WorldWideScience

Sample records for underground cable system

  1. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a second of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last six years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students resea...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  2. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a first of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last 6 years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students research...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  3. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  4. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  5. Technologies to apply optic fibers to an underground cable system; Chichu cable system eno hikari fiber oyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-10

    Discussions were given for the purpose of realizing automation of facility operation and automatic monitoring of facilities by using optical electronics technologies in underground power transmission facilities. In sensing technologies using optic fibers, an optic fiber distribution type sensor was found suitable for monitoring underground power transmission lines as a sensor to measure temperature distribution and pressure distribution along the optic fibers. In sensor signal transmission technologies using optic fibers, laying ultra-high voltage transmission lines over a distance of several ten kilometers is becoming used generally in underground transmission paths, with the environmental requirements on electromagnetic fields becoming more stringent. Under these restraints, an optical transmission system is more advantageous that has longer-distance and wider-area transmission capabilities, and high-insulation and non-induction performances. In technologies to lay optic fiber cables in underground cable paths, contrivances are given on the cable construction for cases where optic fibers and power cables, each varying in mechanical strength are to be integrated. 151 refs., 155 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Development and Improvement of an Intelligent Cable Monitoring System for Underground Distribution Networks Using Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintae Cho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With power systems switching to smart grids, real-time and on-line monitoring technologies for underground distribution power cables have become a priority. Most distribution components have been developed with self-diagnostic sensors to realize self-healing, one of the smart grid functions in a distribution network. Nonetheless, implementing a real-time and on-line monitoring system for underground distribution cables has been difficult because of high cost and low sensitivity. Nowadays, optical fiber composite power cables (OFCPCs are being considered for communication and power delivery to cope with the increasing communication load in a distribution network. Therefore, the application of distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology on OFCPCs used as underground distribution lines is studied for the real-time and on-line monitoring of the underground distribution power cables. Faults can be reduced and operating ampacity of the underground distribution system can be increased. This paper presents the development and improvement of an intelligent cable monitoring system for the underground distribution power system, using DTS technology and OFCPCs as the underground distribution lines in the field.

  7. EHV/HV Underground Cable Systems for Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    the role of interconnecting these generation/load centres, ensuring fair reliability and redundancy of supply. Nowadays, the power transmission system must be able to handle the various sources of renewable generation in a flexible electricity market. This has the consequence that the original layout...... are to be found. One very good example of this is offshore wind power plants. The current transmission system is laid out in a traditional manner, which is based on the idea of not transporting power over longer distances as the power plants have been located near centres of consumption. It has merely played...... of the transmission system must be re‐thought in order to accommodate the transmission needs for the future. New lines have to be constructed. Transmission lines are usually laid out as overhead lines, which are large structures, i.e. a 400 kV power pylon is 50 meters high. According to public opinion, such power...

  8. Development of Integrated Assessment System for Underground Power Cable Performance: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Soliha Sahimi, Nur; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-08-01

    The basic operation of any electrical machines that is catered to serve needs of civilization involves electrical power which is the main source to trigger the internal mechanism in the machines then transfer the power to other form of energy such as mechanical, light, sound and etc. The supplies of electrical does not happen just by providing the source itself, it has load carrying agent which in many cases, user would refer to it as cable. Specifically, it is the power cable which its ampacity depends significantly on the operation temperature and load stress on it. Apart from having to focus on providing improvement on improving efficiency on the source itself, power cable plays and important role because without it, current ranging from low to high could not be transmitted and hence a failure of the power system generally. Studies have conducted to discuss whether which factor contributes relatively more to the causes of power cable failure or breakdown. Such factors can be narrowed down to the three major causes which are over temperature, over voltage and stress caused by over current. Over current is one of the factor which is depends on the usage of the power system itself. The higher the usage of the power system, higher the chances of over current to take place. This will then produce load stress on the cable which eventually destroy the insulator of the cable and slowly reach the core of the cable. It is believed that an assessment method should be implemented in order to predict the performance and failure rate of the power cable and use this prediction as reference rather than just letting power failure to happen anytime unpredictable which cause huge inconvenience to users and industries. Not only do a method should be implemented, it should be as easy to be used and understood by large range of users and integrated by a graphical user interface to be used. Therefore, this research will further narrow down on the approaches to do so and the location

  9. State of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this article the state of the art research for online fault location on cross-bonded transmission level cables is presented. The article is focused on the difficulties in using the algorithms developed for OHL-systems and distribution cables directly on cross-bonded transmission cables. Impeda...

  10. Derivation of Theoretical Formulas of Sequence Currents on Underground Cable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametani, Akihiro; Ohno, Teruo

    Recently, many long cable lines are under construction and planned. A reliable operation of a cable system necessitates an accurate calculation of sequence impedances of the system. It has been a common practice that those sequence impedances or currents are measured after the installation and it is difficult to predict those values beforehand. This paper derives theoretical formulas of the sequence currents for a cross-bonded cable and a normal-bonded cable. The accuracy of the proposed formulas is verified through a comparison with EMTP simulations.

  11. Online Fault Location on AC Cables in Underground Transmission Systems using Sheath Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Nanayakkarab, Kasun; Rajapakse, Athula

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies online travelling wave methods for fault location on a crossbonded cable system using sheath currents. During the construction of the electrical connection to the 400 MW off shore wind farm Anholt, it was possible to perform measurements on a 38.4 km crossbonded cable system....... At 31.4 km, all cables were accessible which made it possible to apply a fault using an arc free breaker and measure the travelling waves at each end of the cable. On a crossbonded cable system, the sheaths are short circuited and grounded at both ends. This makes possible the use of low voltage...... Rogowski coils if the sheath currents contain the necessary information for accurate fault location. In this paper, this is examined by analysis of field measurements and through a study of simulations. The wavelet transform and a visual inspection method are used and the accuracy is compared. Field...

  12. Online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems using screen currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Nanayakkara, O.M.K.K; Rajapakse, Athula

    This paper studies online travelling wave methods for fault location on a crossbonded cable system using screen currents. During the construction of the electrical connection to the 400 MW off shore wind farm Anholt, it was possible to perform measurements on a 38.4 km crossbonded cable system....... At 31.4 km, all cables were accessible which made it possible to apply a fault using an arc free breaker and measure the travelling waves at each end of the cable. On a crossbonded cable system, the sheath is short circuited and grounded at both ends. This makes possible the use of low voltage Rogowski...... coils if the screen currents contain the necessary information for accurate fault location. In this paper, this is examined by analysis of field measurements and through a study of simulations. The wavelet transform and visual inspection methods are used and the accuracy is compared. Field measurements...

  13. Online fault location on crossbonded AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Jensen, Christian; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a fault locator system specifically designed for crossbonded cables is described. Electromagnetic wave propagation theory for crossbonded cables with focus on fault location purposes is discussed. Based on this, the most optimal modal component and input signal to the fault locator...... to changes in the fault inception angle, fault resistance and fault location. It is shown that the fault location can be estimated very accurately using the proposed system and the system will be used to monitor Danish crossbonded transmission cables in the future....... of a 245 kV crossbonded cable system, connecting the newly installed 400 MW Danish offshore wind farm Anholt to the main grid, are obtained and used to verify the proposed system. Furthermore, extensive simulation data created in PSCAD/EMTDC is used in order to examine the robustness of the system...

  14. Online Location of Faults on AC Cables in Underground Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær

    difficulties for the fault locator systems currently in use and such can therefore not be applied directly. In this thesis, the analysis and development of a fault locator system capable of locating faults with high accuracy on crossbonded cables and hybrid lines is presented. The thesis is divided into five...... parts; The preliminaries, a part which deals with the use of impedance-based fault location methods on crossbonded cables, a part which deals with travelling wave-based fault location, a part listing the conclusions and contributions of the thesis and an appendix. A state-of-the-art analysis...... is conducted on the use of both impedance- and travelling wavebased fault location methods, and it is found in both cases that the research field is not covered in detail. Therefore, the use of both fault location methods is examined in detail. It is found that an impedance-based method is difficult...

  15. Derivation of Theoretical Formulas of Sequence Currents on Underground Cable System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Ametani, Akihiro; Bak, Claus Leth

    the installation and it is difficult to predict these values beforehand with good accuracy. This paper derives theoretical formulas of the sequence currents for a cross-bonded cable and a normal-bonded cable. The accuracy of the proposed formulas is verified through a comparison with EMTP simulations....

  16. Laplace Synthesis Validation through Measurements on Underground Transmission Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground cable electrical parameters ZY as well as their modal propagation characteristics are highly frequency dependent which in certain cases turns its analysis difficult. To perform electromagnetic transient studies of cables the calculation of electrical parameters is essential to obtain the waves propagation solution through the multiconductor system. At the same time this requires to solve the inverse Laplace transform on a numerical form. Although the analytic Laplace transform has an indisputable accuracy, the application of its numerical version up-to-date has not been completely accepted. A complete methodology is developed in this work to guide analyst engineers or graduate students in the calculation of electromagnetic transients of underground cable systems. Finally, to help the validation of the numerical inverse Laplace transform a scaled prototype experiment is performed in the laboratory in which a transient step-response at the remote end of an energized conductor is measured.

  17. Line Differential Protection Scheme Modelling for Underground 420 kV Cable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal; Bak, Claus Leth; Dollerup, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    models can be applied with various systems, allowing to obtain the most optimal configuration of the protective relaying. The present paper describes modelling methodology on the basis of Siemens SIPROTEC 4 7SD522/610. Relay model was verified experimentally with its real equivalent by both EMTP...

  18. Line Differential Protection Scheme Modelling for Underground 420 kV Cable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    can be applied with various systems, allowing to obtain the most optimal configuration of the protective relaying. The present paper describes modelling methodology on the basis of Siemens SIPROTEC 4 7SD522/610. Relay model was verified experimentally with its real equivalent by both EMTP...

  19. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Heinz, W.; Hofmann, A.; Koefler, H.J.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Nahar, A.

    1975-09-01

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF 6 -cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.) [de

  20. A model for the evaluation of heat loss from underground cables in non-uniform soil to optimize the system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salata F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of technologies and underground systems, analysis of thermal fields in soil has become a topic of great interest in the developing technology of buried structures. In this work, we have investigated the steady state temperature field (from linear heat sources - buried cable - in a different type of soil and excavation geometry. In a laboratory, a physical model was built on scale, which reproduces an "undisturbed" area containing a linear thermal source. This scale model was produced for experimental activity. A measuring chain was made to analyze the thermal field in various types of soils, by varying the electrical current through the line source. The physical model was recreated using a finite volume calculation software. Analysis of the different field system configurations were completed and we have studied a model for the improvement of the design method.

  1. Energy dispatching analysis of lightning surges on underground cables in a cable connection station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-Chan Chang; Fu-Hsien Chen; Tai-Hsiang Chen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei (China); Cheng-Chien Kuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, St. John' s University, 499, Sec. 4, TamKing Rd., Tamsui, Taipei (China)

    2011-01-15

    The paper aimed to simulate the transient over-voltage phenomena which occur at 345 kV and 161 kV underground cables, when lighting strikes on or near the cable connection station, by using the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP). A feasibility study on changing related parameters, as well as cable connections and grounding methods to reduce the impact caused by lightning strikes, will be thoroughly conducted. The various components required for a detailed simulation including; lightning surges, transmission line and tower, arrester, and underground cables are all considered. Then, the transient voltage of the cables will be analyzed under different situations including; connection methods, grounding locations, length of the grounding wire of arrester, and the grounding resistance for different locations. The simulation results show that the length of the grounding wire is more sensitive to the transient over-voltage which occurred when a common grounding topology was adopted. In contrast, the use of an independent grounding topology resulted in a reduction of the grounding resistance, which effectively decreased the over-voltage, thereby avoiding surpassing the shielding voltage level of the cable, caused by the rise of ground voltage. (author)

  2. Energy dispatching analysis of lightning surges on underground cables in a cable connection station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hong-Chan, E-mail: hcchang@mail.ntust.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Fu-Hsien, E-mail: fu@mail.sju.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Cheng-Chien, E-mail: cckuo@mail.sju.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering, St. John' s University, 499, Sec. 4, TamKing Rd., Tamsui, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tai-Hsiang, E-mail: thchen@yahoo.com.t [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    The paper aimed to simulate the transient over-voltage phenomena which occur at 345 kV and 161 kV underground cables, when lighting strikes on or near the cable connection station, by using the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP). A feasibility study on changing related parameters, as well as cable connections and grounding methods to reduce the impact caused by lightning strikes, will be thoroughly conducted. The various components required for a detailed simulation including; lightning surges, transmission line and tower, arrester, and underground cables are all considered. Then, the transient voltage of the cables will be analyzed under different situations including; connection methods, grounding locations, length of the grounding wire of arrester, and the grounding resistance for different locations. The simulation results show that the length of the grounding wire is more sensitive to the transient over-voltage which occurred when a common grounding topology was adopted. In contrast, the use of an independent grounding topology resulted in a reduction of the grounding resistance, which effectively decreased the over-voltage, thereby avoiding surpassing the shielding voltage level of the cable, caused by the rise of ground voltage.

  3. Water-Tree Modelling and Detection for Underground Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi

    In recent years, aging infrastructure has become a major concern for the power industry. Since its inception in early 20th century, the electrical system has been the cornerstone of an industrial society. Stable and uninterrupted delivery of electrical power is now a base necessity for the modern world. As the times march-on, however, the electrical infrastructure ages and there is the inevitable need to renew and replace the existing system. Unfortunately, due to time and financial constraints, many electrical systems today are forced to operate beyond their original design and power utilities must find ways to prolong the lifespan of older equipment. Thus, the concept of preventative maintenance arises. Preventative maintenance allows old equipment to operate longer and at better efficiency, but in order to implement preventative maintenance, the operators must know minute details of the electrical system, especially some of the harder to assess issues such water-tree. Water-tree induced insulation degradation is a problem typically associated with older cable systems. It is a very high impedance phenomenon and it is difficult to detect using traditional methods such as Tan-Delta or Partial Discharge. The proposed dissertation studies water-tree development in underground cables, potential methods to detect water-tree location and water-tree severity estimation. The dissertation begins by developing mathematical models of water-tree using finite element analysis. The method focuses on surface-originated vented tree, the most prominent type of water-tree fault in the field. Using the standard operation parameters of North American electrical systems, the water-tree boundary conditions are defined. By applying finite element analysis technique, the complex water-tree structure is broken down to homogeneous components. The result is a generalized representation of water-tree capacitance at different stages of development. The result from the finite element analysis

  4. Quality frontier of electricity distribution: Supply security, best practices, and underground cabling in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Kuosmanen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Electricity distribution is a prime example of local monopoly. In most countries, the costs of electricity distribution operators are regulated by the government. However, the cost regulation may create adverse incentives to compromise the quality of service. To avoid this, cost regulation is often amended with quality incentives. This study applies theory and methods of productivity analysis to model the frontier of service quality. A semi-nonparametric estimation method is developed, which does not assume any particular functional form for the quality frontier, but can accommodate stochastic noise and heteroscedasticity. The empirical part of our paper examines how underground cabling and location affect the interruption costs. As expected, higher proportion of underground cabling decreases the level of interruption costs. The effects of cabling and location on the variance of performance are also considered. Especially the location is found to be a significant source of heteroscedasticity in the interruption costs. Finally, the proposed quality frontier benchmark is compared to the current practice of Finnish regulation system. The proposed quality frontier is found to provide more meaningful and stable basis for setting quality targets than the average practice benchmarks currently in use. - Highlights: • Cost regulation may create adverse incentives to lower the service quality. • We model the frontier of service quality using a semi-nonparametric approach. • Our nonparametric frontier accounts for stochastic noise and heteroscedasticity. • We estimate how underground cabling and location affect interruption costs. • We compare our quality frontier with the current quality regulation in Finland.

  5. Line Differential Protection Scheme Modelling for Underground 420 kV Cable Systems, EMTDC/PSCAD Relays Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Sztykiel, Michal; Dollerup, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    can be applied with various systems, allowing obtaining the most optimal configuration of the protective relaying. The present paper describes modelling methodology on the basis of Siemens SIPROTEC 4 7SD522/610. Relay model was verified experimentally with its real equivalent by both EMTP...

  6. Cable reeving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckey, R.J.; Obligado, A.

    1988-01-01

    In an apparatus for longitudinal translation of an arm having end-to-end articulated forward and rearward portions between an extended position where the arm portions are aligned on a straight track and a retracted position where the rearward arm portion is angled on a curved track out of alignment with the forward arm portion, the arm and tracks being adapted to be submerged beneath the surface of a pool, a cable reeving system is described comprising (a) fixed axis sheaves (b) movable-axis sheaves (c) two pick-up rollers on the rearward end of the forward arm portion; (d) a driven which drum above the fixed-axis sheaves and adapted to be above the pool surface; (e) extending and retracting anchor devices above the fixed-axis sheaves and adapted to be above the pool surface; (f) an extending cable yielding attached at one end to the extending anchor device and running downwardly over one rearward fixed-axis sheave, (g) a retracting cable also attached to the winch drum and wound around it in a direction opposite that of the extending cable and then extending downwardly over another of the rearward fixed-axis sheaves

  7. VT Cable Modem Systems 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2007) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 12/31/2007. This...

  8. Fault location in underground cables using ANFIS nets and discrete wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa Barakat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an accurate algorithm for locating faults in a medium voltage underground power cable using a combination of Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and discrete wavelet transform (DWT. The proposed method uses five ANFIS networks and consists of 2 stages, including fault type classification and exact fault location. In the first part, an ANFIS is used to determine the fault type, applying four inputs, i.e., the maximum detailed energy of three phase and zero sequence currents. Other four ANFIS networks are utilized to pinpoint the faults (one for each fault type. Four inputs, i.e., the maximum detailed energy of three phase and zero sequence currents, are used to train the neuro-fuzzy inference systems in order to accurately locate the faults on the cable. The proposed method is evaluated under different fault conditions such as different fault locations, different fault inception angles and different fault resistances.

  9. Experimental study of thermal field deriving from an underground electrical power cable buried in non-homogeneous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieto Vollaro, Roberto de; Fontana, Lucia; Vallati, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The electrical cables ampacity mainly depends on the cable system operation temperature. To achieve a better cable utilization and reduce the conservativeness typically employed in buried cable design, an accurate evaluation of the heat dissipation through the cables and the surrounding soil is important. In the traditional method adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for the computation of the thermal resistance between an existing underground cable system and the external environment, it is still assumed that the soil is homogeneous and has uniform thermal conductivity. Numerical studies have been conducted to predict the temperature distribution around the cable for various configurations and thermal properties of the soil. The paper presents an experimental study conducted on a scale model to investigate the heat transfer of a buried cable, with different geometrical configurations and thermal properties of the soil, and to validate a simplified model proposed by the authors in 2012 for the calculation of the thermal resistance between the underground pipe or electrical cable and the ground surface, in cases where the filling of the trench is filled with layers of materials with different thermal properties. Results show that experimental data are in good agreement with the numerical ones. -- Highlights: • Heat transfer of a buried cable has been experimentally studied on a scale model. • Different configurations and thermal properties of the soil have been tested. • Authors previously proposed a simplified model and obtained numerical results. • Experimental results and numerical ones previously obtained were in accordance

  10. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  11. 14 CFR 23.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in cable tension throughout the range of travel under operating conditions and temperature variations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 23.689 Section 23.689... Systems § 23.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley used must...

  12. Overhead tray for cable test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, K. T.

    1976-01-01

    System consists of overhead slotted tray, series of compatible adapter cables, and automatic test set which consists of control console and cable-switching console. System reduces hookup time and also reduces cost of fabricating and storing test cables.

  13. Electric field analysis of extra high voltage (EHV) underground cables using finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Mantosh; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    used for the insulator due electrical, thermal or environmental stress. Most of these problems are related to the electric field stress on the insulation of the underground cables. The objective of the electric field analysis by using different numerical techniques is to find electric field stress...... electric field stress and other parameters of EHV underground cables with given boundary conditions using 2-D electric field analysis software package (IES-ELECTRO module) which is based on the finite element method (FEM).......Transmission and Distribution of electric power through underground cables is a viable alternative to overhead lines, particularly in residential or highly populated areas. The electrical stresses are consequences of regular voltages and over voltages and the thermal stresses are related to heat...

