameters, and/or parameter interactions, is addressed in the global sensitivity analysis. The conduit parameters and boundary conditions are important to the simulations in the porous medium because of the dynamical exchanges between the two systems. The sensitivity study indicates that salinity and head simulations in the karst features, such as the conduit system and submarine springs, are critical for understanding seawater intrusion in a coastal karst aquifer. The evaluation of hydraulic conductivity sensitivity in the continuum SEAWAT model may be biased since the conduit flow velocity is not accurately calculated by Darcy's equation as a function of head difference and hydraulic conductivity. In addition, dispersivity is no longer an important parameter in an advection-dominated karst aquifer with a conduit system, compared to the sensitivity results in a porous medium aquifer. In the end, the extents of seawater intrusion are quantitatively evaluated and measured under different scenarios with the variabilities of important parameters

  12. Numerical modeling and sensitivity analysis of seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability coastal karst aquifer with conduit networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seawater intrusion has been widely observed through the subsurface conduit system in coastal karst aquifers as a source of groundwater contaminant. In this study, seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability karst aquifer with conduit networks is studied by the two-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport SEAWAT model. Local and global sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate the impacts of boundary conditions and hydrological characteristics on modeling seawater intrusion in a karst aquifer, including hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, specific storage, and dispersivity of the conduit network and of the porous medium. The local sensitivity analysis evaluates the parameters' sensitivities for modeling seawater intrusion, specifically in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP. A more comprehensive interpretation of parameter sensitivities, including the nonlinear relationship between simulations and parameters, and/or parameter interactions, is addressed in the global sensitivity analysis. The conduit parameters and boundary conditions are important to the simulations in the porous medium because of the dynamical exchanges between the two systems. The sensitivity study indicates that salinity and head simulations in the karst features, such as the conduit system and submarine springs, are critical for understanding seawater intrusion in a coastal karst aquifer. The evaluation of hydraulic conductivity sensitivity in the continuum SEAWAT model may be biased since the conduit flow velocity is not accurately calculated by Darcy's equation as a function of head difference and hydraulic conductivity. In addition, dispersivity is no longer an important parameter in an advection-dominated karst aquifer with a conduit system, compared to the sensitivity results in a porous medium aquifer. In the end, the extents of seawater intrusion are quantitatively evaluated and measured under different scenarios with the variabilities of

  13. Ground penetrating radar for fracture mapping in underground hazardous waste disposal sites: A case study from an underground research tunnel, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Um, Evan Schankee

    2017-06-01

    Secure disposal or storage of nuclear waste within stable geologic environments hinges on the effectiveness of artificial and natural radiation barriers. Fractures in the bedrock are viewed as the most likely passage for the transport of radioactive waste away from a disposal site. We utilize ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map fractures in the tunnel walls of an underground research tunnel at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). GPR experiments within the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) were carried out by using 200 MHz, 500 MHz, and 1000 MHz antennas. By using the high-frequency antennas, we were able to identify small-scale fractures, which were previously unidentified during the tunnel excavation process. Then, through 3-D visualization of the grid survey data, we reconstructed the spatial distribution and interconnectivity of the multi-scale fractures within the wall. We found that a multi-frequency GPR approach provided more details of the complex fracture network, including deep structures. Furthermore, temporal changes in reflection polarity between the GPR surveys enabled us to infer the hydraulic characteristics of the discrete fracture network developed behind the surveyed wall. We hypothesized that the fractures exhibiting polarity change may be due to a combination of air-filled and mineralogical boundaries. Simulated GPR scans for the considered case were consistent with the observed GPR data. If our assumption is correct, the groundwater flow into these near-surface fractures may form the water-filled fractures along the existing air-filled ones and hence cause the changes in reflection polarity over the given time interval (i.e., 7 days). Our results show that the GPR survey is an efficient tool to determine fractures at various scales. Time-lapse GPR data may be essential to characterize the hydraulic behavior of discrete fracture networks in underground disposal facilities.