  14. External electromagnetic transient sources: analysis of its effect in underground power cables; Fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas: analisis de su efecto en los cables de potencia subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla Paz, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    In most of the electrical power systems that operate at present, the subterranean cables are only a complement. The cost of these cables is generally higher than the one of the aerial power lines, thus its use is restricted only to those areas where the construction of the aerial power lines is not feasible. It is estimated that for voltages lower than 110 kV this cost is up to seven times greater than the one of an aerial power line and for voltages higher than 380 kV it can be up to twenty times greater. Nevertheless, important reasons exist to construct a subterranean cable system such as: a) the fast growth of the urban centers and the industrial zones, which brings about restrictions of the rights of way for the construction of aerial power lines, b) the crossing of large water bodies, c) the congestion of aerial power lines near the generating substations or power plants, d) the crossing of air lines and e) the laws and the regulations, to mention some of them. The importance of the underground transmission systems of high and extra high voltage will be increased in the medium and the long term, therefore, it is considered that the effects of the external phenomena in these systems, like the inductions produced by the electromagnetic transient sources, will be more severe. In this research work the atmospheric discharges are defined as the external electromagnetic transient sources. The large dimension cables such as the power cables, behave as large collectors of the interferences produced by the atmospheric discharges, which can bring about damages in the components of a system. In order to avoid the damages and to increase the reliability of the subterranean cable systems it is necessary to use protective devices and appropriate insulation levels, mainly. If the phenomenon and the behavior of the system are properly represented, it is possible to more accurately determine the characteristics that the equipment must have to resist the over voltages and the

  15. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cable system must be designed so that there will be no hazardous change in cable tension throughout the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.689 Cable systems. (a...

  16. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Platform pose (localization and orientation) information is a key requirement for autonomous mobile systems. The severe natural conditions and complex terrain of underground mines diminish the capability of most pose estimation systems, especially...

  17. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  18. Electromagnetic Transients on an Underground Cable due to a Lightning Current Flowing into the Metallic Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Taki, Norikazu

    This paper has investigated surge propagation and overvoltages on a coaxial cable when a lightning current flows into the metallic sheath based on experiments, EMTP simulations and analytical calculations. At the instance of the current flowing into the sheath, the core voltage becomes the same as the sheath voltage, which is given as a product of the sheath surge impedance and a half the current, following the theory of electrostatic shield. Thus no voltage difference appears between the core and the sheath across the insulator. When a traveling wave arrives at a transition point, i.e. cable termination, an insulating or crossbonding joint, the voltages change suddenly and a significant voltage appears across the insulator. An EMTP simulation shows that the overvoltage across the insulator exceeds 1200kV at a crossbonded node on a 400kV underground cable when an ac source voltage is in the opposite polarity of the lightning surge voltage on the sheath and the inductance of a crossbonding lead wire is taken into account. The high overvoltage appears in a narrow region of the cable between the current injected node and the crossbonded node due to traveling wave reflection between the nodes. The phenomenon investigated may occur if there exists a pinhole or a watertree on an underground cable.

  19. Underground cables as an alternative to overhead lines. A comparison of economic and technical aspects of voltages over 22 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trohjell, J.E.; Vognild, I.H.

    1994-07-11

    The report presents technical and economical aspects of underground cables compared to overhead lines in Norway in high voltage transmission systems above 22 kV. The economical comparison between the two options includes capital costs of installation (investment costs), maintenance costs and costs of electrical losses. The main technical issues discussed are reliability and flexibility. 35 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Innovating Technological Process for Expanding the Service Life of Underground Power Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabacaru V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a public power distribution operator on low voltage (023/0.4 kV, medium voltage (6 and 20 kV, and high voltage (110 kV in the territory of Galati County, SDEE Galati serves approximately 240,000 consumers (captive and eligible, domestic and non-domestic For this purpose, in the field of medium voltage underground distribution lines, SDEE Galati manages and operates a volume of approx. 500 km UDL/6kV circuit and approximately 630 km UDL/20 kV circuit. Many of these cables which are still in operation, were manufactured with materials and on the technological level of the ’60s,’70s and ‘80s decades and have reached the end of their service life. Evidence does and incident statistics from these networks in which, every year, one of the "tips" is the medium voltage cables damaged "technical wear" normal operating conditions. The current paper will present the main features of an innovating technological process called SPR (Sustained Pressure Rejuvenation, designed for on-site refurbishing of underground power cable insulation medium and high voltage. The process offers a viable alternative that has proven, over the 25 years of application initially on the American content and now on the worldwide, substantially more cost effective than replacing cables. The paper does not propose detailed presentation of the technological process, but to inform the family of energetics NPS about the existence and the benefits of applying this new technological process to the old cable medium and high voltage.

  1. Field Test of 3 phase, 22.9kV, 100m HTS Cable System in KEPCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S H [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H S [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H R [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, O B [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S W [Department of superconductivity, University of Tokyo (Japan); Masuda, T [HTS R and D Department, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd (Japan); Yatsuka, K [HTS R and D Department, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd (Japan); Watanabe, M [HTS R and D Department, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd (Japan); Ryoo, H S [Underground System Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, H S [High Magnetic Field R and D Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D L [High Magnetic Field R and D Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S D [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-01

    Starting from investigation of feasibility and basic studies, KEPCO/KEPRI has carried an enterprising project for HTS cable system since 2002. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate HTS cable system and evaluate the feasibility in electricity utility's view. The installation of 100m/3phase/22.9kV/50MVA HTS cable system is undergoing in KEPCO's test yard, located in Gochang, Korea. The HTS cable system consists of 100m long cable, two terminations and a cooling system. To simulate the actual cable installation, the 55m section of the 100m long cable was installed into an underground tunnel. Commissioning test is scheduled at the end of September, 2005 and followed by long term operation test. In this paper, the installation of HTS cable system and initial results of system operation will be summarized.

  2. A Component Model for Cable System Calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, J.M.M. de; Boschma, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, no method yet exists for system calculations to support cable engineers with the technical challenge of increasing digital loads when confronted with ever-increasing capacity demands from commercial departments. This article introduces a reliable method of cable system calculations.

  3. Identification of problems when using long high voltage AC cable in transmission system II: Resonance & Harmonic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saeed; Wiechowski, W.; Randrup, M.

    2008-01-01

    cable in transmission system. The objective of this paper and the companion paper is to address the most important problems expected in transmission system with relatively larger share of long HV underground cables. The end goal will be a guideline to special solutions and precautions to avoid dangerous...

  4. New piercing for insulated cables in underground networks; Novos conectores compactos perfurantes ('piercings') para cabos isoldados em redes subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Fernando; Corral, Horacio [Tradis, SP (Brazil). E-mail: tradis@mandic.com.br

    1999-07-01

    This work presents a tap and transition connection in low voltage protected underground cables. This connection allows tapping for clients or branchings from a main energized cables. The compact connectors range various types of insulated cables protected and under grounded in a simple way. The work analysed the advantages of using two components polyurethane resins for the tapping protection and insulation restoring.

  5. 75 FR 41890 - In the Matter of Certain Underground Cable and Pipe Locators; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on June 10, 2010, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Radiodetection, Ltd. of the United Kingdom. A letter supplementing the complaint was filed on June 29, 2010. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain underground cable and pipe locators by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6,268,731. The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainant requests that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders.

  6. Comparison between Underground Cable and Overhead Line for a Low-Voltage Direct Current Distribution Network Serving Communication Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the differences in economic feasibility and dynamic characteristics between underground (U/G cable and overhead (O/H line for low-voltage direct current (LVDC distribution. Numerous low loaded long-distance distribution networks served by medium-voltage alternative current (MVAC distribution lines exist in the Korean distribution network. This is an unavoidable choice to compensate voltage drop, therefore, excessive cost is expended for the amount of electrical power load. The Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO is consequently seeking a solution to replace the MVAC distribution line with a LVDC distribution line, reducing costs and providing better quality direct current (DC electricity. A LVDC distribution network can be installed with U/G cables or O/H lines. In this paper, a realistic MVAC distribution network in a mountainous area was selected as the target model to replace with LVDC. A 30 year net present value (NPV analysis of the economic feasibility was conducted to compare the cost of the two types of distribution line. A simulation study compared the results of the DC line fault with the power system computer aided design/electro-magnetic transient direct current (PSCAD/EMTDC. The economic feasibility evaluation and simulation study results will be used to select the applicable type of LVDC distribution network.

  7. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  8. 47 CFR 76.403 - Cable television system reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television system reports. 76.403 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Forms and Reports § 76.403 Cable television system reports. The operator of every operational cable television system that serves 20,000 or more subscribers shall file...

  9. Voltage return tests applied to the evaluation of polyethylene insulated cables used in underground networks; Avaliacao de cabos isolados em polietileno utilizados em redes subterraneas utilizando ensaios de tensao de retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, Fernando; Silva, Guillherme C.; Leguenza, Elinton L.; Gulmine, Joseane V.; Munaro, Marilda; Braga, Dornelles; Bornancim, Altivir; Tomioka, Jorge; Scarpa, Paulo C.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mello, Joao S.; Neri, Pericles J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Das-Gupta, Dilip K. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the return voltage measurements tests in 15 kV class insulated cables by using load voltage values lesser than the presented in literature (500 Vcc - 2000 Vcc), and on flat samples obtained from those cables allowing to prove the efficiency of the technique. The paper discusses the mechanisms of tree structure formation and evolution, and the correlation with the return voltage phenomena in insulating polymeric systems. Besides, the work presents initial results of a study on polarization changes according to the degradation state in samples of insulated cables used in underground net works.

  10. Power System Technical Performance Issues Related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    The aim of this TB is to serve as a practical guide for preparing models and performing studies necessary during the assessment of the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with a large share of (long) AC cables. The brochure follows all phases of planning and analysis of a typical underground...

  11. Electrical cabling system associated at a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejeux, P.; Desfontaines, G.

    1988-01-01

    This cabling system for an electrical device in a nuclear reactor comprises at least a first cable issued of the device, a second cable comprising a first portion, a second portion and a third portion joining the second by a multiple quick fitting connector capable to connect at least ten second portions at ten other third portions of the second cable [fr

  12. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  13. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  14. NEPO cable system aging management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Cable polymer aging and condition monitoring is being studied in detail under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO) that is co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI. Significant advances in modeling of polymer aging and condition monitoring have occurred and continue to be developed. The activities include: Analysis of the linearity of the Arrhenius model to room temperature; Development of a wear-out technique for determining remaining life of cable polymers; Determination of the aging fragility point for composite EPR/CSPE insulation with respect to LOCA function; Development of visual/tactile training aids for cable assessment; Development of a totally new nuclear magnetic resonance condition monitoring technique; Assessment of existing techniques with regard to repeatability, accuracy and ease of use. Through use of highly precise oxygen consumption experiments, the linearity of the Arrhenius model is being evaluated. In these experiments, polymer is placed in vials with a known amount of oxygen and aged at much lower temperatures than is possible with standard accelerated aging techniques. aging results are possible at room temperature. The technique is being applied to commonly used insulation and jacket polymers. The wear-out technique allows highly non-linear aging behavior to be made linear. The wearout point of a polymer is determined through high-rate aging and use of a condition monitoring technique to establish the end point. Then, micro-samples of cable that have been naturally aged are subjected to high rate aging to the same end point. The ratio of the remaining high rate aging period to the total high rate aging time provides a linear indication of the remaining service time. Initial screening of nuclear plant cable systems can use visual/tactile techniques to identify cable that has aged significantly. Training aids have been developed by developing sets of specimens with accelerated aging ranging from none

  15. Wide-band cable systems at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struven, W.

    1983-01-01

    SLAC's first cable TV system was installed in 1979 to remotely monitor a narrow pulse which was generated in the west end of the klystron gallery. When Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) experimental work started at the west end of the accelerator, the original 1979 cable was upgraded to a bidirectional system so that 2 MBaud point-to-point data and several video and 9600 baud channels could be transmitted. The implementation of the SLC requires a complete upgrading of the accelerator control system. The system is based on a distributed processing configuration using a PDP11/780 VAX in the Main Control Center (MCC) and Intel single-board computers in a multibus configuration along the accelerator. The high-speed data linking is supplied by a 1 MBaud Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Network. The same cable is used to provide video, low-speed data, voice and high-speed point-to-point data services. The transmission system will utilize a wideband midsplit cable facility to collect and distribute signals to all parts of the network

  16. CSNS control cable information management system based on web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huihui; Wang Chunhong; Li Luofeng; Liu Zhengtong; Lei Bifeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to data modeling a great number of control devices and cables with complicated relations of CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). The CSNS accelerator control cable database was created using MySQL, and the control cable information management system based on Web was further built. During the development of the database, the design idea of IRMIS database was studied. and the actual situation of CSNS accelerator control cables was investigated. The control cable database model fitting the requirements was designed. This system is of great convenience to manage and maintain CSNS control devices and cables in the future. (authors)

  17. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to minimize... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817...

  18. Temperature sensing in underground facilities by Raman optical frequency domain reflectometry using fiber-optic communication cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brüne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaining information on climatic conditions in subway tunnels is the key to predicting the propagation of smoke or toxic gases in these infrastructures in the case of a fire or a terrorist attack. As anemometer measurements are not economically suitable, the employment of alternative monitoring methods is necessary. High-resolution temperature sensing with Raman optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR using optical communication fiber cables shows great potential as it allows the surveillance of several kilometers of underground transport facilities without the need for installing sensing equipment in the tunnels. This paper presents first results of a study using this approach for monitoring subway tunnels. In the Berlin subway, temperature data gathered from newly installed as well as pre-installed communication cables were evaluated and compared to reference data from temperature loggers. Results are very promising as high correlations between all data can be achieved showing the potential of this approach.

  19. OVERLOAD CAPABILITY OF POWER CABLES IN ACTUAL POWER CONSUMPTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Szhebenyuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of overload capability calculations for 6-kV power cables are analyzed. The work is aimed at creating a computation system for the current rating of high-voltage cross-linked polyethylene power cables.

  20. Specialized video systems for use in underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendom, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Robotics Development Groups at the Savannah River Site and the Hanford site have developed remote video and photography systems for deployment in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a part of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) program within DOE. Figure 1 shows the remote video/photography systems in a typical underground storage tank environment. Viewing and documenting the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in characterizing their condition and contents and in controlling their remediation. Several specialized video/photography systems and robotic End Effectors have been fabricated that provide remote viewing and lighting. All are remotely deployable into and from the tank, and all viewing functions are remotely operated. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. Overview video systems, both monaural and stereo versions, include a camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, vertical deployment system, and positional feedback. Each independent video package can be inserted through a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter opening. A special attribute of these packages is their design to never get larger than the entry hole during operation and to be fully retrievable. The End Effector systems will be deployed on the large robotic Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) being developed by other portions of the OTD-DOE programs. The systems implement a multi-functional ''over the coax'' design that uses a single coaxial cable for all data and control signals over the more than 900 foot cable (or fiber optic) link

  1. Configuration Optimization of Underground Cables inside a Large Magnetic Steel Casing for Best Ampacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutassem, Wael

    This thesis presents a method for optimizing cable configuration inside a large magnetic cylindrical steel casing, from the total ampacity point of view. The method is comprised of two main parts, namely: 1) analytically calculating the electromagnetic losses in the steel casing and sheathed cables, for an arbitrary cables configuration, and 2) implementing an algorithm for determining the optimal cables configuration to obtain the best total ampacity. The first part involves approximating the eddy current and hysteresis losses in the casing and cables. The calculation is based on the theory of images, which this thesis expands to apply to casings having both high magnetic permeability and high electric conductivity at the same time. The method of images, in combination with approximating the cable conductors and sheaths as multiple physical filaments, is used to compute the final current distributions in the cables and pipe and thus the associated losses. The accuracy of this computation is assessed against numerical solutions obtained using the Maxwell finite element program by Ansoft. Next, the optimal cable configuration is determined by applying a proposed two-level optimization algorithm. At the outer level, a combinatorial optimization based on a genetic algorithm explores the different possible configurations. The performance of every configuration is evaluated according to its total ampacity, which is calculated using a convex optimization algorithm. The convex optimization algorithm, which forms the inner level of the overall optimization procedure, is based on the barrier method. This proposed optimization procedure is tested for a duct bank installation containing twelve cables and fifteen ducts, comprising two circuits and two cables per phase, and compared with a brute force method of considering all possible configurations. The optimization process is also applied to an installation consisting of a single circuit inside a large magnetic steel casing.

  2. Cabling for an SSC silicon tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.; Boissevain, J.; Cooke, B.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) funded silicon tracking subsystem R ampersand D program, we examine the problems associated with cabling such a system. Different options for the cabling plant are discussed. A silicon microstrip tracking detector for an SSC experiment is an extremely complex system. The system consists of approximately 10 7 detector channels, each of which requires a communication link with the outside world and connections to the detector bias voltage supply, to a DC power supply for the onboard electronics, and to an adjustable discrimination level. The large number of channels and the short time between beam interactions (16 nanoseconds) dictates the need for high speed and large bandwidth communication channels, and a power distribution system that can handle the high current draw of the electronics including the large AC component due to their switching. At the same time the constraints imposed by the physics measurements require that the cable plant have absolutely minimal mass and radiation length. 4 refs., 2 figs

  3. Interconnection of the Keys north of the country with the National Electro energetic System (SEN) through a submarine cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Yañez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Most of the keys of the north of the country have a high potential for tourism Sun and beach, which is why each has an associated infrastructure that allows hotels have the necessary quality standards. Within this infrastructure the continuous electrical service must have each hotel to meet the needs of tourists stands. Today the keys are isolated from the SEN and electrical service is supplied by generators. These groups feed on fuel and diesel, and generate polluting gases near where the major hotel groups are. The problems in transporting fuel and pollution they generate have led to begin to analyze different ways of providing electric service stably in the keys. One possible option to address the problems generated by power generators in an isolated system is to interconnect the cay with SEN. This connection can be made in three ways; by airlines, underground cables or submarine cables. The airlines in the tourist areas are discarded because they affect the visuality this is why variants of underground cables or submarines are almost always handled. The proposal is to interconnect the keys with submarine cable where current conditions do not allow the use of underground cables. This interconnection can meet the demand of the keys stably and more reliably than current conditions. In addition to cases where there is a tourism growth should be no more generators only have a cable with the ability to transfer all the power needed. (author)

  4. Modelling and simulation of railway cable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichelmann, G.; Schaub, M.; Simeon, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrum Mathematik M2

    2005-12-15

    Mathematical models and numerical methods for the computation of both static equilibria and dynamic oscillations of railroad catenaries are derived and analyzed. These cable systems form a complex network of string and beam elements and lead to coupled partial differential equations in space and time where constraints and corresponding Lagrange multipliers express the interaction between carrier, contact wire, and pantograph head. For computing static equilibria, three different algorithms are presented and compared, while the dynamic case is treated by a finite element method in space, combined with stabilized time integration of the resulting differential algebraic system. Simulation examples based on reference data from industry illustrate the potential of such computational tools. (orig.)

  5. A simple computational method for predicting magnetic field in the vicinity of a three-phase underground cable with a fluid-filled steel-pipe enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.B.; Yang, X.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a simple computational method for predicting the magnetic field above ground, generated by an underground three-phase pipe-type cable. In the computation, an approximation is made to simplify the problem a Fourier series technique and an iterative procedure are employed to handle the nonlinear B-H characteristic of the steel pipe. To validate the computational method, measurements were made and the numerical results are compared with the measurement data. Also, data of magnetic fields generated by the pipe type cable are compared with those due to the cable in absence of the pipe. The advantages and disadvantages of this simple method are discussed

  6. Field Test and Simulation of a 400 kV Cross-Bonded Cable System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Gustavsen, Bjørn; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses cable modeling for long high voltage AC underground cables. In investigating the possibility of using long cables instead of overhead lines, the simulation results must be trustworthy. Therefore, model validation is of great importance. This paper gives a benchmark case for m...