  14. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  15. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  16. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  17. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  18. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  19. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  20. Conduit vessel blood flow during the trek to Mount Everest base camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Valerie; Nault, Patrice; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Forbes, Thomas L

    2011-12-01

    Hemodynamic changes in response to the hypoxic environment of high altitude are vascular bed-specific. The aim of the present study was to investigate diameter and blood flow changes in conduit vessels in response to hypobaric hypoxia. Eleven healthy subjects ascending Mount Everest to base camp participated in this study. Vessel diameter and blood velocity for brachial, carotid, common femoral, superficial femoral, and deep femoral arteries were measured by portable Doppler ultrasound. Blood flow was calculated from these values. Measurements were taken at sea level, at increasing altitudes on ascent to base camp (1310 m, 3470 m, 5330 m), and repeated on descent to lower altitude (1310 m). For all vessels except carotids, both vessel diameter and blood flow decreased between sea level and initial ascent to altitude, with subsequent persistence of these decreased values; there was no further significant change with continued ascent to higher altitude. Blood flow for all arteries (except carotids) increased significantly on descent to lower altitude, with an associated nonsignificant increase in velocity and decrease in diameter. This study showed that there is vasoconstriction of limb conduit vessels at altitude, which persists upon descent to lower altitude. Blood flow in these vessels also decreases with initial exposure to high altitude, yet increases when returning to lower altitude, reflecting variations in blood velocity. Carotid arteries responded differently to the stimulus of hypobaria than limb conduit vessels; there was no change in diameter seen on ascent or descent, but there was a progressive decrease in blood flow on ascent, with no change on subsequent descent. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneity in conduit artery function in humans: impact of arterial size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Dawson, Ellen A; Black, Mark A; Hopman, Maria T E; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether conduit artery size affects functional responses, we compared the magnitude, time course, and eliciting shear rate stimulus for flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in healthy men (n = 20; 31 +/- 7 yr). Upper limb (brachial and radial) and lower limb (common and superficial femoral) FMD responses were simultaneously assessed, whereas popliteal responses were measured in the same subjects during a separate visit. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-mediated responses were similarly examined. Edge detection and wall tracking of high-resolution B-mode arterial ultrasound images, combined with synchronized Doppler waveform envelope analysis, were used to calculate conduit artery diameter, blood flow, and shear rate continuously across the cardiac cycle. Baseline artery size correlated inversely with the FMD response (r = -0.57, P < 0.001). Within-artery comparisons revealed a significant inverse correlation between artery size and FMD% for the radial (r = -0.66, P = 0.001), brachial (r = -0.55, P = 0.01), and popliteal artery (r = -0.48, P = 0.03), but not for the superficial and common femoral artery. Normalization of FMD responses for differences in eliciting shear rate did not abolish the between-artery relationship for artery function and size (r = -0.48, P < 0.001), suggesting that differences between artery function responses were not entirely due to size-related differences in shear rate. This was reinforced by a significant between-artery correlation for GTN responses and baseline artery size (r = -0.74, P < 0.001). In summary, systematic differences exist in vascular function responses of conduit arteries that differ in size. This raises the possibility that differences in artery size within or between individuals may influence functional responses.

  2. Initial Inoculation Concentration Does Not Affect Final Bacterial Colonization of In vitro Vascular Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Thomas A; Lewis, Clayton; Baluh, Graham; Clemens, Michael; Propper, Brandon; Arthurs, Zachary M

    2018-02-21

    Despite improved peri-operative care, prosthetic graft infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Contemporary graft infection models have tested a conduit's infectability using varying concentrations without standardization. Using a static assay in vitro model, we sought to evaluate the impact of inoculation concentration on vascular conduit attachment. The 2-hour and 24-hour attachment of Staphylococcus aureus TCH1516 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01-UW were determined on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Dacron ® , nitinol, cobalt chromium, and Viabahn ® (W.L. Gore and Associates, Newark, DE) endoprotheses. Individually and in combination, concentrations at 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , and 10 8 were tested on 2-mm sections of each graft. After each time interval, the prosthetics were rinsed to remove non-attached bacteria, sonicated to release the attached bacteria, spiral plated, and then analyzed for the attached concentration. After two hours, the higher initial inoculation concentration translated into a higher attachment percentage, but the mean attachment percentage was only 14.8% in the 10 8 group. Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the greatest mean attachment across all material and concentration groups. The sequence of attachment on the conduits followed a constant order: Dacron, PTFE, cobalt, nitinol, and Viabahn with no difference between Dacron and PTFE. Although there were still differences at the 24-hour mark, the median attachment at each concentration was greater than the highest initial concentration (10 8 ). Initial attachment percentage is poor consistently regardless of inoculation concentration, however, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are still able to achieve full attachment after 24 hours. A concentration of less than 10 7 should be used in vascular graft infection models to ensure adequate bacterial attachment.

  3. Influence of conduit flow mechanics on magma rheology and the growth style of lava domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Taha; Elsworth, Derek; Voight, Barry; Mattioli, Glen; Jansma, Pamela

    2018-02-01

    We develop a two-dimensional particle-mechanics model to explore different lava-dome growth styles. These range from endogenous lava dome growth comprising expansion of a ductile dome core to the exogenous extrusion of a degassed lava plug resulting in generation of a lava spine. We couple conduit flow dynamics with surface growth of the evolving lava dome, fueled by an open-system magma chamber undergoing continuous replenishment. The conduit flow model accounts for the variation in rheology of ascending magma that results from degassing-induced crystallization. A period of reduced effusive flow rates promote enhanced degassing-induced crystallization. A degassed lava plug extrudes exogenously for magmas with crystal contents (ϕ) of 78 per cent, yield strength > 1.62 MPa, and at flow rates of 3 m3/s) for magma with lower relative yield strengths ( 1980-1983). Endogenous growth initiates in the simulated lava dome with the extrusion of low yield strength magma (ϕ = 0.63 and τp = 0.76 MPa) after the crystallized viscous plug (ϕ = 0.87 and τp = 3 MPa) at the conduit exit is forced out by the high discharge rate pulse (2 volume, which control the periodicity of the effusion. Our simulations generate dome morphologies similar to those observed at Mount St Helens, and demonstrate the degree to which domes can sag and spread during and following extrusion pulses. This process, which has been observed at Mount St. Helens and other locations, largely reflects gravitational loading of dome with a viscous core, with retardation by yield strength and talus friction.

  4. Flambage vertical des conduites en souillées Vertical Buckling of Buried Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bournazel C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Si l'apparition d'un flambage vertical des conduites rigides enfouies dans une tranchée est un phénomène assez rare, il peut ne pas en être de même pour des conduites flexibles dont les propriétés mécaniques sont de nature différente. Une étude théorique et expérimentale, ayant pour but de proposer une méthode analytique de calcul de l'apparition du flambage et de son évolution sous l'effet de la pression interne, a été réalisée. II apparaît que les conduites flexibles actuelles sont très sensibles à ce phénomène et qu'il serait nécessaire, pour l'éliminer à coup sûr, de réexaminer la structure des flexibles ou d'imaginer des artifices dans la procédure d'ensouillage Whereas the appearance of vertical buckling in rigid pipes buried in a trench is a relatively rare phenomenon, the same cannot be said for flexible pipes which have mechanical properties of a different nature. A theoretical and experimental study has been made with the aim of proposing an analytical method for computing the appearance of buckling and its evolution under the effect of outside pressure. Current flexible pipes appear to be very sensitive to this phenomenon, and to be certain of eliminating it the structure of flexible pipes should be reexamined or stratagems in the burying procedure should be devised.