  7. Automated wireless monitoring system for cable tension using smart sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sung-Han; Li, Jian; Jo, Hongki; Park, Jongwoong; Cho, Soojin; Spencer, Billie F.; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2013-04-01

    Cables are critical load carrying members of cable-stayed bridges; monitoring tension forces of the cables provides valuable information for SHM of the cable-stayed bridges. Monitoring systems for the cable tension can be efficiently realized using wireless smart sensors in conjunction with vibration-based cable tension estimation approaches. This study develops an automated cable tension monitoring system using MEMSIC's Imote2 smart sensors. An embedded data processing strategy is implemented on the Imote2-based wireless sensor network to calculate cable tensions using a vibration-based method, significantly reducing the wireless data transmission and associated power consumption. The autonomous operation of the monitoring system is achieved by AutoMonitor, a high-level coordinator application provided by the Illinois SHM Project Services Toolsuite. The monitoring system also features power harvesting enabled by solar panels attached to each sensor node and AutoMonitor for charging control. The proposed wireless system has been deployed on the Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge located in South Korea. Tension forces are autonomously monitored for 12 cables in the east, land side of the bridge, proving the validity and potential of the presented tension monitoring system for real-world applications.

  8. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  9. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.

    2009-06-01

    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  10. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    the electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept......This paper describes shortly the status of superconducting transmission lines and assesses what impact the recently discovered BSCCO superconductors may have on the design of the cables.Two basically different insulation systems are discussed:1) The room temperature dielectric design, where...

  11. Thermoplastic high performance cable insulation systems for flexible system operation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, A.S.; Green, C.D.; Hosier, I.L.; Stevens, G.C.; Pye, A.; Thomas, J.L.; Sutton, S.J.; Guessens, T.

    2015-01-01

    Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) has been the cable insulation material of choice in many different transmission and distribution applications for many years and, while this material has many desirable characteristics, its thermo-mechanical properties have consequences for both continuous and emergency cable ratings which, in turn, have implications for system operational flexibility. In this paper, we describe the principles and two embodiments through which new thermoplastic insulation syste...

  12. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  13. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  14. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  15. Frequency analysis of a tower-cable coupled system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moo Yeol; Kim, Seock Hyun; Park, In Su; Cui, Chengxun

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the prediction of natural frequency to avoid resonance in a wind turbine tower- cable coupled system. An analytical model based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method is proposed to predict the resonance frequency of a wind turbine tower structure supported by four guy cables. To verify the validity of the analytical model, a small tower-cable model is manufactured and tested. The frequency and mode data of the tower model are obtained by modal testing and finite element analysis. The validity of the proposed method is verified through the comparison of the frequency analysis results. Finally, using a parametric study with the analytical model, we identified how the cable tension and cable angle affect the resonance frequency of the wind turbine tower structure. From the analysis results, the tension limit and optimal angle of the cable are identified.

  16. HTS Transmission Cable System for installation in the Long Island Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Frank [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Durand, Fabien [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Maguire, James [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Department of Energy (DOE) Award DE-FC26-07NT43240 was issued on October 1, 2007. Referred to as LIPA2, the principal objectives of the project were to develop key components required to deploy and demonstrate second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables in a 600 meter (2000 feet) underground segment of a 138kV three-phase transmission circuit of the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) power grid. A previous effort under DOE Award DE-FC36-03GO13032 (referred to as LIPA1) resulted in installation (and subsequent successful operation) of first-generation (1G) HTS cables at the LIPA site. As with LIPA1, American Superconductor (AMSC) led the effort for LIPA2 and was responsible for overall management of the project and producing sufficient 2G wire to fabricate the required cable. Nexans' tasks included design/manufacture/installation of the cable, joint (splice), cable terminations and field repairable cryostat; while work by Air Liquide involved engineering and installation support for the refrigeration system modifications.

  17. Long-term test of the 22.9kV HTS power cable system in LS Cable Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Man; Lee, Chang Young; Kim, Choon Dong; Kim, Do Hyung; Park, In Son; Ji, Bong Ki; Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, Jeonwook

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, LS cable Ltd. has been developing the design, manufacturing and evaluation technologies for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system as a member of DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technology) program in Korea. The 30 m HTS cable system that is rated at 22.9 kV and 1.2 kA giving a rated capacity of 50 MVA had been developed and tested. The cable was designed as a cold dielectric type employing Bi-2223 HTS tapes and polypropylene (PP) laminated paper as the conductor and electrical insulation, respectively. The cable is cooled with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at temperature from 75 to 77 K. The manufacturing and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. Long-term performance test of the cable system has been conducted for six months to verify its electric and mechanical properties in 2005

  18. Distance Protection of Cross-Bonded Transmission Cable-Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; F. Jensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the problems of protecting a cross-bonded cable system using distance protection are analysed. The combination of the desire to expand the high voltage transmission grid and the public's opinion towards new installations of overhead lines (OHL), more and more transmission cable syst...

  19. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  20. Continued development of a non-proprietary, high-tension, cable end terminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    A non-proprietary, cable guardrail system is currently under development for the Midwest States Pooled Fund Program. : A cable guardrail end terminal was necessary to accompany the cable guardrail system. The objective of this research : project was ...

  1. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  2. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  3. 77 FR 19525 - Specification for 15 kV and 25 kV Primary Underground Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... resistant cables shall have strip tension of 0 through 18 pounds (0 through 8.16 kg). Comment: General Cable suggested changing the requirement of stripping tension for TR-XLPE cable to the industry standard of a maximum of 24 lb. Limiting the maximum stripping tension to 18 lb will cause quality cable to be rejected...

  4. Dynamical Analysis and Simulation Validation of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspended Swinging System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of the suspension multicables and driven length difference between two cables cause the translation and rotation of the platform in the incompletely restrained cable-suspended system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2, which are theoretically investigated in this paper. The suspension cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method (AMM and the equations of motion are derived from Lagrange equations of the first kind. Considering all the geometric matching conditions are approximately linear with external actuator, the differential algebraic equations (DAEs are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs. Using linear boundary conditions of the suspension cable, the current method can obtain not only the accurate longitudinal displacements of cable and posture of the platform, but also the tension between the platform and cables, and the current method is verified by ADAMS simulation.

  5. Cable handling system for use in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosgrove, R.O.; Larson, E.M.; Moody, E.

    1982-01-01

    A cable handling system for use in an installation such as a nuclear reactor is disclosed herein along with relevant portions of the reactor which, in a preferred embodiment, is a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The cable handling system provides a specific way of interconnecting certain internal reactor components with certain external components, through an assembly of rotatable plugs. Moreover, this is done without having to disconnect these components from one another during rotation of the plugs and yet without interfering with other reactor components in the vicinity of the rotating plugs and cable handling system

  6. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1978 to March 31, 1979 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; and (2) cable insulation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-11

    The objective of the program is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, thus enabling it to supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors, and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications. Progress in cable conductor and cable insulation development and in the engineering facilities for fabricating and testing the superconducting cables is reported. (LCL)

  8. Dynamics of a deep-sea cable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, V.I.; Koshkin, V.L.; Serpak, I.O.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of the dynamics of a deep-sea cable system consisting of branches of constant and variable length, interacting with an undercurrent which is variable in depth and direction. We construct a mathematical model for the motion of the element of the cable system. The cables are modeled as inextensible, flexible filaments of variable length. For numerical realization of the problem, we suggest special regularizing transformations of the variables, making it possible (without additional simplifications) to take into account all the characteristic features of the motion of the filaments and to avoid difficulties in the integration of the equations of motion connected with the variability of the length of the branches of the cable system. The proposed mathematical model and the technique for its numerical analysis is applicable for the investigation of the dynamics of a complex for mining minerals from the ocean floor

  9. Hybrid modeling for dynamic analysis of cable-pulley systems with time-varying length cable and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Zhaohui; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    The dynamic analysis of cable-pulley systems is investigated in this paper, where the time-varying length characteristic of the cable as well as the coupling motion between the cable and the pulleys are considered. The dynamic model for cable-pulley systems are presented based on the principle of virtual power. Firstly, the cubic spline interpolation is adopted for modeling the flexible cable elements and the virtual 1powers of tensile strain, inertia and gravity forces on the cable are formulated. Then, the coupled motions between the cable and the movable or fixed pulley are described by the input and output contact points, based on the no-slip assumption and the spatial description. The virtual powers of inertia, gravity and applied forces on the contact segment of the cable, the movable and fixed pulleys are formulated. In particular, the internal node degrees of freedom of spline cable elements are reduced, which results in that only the independent description parameters of the nodes connected to the pulleys are included in the final governing dynamic equations. At last, two cable-pulley lifting mechanisms are considered as demonstrative application examples where the vibration of the lifting process is investigated. The comparison with ADAMS models is given to prove the validity of the proposed method.

  10. Emerging Subsea Networks: SMART Cable Systems for Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Butler, R.; Joint Task Force, U.

    2016-02-01

    The subsea telecommunications cable industry is approaching a prospective new era: deploying SMART subsea cable systems (SMART = Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunication). The current global, commercial cable infrastructure consists of 1 Gm of cable, being refreshed now and expanding in the future. The SMART concept is to add a small external sensor package along the cable system at its optical repeaters to transmit important real-time environmental data via a dedicated wavelength or overhead channel in the transmission system, avoiding any impact on the commercial traffic. These small, reliable, existing sensors would precisely measure temperature, pressure and three-axis acceleration across the world's ocean floor over an extended period of time, being deployed using standard cable-laying procedures on new or refurbished cables, but not requiring maintenance through the 2-3 decade life of the cable systems. The game-changing factor is the urgent international need for ocean environmental data related to mitigating climate and sea-level change and improving tsunami and slope failure hazard warnings. Societal costs incurred by these are reaching billions of dollars and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Pressures for new and urgent public policies are evident from the 5th IPCC Assessment, USA-China agreement on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, clear evidence for rapid global warming, 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (December 2015, Paris), and the scale of the costs of inaction. To support revised public policies and actions, decision-makers, industry leaders, and the public are seeking key scientific data, which will necessitate new sources of funding. Hence, the emergence of new SMART cable systems offered by the subsea telecommunications industry will provide new market opportunities, engage additional non-traditional users, and make profound societal contributions. The Joint Task Force (JTF) on SMART Subsea Cable Systems

  11. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model

  12. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  13. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/task-force-sc). A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  14. Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter Maintenance for Constructing Underground Cable Lines from Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Wang; Yee, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) can construct an underground tunnel efficiently and without construction noise vibration related problems. Many civil projects, such as NPP construction, set importance on the economics of construction. Thus, advance rate, which is the speed at which the TBM is able to progress along its intended route, is one of the key factors affecting construction period and construction expenses. As the saying goes, time is money. Right Double Quotation Mark In addition, it is important to manage construction permits and civil complaints, even when construction expenses and construction periods are excluded. So, accurate prediction for advance rate is important when designing tunnel project. Several designers and project owners have tried to improve construction efficiency and tunneling advance rate.. There have been several studies on managing the rate of wear, designing an optimum tunnel face, and finding the optimum cutter spacing. Cutter replacements due to cutter wear and tear are very important because the wear and tear of cutters attached to the cutter head profoundly affect the advance rate. To manage cutter wear and tear is to control parameters related to cutter shape and cutter wear rate. There have been studies on the relationship between rock properties or TBM characteristics, and cutter wear or replacement. However, many of these studies relied on computer simulations or other small scale experiments. Therefore, this paper attempts to present a correlation between cutter replacement or cutter wear, against various parameters using practical data such as rock quality and TBM shield specifications, from an actual construction site. This study was conducted to suggest directions in the improvement of TBM cutters by analyzing relationships between rock conditions and cutter maintenance as well as TBM advance rates. Actual field data was collected and compared to actual design values in evaluating the effectiveness of traditional

  15. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  16. Structured Wiring Systems: Bringing Sanity to Network Cabling!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    While most organizations, including libraries, can benefit from a structured wiring system, few likely have the expertise and resources to place, specify, and install network cabling by themselves. This article reviews common wiring plans, addresses basic concepts of structured wiring systems, and discusses the importance and benefits of such a…

  17. Integrated cable vibration control system using wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seunghoo; Cho, Soojin; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-04-01

    As the number of long-span bridges is increasing worldwide, maintaining their structural integrity and safety become an important issue. Because the stay cable is a critical member in most long-span bridges and vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations, vibration mitigation has been of interest both in academia and practice. While active and semi-active control schemes are known to be quite effective in vibration reduction compared to the passive control, requirements for equipment including data acquisition, control devices, and power supply prevent a widespread adoption in real-world applications. This study develops an integrated system for vibration control of stay-cables using wireless sensors implementing a semi-active control. Arduino, a low-cost single board system, is employed with a MEMS digital accelerometer and a Zigbee wireless communication module to build the wireless sensor. The magneto-rheological (MR) damper is selected as a damping device, controlled by an optimal control algorithm implemented on the Arduino sensing system. The developed integrated system is tested in a laboratory environment using a cable to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system on vibration reduction. The proposed system is shown to reduce the vibration of stay-cables with low operating power effectively.

  18. Life cycle guideline of petrochemical plant underground piping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Jeng-Ywan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics of petrochemical plant disaster, the type of underground pipeline leakage is the highest proportion, for example, Kaohsiung gas explosion in 2014 is a typical case. Therefore, improvement strategy of petrochemical plant underground piping system from both engineering and management becomes an important issue. Through reviewing regulations as well as surveying questionnaire, including kinds of piping materials, 3D drawing files, operation procedures, information sharing, etc., the findings show lack contact of integrated management with engineering executive and insufficient technical requirements are major defects. Overviewing current problems of domestic petrochemical plant underground piping system management, and comparing to international criteria and specifications, this research focuses on the of piping design, construction, operations, maintenance, and inspection. Then management procedures and engineering technical feasibility strategies are suggested. In addition, the proposed life cycle guideline in order to reduce the disaster incidence of petrochemical plant underground pipelines.

  19. Quality system design and development for SSC superconductor cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, M.; Saito, S.; Sashida, T.; Koganeya, M.; Ayai, N.; Takai, K.; Nagata, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop a quality system for the SSC superconductor cable, Sumitomo Electric followed a very formal, systematic approach, comparable to those employed for such major projects as developing a new car model. This paper presents our approach, as well as the resulting computerized environment for quality assurance (QA)

  20. Superconducting power cables in Denmark - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    A case study of a 450 MVA, 132 kV high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable has been carried out. In the study, a superconducting cable system is compared to a conventional cable system which is under construction for an actual transmission line in the Danish grid. The study...... that HTS cables will be less expensive for high power ratings, have lower losses for lines with a high load, and have a reduced reactive power production. The use of superconducting cables in Denmark accommodate plans by the Danish utility to make a substantial conversion of overhead lines to underground...

  1. Structured cabling

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Martin, Jesus Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and implementation of a structured cabling system. A structured cabling is the way of standardizing the communications like telephony and ISDN in the buildings and facilitate the future scalability. In our case, we study the structured cabling system for a certain University building (in cooperation with Technical Services of University of Patras (Planning & Networks Directorate), University of Patras). The study of structured cabling is base...

  2. Assessment on the Monitoring System for KURT using Optical Fiber Sensor Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Jung Yul

    2010-01-01

    Optical fiber cable, as a sensor, was installed on the wall of KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) Underground Research Tunnel(KURT) in order to monitor the physical stability of the tunnel, which was constructed for technical development and demonstration of radioactive waste disposal. This monitoring system has two simultaneous measurements of temperature and strain over time using Brillouin backscatter. According to the results of the monitoring from Jan. 2008 to Nov. 2009, there is no significant displacement or movement at the tunnel wall However, the cumulative volume of total strain increased slightly as time passes with the comparison of the reference observation, which was measured in Jan. 2008. The change in cumulative volume of total strain indicates that the strain level had been affected by saturation and de-saturation phenomena due to groundwater fluctuation at several points at KURT. This system is based on the distributed sensing technique concept, not point sensing. By using this system, a displacement can be detected with the range from 20 με to 28,000 με every 1m interval in minimum. A temperature variation can be monitored at every 0.5m interval with the resolution of 0.01 in minimum. Based on the study, this monitoring system is potentially applicable to long term monitoring systems for radioactive waste disposal project as well as other structures and underground openings

  3. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

  4. An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-07-21

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  5. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information regarding whether the use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where... . Information on MSHA-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov...

  6. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage... underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... as defined in § 280.210; and (b) Does not engage in petroleum production, refining, and marketing as...

  7. Propylene based systems for high voltage cable insulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosier, I. L.; Cozzarini, L.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

    2009-08-01

    Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) remains the material of choice for extruded high voltage cables, possessing excellent thermo-mechanical and electrical properties. However, it is not easily recyclable posing questions as to its long term sustainability. Whilst both polyethylene and polypropylene are widely recycled and provide excellent dielectric properties, polypropylene has significantly better mechanical integrity at high temperatures than polyethylene. However, while isotactic polypropylene is too stiff at room temperature for incorporation into a cable system, previous studies by the authors have indicated that this limitation can be overcome by using a propylene-ethylene copolymer. Whilst these previous studies considered unrelated systems, the current study aims to quantify the usefulness of a series of related random propylene-ethylene co-polymers and assesses their potential for replacing XLPE.

  8. Wire in the Cable-Driven System of Surgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Lv, N.; Mu, H. Z.; Xue, L. J.

    2017-07-01

    During the evolution of the surgical robot, cable plays an important role. It translates motion and force precisely from surgeon’s hand to the tool’s tips. In the paper, the vertical wires, the composition of cable, are mathematically modeled from a geometric point of view. The cable structure and tension are analyzed according to the characteristics of wire screw twist. The structural equations of the wires in different positions are derived for both non-bent cable and bent cable, respectively. The bending moment formula of bent cable is also obtained. This will help researchers find suitable cable and design more matched pulley.

  9. Dynamic model and workspace analysis of novel incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables is introduced in this article. Based on wrench of forces theory and Lagrange’s equation of first kind, the static and dynamics models of incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables are established, respectively. In order to obtain an intuitive understanding of the trajectory analysis, a dynamics model consisting of governing equation and geometric constraint conditions which is a set of the mixed differential-algebraic equation in mathematics is established. A typical feedback controller and an inverse model were set up to estimate the driving function. The effective workspace, which is used to guarantee an efficient swing process, mostly depends on the geometrical shape rather than the volume itself which was calculated by trajectory analysis. In order to estimate system features and ensure a limited range of tension in underconstrained spatial cable system, the probable location of unbalanced loading was evaluated by pointwise evaluation techniques during normal work.

  10. A cable detection lidar system for helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist; Capbern, Alain; Defour, Martin; Fertala, Remi

    1992-01-01

    Helicopters in low-level flight are endangered by power lines or telephone wires, especially when flying at night and under poor visibility conditions. In order to prevent 'wire strike', Thomson has developed a lidar system consisting of a pulsed diode laser emitting in the near infrared region (lambda = 0.9 microns). The HOWARD (Helicopter Obstacle Warning and Detection) System utilizes a high repetition rate diode laser (PRE = 20 KHz) along with counter-rotating prisms for laser beam deflection with a total field of view of 30 degrees. This system was successfully field tested in 1991. HOWARD can detect one inch wires at ranges up to 200 meters. We are presently in the process of developing a flyable compact lidar system capable of detection ranges in the order of 400 meters.

  11. Design and construction of the 400 kV cable system for the Severn tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkell, C.A. (BICC Ltd., Belvedere, Eng.); Blake, W.E.; Brealey, A.D.R.; Hacke, K.J.H.; Hance, G.E.A.

    1977-03-01

    The reasons for the construction of a cable tunnel under the Rivers Severn and Wye and the application of an integrally cooled pipe-type cable system to the crossing are described. Difficulties of applying, to the tunnel scheme, the results of a field trial involving a buried pipe/cable scheme are examined, and the solutions described. The final design of cable and cooling system is given which enables a 4 x 400 mm/sup 2/ s.c.a. overhead line to be matched in current carrying capacity by a single cable per phase.

  12. An ultrasonic-based localization system for underground mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jordaan, JP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available -based localization system for underground mines 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 24-26 July 2017, Emden, Germany JP Jordaan, CP Kruger, BJ Silva and GP Hancke Abstract: Localization is important for a wide range...