  5. Visualized Evaluation of Blood Flow to the Gastric Conduit and Complications in Esophageal Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kanaya, Nobuhiko; Okada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Naoaki; Ninomiya, Takayuki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of the blood supply to gastric conduits is critically important to avoid complications after esophagectomy. We began visual evaluation of blood flow using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent imaging in July 2015, to reduce reconstructive complications. In this study, we aimed to statistically verify the efficacy of blood flow evaluation using our simplified ICG method. A total of 285 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy and gastric conduit reconstruction were reviewed and divided into 2 groups: before and after introduction of ICG evaluation. The entire cohort and 68 patient pairs after propensity score matching (PS-M) were evaluated for clinical outcomes and the effect of visualized evaluation on reducing the risk of complication. The leakage rate in the ICG group was significantly lower than in the non-ICG group for each severity grade, both in the entire cohort (285 subjects) and after PS-M; the rates of other major complications, including recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and pneumonia, were not different. The duration of postoperative ICU stay was approximately 1 day shorter in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group in the entire cohort, and approximately 2 days shorter after PS-M. Visualized evaluation of blood flow with ICG methods significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic complications of all Clavien-Dindo (CD) grades. Odds ratios for ICG evaluation decreased with CD grade (0.3419 for CD ≥ 1; 0.241 for CD ≥ 2; and 0.2153 for CD ≥ 3). Objective evaluation of blood supply to the reconstructed conduit using ICG fluorescent imaging reduces the risk and degree of anastomotic complication. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NRC Information No. 90-23: Improper installation of Patel conduit seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    On November 6, 1989, the staff at the H.B. Robinson plant notified the NRC that they had discovered that some of the conduit seal grommets used to seal insulated wire conductors entering environmentally qualified instrument housings were oversized for the application. The seals are used to prevent moisture from entering safety-related electrical components following loss-of-coolant accidents. The problem was attributed to inadequate installation instructions that were used when the seals were installed in 1986 and 1987. These instructions listed the grommets by wire gauge size and gave maximum wire insulation diameters for each wire size. In accordance with these instructions, the seals were selected based on wire gauge alone. However, since the insulation thickness for a given wire gauge the correct grommet size would have been the minimum wire insulation diameter for which a particular grommet will achieve an effective seal. The selection of grommet size based only on wire gauge size resulted in the installation of some grommets that were too large to provide an effective seal. As a result, some of the seals failed pressure tests that were designed to simulate post-LOCA pressures. During the investigation of the grommet leakage problem, the Robinson staff also checked the torque on the conduit seal union nuts that are used to compress the seals. EGS Corporation recommends that the union nuts be torqued to 50 ft-lb. On approximately half of the 90 seals inspected, the union nut moved about 1/4 inch when this torque was applied. EGS Corporation reports that 1/4 inch of movement does not necessarily indicate a degraded seal but recommends that the correct torque be verified on a representative sample of installed conduit seals

  7. Orientated Guidance of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Conduits with a Microtube Array Sheet (MTAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Wang, Wenjin; Wo, Yan; Gui, Ting; Zhu, Hao; Mo, Xiumei; Chen, Chien-Chung; Li, Qingfeng; Ding, Wenlong

    2015-04-29

    Material surface topography has been shown to affect the biological behavior of cells in vitro; however, the in vivo effect on peripheral nerve regeneration has not been explored. Here, we studied the potential of a microtube array sheet (MTAS) with a unique longitudinal surface topography to promote peripheral nerve regeneration efficiency, both in vivo and in vitro. Schwann cells, spinal cord motor neurons, and dorsal root ganglion neurons were seeded on the MTAS to study the effect of the construct on the biological properties and behaviors of neural cells. The MTAS guided the oriented migration of Schwann cells without affecting other critical biological properties, such as proliferation and neurotrophin expression. In addition, the MTAS guided the directed extension of neurites from both types of neurons. Next, we tested the capability of the MTAS to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats with a nerve conduit equipped with an MTAS lining. The MTAS significantly promoted peripheral nerve regeneration, as suggested by the greater fiber caliber in the midconduit and the greater abundance of fibers in nerve segment distal to the conduit. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis suggested the orientated guidance of nerve regeneration by the MTAS, as indicated by the smaller eccentricity of the nerve fibers and the concordant arrangement of the collagen fiber in both the fibers and the matrix in the MTAS group. Our results collectively suggest that the conduits with the MTAS developed in this study have significant potential for facilitating peripheral nerve regeneration by modifying critical biological behaviors and guiding orientated nerve growth.