  13. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  14. Cable Television: Technical Considerations in Franchising Major Market Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Carl

    The 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) regulations on cable television were intended to assist the penetration of cable television into the large metropolitan regions of the United States. In these major market areas, the task for developing an appropriate franchise is complicated by the changing functional nature of the cable systems…

  15. A planar shock isolation system with high-static-low-dynamic-stiffness characteristic based on cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanhui; He, Minghua; Shen, Wenhou; Ren, Gexue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a simple and designable shock isolation system with ideal high-static-low-dynamic-stiffness (HSLDS) is proposed, which is intended for the horizontal plane shock isolation application. In this system, the isolated object is suspended by several bearing cables and constrained by a number of uniformly distributed pretensioned cables in the horizontal plane, where the low dynamic stiffness of the system is main controlled by the pretension of the planar cables, whilst the high static stiffness is determined by the axial stiffness of the planar cables and their geometric settings. To obtain the HSLDS characteristic of the system, a brief theoretical description of the relationship between the restoring force and displacement is derived. By obtaining the three-order Taylor expansion with sufficient accuracy of the restoring force, influence of planar cable parameters on the low dynamic and high static stiffness is thus given, therefore, the required HSLDS isolator can be easily designed by adjusting the planar cable length, pretension and tensile stiffness. Finally, the isotropy characteristic of the restoring force of the system with different numbers of planar cables is investigated. To evaluate the performance of the system, a rigid isolated object and flexible cables coupling simulation model considering the contacts of the system is established by using multibody dynamics approach. In this model, flexible cables are simulated by 3-node cable element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation; the contact between cable and isolated object is simulated based on Hertz contact theory. Finally, the time-domain shock excitation is converted from the design shock spectrum on the basis of BV043/85 criterion. The design procedure of this isolator and some useful guidelines for choosing cable parameters are presented. In addition, a summary about the performance of the isolators with different numbers of cables shocking in an arbitrary direction is

  16. Modelling of long High Voltage AC Cables in the Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    and eliminated. A study of the cable model accuracy for transmission line modelling is the topic of the research documented in this thesis. The main part of the work is split in two. Firstly planning, performing and analysing high frequency field measurements for model validation. Secondly improvements......The research documented in this thesis addresses Modelling of long High Voltage AC cables in Transmission Systems. Modelling techniques of HV AC cables has been a subject to researchers as early as in the 1920’ies and research in the field continues steadily as cables become more complicated...... to the existing cable models. Before the two main parts are discussed, transmission cables are described; their physical layout and mathematical representation. Relevant literature study on modelling transmission cables by introducing existing models and explaining how to model in the software used in this thesis...

  17. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  18. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... proposed rule addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on...

  19. Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).

  20. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... proposed rule for Proximity Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due... Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31, 2011. DATES: The public hearing dates and locations are listed...

  1. Resistive cryogenic cable, phase III. Final report, April 18, 1974--March 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Work performed during 3 years of research on development of a foam-insulated underground cryogenic power transmission cable is reported. Information is included on the cryogenic envelope investigation; evaluation and aging study of electrical insulation; test system specifications; and cable system design and cost studies. (LCL)

  2. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  3. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  4. 47 CFR 36.153 - Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF) to categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunications Property Cable and Wire Facilities § 36.153 Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF) to categories. (a) Cable consists of: Aerial cable, underground cable, buried cable, submarine cable, deep sea... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF...

  5. Security television monitoring using a wideband radio-frequency cable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.A.; Case, A.L.; Crutcher, R.I.; Wetzell, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was equipped with a multichannel, bidirectional rf cable television system for security assessment. The multichannel cable system was selected over a more conventional video cable system that has separate cables to each camera. Primary considerations for election of the rf cable system were initial cost and ease of midification or additions to the system. Two, 300-MHz cables, having a capacity of approx. 60 channels, and modulators and demodulators for 40 channels were installed. The modulators, located in buildings or building complexes, receive video signals from 40 TV cameras. These signals are transmitted as rf signals by the cable system to centralized emergency control center (ECC) where they are demodulated, processed, and displayed by the video equipment. TV monitors, digital video motion detectors, and recorders enable the dispatcher in the ECC to evaluate and document the video information. This paper covers the justification for a TV system and the reasons for selecting an rf cable system. It includes a discussion of the design criteria, installation, and expansion capabilities of the system

  6. Comparison of programmed and cabled re-entrance systems. Elaboration of cabled re-entrance system for a CII 90.40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraudeau, Jean

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study problems related to re-entrance, and, more particularly, to study a re-entrance system for a CII 90.40 computer. Such a system can be realised under a programmed or cabled form, and both approaches are described and compared. A generalisation of this comparison is briefly proposed. As the computer already possesses a programmed re-entrance system, the author focuses on the study of the cabled re-entrance system which results in an improvement of performance and possibilities provided by this computer, particularly for its use in real time. The design, realisation and development of such a cabled system are reported. A first part reports a theoretical study on re-entrance (definition, problems, applications), a presentation of the computer, a description of the programmed re-entrance system, a presentation of the principle of the chosen cabled re-entrance system, a definition of the structure and operating mode of the cabled pile and a description of its various components, and a flowchart analysis of function execution. The second part reports the practical realisation: definition, technological overview, technology used in the cabled pile, sequencing and multiplexing principle, impulse transmission, logical layouts, and circuit adjustments. The third part presents practical example. An assessment and perspectives are finally discussed

  7. 47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV interface devices, including cable system... FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.115 TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices. (a) Measurements of the radiated emissions of a TV interface device shall be conducted with the...

  8. Close out of the Malargue site: Underground draining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Nolberto N.; Liseno, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    An industrial uranium production facility stopped working in Malargue city, Mendoza province. Nowadays, in that place there are 700,000 tons of solid tailings piles from the uranium minerals concentration process. They must be treated inside the site through engineering works included in the final closeout project. This paper describes the project technical details of an underground drainage system, designed to depress the groundwater level and to be sure about the isolation of the solids to be treated from the groundwater. The work was done by a private company, after public bidding process. At the moment the drainage system is in operation control stage. (author)

  9. Operation experiences with a 30 kV/100 MVA high temperature superconducting cable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennesen, Ole; Daeumling, Manfred; Jensen, Kim H; Kvorning, Svend; Olsen, Soeren K; Traeholt, Chresten; Veje, Erling; Willen, Dag; Oestergaard, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    A superconducting cable based on Bi-2223 tape technology has been developed, installed and operated in the public network of Copenhagen Energy in a two-year period between May 2001 and May 2003. This paper gives a brief overview of the system and analyses some of the operation experiences. The aim of this demonstration project is to gain experience with HTS cables under realistic conditions in a live distribution network. Approximately 50 000 utility customers have their electric power supplied through the HTS cable. The cable system has delivered 226 GW h of energy and reached a maximum operating current of 1157 A. The operation experiences include over-currents of 6 kA due to faults on peripheral lines, commissioning, servicing and failure responses on the cooling system, continuous 24 h, 7 day per week monitoring and performance of the alarm system. The implications of these experiences for the future applications of HTS cable systems are analysed

  10. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  11. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  12. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  13. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  14. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than 30 percent of the households in its franchise area subscribe to the cable service of a cable system. (2) The franchise area is: (i) Served by at least two unaffiliated multichannel video programming... franchise area; and (ii) the number of households subscribing to multichannel video programming other than...

  15. Method and system for controlling chemical reactions between superconductors and metals in superconducting cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tengming

    2018-01-02

    A method, system, and apparatus for fabricating a high-strength Superconducting cable comprises pre-oxidizing at least one high-strength alloy wire, coating at least one Superconducting wire with a protective layer, and winding the high-strength alloy wire and the Superconducting wire to form a high-strength Superconducting cable.

  16. Method and system for controlling chemical reactions between superconductors and metals in superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming

    2016-11-15

    A method, system, and apparatus for fabricating a high-strength Superconducting cable comprises pre-oxidizing at least one high-strength alloy wire, coating at least one Superconducting wire with a protective layer, and winding the high-strength alloy wire and the Superconducting wire to form a high-strength Superconducting cable.

  17. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  18. Back-to-Back Energization of a 60kV Cable Network - Inrush Currents Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth; Hansen, M. Lind

    2010-01-01

    On November 2008 the Danish government decided that all Danish transmission lines with a rated voltage equal to and below 150kV must be put underground, in order to reduce the visual pollution caused by Overhead Lines. This decision will lead to a massive use of underground cables in the Danish...... Network, and force a change in the approach used until now when planning, analyzing and operating electrical power systems. One problem that might arise is the energization of cables in parallel, as this operation may originate high inrush currents, which represent a risk to the circuit breakers connected...... to the cables. The Danish utility ENV plans to install a new cable on its 60kV network, which will be installed in parallel with other cables already installed in the network. This paper summarizes the study made to calculate the inrush currents during the cable's energization, and its importance...

  19. Management of displaced inferior patellar pole fractures with modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Wu, Qinfen; Lai, Chin-Hui; Wang, Xin

    2017-10-01

    We present a modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System for the treatment of displaced inferior patellar pole fractures and report the knee functional outcome. The patients who had had operative treatment of a displaced inferior patellar pole fracture (AO/OTA 34-A1) between December 2013 and December 2015 were studied retrospectively. Eleven consecutive patients had had open reduction and internal fixation with the modified technique using Cable Grip System, of whom, five males and six females with an average age of 60.9 years (range, 29-81 years). All fractures occurred from direct fall onto the knee. The average time from injury to surgery was 6.1days (range, 2-12days). The range of motion (ROM) was measured in degrees by goniometry at postoperative intervals of 1, 2, 4, 12, and 48 weeks; Knee function was evaluated using the Rasmussen scores at final follow-up. No patients had nonunion, loss of reduction, migration of wire, irritation from the implant and fixation breakage during the follow-up period. Recovery of ROM was achieved at 12 weeks, with the average ROM at 1 week was 72° (range, 65°-78°), 86.4° (range, 78°-92°) at 2 weeks, 115.5° (range, 103°-122°) at 4 weeks, 129.6° (range, 122°-133°) at 12 weeks, 134.5° (range, 129°-139°) at 48 weeks after the operation. Concerning the knee function outcome assessment, all patients showed excellent results at final follow-up. The average Rasmussen scores was 27.9 out of 30 (range, 27-29). The modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System for displaced inferior patellar pole fractures can provide stable fixation with excellent results in knee function, allows for immediate mobilization and early weight-bearing, which is a simple and valuable technique in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation-tolerant cable management systems for remote handling applications in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, S.; Thom, M.

    1993-01-01

    Experience has shown that one of the most vulnerable areas within remote handling equipment is the umbilical cable and termination system. Repairs of a damaged system can be very long due to poorly designed termination techniques. Over the past five years W.L. Gore has gained considerable experience in the design and manufacture of cable systems, utilising unique radiation tolerant materials and manufacturing processes. The cable systems manufactured at the W.L. Gore, Dunfermline, Scotland facility have proven to give excellent performance in the most demanding of remote handling applications. (author)

  1. Advanced refrigeration system for the Brookhaven superconducting cable project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a basic supercritical refrigerator. The present status of the cable enclosure and the types of cooling schemes being considered are presented with some examples of laboratory results and computer analysis. (MOW)

  2. Structural integrity and damage assessment of high performance arresting cable systems using an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan; Prohaska, John; Bentley, Doug; Glasgow, Andy; Campbell, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Redondo Optics in collaboration with the Cortland Cable Company, TMT Laboratories, and Applied Fiber under a US Navy SBIR project is developing an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOSTM) system for the real-time, structural health monitoring, damage assessment, and lifetime prediction of next generation synthetic material arresting gear cables. The EDIFOSTM system represents a new, highly robust and reliable, technology that can be use for the structural damage assessment of critical cable infrastructures. The Navy is currently investigating the use of new, all-synthetic- material arresting cables. The arresting cable is one of the most stressed components in the entire arresting gear landing system. Synthetic rope materials offer higher performance in terms of the strength-to-weight characteristics, which improves the arresting gear engine's performance resulting in reduced wind-over-deck requirements, higher aircraft bring-back-weight capability, simplified operation, maintenance, supportability, and reduced life cycle costs. While employing synthetic cables offers many advantages for the Navy's future needs, the unknown failure modes of these cables remains a high technical risk. For these reasons, Redondo Optics is investigating the use of embedded fiber optic sensors within the synthetic arresting cables to provide real-time structural assessment of the cable state, and to inform the operator when a particular cable has suffered impact damage, is near failure, or is approaching the limit of its service lifetime. To date, ROI and its collaborators have developed a technique for embedding multiple sensor fibers within the strands of high performance synthetic material cables and use the embedded fiber sensors to monitor the structural integrity of the cable structures during tensile and compressive loads exceeding over 175,000-lbsf without any damage to the cable structure or the embedded fiber sensors.

  3. Development of cable fed flash X-ray (FXR) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rakhee; Mitra, S.; Patel, A. S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, G.; Senthil, K.; Kumar, Ranjeet; Kolge, T. S.; Roy, Amitava; Acharya, S.; Biswas, D.; Sharma, Archana

    2017-08-01

    Flash X-ray sources driven by pulsed power find applications in industrial radiography, and a portable X-ray source is ideal where the radiography needs to be taken at the test site. A compact and portable flash X-ray (FXR) system based on a Marx generator has been developed with the high voltage fed to the FXR tube via a cable feed-through arrangement. Hard bremsstrahlung X-rays of few tens of nanosecond duration are generated by impinging intense electron beams on an anode target of high Z material. An industrial X-ray source is developed with source size as low as 1 mm. The system can be operated from 150 kV to 450 kV peak voltages and a dose of 10 mR has been measured at 1 m distance from the source window. The modeling of the FXR source has been carried out using particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations for the electron beam dynamics and X-ray generation, respectively. The angular dose profile of X-ray has been measured and compared with the simulation.

  4. 47 CFR 36.341 - Cable and wire facilities expenses-Account 6410 (Class B telephone companies); Accounts 6411...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... structures, aerial cable, underground cable, buried cable, submarine cable, deep sea cable, intrabuilding... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wire facilities expenses-Account 6410... Operating Expenses and Taxes Cable and Wire Facilities Expenses § 36.341 Cable and wire facilities expenses...

  5. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  6. Investigation of Tension Forces in A Stay Cable System of A Road Bridge Using Vibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawryszków Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents method of investigation of tension forces in stay cable systems using dynamical methods. Research was carried out during stay cable system installation on WN-24 viaduct near Poznań, that is way it was possible to compare tension forces indicated directly by devices using for tensioning of cable-stayed bridges with results achieved indirectly by means of dynamical methods. Discussion of results was presented. Advantages of dynamical methods and possible fields of application was described. This method, which has been rarely used before, may occur interesting alternative in diagnostics of bridges in comparison to traditional methods.

  7. Field test and theoretical analysis of electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on crossbonded cable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on a three-phase cable system, consisting of three single core (SC) cables in flat formation with an earth continuity conductor is under study. The propagation velocity is an important parameter for most travelling wave off- and online...... fault location methods and needs to be exactly known for optimal performance of these algorithm types. Field measurements are carried out on a 6.9 km and a 31.4 km 245 kV crossbonded cable system, and the results are analysed using the modal decomposition theory. Several ways for determining...

  8. Advanced Twisted Pair Cables for Distributed Local Area Networks in Intelligent Structure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of a significant increase in the length of cable communication channels of local area networks of automation and engineering support systems of buildings in the case of their implementation on balanced twisted pair cables is shown. Assuming a direct connection scheme and an effective speed of 100 Mbit/s, analytical relationships are obtained for the calculation of the maximum communication distance. The necessity of using in the linear part of such systems of twisted pair cables with U/UTP structure and interference parameters at the level of category 5e is grounded.

  9. Identification of problems when using long high voltage AC cable in transmission system I: Switching transient problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saeed; Wiechowski, W.; Randrup, M

    2008-01-01

    Due to political and environmental pressures from the public and government side, upgrading and building new transmission facilities are becoming more and more difficult and in some cases the expansion of overhead transmission lines are impossible. This means that underground cable technology...... share of long HV underground cables. The end goal will be a guideline to special solutions and precautions to avoid dangerous over voltage problems and also resonance problems in a transmission network with future increased share of cables. Two major categories of problems are switching transient...... and resonance problems. In each category of the possible problems, first some theoretical background is provided and then the problem and countermeasures are discussed. In this paper switching transient problems are addressed and discussed. Some preliminary guidelines for modeling of the components...

  10. Development and recommendations for a non-proprietary, high-tension, cable end terminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cable guardrail systems have been increasing in popularity in recent years due to several perceived benefits over the : commonly used W-beam guardrail. A non-proprietary design was desired as an alternative to the many proprietary designs : available...

  11. Development of a Self-Powered Magnetorheological Damper System for Cable Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new self-powered magnetorheological (MR damper control system was developed to mitigate cable vibration. The power source of the MR damper is directly harvested from vibration energy through a rotary permanent magnet direct current (DC generator. The generator itself can also serve as an electromagnetic damper. The proposed smart passive system also incorporates a roller chain and sprocket, transforming the linear motion of the cable into the rotational motion of the DC generator. The vibration mitigation performance of the presented self-powered MR damper system was evaluated by model tests with a 21.6 m long cable. A series of free vibration tests of the cable with a passively operated MR damper with constant voltage, an electromagnetic damper alone, and a self-powered MR damper system were performed. Finally, the vibration control mechanisms of the self-powered MR damper system were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the supplemental modal damping ratios of the cable in the first four modes can be significantly enhanced by the self-powered MR damper system, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the new smart passive system. The results also show that both the self-powered MR damper and the generator are quite similar to a combination of a traditional linear viscous damper and a negative stiffness device, and the negative stiffness can enhance the mitigation efficiency against cable vibration.

  12. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  13. Potential of remote multiplexing systems in reducing cabling cost and complexity in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.J.; L'Archeveque, J.V.R.

    1977-03-01

    Control and instrumentation cabling accounts for nearly 1% of the capital cost of a CANDU generating station. This study of cabling requirements, methods and costs for nuclear reactors, shows that efficient design and scale economies make CANDU wiring costs (per field point) among the lowest for comparable applications. Although attractive in other reactors, commercially available remote multiplexing systems are not, as yet, cost effective for general use in CANDU stations. The report, with its comprehensive tabulation of remote multiplexing equipment, and analysis of cabling procedures describes an approach for re-evaluating the tradeoff between remote multiplexing and conventional wiring as conditions change. (author)

  14. Informal value transfer systems and criminal organizations : A study into so-called underground banking networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passas, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a preliminary study into what is commonly called 'underground banking systems'. As the conventional banking industry is increasingly being regulated many fear that criminal organizations may turn to alternatives, such as underground banking systems - or informal

  15. Underground transportation and handling system for Pollux-casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrimpf, C.

    1988-01-01

    The concept for the underground transportation and handling system for Pollux-casks was optimized in a first phase by dividing the process in the repository up into the several transportation and manipulation steps. For each step, the possibilities were described and evaluated by means of a list of criteria (technical, safety and economical criteria). The following concept for the transportation and handling was developed: The casks are transported to the unloading area of the surface facilities by railway or truck. After removal of the transport protection, the entry control is performed. The cask is lifted from the vehicle and placed on a railbound transportation vehicle. This transport unit is transferred to the shaft and placed there ready for shaft hoisting. With the hoisting cage protruding, the transport unit is placed on the hoisting cage by means of a pushing-on device, locked, and then conveyed underground. After arrival on the emplacement level, the transport unit is pulled-off from the hoisting cage and taken over by a mine locomotive and transferred through the transportation and access drifts as far as to the emplacement site. There the locomotive pushed the rail transport vehicle into the emplacement drift, as far as to the designated emplacement position. At the emplacement position, the cask is again lifted by means of hoisting equipment. The rail transport vehicle is pulled out of the emplacement drift and returned to the surface for reloading. After deposition of the cask on the drift floor, the emplacement equipment is pulled back in order to give the operation space free for the slinger backfill truck. Within preceding tests two different backfilling techniques were investigated under realistic conditions: pneumatic backfilling and slinger backfilling. The slinger truck was found to be the most suitable for the designated purpose

  16. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitz, D.A. [Independent Consultant, Kirkland, WA (United States); Berry, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  17. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford's underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report

  18. Space charge accumulation in polymeric high voltage DC cable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodega, R.

    2006-01-01

    One of the intrinsic properties of the polymeric high voltage (HV) direct current (DC) cable insulation is the accumulation of electrostatic charges. Accumulated charges distort the initial Laplacian distribution of the electric field, leading to a local field enhancement that may cause insulation

  19. Design of power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xisheng; Lu, Peng; Wei, Niansheng; Hong, Gang

    2018-01-01

    In order to prevent the serious consequences of the power grid failure caused by the power cable grounding wire theft, this paper presents a GPRS based power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring device system, which includes a camera module, a sensor module, a micro processing system module, and a data monitoring center module, a mobile terminal module. Our design utilize two kinds of methods for detecting and reporting comprehensive image, it can effectively solve the problem of power and cable grounding wire box theft problem, timely follow-up grounded cable theft events, prevent the occurrence of electric field of high voltage transmission line fault, improve the reliability of the safe operation of power grid.

  20. High speed data transmission coaxial-cable in the space communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haohang; Huang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    An effective method is proved based on the scattering parameter of high speed 8-core coaxial-cable measured by vector network analyzer, and the semi-physical simulation is made to receive the eye diagram at different data transmission rate. The result can be apply to analysis decay and distortion of the signal through the coaxial-cable at high frequency, and can extensively design for electromagnetic compatibility of high-speed data transmission system.

  1. Influence of thermal treatment on magnetic properties of steel sheet material utilised in cable routing system

    OpenAIRE

    Ušák, Elemír

    2013-01-01

    The influence of relax annealing aimed at removal of the residual stresses (so-called stress-relief annealing) on various magnetic parameters, such as the relative magnetic amplitude permeability, coercivity, remanent flux density, etc. is discussed. Samples of steel cable tray material which is a part of commercially available cable routing system were investigated in order to find information about the properties important from the point of view of EMC requirements in extremely demanding in...

  2. Influence of Thermal Treatment on Magnetic Properties of Steel Sheet Material Utilised in Cable Routing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemir Usak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of relax annealing aimed at removal of the residual stresses (so-called stress-relief annealing on various magnetic parameters, such as the relative magnetic amplitude permeability, coercivity, remanent flux density, etc. is discussed. Samples of steel cable tray material which is a part of commercially available cable routing system were investigated in order to find information about the properties important from the point of view of EMC requirements in extremely demanding industrial environment.

  3. Applicability of a cable-driven manipulator system for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentz, J.D.; Weldon, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The cable-driven EMMA serpentine manipulator has been under development for the past several years GreyPilgrim has explored many of the possible applications of this technology in both hazardous and non-hazardous environments. This paper will investigate the advantages and disadvantages of a cable-driven system operating in hazardous environments such as nuclear storage tanks, high-temperature FinMet reactors and ship construction sites. (author)

  4. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford's underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG's Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report's recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

  5. Development of a comprehensive inventory management system for underground fiber optic conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Major State Departments of Transportation operate and maintain networks of thousands of miles of conduits, many : carrying fiber optic cables that are vital to State communication systems. These conduits are located alongside or : across highways and...

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility design and cabling system rules; Regles de conception et de cablage des systemes electroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report is devoted to establish EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) design and cabling system rules. It is intended for hardware designers in charge of designing electronic maps or integrating existing materials into a comprehensive system. It is a practical guide. The rules described in this document do not require enhanced knowledge of advanced mathematical or physical concepts. The key point is to understand phenomena with a pragmatic approach to highlight the design and protection rules. (author)

  7. Life cycle assessment of overhead and underground primary power distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumby, Sarah; Druzhinina, Ekaterina; Feraldi, Rebe; Werthmann, Danae; Geyer, Roland; Sahl, Jack

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power can be distributed in overhead or underground systems, both of which generate a variety of environmental impacts at all stages of their life cycles. While there is considerable literature discussing the trade-offs between both systems in terms of aesthetics, safety, cost, and reliability, environmental assessments are relatively rare and limited to power cable production and end-of-life management. This paper assesses environmental impacts from overhead and underground medium voltage power distribution systems as they are currently built and managed by Southern California Edison (SCE). It uses process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 (2006) and SCE-specific primary data to the extent possible. Potential environmental impacts have been calculated using a wide range of midpoint indicators, and robustness of the results has been investigated through sensitivity analysis of the most uncertain and potentially significant parameters. The studied underground system has higher environmental impacts in all indicators and for all parameter values, mostly due to its higher material intensity. For both systems and all indicators the majority of impact occurs during cable production. Promising strategies for impact reduction are thus cable failure rate reduction for overhead and cable lifetime extension for underground systems.

  8. Test-based approach to cable tray support system analysis and design: Behavior and test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigles, Damon G., E-mail: dreigles@engnovex.com [engNoveX, Inc., 19C Trolley Square, Wilmington, DE 19806 (United States); Brachmann, Ingo; Johnson, William H. [Bechtel Nuclear, Security & Environmental, 12011 Sunset Hills Rd, Suite 110, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Gürbüz, Orhan [Tobolski Watkins Engineering, Inc., 4125 Sorrento Valley Blvd, Suite B, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Describes dynamic response behavior of unistrut type cable tray supports. • Summarizes observations from past full-scale shake table test programs. • Outlines testing methodologies necessary to identify key system parameters. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant safety-related cable tray support systems subjected to seismic loadings were originally understood and designed to behave as linear elastic systems. This behavioral paradigm persisted until the early 1980s when, due to evolution of regulatory criteria, some as-installed systems needed to be qualified to higher seismic motions than originally designed for. This requirement prompted a more in-depth consideration of the true seismic response behavior of support systems. Several utilities initiated extensive test programs, which demonstrated that trapeze strut-type cable tray support systems exhibited inelastic and nonlinear response behaviors with plastic hinging at the connections together with high damping due to bouncing of cables in the trays. These observations were used to demonstrate and justify the seismic adequacy of the aforementioned as-installed systems. However, no formalized design methodology or criteria were ever established to facilitate use of these test data for future evaluations. This paper assimilates and reviews the various test data and conclusions for the purpose of developing a design methodology for the seismic qualification of safety-related cable tray support systems.

  9. Experiment of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in Chubu University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Kawahara, T.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Ivanov, Yu.; Sun, J.; Iiyoshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We designed and constructed the experimental device of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in the beginning of 2010 and did the first experiment until March, 2010, and the second experiment has been done from August to October 2010. This experimental device is called CASER-2, and the main aim of the experiment is to demonstrate high performance of DC superconducting cable system for comparing the copper cable system. Thermal contraction and expansion during the thermal cycle are discussed in the paper because if the thermal stress of the HTS tape conductor is high, the critical current of the HTS tape is reduced. Therefore, it is the first priority to keep the system in high performance and safety. We also mentioned several experiments and ideas in the paper, such as the low heat leaks of the terminal cryostat and the cryogenic pipe, and the low circulation power, energy storage function of the cable system. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the CASER-2, and discuss and estimate the performance of the system and several ideas. These discussions include the specification of the future long cable system, and show the subjects to solve for the future system.

  10. Greater Trochanteric Reattachment Using the Third-Generation Cable Plate System in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sung; Pansey, Nachiket; Kansay, Rajeev K; Yoo, Je-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Yong; Chang, Jun-Dong

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radiologic and functional results of greater trochanteric reattachment using the third-generation cable plate system in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 47 trochanteric fixations (27 men and 18 women; mean age of 60.2 years) using the third-generation cable plate system in revision THA were retrospectively evaluated. The mean follow-up was 80.4 months (range 27-148 months). The osteotomized greater trochanter was reattached using the Cable-Ready system (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) and the Dall-Miles cable system (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ). The clinical results with Harris hip score, visual analog scale, and radiologic outcomes were evaluated. The mean Harris hip score was improved from 55.7 (range 17-72) preoperatively to 90.8 (range 68-100; P = .001) postoperatively, and the mean pain score was improved from 6.6 (range 3-10) to 2.5 (range 0-6; P = .001), respectively. Nonunion was observed in 6 hips (12.7%). Migration of the osteotomized greater trochanteric fragment (>1 cm) was seen in 8 hips (17.0%). Cable breakage occurred in 13 cases (27.6%). Although 5 cable plate systems were removed, there was no need for reattachment of the greater trochanter in this study. This study showed a relatively high incidence of radiologic failure after greater trochanteric reattachment using the cable plate system in revision THA, although reattachments were not required and clinical outcome was relatively satisfactory. Periodic and close observation for the early detection of failure is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  12. High-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable for FAST telescope optical transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Pan, Gaofeng; Lin, Zhong; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Wenbai; Nan, Rendong; Li, Chunsheng; Gao, Guanjun; Luo, Wenyong; Jin, Chengjin; Song, Jinyou

    2017-11-01

    The construction of FAST telescope was completed in Guizhou province of China in September 2016, and a kind of novel high-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable was developed and applied in analog data optical transmission system of FAST. Novel structure and selective material of this optical cable ensure high stability of optical power in the process of cables round-trip motion when telescope is tracking a radio source. The 105 times bend and stretch accelerated experiment for this optical cable was implemented, and real-time optical and RF signal power fluctuation were measured. The physical structure of optical cables after 105 times round-trip motion is in good condition; the real-time optical power attenuation fluctuation is smaller than 0.044 dB; the real-time RF power fluctuation is smaller than 0.12 dB. The optical cable developed in this letter meets the requirement of FAST and has been applied in FAST telescope.

  13. Development of deepsea geomagnetic and electric fields observation system using submarine cables. 2; Kaitei cable riyo no shinkai chijiki denba kansoku station no kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Murakami, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Onishi, N.

    1997-10-22

    VENUS Project aims at constructing a deepsea geomagnetic and electric fields observation station to cover the Ryukyu Trench, Philippine Sea, and Mariana Trough, by the reuse of the Okinawa-Guam commercial marine communication cable now out of service. This report deals with a scenario for the development of a geomagnetic/electric observation system as a part of the planned long-term sea bottom observation effort and the installation of equipment therefor. The first stage consists of the towing of a frame mounted with the system equipment and a cable to connect to a data transmission relay and their placement at a specified location on the sea bottom. The cable is extended toward the relay and its leading end is allowed to land near the relay. Next, a manned submersible vessel is used to connect the cable end to the relay, the submersible vessel is next driven along the connection cable toward the system equipment for the determination of the position and orientation of the system equipment, and then electrodes are arrayed at an interval of 20m into an L-letter configuration. The system will be established in March, 1998, on the 4200m-deep continental slope of the Ryukyu Trench approximately 90km southeast of Okinawa. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Connected Lighting Systems Efficiency Study$-$ PoE Cable Energy Losses, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Karsten [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-11-30

    First report in a study of the efficiency of connected lighting systems. The report summarizes the results of an exploratory study investigating power losses in Ethernet cables used between PoE switches and luminaires in PoE connected lighting systems. Testing was conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Connected Lighting Test Bed in September 2017. The results were analyzed to explore the impact of cable selection on PoE lighting system energy efficiency, as well as the effectiveness of guidelines recently introduced by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C137 Lighting Systems Committee.

  15. Switching Overvoltages in 60 kV reactor compensated cable grid due to resonance after disconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Baldursson, Haukur; Oumarou, Abdoul M.

    2008-01-01

    Some electrical distribution companies are nowadays replacing overhead lines with underground cables. These changes from overhead to underground cable provoke an increased reactive power production in the grid. To save circuit breakers the reactors needed for compensating this excessive reactive...

  16. Analyses Of High Voltage Transmission Cables In South Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... unit diameter) of the analysed underground cable is good compared with the standard conductor, the overhead cable has a poor load bearing capability. SEM and EDX analyses show that both the underground and the overhead cables contain impurities that are deleterious to the structure and their functional properties.

  17. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  18. Brillouin distributed temperature sensing system for monitoring of submarine export cables of off-shore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Benjamin; Rath, Alexander; Kolm, Frederick; Schröder, Andreas; Buntebarth, Christian; Dreß, Albrecht; Hill, Wieland

    2016-05-01

    For high-voltage cables, the maximum temperature of the insulation must never be exceeded at any location and at any load condition. The local temperatures depend not only on the cable design and load history, but also on the local thermal environment of the cable. Therefore, distributed temperature monitoring of high-voltage cables is essential to ensure the integrity of the cable at high load. Especially, the load of the export cables of wind farms varies strongly in dependence on weather conditions. In this field study, we demonstrate the measurement performance of a new, robust Brillouin distributed temperature sensing system (Brillouin-DTS). The system is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering and does not require a fibre loop. This is essential for long submarine high-voltage cables, where normally no loop can be formed in the seabed. It is completely passively cooled and does not contain any moving or wearing parts. The instrument is dedicated for use in industrial and other rough environments. With a measuring time below 10 min, the temperature resolution is better than 1 °C for distances up to 50 km. In the field study, the submarine export cable of an off-shore wind farm has been monitored. The temperature profile of the export cable shows several hot spots, mostly located at cable joints, and also several cold spots.

  19. Lightning in hybrid cable-overhead lines and consequent transient overvoltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Schultz Pedersen, Kasper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Whereas lines that consist entirely of underground cable are naturally protected from lightning, the phenomenon must be considered for lines that are a mix of overhead lines and underground cables. The difference between overhead lines and underground cables wave impedances may lead to transient...

  20. Radon levels survey in the underground transport metro system in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Metro underground transport system moves more than 8 million people daily across Mexico city. The average time a traveller remains inside the underground stations and tunnels is more than two hours. The airborne radon levels were measured, during the three months of summer, at 20 different stations, including the more deeply located halls. Stations were in different zones of the city. The radon concentration in underground corridors and stations varied from 60 Bq.m -3 to 350Bq.m 3 . The environmental factors, such as outside temperature, humidity, and days of rain were compiled in order to understand radon entry and transport better. (author)

  1. Installation of seafloor cabled seismic and tsunami observation system developed by using ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Yamada, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    A seafloor cabled system is useful for study of earth science and disaster mitigation, because real-time and long-term observation can be performed. Therefore seafloor cabled systems with seismometers and tsunami-meters have been used over the past 25 years around Japan. Because increase of a number of sensors is needed, a new system with low costs for production, deployment and operation is expected. In addition, the new system should have sufficient for flexibility of measurements after installation. To achieve these demands, we started development of a new system using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for data transmission and system control. The new system can be made compact since software processes various measurements. Reliability of the system is kept by using redundant system which is easily constructed using the ICT. The first system based on this concept was developed as Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system and deployed in Japan Sea. Development of the second system started from 2012. The Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer and Tsunami-meter (OBCST) system has both seismometers and tsunami-meters. Each observation node has a CPU and FPGAs. The OBCST system uses standard TCP/IP protocol with a speed of 1 Gbps for data transmission, system control and monitoring. IEEE-1588 (PTP) is implemented to synchronize a real-time clock, and accuracy is less than 300 ns. We developed two types of observation node. One equips a pressure gauge as tsunami sensor, and another has an external port for additional observation sensor using PoE. Deployment of the OBCST system was carried out in September 2015 by using a commercial telecommunication cable ship. The noise levels at the OBCST system are comparable to those at the existing cabled system off Sanriku. It is found that the noise levels at the OBCST system are low at frequencies greater than 2 Hz and smaller than 0.1 Hz. This level of ambient seismic noise is close to a typical system noise. From

  2. BBUNS: Bluetooth Beacon-Based Underground Navigation System to Support Mine Haulage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Bluetooth beacon-based underground navigation system (BBUNS was developed to identify the optimal haul road in an underground mine, track the locations of dump trucks, and display this information on mobile devices. A three-dimensional (3-D geographic information system (GIS database of the haul roads in an underground mine was constructed, and the travel time for each section was calculated. A GIS database was also constructed for 50 Bluetooth beacons that were installed along the haul roads. An Android-based BBUNS application was developed to visualize the current location of each dump truck and the optimal haul road to the destination on mobile devices, using the Bluetooth beacon system that was installed in the underground mine. Whenever the BBUNS recognized all of the Bluetooth beacons installed in the underground mine, it could provide the dump truck drivers with information on the current location and the two-dimensional (2-D and 3-D haul road properties. The operating time of each dump truck and the time spent on each unit task could be analyzed using recorded data on the times when Bluetooth beacon signals were recognized by the BBUNS. The underground mine navigation system that was developed in this study can contribute to the improvement of haul operation efficiency and productivity.

  3. Dynamic properties analysis of a stay cable-damper system in consideration of design and construction factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Danhui; Chen, Yanyang; Xiao, Rong

    2014-06-01

    A numerical solution based on the Steffensen stable point iterative method is proposed to resolve the transcendental frequency equation of a stay cable-damper system. The frequency equation, which considers clamped supports and flexural rigidity of the cable, is intended to investigate the influence of the parameters of the cable damper system on its dynamic characteristics. Two factors involved in the design and construction phases, the damping coefficient induced by external dampers and the cable tension, are the focus of this study. Their impact on modal frequencies and damping ratios in these two phases of cable-damper systems are investigated by resolving the equation with the proposed solution. It is shown that the damping coefficient and cable tension exert more noticeable effects on the modal damping ratios than on the modal frequencies of stay cable-damper systems, and the two factors can serve as design variables in the design phase and as adjustment factors in the construction phase. On the basis of the results, a roadmap for system-level optimal design of stay cable-damper systems that can achieve global optimal vibration suppression for the entire bridge is proposed and discussed.

  4. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects

  5. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  6. Operation experiences with a 30 kV/100 MVA high temperature superconducting cable system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Däumling, Manfred; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2004-01-01

    A superconducting cable based on Bi-2223 tape technology has been developed, installed and operated in the public network of Copenhagen Energy in a two-year period between May 2001 and May 2003. This paper gives a brief overview of the system and analyses some of the operation experiences. The ai...

  7. [Case-control study on cable-pin system in the treatment of olecranon fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hu-Jing; Shan, Lei; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Liu, Qing-He; Lu, Tie; Sun, Song

    2012-05-01

    To prospectively evaluate the clinical result of Cable-Pin system in the treatment of olecranon fractures and compare with tension band wiring (TBW) method. From March 2008 to June 2010,65 patients with olecranon fractures were divided into two groups: 32 patients in Cable-Pin group were treated with Cable-Pin system, including 18 males and 14 females, ranging in age from 21 to 69 years, with an average of (53.69 +/- 13.42) years; 33 patients in TBW group were treated with Kirschner tension bend, including 20 males and 13 females, ranging in age from 20 to 70 years, with an average of (53.18 +/- 13.36) years. The incision length, operation time, the amounts of hemoglobin after operation, fracture healing time, complications and HSS elbow scores were recorded and analyzed statistically. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 24 months, with an average period of 18.4 months. There were statistical differences (PCable-Pin group. There was no statistical differences (P>0.05) in the length of incision (t= 0.416, P=0.679), operation time (t=0.816, P=0.417) and the postoperative amounts of hemoglobin (t=-0.553, P=0.294) between two groups. Cable-Pin system is an easy and reliable method for the treatment of olecranon fractures with less complications and better functions than TBW.

  8. Accident Prevention and Diagnostics of Underground Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokhimchuk, M.; Bakhracheva, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Up to forty thousand accidents occur annually with underground pipelines due to corrosion. The comparison of the methods for assessing the quality of anti-corrosion coating is provided. It is proposed to use the device to be tied-in to existing pipeline which has a higher functionality in comparison with other types of the devices due to the possibility of tie-in to the pipelines with different diameters. The existing technologies and applied materials allow us to organize industrial production of the proposed device.