  8. Responses of iliac conduit artery and hindlimb resistance vessels to luminal hyperfructosemia in the anaesthetized pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane-O'Hora, T; Edge, D; Shortt, C M; Markos, F; Noble, M I M

    2013-12-01

    High fructose levels are found in diabetes mellitus, associated with high corn syrup diets, and have been claimed to cause hypertension. As the direct effects on conduit and resistance arteries have not been previously reported, we measured these in vivo in the anaesthetized pig with instrumented iliac arteries. Experiments were performed on the iliac artery preparation in the anaesthetized pig: blood flow, diameter and pressure were measured in the iliac. The change in diameter of an occluded iliac artery segment filled with hyperfructosemic (15 μm) blood was 89.5 ± 22.1 μm (mean ± SE), contrasted with 7.7 ± 13.06 μm control (P = 0.005, paired t-test, n = 6). There was no significant difference when compared with blood containing both hyperfructosemic blood and the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (250 μg mL(-1)). Step changes in pressure and flow were achieved by progressive arterial stenosis during control saline and 15 μm min(-1) fructose downstream intra-arterial infusions. Linear regression of the step changes in blood pressure versus the instantaneous step changes in blood flow showed a statistically significant decrease in slope of the conductance (P resistance. Peripheral autoregulation and conduit artery shear-stress-mediated dilatation were not significantly altered. An elevated level of fructose caused dilatation of a conduit artery but constriction of resistance vessels. The latter effect could account, if maintained long-term, for the hypertension claimed to be due to hyperfuctosemia. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neutron background measurements at China Jinping underground laboratory with a Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingdong; Ma, Hao; Zeng, Zhi; Cheng, Jianping; Chen, Yunhua; He, Shengming; Li, Junli; Shen, Manbin; Wu, Shiyong; Yue, Qian; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    The neutron background spectrum from thermal neutron to 20 MeV fast neutron was measured at the first experimental hall of China Jinping underground laboratory with a Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer. The measurement system was validated by a 252Cf source and inconformity was corrected. Due to micro charge discharge, the dataset was screened and background from the steel of the detectors was estimated by MC simulation. Based on genetic algorithm we obtained the energy distribution of the neutron and the total flux of neutron was (2.69±1.02) ×10-5 cm-2 s-1.

  10. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystoprostatectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion for a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: Robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an alternative to open radical cystectomy. As experience is gained with the RARC approach the technique is being applied to more complex surgical cases. We describe here our technique for RARC with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion for a renal transplant recipient. Materials and Methods: The patient is a 60-year old man with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. He has a history of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease and received a deceased donor renal transplant in 2008. His hospital course at time of transplant was complicated by low-level BK virus viremia. Interestingly his trans-urethral bladder tumor resection specimen at time of bladder cancer diagnosis stained positive for SV40. His native kidneys were anuric so bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in a staged fashion 2 weeks prior to RARC. Our surgical technique utilizes 6 trocars, of note a 12-mm assistant trocar is placed 1 cm superior to the pubic symphysis, and this trocar is solely used to pass a laparoscopic stapler to facilitate the excision of the ileal segment and the stapled enteric anastomosis. Surgical steps include: identification of native ureters bilaterally (removed en bloc with the bladder specimen; identification of the transplanted ureter at the right bladder dome; posterior bladder and prostate dissection along Denonvilliers’ fascia; development of the space of Retzius; ligation and transection of the bladder and prostate vascular bundles; apical prostate dissection and transection of urethra; left pelvic lymphadenectomy; ilium resection for creation of the ileal conduit; stapled enteric anastomosis; ureteroileal anastomosis; maturation of the ileal conduit stoma. Results: The surgery had no intraoperative complications. Operative time was 443 minutes (7.4 hours. Estimated blood loss was 250 cc. Length of hospital stay was 5 days. The patient

  11. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  12. Adult Stem Cell-Based Enhancement of Nerve Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    6. AUTHOR(S) 5d.  PROJECT  NUMBER   Rocky Tuan, Peter Alexander 5e.  TASK  NUMBER   E-­Mail:    rst13@pitt.edu   5f.   WORK  UNIT  NUMBER 7...than 3 cm, mainly because of their lack of appropriate nerve-enhancing biological activities. In our current work , we have identified and isolated...seeded conduits exhibit a remarkable ability to allow for S100 schwann cell migration into the growing nerve with complete continuity after only 6 weeks