  9. Proposed superscreened cables and connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1975-11-01

    The paper summarises the present availability of superscreened cables and proposes the specification of a family of cables to meet the foreseeable needs of the nuclear power industry. The cable numbering system is described, special tests outlined and important details given for the chosen cables. Appropriate connectors are also discussed and listed with an outline of their required screening performance. (author)

  10. [Effect of underground work on cardiovascular system 
in coal miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiaoye; Tan, Hongzhuan; Huang, Yaoyu; Lu, Changcheng

    2015-10-01

    To study the effect of underground work on cardiovascular system health in coal miners.
 Male coal miners, who received electrocardiographic examinations between June, 2013 and August, 2014 in Hunan Prevention and Treatment Institute for Occupational Diseases to exclude pneumoconiosis, were enrolled for this study (n=3 134). Miners with 2 years or more underground work experience were selected as the exposed group (n=2 370), while miners without underground work experience were selected as the control group (n=764). The prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities and the influential factors were compared between the 2 groups.
 The prevalences of electrocardiographic abnormalities, hypertension, heart rate abnormalities and cardiovascular system abnormalities in the exposed group vs the control group were 37.6% vs 25.4%, 20.5% vs 13.4%, 5.7% vs 6.0%, 49.8% vs 35.2%, respectively. The cardiovascular system abnormalities were correlated with the underground work (OR=3.128, 95% CI: 1.969-4.970), the underground work experience (OR=1.205, 95% CI: 1.070-1.358) and the type of works (mining worker OR=1.820, 95% CI: 1.527-2.169; auxiliary worker OR=1.937, 95% CI: 1.511-2.482; other worker OR=3.291, 95%CI: 2.120-5.109).
 Underground work may increase the prevalence of cardiovascular system abnormalities for coal miners. The longer the coal miners work in underground, the higher the risk of the cardiovascular system abnormalities they are.

  11. Assessment of transient stability of cable based transmission grids with reactive power compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foo, Yii; Dall, Laurids; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    Underground transmission cables are gaining popularity due to its applications near cities and aesthetic purpose. For example in Denmark, the transmission power grid is changing significantly as many conventional overhead lines (OHL) are replaced by cables and more is expected over the coming years...... through a series of sensitivity analysis with respect to the cables compensation degree. A separate case of disconnecting the SRs of the faulted line is also carried out. The tendencies are initially observed and explained for smaller systems, Single-Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) and 9-bus system...

  12. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-07

    Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  13. Mobile Phenotyping System Using an Aeromotively Stabilized Cable-Driven Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M. B.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural researchers are constantly attempting to generate superior agricultural crops. Whether this means creating crops with greater yield, crops that are more resilient to disease, or crops that can tolerate harsh environments with fewer failures, test plots of these experimental crops must be studied in real-world environments with minimal invasion to determine how they will perform in full-scale agricultural settings. To monitor these crops without interfering with their natural growth, a noninvasive sensor system has been implemented. This system, instituted by the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln (UNL), uses a system of poles, cables, and winches to support and maneuver a sensor platform above the crops at an outdoor phenotyping site. In this work, we improve upon the UNL outdoor phenotyping system presenting the concept design for a mobile, cable-driven phenotyping system as opposed to a permanent phenotyping facility. One major challenge in large-scale, cable-driven robots is stability of the end-effector. As a result, this mobile system seeks to use a novel method of end-effector stabilization using an onboard rotor drive system, herein referred to as the Instrument Platform Aeromotive Stabilization System (IPASS). A prototype system is developed and analyzed to determine the viability of IPASS.

  14. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Zhang, Nong; Si, Guangyao

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine. PMID:27775657

  15. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  16. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Zhang, Nong; Si, Guangyao

    2016-10-21

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  17. Integrated System of Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Management for a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province. The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  18. Integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for a cable-stayed bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xu; Sun, Dezhang; Xie, Xu

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province). The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  19. Holbrook Substation Superconductor Cable System, Long Island, New York Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, James; McNamara, Joseph

    2010-06-25

    The LIPA Superconductor project broke ground on July 4, 2006, was first energized on April 22, 2008 (Earth Day) and was commissioned on June 25, 2008. Since commissioning, up until early March, 2009, there were numerous refrigeration events that impacted steady state operations. This led to the review of the alarms that were being generated and a rewrite of the program logic in order to decrease the hypersensitivity surrounding these alarms. The high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable was energized on March 5, 2009 and ran uninterrupted until a human error during a refrigeration system switchover knocked the cable out of the grid in early February 2010. The HTS cable was in the grid uninterrupted from March 5, 2009 to February 4, 2010. Although there have been refrigeration events (propagated mainly by voltage sags/surges) during this period, the system was able to automatically switch over from the primary to the backup refrigeration system without issue as required during this period. On February 4, 2010, when switching from the backup over to the primary refrigeration system, two rather than one liquid nitrogen pumps were started inadvertently by a human error (communication) causing an overpressure in the cable cooling line. This in turn activated the pressure relief valve located in the grounding substation. The cable was automatically taken out of the grid without any damage to the components or system as a result of signals sent from the AMSC control cabinet to the LIPA substation. The cable was switched back into the grid again on March 16, 2010 without incident and has been operational since that time. Since switching from the backup to the primary is not an automatic process, a recent improvement was added to the refrigeration operating system to allow remote commands to return the system from backup to primary cooling. This improvement makes the switching procedure quicker since travel to the site to perform this operation is no longer necessary and

  20. Robotic system for remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). WINCO's mission is to process government owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel and extracting off uranium. The waste from this process is temporarily stored at the ICPP in underground storage tanks. The tanks were put in service between 1953 and 1966 and are operating 10 to 15 years beyond their design life. Five of the tanks will be replaced by 1998. The integrity of the remaining six tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced at a later data. In order to verify the tank integrity, a complete corrosion analysis must be performed. This analysis will require a remote visual inspection of the tank surfaces

  1. New compact ocean bottom cabled seismometer system deployed in the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Yamada, Tomoaki; Machida, Yuya; Shinbo, Takashi; Sakai, Shin'ichi

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese islands are positioned near the subduction zones, and large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in marine areas around Japan. However, the number of permanent earthquake observatories in the oceans is quite limited. It is important for understanding generation of large earthquakes to observe seismic activities on the seafloor just above these seismogenic zones. An ocean bottom cabled seismometer (OBCS) is the best solution because data can be collected in real-time. We have developed a new compact OBCS system. A developed system is controlled by a microprocessor, and signals from accelerometers are 24-bit digitized. Clock is delivered from the global positioning system receiver on a landing station using a simple dedicated line. Data collected at each cabled seismometer (CS) are transmitted using standard Internet Protocol to landing stations. The network configuration of the system adopts two dual methods. We installed the first practical OBCS system in the Japan Sea, where large earthquakes occurred in past. The first OBCS system has a total length of 25 km and 4 stations with 5 km interval. Installation was carried out in August 2010. The CSs and single armored optical submarine cable were buried 1 m below the seafloor to avoid a conflict with fishing activity. The data are stored on a landing station and sent to Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo by using the Internet. After the installation, data are being collected continuously. According to burial of the CSs, seismic ambient noises are smaller than those observed on seafloor.

  2. Study on 10 kVDC powered junction box for a cabled ocean observatory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-hu; Yang, Can-jun; Li, De-jun; Jin, Bo; Chen, Ying

    2013-04-01

    A cabled ocean observatory system that can provide abundant power and broad bandwidth communication for undersea instruments is developed. A 10 kV direct current (kVDC) with up to 10 kW power, along with 1 Gigabit/sec Ethernet communication, can be transmitted from the shore to the seafloor through an umbilical armored cable. A subsea junction box is fixed at a cable terminal, enabling the extension of up to nine connections. The box consists of three main pressure vessels that perform power conversion, power distribution, and real-time communication functions. A method of stacking modules is used to design the power conversion system in order to reduce the 10 kV voltage to levels that can power the attached instruments. A power distribution system and an Ethernet communication system are introduced to control the power supply and transmit data or commands between the terminals and the shore station, respectively. Specific validations of all sections were qualified in a laboratory environment prior to the sea trial. The ocean observatory system was then deployed at the coast of the East China Sea along with three in situ instruments for a 14-day test. The results show that this high voltage-powered observatory system is effective for subsea long-term and real-time observations.

  3. Design of Underground Current Detection Nodes Based on ZigBee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, most current detection devices of underground power equipment in coal mines of China are equipped with the cable monitoring network. Certain problems such as difficult circuit extension and maintenance exist there. With the help of ZigBee technology, it is able to monitor the underground current of monitoring regions in coal mines safely and effectively. Major advantages include extremely low system cost, safe data transmission, flexible networking and ultra-large network capacity.

  4. Non destructive testing of medium and high voltage cables with a transportable radiography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Bandekas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A power cable is the most important part in a power transmission system. The cables must be total quality dedicated andcertified for development, manufacturing and installation, however are exposed to a corrosive environment. The purpose ofthis paper is to show that the fast neutron radiography with a transportable system is a solution to find defects in the cablesand reduce the cost of inspection. The design, regarding the materials considered, was compatible with the European UnionDirective on “Restriction of Hazardous Substances” (RoHS 2002/95/EC, hence excluding the use of cadmium and lead.Wide width values for the collimator ratio were calculated. With suitable collimator design it was possibly to optimize theneutron radiography parameters. Finally the shielding design was examined closely. The proposed system has been simulatedusing the MCNPX code.

  5. Conceptual designs of automated systems for underground emplacement and retrieval of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, A.H.; Hou, W.M.; Park, K.; Hochmuth, C.; Thurston, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Current designs of underground nuclear waste repositories have not adequately addressed the possibility of automated, unmanned emplacement and retrieval. This report will present design methodologies for development of an automated system for underground emplacement of nuclear waste. By scaling generic issues to different repositories, it is shown that a two vehicle automated waste emplacement/retrieval system can be designed to operate in a fail-safe mode. Evaluation of cost at this time is not possible. Significant gains in worker safety, however, can be realized by minimizing the possibility of human exposure

  6. Research on hydraulic system of KZC-5 type rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong

    2005-01-01

    KZC-5 type rear dump truck in underground mine is introduced in this paper. The determining principles and ways of two main hydraulic systems are discussed. It has been proved that the hydraulic systems are reasonable in the industrial scale test. (author)

  7. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... using the proximity detection system on remote controlled continuous mining machines, shuttle cars, roof.... Another commenter stated that most machines will be retrofitted with proximity detection systems in a shop... introduced a new initiative titled ``Safety Practices Around Shuttle Cars and Scoops in Underground Coal...

  8. Characteristic Analysis of DC Electric Railway Systems with Superconducting Power Cables Connecting Power Substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, H.; Matsushita, N.; Koseki, T.; Tomita, M.

    2014-05-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  9. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  11. Computer modelling of an underground mine ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The ability to control workplace short-lived radon daughter concentrations to appropriate levels is crucial to the underground mining of uranium ores. Recognizing that mine ventilation models can be used to design ventilation facilities in new mines and to evaluate proposed ventilation changes in existing mines the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) initiated this study to first investigate existing mine ventilation models and then develop a suitable model for use by AECB staff. At the start of the study, available literature on mine ventilation models, in partiuclar models suitable for the unique task of predicting radon daughter levels, were reviewed. While the details of the models varied, it was found that the basic calculation procedures used by the various models were similar. Consequently, a model developed at Queen's University that not only already incorporated most of the desired features but was also readily available, was selected for implementation. Subsequently, the Queen's computer program (actually two programs, one for mine ventilation and one to calculate radon daughter levels) was extended and tested. The following report provides the relevant documentation for setting up and running the models. The mathematical basis of the calculational procedures used in the models are also described

  12. Underground super highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Clear communication is key. And quality communications and information equipment is now, more than ever before, integral in mine development as the industry moves towards greater remote control and automation of machinery and mining processes. In an underground mine, access to communications and information equipment has often been limited due to thermal extremes, physical hazards and dangerous chemicals. On top of this, copper conductors that are often used for communication equipment do not operate as efficiently because of the excessive noise generated by mining equipment, and may also puse a safety hazard. However, the design of extremely rugged fibre optic cables is now enabling ten gigabit transmission links in places that were never before thought possible in mining. One place though, has still proved a challenge for the expansion of fibre optic net-works, and that is in an underground coal mine. Until now. Optical Cable Corporation (OCC) has developed the rugged tight buffered breakout fibre optic cables for transmission links in harsh mining environments. Working at depths of over 300 metres below ground, and having seen roof falls actually bury the cable between rocks and still, the cables are able to operate in a myriad of conditions

  13. Analysis of the Working Cable System of Single-span Circulating Ropeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Jian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the mutual interaction between bearing cable and traction cable of single-span circulating ropeway, the calculation method is proposed for working cables of ropeway with arbitrary loads. The 5 sets nonlinear equations are set up for the working cables according to the equal spans and altitude differences of the bearing cable and the traction cable, the constant of the load running space and the bearing cable length, and the tension balance of bearing cable and traction cable beside load. The resolving method is proposed based on the Newton iterative method. The correctness and feasibility of the method are proved by the results of engineering test. From the solution, the tension and coordinate of working cables can be obtained accurately, which is meaningful for the design and analysis of the freight ropeway.

  14. A unified approach for designing a photovoltaic solar system for the underground water pumping well-34 at Disi aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, Munzer S.Y.; Qandil, Hasan; Hammad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system for the underground water pumping wells at Disi aquifer was designed. • Solar irradiation values on horizontal and tilted surfaces were identified. • Method of the worst month MWM and peak sun hours PSH method were applied. • Thirty-eight percentage of the total PV panels would not be used beyond the design conditions (December). • Dust accumulation problem were solved by cleaning or as a 5% power loss factor. - Abstract: This paper aims to present a detailed design of a standalone photovoltaic system used to power continuously a submersible water pump from a selected well (Well-34 of a current static water level, SWL = 147.3 m), out of 55 production wells located at the Disi aquifer, where each of these wells should have a continuously-operating water flow rate of 80 l/s (288 m 3 /h) according to the Disi project specifications. Initially, solar irradiation calculations on horizontal and tilted surfaces were carried out to identify the potential of solar energy available in kW h/m 2 /day in the Disi aquifer. Then, a system design approach based on the worst month of the year (December) was carried out to choose and size the components of photovoltaic system that is required to operate the submersible pump over the 25-year operation period. The system sizing implies defining the number and type of solar panels required to capture the available solar energy, the capacity and number of batteries, inverter rating, cable sizing, charge controller numbers and rating to ensure the maximum reliability of the system. Furthermore, beyond the design conditions of the worst month (December), extra energy can be produced by the PV system during the rest of the year time, which can be used for many purposes. Also, the design process considers the problem of dust accumulation on PV surfaces and this can be dealt with by periodic cleaning

  15. Operation and Analysis on the Monitoring System of Strain at Tunnel Wall and Temperature Variation for KURT using Optical Fiber Sensor Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Jung Yul

    2010-06-01

    Optical fiber cable, as a sensor, was attached and installed at the tunnel wall of KURT(KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in order to monitor the stability over time. This monitoring system have two types of function to observe and measure including strain and temperature variation based on the distributed sensing techniques for not point sensing where the sensor cable are installed. Based on the results of two years monitoring from Jan. 2008 to Nov. 2009, there is no significant displacement or movement at the tunnel wall of KURT. However, the cumulative volume of total strain level shows the mild increasing pattern as time passes in comparison with the result of reference data, which was firstly measured in Jan. 2008. Especially, the strain level of several points, where have been being affected by saturation and de-saturation phenomena due to groundwater fluctuation, would be increased smoothly in comparison with the other part of the tunnel wall, but not large. By using this system, it could be supported to know a displacement or deformation showing a strain value with the range from 20με to 28,000με, which would be converted with the range from 0.02mm/m to 28mm/m and cover 30km with every 1m interval in minimum. In temperature, it also could be possible to notify a temperature variation for every 0.5m interval with 0.01 .deg, C resolution in minimum within the range of -160∼600.deg. C according to the cable types

  16. Microminiaturized minimally invasive intravascular micro-mechanical systems powered and controlled via fiber-optic cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Joseph P.; Hagans, Karla; Clough, Robert; Matthews, Dennis L.; Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.; Da Silva, Luiz; Celliers, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    A micro-mechanical system for medical procedures is constructed in the basic form of a catheter having a distal end for insertion into and manipulation within a body and a near end providing for a user to control the manipulation of the distal end within the body. A fiberoptic cable is disposed within the catheter and having a distal end proximate to the distal end of the catheter and a near end for external coupling of laser light energy. A microgripper is attached to the distal end of the catheter and providing for the gripping or releasing of an object within the body. A laser-light-to-mechanical-power converter is connected to receive laser light from the distal end of the fiberoptic cable and connected to mechanically actuate the microgripper.

  17. Underground openings in clay formations - Technical requirements on drifting technology and support systems for underground openings and their impact on retreat systems for the installation of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischo, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    well as the development of adapted mining and excavation methods. Other fields which have to be considered are the special requirements on the suitable support technology and systems, the necessary support installation technology and also time requirements. Most of these special requirements can also be applied to the excavation of large-scale underground openings in mud-stone and can thus provide additional information for the design and development of underground repositories in clay formations. While most information can be transferred directly from commercial mining to the excavation of a repository, there are some areas where the available data only provides some sort of basic information. One example for this is the fact that the retreat from old workings and the sealing of drifts and tunnels already requires a highly developed and adopted technology in normal clay mining operations. For the successful long-term sealing of a repository, However, the immediate expansion of the pre-stressed clay after the extraction of support units and the simultaneously starting creeping requests an even more sophisticated dam construction technology for the refinement of radioactive waste to guarantee highest quality of the dam itself. This has to include, amongst other things, excellent bonding between construction material and host rock to ensure lowest possible leakage. This paper gives a detailed overview of the technical and technological methods currently used in clay mining and the significant differences to all other types of mining operations. For each stage of the technical construction process of underground openings in clay formations it highlights the information that could be transferred to the construction of this type of underground repositories. It also shows some of the areas where the database is still limited or incomplete and thus where further research and development work is necessary for a successful technical solution for radioactive waste confinement in

  18. KGS Based Control for Parking Brake Cable Manufacturing System

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Khare; R.S. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    In today’s competitive production environment, process industries, demand a totally integrated control and optimization solution that can increase productivity, reliability and quality while minimizing cost. Automation is a step beyond mechanization. For automation of production plant either centralized or distributed control system are used. There are standardized approaches and standard hardware & software available worldwide as per the requirement. Investment in process control system is a...

  19. Agent-based paradigm for integration of interactive cable television operations and business support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattawa, Scott

    1995-11-01

    Offering interactive services and data in a hybrid fiber/coax cable system requires the coordination of a host of operations and business support systems. New service offerings and network growth and evolution create never-ending changes in the network infrastructure. Agent-based enterprise models provide a flexible mechanism for systems integration of service and support systems. Agent models also provide a mechanism to decouple interactive services from network architecture. By using the Java programming language, agents may be made safe, portable, and intelligent. This paper investigates the application of the Object Management Group's Common Object Request Brokering Architecture to the integration of a multiple services metropolitan area network.

  20. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-UST-2010-0651; FRL-9447-3] Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains a typographical correction to the guidance which was...

  1. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  2. 30 CFR 75.828 - Trailing cable pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage... any equipment other than the continuous mining machine. The cable manufacturer's recommended pulling procedures must be followed when pulling the trailing cable with equipment other than the continuous mining...

  3. 'Green' Submarine Cable Systems for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Butler, R.; Howe, B. M.; Bueti, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    A recent joint initiative between three UN agencies is proposing to develop trans-ocean mini-observatories to measure changing seafloor ocean observables. A Joint Task Force (JTF), established in 2012 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, is examining novel uses for submarine telecommunication cables. With ITU secretariat support, the JTF is developing a strategy and roadmap that could lead to enabling the availability of modified 'green' submarine cable systems equipped with scientific sensors (such as temperature, pressure and acceleration) for climate monitoring and disaster risk reduction (particularly tsunamis). If successful and needing support from industry and regulatory bodies, a wide network of mini-observatories could be established at many places across the world's ocean floors to measure these important parameters accurately over several decades. The initiative addresses two main issues: a) the need for sustained climate-quality data from the sparsely observed deep oceans and continental slopes but extending into coastal waters; and b) the desire to increase the reliability and integrity of the global tsunami warning networks. Presently, plans are being developed to launch a pilot project with the active involvement of cable industry players and existing ocean observatory researchers.

  4. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  5. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  6. Experimental evaluation of a self-powered smart damping system in reducing vibrations of a full-scale stay cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ho; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of a self-powered smart damping system consisting of a magnetorheological (MR) damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) device in reducing cable vibrations. The proposed smart damping system incorporates an EMI device, which is capable of converting vibration energy into useful electrical energy. Thus, the incorporated EMI device can be used as an alternative power source for the MR damper, making it a self-powering system. The primary goal of this experimental study is to evaluate the performance of the proposed smart damping system using a full-scale, 44.7 m long, high-tension cable. To this end, an EMI part and an MR damper were designed and manufactured. Using a cable test setup in a laboratory setting, a series of tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the self-powered smart damping system in reducing free vibration responses of the cable. The performances of the proposed smart damping system are compared with those of an equivalent passive system. Moreover, the damping characteristics of the smart damping system and the passive system are compared. The experimental results show that the self-powered smart damping system outperforms the passive control cases in reducing the vibrations of the cable. The results also show that the EMI can operate the smart damping system as a sole power source, demonstrating the feasibility of the self-powering capability of the system

  7. Fibre optic ocean bottom seismic cable system: from innovation to commercial success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringlebotn, Jon Thomas; Nakstad, Hilde; Eriksrud, Morten

    2009-10-01

    Optoplan has been awarded the world's first commercial contract for a fibre optic Ocean Bottom Seismic Cable (OBC) system [1] for permanent reservoir monitoring at the Ekofisk field in the North Sea. An area of 60 sq. km of the seabed will be covered by four component (4C) sensors in 2010. The system consists of i) a top-side (platform) laser interrogation and recording system, and ii) a wet-end system including 200 km of seismic cable with 4000 sensor stations, each containing 4 FBG-based interferometric sensors (three accelerometers and one hydrophone). The wet-end system includes 24000 FBGs and more than 3500km of optical fibres, and will probably be the largest single fibre optic sensor network ever made. The completely passive wet-end part of the system is designed to operate with ultra-high reliability subsea over more than 25 years. The system is expected to significantly enhance the oil and gas recovery of the field. This commercial success is a result of i) Optoplan's long experience and credibility in the field of fibreoptic sensors for the oil and gas industry [2], [3], ii) close collaboration with oil companies and qualification through extensive field testing [4], [5], iii) the establishment of a high capacity supply chain and manufacturing system with innovative automated processes, iv) sensor/manufacturing design for high reliability and good manufacturability with high yield, v) innovative sensor fibre network and instrumentation design [1], [6], [7], [

  8. Power and Submarine Cable Systems for the KM3NeT kilometre cube Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sedita, M; Hallewell, G

    2009-01-01

    The KM3NeT EU-funded consortium, pursuing a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, is developing technical solutions for the construction of this challenging project, to be realized several kilometres below the sea level. In this framework a proposed DC/DC power system has been designed, maximizing reliability and minimizing difficulties and expensive underwater activities. The power conversion, delivery, transmission and distribution network will be described with particular attention to: the main electro-optical cable, on shore and deep sea power conversion, the subsea distribution network and connection systems, together with installation and maintenance issues.

  9. Computational analysis of nonlinearities within dynamics of cable-based driving systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, G. D.; Nastac, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with computational nonlinear dynamics of mechanical systems containing some flexural parts within the actuating scheme, and, especially, the situations of the cable-based driving systems were treated. It was supposed both functional nonlinearities and the real characteristic of the power supply, in order to obtain a realistically computer simulation model being able to provide very feasible results regarding the system dynamics. It was taken into account the transitory and stable regimes during a regular exploitation cycle. The authors present a particular case of a lift system, supposed to be representatively for the objective of this study. The simulations were made based on the values of the essential parameters acquired from the experimental tests and/or the regular practice in the field. The results analysis and the final discussions reveal the correlated dynamic aspects within the mechanical parts, the driving system, and the power supply, whole of these supplying potential sources of particular resonances, within some transitory phases of the working cycle, and which can affect structural and functional dynamics. In addition, it was underlines the influences of computational hypotheses on the both quantitative and qualitative behaviour of the system. Obviously, the most significant consequence of this theoretical and computational research consist by developing an unitary and feasible model, useful to dignify the nonlinear dynamic effects into the systems with cable-based driving scheme, and hereby to help an optimization of the exploitation regime including a dynamics control measures.

  10. Instability risk analysis and risk assessment system establishment of underground storage caverns in bedded salt rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wenjun; Zhao, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Stability is an important part of geotechnical engineering research. The operating experiences of underground storage caverns in salt rock all around the world show that the stability of the caverns is the key problem of safe operation. Currently, the combination of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are the mainly adopts method of reserve stability analysis. This paper introduces the concept of risk into the stability analysis of underground geotechnical structure, and studies the instability of underground storage cavern in salt rock from the perspective of risk analysis. Firstly, the definition and classification of cavern instability risk is proposed, and the damage mechanism is analyzed from the mechanical angle. Then the main stability evaluating indicators of cavern instability risk are proposed, and an evaluation method of cavern instability risk is put forward. Finally, the established cavern instability risk assessment system is applied to the analysis and prediction of cavern instability risk after 30 years of operation in a proposed storage cavern group in the Huai’an salt mine. This research can provide a useful theoretical base for the safe operation and management of underground storage caverns in salt rock.

  11. An energy-efficient underground localization system based on heterogeneous wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yazhou; Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping; Yang, Qiuling

    2015-05-26

    A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners' should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  12. An Energy-Efficient Underground Localization System Based on Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners’ should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  13. Modelling, Simulation and Testing of a Reconfigurable Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator as Motion Aiding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Castelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the modelling, simulation and experimental tests of a cable-based parallel manipulator to be used as an aiding or guiding system for people with motion disabilities. There is a high level of motivation for people with a motion disability or the elderly to perform basic daily-living activities independently. Therefore, it is of great interest to design and implement safe and reliable motion assisting and guiding devices that are able to help end-users. In general, a robot for a medical application should be able to interact with a patient in safety conditions, i.e. it must not damage people or surroundings; it must be designed to guarantee high accuracy and low acceleration during the operation. Furthermore, it should not be too bulky and it should exert limited wrenches after close interaction with people. It can be advisable to have a portable system which can be easily brought into and assembled in a hospital or a domestic environment. Cable-based robotic structures can fulfil those requirements because of their main characteristics that make them light and intrinsically safe. In this paper, a reconfigurable four-cable-based parallel manipulator has been proposed as a motion assisting and guiding device to help people to accomplish a number of tasks, such as an aiding or guiding system to move the upper and lower limbs or the whole body. Modelling and simulation are presented in the ADAMS environment. Moreover, experimental tests are reported as based on an available laboratory prototype.

  14. Dynamic testing of a non-proprietary, high-tension, cable end terminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Two bogie tests were conducted on a high-tension cable end terminal to evaluate the performance of a new design. The : main goals of the new design were to promote quick cable release times, to retain the cable release lever during impact, to : susta...

  15. Underground Water Distribution System, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Leak Detection Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The survey was conducted by myself, Donald Muir, Operations Coordinator, and required 12.25 working days. This was not a survey of the entire water distribution system but instead a survey of water mains 8 inch and larger...

  16. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, F. A.; Maynard, D. P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

  17. Controlling the Distribution of Cold Water in Air Cooling Systems of Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Piergies, Kazimierz

    2016-12-01

    In Polish underground mines in which excavations are subjected to high heat load, central and group cooling systems based on indirect cooling units are implemented. Chilled water, referred to as cold water and produced in chillers, is distributed through a pipeline network to air coolers located in mining and development districts. The coolers are often moved to other locations and the pipeline network undergoes constant modification. In such a system, parameters of cold water in different branches of the pipeline network need to be controlled. The article presents the principles for controlling the cooling capacity of air coolers installed in an underground mine. Also, the authors propose automatic control of water flow rate in underground pipeline network and in particular coolers, depending on the temporary cooling load in the system. The principles of such a system, controlling cold water distribution, and the functions of its individual components are described. Finally, an example of an automatic control of water flow rate in a central cooling system currently implemented in a mine is presented.

  18. Risk assessment of 170 kV GIS connected to combined cable/OHL network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Kessel, Jakob; Atlason, Vidir

    2009-01-01

    and BFO. Overvoltages are evaluated for varying front times of the lightning surge, different soil resistivities at the surge arrester grounding in the overhead line/cable transition point and a varying length of the connection cable between the transformer and the GIS busbar with a SA implemented......This paper concerns different investigations of lightning simulation of a combined 170 kV overhead line/cable connected GIS. This is interesting due to the increasing amount of underground cables and GIS in the Danish transmission system. This creates a different system with respect to lightning...... performance, compared to a system consisting solely of AIS connected through overhead lines. The main purpose is to investigate whether overvoltage protection is necessary at the GIS busbar. The analysis is conducted by implementing a simulation model in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulations are conducted for both SF...

  19. A new technique for repair of a dislocated sternoclavicular joint using a sternal tension cable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Jacques T; Rossouw, Gawie J

    2013-02-01

    An unstable anterior or posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation can cause severe morbidity with poor shoulder movement and strength. These dislocations need to be repaired, which can be challenging. Many different procedures have been described to obtain a stable joint fixation with varying results. We report a new technique for repairing a sternoclavicular joint dislocation by using a figure-of-eight sternal cable system. This procedure is relatively simple and reproducible to create a stable and functional sternoclavicular joint. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedt, J.C.; Boal, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  1. Final Report: MaRSPlus Sensor System Electrical Cable Management and Distributed Motor Control Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The success of JPL's Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer (NGIS) in Earth remote sensing has inspired a follow-on instrument project, the MaRSPlus Sensor System (MSS). One of JPL's responsibilities in the MSS project involves updating the documentation from the previous JPL airborne imagers to provide all the information necessary for an outside customer to operate the instrument independently. As part of this documentation update, I created detailed electrical cabling diagrams to provide JPL technicians with clear and concise build instructions and a database to track the status of cables from order to build to delivery. Simultaneously, a distributed motor control system is being developed for potential use on the proposed 2018 Mars rover mission. This system would significantly reduce the mass necessary for rover motor control, making more mass space available to other important spacecraft systems. The current stage of the project consists of a desktop computer talking to a single "cold box" unit containing the electronics to drive a motor. In order to test the electronics, I developed a graphical user interface (GUI) using MATLAB to allow a user to send simple commands to the cold box and display the responses received in a user-friendly format.

  2. Complex photonic system for underground railway measurements and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltsov, Victor S.; Inozemtsev, Vladimir G.; Popov, Sergey V.; Titov, Evgeny V.; Shilin, Victor A.

    2002-04-01

    Moscow Metro is a powerful and important type of city transportation. Novel photonic gauge consisting of three subsystems for inspection of railway geometrical parameters is presented. Each system includes special lasers, CCD cameras and signal processor. Desired parameters are determined using processing of images formed by lasers. Mathematical methods and software for processing are described. Some experimental results are given.

  3. Development of a GIS-based monitoring and management system for underground coal mining safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salap, Seda; Karslioglu, Mahmut Onur [Civil Engineering Department, Geomatics Division, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Demirel, Nuray [Mining Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-11-01

    Coal mine safety is of paramount concern to mining industry. Mine accidents have various causes and consequences including catastrophic failure of mine, substantial economic losses and most notably loss of lives. Therefore, any initiative in mine monitoring is of vital importance for progressing safety surveillance and maintenance. This paper presents the development of a geographic information system (GIS)-based monitoring and management system for underground mine safety in three levels as constructive safety, surveillance and maintenance, and emergency. The developed model integrates the database design and management to the monitoring system implementation which encompasses query and analysis operations with the help of web and desktop applications. Interactive object-oriented graphical user interfaces (GUIs) were developed to visualize information about the entities gathered from the model and also to provide analysis operations based on the graphical representations and demonstrations using data tables and map objects. The research methodology essentially encompasses five main stages: (i) designing a conceptual database model; (ii) development of a logical model in terms of entity-relationship (ER) diagrams; (iii) development of a physical model based on physical constraints and requirements; (iv) development of GUIs and implementation of the developed model, analysis and queries; (v) verification and validation of the created model for Oemerler underground coal mine in Turkey. The proposed system is expected to be an efficient tool for improving and maintaining healthy standards in underground coal mines which can possibly be extended to a national GIS infrastructure. (author)

  4. Feasibility Study on Tension Estimation Technique for Hanger Cables Using the FE Model-Based System Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sik Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanger cables in suspension bridges are partly constrained by horizontal clamps. So, existing tension estimation methods based on a single cable model are prone to higher errors as the cable gets shorter, making it more sensitive to flexural rigidity. Therefore, inverse analysis and system identification methods based on finite element models are suggested recently. In this paper, the applicability of system identification methods is investigated using the hanger cables of Gwang-An bridge. The test results show that the inverse analysis and systemic identification methods based on finite element models are more reliable than the existing string theory and linear regression method for calculating the tension in terms of natural frequency errors. However, the estimation error of tension can be varied according to the accuracy of finite element model in model based methods. In particular, the boundary conditions affect the results more profoundly when the cable gets shorter. Therefore, it is important to identify the boundary conditions through experiment if it is possible. The FE model-based tension estimation method using system identification method can take various boundary conditions into account. Also, since it is not sensitive to the number of natural frequency inputs, the availability of this system is high.

  5. Developing and improving underground haulage system in the Raspadskaya mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bol' shanin, N.I.; Sergienko, A.N.; Bakhtin, V.N.

    1980-06-01

    Coal haulage system in the Raspadskaya coal mine consists of several belt conveyors and vertical spiral chute conveyors. 1LT-80 and 2L-80 belt conveyors hauling coal from working faces cooperate with: PTK-1 and 1KSP-2 loaders; in breaking inclined planes 1LB-100, 2LB-120, 1LU-100 and 2LU-100 conveyors, which haul coal to the spiral chute conveyors, are installed. Capacity of a spiral chute conveyor is 700 t/h. The Raspadskaya haulage system is fully based on belt conveyors. One of its features is lack of storage capacity which could be used if the quantity of transported materials is temporarily higher than the haulage capacity of conveyors and chutes. Haulage capacity of both conveyors and spiral chutes is analyzed. In the case of conveyors their capacity depends mainly on width of the belt and speed of movement, and capacity of spiral chutes depends to a significant degree not only on size but also on moisture content in coal. When coal moisture increases from 3% to 8% haulage capacity decreases by 17 to 7 t/min. Some construction changes of the chutes are proposed which would prolong their service life 2 to 2.5 times. Proposals for modernizing the mine's haulage system are also made. They consist of: using belt conveyors with increased haulage capacity, modernizing spiral chutes and constructing temporary coal bunkers which could be used when haulage capacity of conveyors is lower than the flow of coal and rock.

  6. RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE MONITORING SYSTEM OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor NORDIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article in accordance with the "process approach" ISO 9000 is substantiated the necessity of creating underground gas storage system monitoring and control, including objects, parameters, methods, frequency and corrective action, on the basis of which made structural formula monitoring cycle. Qualimetrical approach allows to define complex criteria of an estimation of efficiency of operation, which will help to make timely and effective management decisions, including from the perspective of environmental protection.

  7. Development of cycloconverter-IM system for explosion-proof underground mine hoist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guilin; Zhao Yifan (China University of Mining Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Automation Engineering)

    1990-12-01

    A recently developed Cycloconverter-IM haulage drive for underground mining is described in this paper. The control of this system is fully digitized. Six INTEL 8031 single-chip microprocessors are interconnected to perform the functions of motor speed control, cycloconverter firing, fault diagnosis, etc. The implementations of the above functions are illustrated, and also a new method called 'slip feedback control' for improving power factor of cycloconverter is put forward. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  8. An overview of the ITER cabling network and cable database management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonara, Jashwant, E-mail: jashwant.Sonara@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046-13067, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Beltran, David; Pintea, Bogdan; Hourtoule, Joel; Benfatto, Ivone [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046-13067, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Kun Ho; Jung, Sun Kyung; Lee, Cheoung-Joon [KEPCO E& C, Yonggudaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • More than 80,000 cables have been registered into ITER centralized cable database. • This cabling represents 28 ITER plant systems and 21,000 equipments including 61,000 non-safety cables and 7300 safety cables. • Development of unique cable engineering management system for diversified cabling requirement. • Use of 2D and 3D softwares and integration of both softwares into bespoke software which can handle 2D and 3D features of the tray network. - Abstract: ITER is a nuclear fusion facility, where many systems with varying functional and physical characteristics coexist. This makes the cabling requirements diverse too. The design of the ITER demands extensive integration of many systems interfaces. This process starts by collating cable requirement data to form a giant cable database with scope for approximately 120,000 cables in total. Ultimately the cabling installation will be approximately twice the size of one required for a 3rd generation nuclear fission power plant, with cables spanning more than 12,000 km to be installed within approximately 200 km of cable trays. Considering the differing cabling requirements, the raceway network and cables shall be routed in a prescribed manner to comply with French Nuclear Safety standards. This paper describes an overview of the ITER cabling network, the cable engineering design workflow, development and management of the cable database and integration between the software tools.

  9. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  10. Position-controlled data acquisition embedded system for magnetic NDE of bridge stay cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Lopez, Rocio; Christen, Rouven

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a custom-tailored sensing and data acquisition embedded system, designed to be integrated in a new magnetic NDE inspection device under development at Empa, a device intended for routine testing of large diameter bridge stay cables. The data acquisition (DAQ) system fulfills the speed and resolution requirements of the application and is able to continuously capture and store up to 2 GB of data at a sampling rate of 27 kS/s, with 12-bit resolution. This paper describes the DAQ system in detail, including both hardware and software implementation, as well as the key design challenges and the techniques employed to meet the specifications. Experimental results showing the performance of the system are also presented.

  11. Cooperative Behaviours with Swarm Intelligence in Multirobot Systems for Safety Inspections in Underground Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Yinka-Banjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining operations are carried out in hazardous environments. To prevent disasters from occurring, as often as they do in underground mines, and to prevent safety routine checkers from disasters during safety inspection checks, multirobots are suggested to do the job of safety inspection rather than human beings and single robots. Multirobots are preferred because the inspection task will be done in the minimum amount of time. This paper proposes a cooperative behaviour for a multirobot system (MRS to achieve a preentry safety inspection in underground terrains. A hybrid QLACS swarm intelligent model based on Q-Learning (QL and the Ant Colony System (ACS was proposed to achieve this cooperative behaviour in MRS. The intelligent model was developed by harnessing the strengths of both QL and ACS algorithms. The ACS optimizes the routes used for each robot while the QL algorithm enhances the cooperation between the autonomous robots. A description of a communicating variation within the QLACS model for cooperative behavioural purposes is presented. The performance of the algorithms in terms of without communication, with communication, computation time, path costs, and the number of robots used was evaluated by using a simulation approach. Simulation results show achieved cooperative behaviour between robots.

  12. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  13. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.

  14. A cable-driven soft robot surgical system for cardiothoracic endoscopic surgery: preclinical tests in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hesheng; Zhang, Runxi; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Xiaozhou; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2017-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgery attracts more and more attention because of the advantages of minimal trauma, less bleeding and pain and low complication rate. However, minimally invasive surgery for beating hearts is still a challenge. Our goal is to develop a soft robot surgical system for single-port minimally invasive surgery on a beating heart. The soft robot described in this paper is inspired by the octopus arm. Although the octopus arm is soft and has more degrees of freedom (DOFs), it can be controlled flexibly. The soft robot is driven by cables that are embedded into the soft robot manipulator and can control the direction of the end and middle of the soft robot manipulator. The forward, backward and rotation movement of the soft robot is driven by a propulsion plant. The soft robot can move freely by properly controlling the cables and the propulsion plant. The soft surgical robot system can perform different thoracic operations by changing surgical instruments. To evaluate the flexibility, controllability and reachability of the designed soft robot surgical system, some testing experiments have been conducted in vivo on a swine. Through the subxiphoid, the soft robot manipulator could enter into the thoracic cavity and pericardial cavity smoothly and perform some operations such as biopsy, ligation and ablation. The operations were performed successfully and did not cause any damage to the surrounding soft tissues. From the experiments, the flexibility, controllability and reachability of the soft robot surgical system have been verified. Also, it has been shown that this system can be used in the thoracic and pericardial cavity for different operations. Compared with other endoscopy robots, the soft robot surgical system is safer, has more DOFs and is more flexible for control. When performing operations in a beating heart, this system maybe more suitable than traditional endoscopy robots.