  13. Clinical experience with an alloplastic stoma prosthesis (Biocarbon) for urinary conduits and cutaneous ureterostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, W; Harzmann, R

    1988-01-01

    An alloplastic stoma prosthesis, Biocarbon, composed of 99.9% pure carbon in vitreous form, was used in six patients with conduit urinary diversion and in seven with cutaneous ureterostomy. The patients were thereafter observed for 2-86 months. Complications were subcutaneous infection, urinary fistula and ureteral stenosis, which necessitated removal of the prosthesis in most cases. The permanent stoma, without need for adhesive collecting device, was appreciated by the patients. Problems relating to biocompatibility remain to be solved before the place of the stoma prosthesis in urinary diversion can be determined.

  14. Radical Cystectomy with Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion in a Patient with a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Pariser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular assist device (LVAD is an option for the surgical management of severe heart failure, and radical cystectomy remains the standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Given a complicated population in terms of comorbidities and management for patients with an LVAD, there is little experience with major urologic procedures, which require balancing the benefits of surgery with considerable perioperative risks. We report our experience performing the first radical cystectomy with ileal conduit in a patient with an LVAD and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  15. Longitudinal growth of the autologous vessels above and below the Gore-Tex graft after the extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshie; Imoto, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Masato; Sese, Akira; Tsukuda, Masaaki; Watanabe, Mamie; Ohno, Takuro; Joo, Kunitaka

    2010-05-01

    Reflecting excellent mid-term outcomes, extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure (ECFP) using Gore-Tex tube graft has been performed with increasing frequency in patients with functional single ventricle. Nevertheless, due to the lack of growth potential of the artificial conduit, the status of the venous pathway along with somatic growth is a continuing concern. In this study, we evaluated the longitudinal growth of the autologous vessels above and below the Gore-Tex graft used in the ECFP. This study included 34 patients who had completed cardiac catheterisations at 1 month and 5.1 years after the ECFP. The average age, weight and height at the ECFP were 3.8+/-2.5 years (1.8-12.7 years), 12.7+/-4.6 kg (7.4-33.0 kg) and 92.9+/-16.1cm (72.5-153.5 cm), respectively. We measured the vertical lengths of three different parts angiographically: the length between the confluence point of the innominate vein and the anastomotic site of the conduit to the pulmonary artery (SVC-C), the conduit vertical length (C) and the length between the confluence point of the hepatic vein and the conduit's anastomotic site to the inferior vena cava (IVC-C). We have not observed stenosis or thrombus formation in the conduit or distortion of the conduit or pulmonary artery in any of the cases. No intervention or re-operation related to the extracardiac conduit was required, and laminar flow through the conduit was maintained with efficient Fontan haemodynamics. At 5.1 years after the ECFP, the average weight and height gain were 10.3+/-4.4 kg and 28.5+/-1.9 cm, respectively. The length of SVC-C, C and IVC-C were significantly increased as 124+/-15%, 106+/-7% and 132+/-24%, respectively, compared to the lengths at 1 month after the ECFP. The degree of increase in SVC-C and IVC-C was significantly larger than that in C. Along with the patient's somatic growth, longitudinal growth of the autologous vessels above and below the Gore-Tex graft was demonstrated to compensate for the lack of growth

  16. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  17. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  18. Cryogenics bringing the temperature down, underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first 600m of the LHC cryogenic distribution line (QRL), which will feed the accelerator's superconducting magnets, has passed initial validating tests of its mechanical design at room and cryogenic temperatures.

  19. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  20. Application experience of gas-thermal aluminum coatings to protect the pipes for underground construction and repair of heat networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    Questions of sacrificial protection for pipes of underground heat networks with aluminum against the external corrosion are considered. The description of pilot production of pipes with a plasma aluminum coating and the deposition of a sacrificial gas-plasma aluminum coating on weld joints of pipelines and the zone of their thermal influence during assemblage is presented. Examples of repairing the segments of distribution heat networks by the pipes with the tread protection are presented.