  15. An experimental study of the exergetic performance of an underground air tunnel system for greenhouse cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, Leyla; Ozgener, Onder

    2010-01-01

    The present study highlights the exergetic performance characteristics of an underground air tunnel for greenhouse cooling with a 47 m horizontal, 56 cm nominal diameter U-bend buried galvanized ground heat exchanger. This system was designed and installed in the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Underground air tunnel systems, also known as earth-to-air heat exchangers, are recognized to be outstanding heating, cooling and air heating systems. On the other hand, they have not been used yet in the Turkish market. Greenhouses also have important economical potential in Turkey's agricultural sector. Greenhouses should be cooled during the summer or hot days. In order to establish optimum growth conditions in greenhouses, renewable energy sources should be utilized as much as possible. It is expected that effective use of underground air tunnels with a suitable technology in the modern greenhouses will play a leading role in Turkey in the foreseeable future. The exergy transports between the components and the destructions in each of the components of the system are determined for the average measured parameters obtained from the experimental results. Exergetic efficiencies of the system components are determined in an attempt to assess their individual performances and the potential for improvements is also presented. The daily maximum cooling coefficient of performances (COP) values for the system are also obtained to be 15.8. The total average COP in the experimental period is found to be 10.09. The system COP was calculated based on the amount of cooling produced by the air tunnel and the amount of power required to move the air through the tunnel, while the exergetic efficiency of the air tunnel is found to be in a range among 57.8-63.2%. The overall exergy efficiency value for the system on a product/fuel basis is found to be 60.7%. (author)

  16. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongzhi; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Cheng, Jiajing; Lv, Longbao; Zhang, Xiaobei; Chen, Na; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD) of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad/(m⋅Pa). A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work. PMID:27916900

  17. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongzhi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad / ( m ⋅ Pa . A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work.

  18. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  19. Design, Observing and Data Systems, and Final Installation of the NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Best, M. M.; Johnson, F. R.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2009-05-01

    /climate dynamics, including acidification and nutrient fluxes; deep-sea ecosystems dynamics; and engineering and computer science research. NC's software system interfaces between users and cabled observatory and responds to a three-fold mandate: acquire data from various instruments/sensors underwater; provide lifetime storage and redistribution capabilities for all data; and allow authorized users to remotely and interactively control experiments. Data Management and Archiving System (DMAS) is being developed in-house, with adoption of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and using Web Services to expose the functionality of DMAS' various components. An internal messaging bus allows various functional components to interact through the publish and subscribe paradigm, using Java programming language. DMAS is developing a modern environment for users: data access, data processing and experimentation control within a Web 2.0 environment. This will allow users, on top of data and instrumentation access, to perform data visualization and analysis on-line with either default or custom processing code, as well as simultaneously interacting with each other. These social networking aspects will be within NC's new Oceans 2.0 environment. The observatory is designed to be expandable in its footprint, nodes and instruments and provides a magnificent facility for testing prototypes of new technologies monitored and demonstrated in real-time. NC and ONC invite new scientific and industrial participation, experiments, instrumentation and data services.

  20. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  1. Trenchless Replacement of Buried Cable Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have been worn over the time with technical defects or need capacity increases. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in natural reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.In response, new patented methods of trenchless cable replacement using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, cutting around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shape or S-shape embracing, depending to the coating type of the old cable. This special cable replacement drill head separates the cable from the surrounding adhesive soil or the sand bedding by creating a very small annular space around the cable thus enabling the pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between the start and the exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable can be smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods and embedding the new cable in a rich bed of Bentonite.The wash-over drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads perform very quickly (up to 3 meters per minute to effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary. Only the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and include several practical job examples.

  2. Handbook of Pressure-Proof Connector and Cable Harness Design for Sonar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-21

    T ip 𔃻* 9t FIGURE 9-3 VIEW SHOWING PLUG CONOID (TOR FAIL:. FOLLOWING CYCLING HYDROSTATIC PR[SS[fR TiR > 0.IAl 9.4.2 (Continued) t (a) Excessive...cable end. 2. Scrape "wax" coating off of cable over the area just wet with cyclohexanone with fine- toothed hack saw blade or knife, roughing cable

  3. Computation of Electric Field and Thermal Properties of 3-Phase Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Panduranga Vittal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The high voltage electric power is generally transmitted by underground cable in urban, considering about the high cost for underground cable, it is necessary for us to get accurately biggest ampacity of cables in order to ensure the operation of cables in safe. The Cross linked polyethylene (XLPE insulated power cables are used for transmission and distribution of electrical power for higher voltage level. In this paper a three phase high voltage power cable buried in soil and it can be used to investigate electrical and thermal properties of cable. An underground cable of 132kV electric field, voltage distribution using finite element method (FEM, analytical method for calculating ampacity of cable and temperature distribution is presented and verified same by using COMSOL multiphysics software.

  4. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  5. Modeling of Energy-saving System of Conditioning Mine Air for Shallow Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Alexandr; Miftakhov, Timur; Nikolaeva, Evgeniya

    2017-11-01

    Mines of Verkhnekamsk potassium-magnesium salt deposit in Perm Krai can be subsumed under shallow mines (depth less than 500 meters). At the present moment in shallow underground mines the are problem of condensate formation in large quantities, when ventilation warm seasons of the year. This problem is more actual for salt mine, where during contact between water and potassium-magnesium ore produced electrolyte, which give rise wear of equipment. For prevent/quantity reduction condensate formation in mine used system of conditioning (refrigerating and dehumidifying) mine air (ACS). However, application this system is limited by reason of tremendous costs of electric energy for their work.

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  7. Muon flux measurements at the davis campus of the sanford underground research facility with the majorana demonstrator veto system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. -H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O’Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2017-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 foot level. Measurements were done with the Majorana Demonstrator veto system arranged in two different configurations. Both results are in agreement within statistical accuracy. The measured flux is (4.08+-0.19) x 10 -9 muons/cm/2. We compare our results with previous calculations.

  8. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  9. New Compact Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismic and Tsunami Observation System Using ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Sakai, S.; Shiobara, H.; Kanazawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific plate is subducting below the northeastern Japan islands arc. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake occurred at the plate boundary between the Pacific plate and the landward plate below landward slope of the Japan Trench. In 1996, Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo had installed seismic and tsunami observation system using seafloor optical fiber in the off-Sanriku area. The continuous real-time observation has been carried out since the installation. The system observed seismic waves and tsunamis generated by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, and the data from the system are indispensable to estimate accurate position of the source faults and the source process of the 2011 event. However, the landing station of the system was damaged by huge tsunami 30 minutes after the mainshock, and the observation is discontinued. Because the data from the real-time system on seafloor are important, we decide to restore the existing system and install newly developed Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismic and Tsunami (OBCST) observation system off Sanriku for additional observation and/or replacement of the existing system. In this paper, we present a system of the new OBCST in detail, and installation plan. Until 2010, we had already developed and installed the new compact Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system near Awashima-island in the Japan Sea. After the installation, the OBCS system is being operated continuously and we have continuous seismic data for approximately 3 years at the present. The new OBCST system for off-Sanriku area is based on this system, and is characterized by system reliability using TCP/IP technology and down-sizing of an observation node using up-to-date electronics. The new OBCST has three accelerometers as seismic sensors. Signals from accelerometers are 24-bit digitized with a sampling rate of 1 kHz and sent to a landing station using standard TCP/IP data transmission. A precise pressure gauge is also equipped as a tsunami sensor. The

  10. Extended investigation into continuous laser scanning of underground mine workings by means of Landis inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, E. N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper investigates the method of applying mobile scanning systems (MSSs) with inertial navigators in the underground conditions for carrying out the surveying tasks. The available mobile laser scanning systems cannot be used in the underground environment since Global Positioning System (GPS) signals cannot be received in mines. This signal not only is necessary for space positioning, but also operates as the main corrective signal for the primary navigation system - the inertial navigation system. The idea of the method described in this paper consists in using MSSs with a different correction of the inertial system than GPS is.

  11. Trochanteric Fixation With a Third-Generation Cable-Plate System: An Independent Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew D; Abdelbary, Hesham; Beaulé, Paul E

    2017-09-01

    Greater trochanteric fracture/nonunion can be a devastating complication with significant functional impact after total hip arthroplasty, and their fixation remains a challenge because of the significant forces being transmitted as well as the poor bone quality often associated with these fractures. The objective of this study is to investigate the rates of reoperation and trochanteric nonunion using a third-generation cable-plate system at one center. Thirty-five patients, mean age 72.9 years (range 46-98 years) with 24 women and 11 men, underwent fixation of their fractured greater trochanter using a third-generation cable-plate system. The indications were: periprosthetic fracture (n = 17), complex primary arthroplasty (n = 5), and complex revision arthroplasty (n = 13). Primary outcomes included rates of reoperation and radiographic union. At a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, trochanteric union rate was 62.9% with nonunion rate of 31.4%, and fibrous union in 5.7%. In regard to quality of initial apposition, only 40% achieved a perfect bone on bone reduction. Ten patients (28.6%) had evidence of wire breakage. Five patients (14.3%) required reoperation and removal of the internal fixation because of lateral hip pain. Fixation of the trochanteric fractures remains a challenge with a relatively high reoperation rate. Poor bone quality and capacity to maintain a stable reduction continue to make this complication after total hip arthroplasty a difficult problem to solve. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Underground mine navigation using an integrated IMU/TOF system with unscented Kalman filter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 11 26th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 26-28 July 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia UNDERGROUND MINE NAVIGATION USING AN INTERGRATED IMU/TOF SYSTEM WITH UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER... Page 2 of 11 26th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 26-28 July 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Zhang et al [4] introduced a new set of general dynamic models of IMU to describe the state of a...

  13. Infiniband Based Cable Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minich, Makia [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    As Infiniband continues to be more broadly adopted in High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter applications, one major challenge still plagues implementation: cabling. With the transition to DDR (double data rate) from SDR (single datarate), currently available Infiniband implementations such as standard CX4/IB4x style copper cables severely constrain system design (10m maximum length for DDR copper cables, thermal management due to poor airflow, etc.). This paper will examine some of the options available and compare performance with the newly released Intel Connects Cables. In addition, we will take a glance at Intel's dual-core and quad-core systems to see if core counts have noticeable effect on expected IO patterns.

  14. Cable telegraph and telephone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    This book introduces cable telegraph and telephone, which deals with development of cable telephone and telegraph, manual telephone switchboard, A type automatic telephone switching equipment on line switch, line finder, selector and telegraph repeater, EMD-M type automatic telephone switching equipment, DDD long distance automatic telephone switching equipment about RS and TTG/TT, automatic repeater and OTD repeater, telegraph transport and communication power system. In the end, it handles introduction of maintenance management and service method.

  15. Work plan for vibration cable re-route and water flush system modifications for 107-AN mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    A mixer pump (75 horsepower Hazleton submersible) is to be installed in the central pump pit of Double-Shell Tank 241-AN-107 for the Caustic Addition Project. The mixer pump will be used as a platform to inject, mix, and entrain caustic with the waste, in order to bring the waste hydroxyl ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications. Testing of the mixer pump and caustic addition system revealed that the mixer pump's vibration cable picks up electromagnetic interference from the motor power cable during variable speed operation of the pump. Also, it was noted that the mixer pump's water flush system may not be as effective as desired. Ergo this work plan for improving the operation of these mixer pump subsystems. A new vibration cable shall be routed entirely outside the mixer pump support column pipe, up thru a new penetration in the pump mounting flange. The existing penetration in the side of the pipe is to be plugged. Increasing the distance between power and instrument cables may reduce or eliminate electromagnetic interference to the vibration monitor. The mixer pump water flush system shall be modified to allow pressure isolation of individual branches. A header is to be installed on the middle section of the support column. Each branch (there are three) shall contain a solenoid valve (normally open) to control flow into the branch. The solenoid cables shall be routed up thru three new penetrations in the pump mounting flange to a new electrical box mounted on the flange. The existing flush piping to the inlet screen will remain but the continuation of the flush piping to the pump discharge nozzles is to be removed and the tee plugged. New stainless steel tubing is to be run down to the pump discharge nozzles. Pressure isolation of individual branches will maximize the flush system's effectiveness at blasting potential sediment clogs out of the pump discharge nozzles

  16. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Research for the Cable Layout Way of the Bypass Operation System in Agricultural Power Supply Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Li, Jinliang; Zou, Dehua; Yang, Qi; Li, Xu; Yan, Yu; Li, Tang

    2017-05-01

    Non-blackout working of agricultural power supply network is significant to shorten the outage time, decrease the outage loss, and improve the supply reliability and safety. It is impossible to hang the wire rope first and then suspend the cable because of the poor bearing ability of the pole in agricultural power supply network. A kind of new cable arrangement way, its matching tools and the flexible cable that can bear the tension by itself are needed to be put forward and developed. It is necessary to calculate the electric field intensity of the flexible cable to verify that the electric field intensity meets the insulation demand. In this new design, the fiber layer is added into the flexible cable and its maximum tension force is measured to reach to 4000 N. Based on the features of live working in the agricultural power supply network, the new layout way of the cable is proposed; the matching tools and the new flexible cable that can bear the tension by itself are developed as well in this paper. All of the research achievements can give references for the live working of the agricultural power supply network.

  18. Study of the predominant defect development in rails of underground systems after preventive grinding and lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Serhii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the method of contact surface treatment and to define the rational surface roughness in the wheel/rail contact for the minimal growth rate of contact fatigue defects the program of experiments in operational conditions was developed. On the basis of the results and calculations the coefficients of regression equations, which describe dependencies of the wear rate on the parameters of the contact surface treatment in real operational conditions were obtained. Besides, the diagrams of dependencies of the friction coefficient on the roughness of railhead contact surface of the high rails with and without lubrication, when laid in curves of underground systems, were built. The experiments conducted in operational conditions of Kharkiv Metro revealed the influence of roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves on the contact fatigue defect development after preventive grinding and lubrication. According to the results of the experiments it was established that the rail preventive grinding with simultaneous lubrication led to slower contact fatigue defect development in rails of underground systems. The rational roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves after preventive grinding, which led to the minimal rate of defect development, was defined.

  19. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress?A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Ottria, Gianluca; Perdelli, Fernanda; Cristina, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, ...

  20. Lightweight Metal Rubber Wire and Cable for Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to produce ultra-lightweight electrical wire and cable harnesses to reduce the liftoff weight of future space flight...

  1. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  2. A project plan for construction and cabling of picture archiving and communication system network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Wang, Xiaolin; Luo, Song; Lei, Wenyong; Wang, Xuejian; Wen, Hongyu; Wu, Hongxing

    2003-05-01

    To determine a network solution to meet the network requirements of the heavy data flow, load balance, and potential network storms from expansion of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) application. Intel Netstructure 480T Giga Switch was used as the main switch and connected to each building by fiber channel at 1 Giga speed to archive 100 MB/s to each port. At the same time, the in-dependence of the original network construction was physically kept. The layer 3 and 4 switchers were used as load balance to reduce the heavy load of the network, and all the cabling for PACS used the super CAT5 along with the Intel NetStructure 1520 to prepare for potential network storms. An advanced intranet was set up to fully meet the high standard requirement of the PACS. The foundation for upgrading the whole network system to 1 Giga application was built to achieve sharing and transmission of images, information, and patient data within the hospital. The base was established for the standardized management of the hospital. Good planning is the first step in setting up PACS, and the equipment forms the necessary platform to run PACS and all kinds of hospital information system (HIS). The networking construction is the foundation of e-hospital.

  3. Enhancement of organizational and technical solutions regarding anchoring of completed construction facilities of underground railway system to operating control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Г. Козин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stages of practical realization of measures prescribed by requirements documents regarding anchoring of capital structures of underground railway system to operating control are considered in the article. On the basis of algorithm structure analysis, which includes obtaining a permit for putting into operation and cadastre works execution a range of solutions was proposed concerning optimization of construction project owner and operating organization activities with the purpose of terms reduction of capital structures handover to operation. The results of work of a commission responsible for completed underground railway system objects acceptance and putting into operation were analyzed. Considering example of object «Second entrance hall area of «Sportivnaya» station the statistical data of revealed snagging items is consolidated and dynamics of corrective actions is provided.Proposed solutions laid the foundation for corrections of requirements documents and were accepted for realization in the process of works acceptance of Saint-Petersburg underground railway system objects.

  4. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...... that the insertion of these cables in the network is not without problems. The network stability requirements may impose severe constraints on the actual obtainable length of superconducting cables. Load flow considerations show that it may be difficult to use these high current cables to their full extent. Short...... circuits in the network may require a special protection system....

  5. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  6. Dynamic testing of cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.

  7. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Yiming Zhao; Nong Zhang; Guangyao Si

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring...

  8. A risk measurement tool for an underground electricity distribution system considering the consequences and uncertainties of manhole events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Thalles Vitelli; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a risk measure of underground vaults that considers the consequences of arc faults. The increasing use of underground systems, together with the aging of networks, the lack of maintenance and interference from other (third party) underground systems nearby have caused many accidents in urban areas, thus endangering human life. The involvement of a large number (hundreds or thousands) of underground vaults with different characteristics, the lack of historical data on modes of failure, the rarity of the occurrence of some faults, the magnitude of their consequences and the involvement of a complex environment surrounding the hazard zone make risk management even more complex and uncertain. Furthermore, given that the (monetary, time, staff, etc.) resources of an electrical power company are limited and scarce, it is necessary to use decision-making tools that aggregate the consequences and the uncertainties to assess the risks jointly with the preference structure of the company, thus solving the problem more realistically. Therefore, this paper puts forward the use of an additional risk analysis for manhole events in underground electrical distribution networks with a view to its being used as a decision aid tool in risk management. As an illustration of the use of the risk measurement tool proposed, a numerical application is presented. The result rather than showing a ranking of underground vaults, gives a measure of the risk used that can show the decision-maker (DM) how much better one group of alternatives (formed by alternatives with quite similar risk values) is than other groups, based on the DM’s attitude to risk and grounded on the axiomatic structure of utility theory. - Highlights: • The paper proposes a risk measure of underground vaults for manhole events. • It makes risk analysis in underground electrical distribution networks. • It makes more than show a risk ranking of underground vaults. • It can show to the DM how

  9. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  10. Double Layered Sheath in Accurate HV XLPE Cable Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Silva, J. De; Bak, Claus Leth

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses modelling of high voltage AC underground cables. For long cables, when crossbonding points are present, not only the coaxial mode of propagation is excited during transient phenomena, but also the intersheath mode. This causes inaccurate simulation results for high frequency ...

  11. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  12. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...... that the insertion of these cables in the network is not without problems. The network stability requirements may impose severe constraints on the actual obtainable length of superconducting cables. Load flow considerations show that it may be difficult to use these high current cables to their full extent. Short...

  13. Development of a test system for the analysis of the read-out electronic cabling for the CMS drift tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Montero, M.; Willmott, C.

    2004-01-01

    A test system has been developed for the analysis of the read-out electronics cabling for the CMS drift tube chambers. The read-out electronics will be placed inside some aluminium boxes, so-called Minicrates, which are going to be produced soon at CIEMAT. Due to the difficulty of detecting and repairing errors in the cables once they have been installed and recalling also to the large number of Minicrates that are going to be produced, it was decided to design and develop a test system for testing the cabling before its installation. (Author)

  14. Randomized prospective study of olecranon fracture fixation: cable pin system versus tension band wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q-H; Fu, Z-G; Zhou, J-L; Lu, T; Liu, T; Shan, L; Liu, Y; Bai, L

    2012-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared the effectiveness of the cable pin system (CPS) versus tension band wiring (TBW) for olecranon fracture fixation. Patients with acute transverse or slight oblique olecranon fractures were randomly divided into two groups: one fixed by CPS and the other by TBW. Clinical outcome data were collected and analysed following a mean duration of 21 months. The mean ± SD fracture healing time was significantly shorter in the CPS group (n = 30; 9.73 ± 2.02 weeks) compared with the TBW group (n = 32; 11.13 ± 2.21 weeks). One patient in the CPS group and seven patients in the TBW group experienced postoperative complications; this difference was statistically significant. The mean ± SD Mayo Elbow Performance Score in the CPS group was significantly higher (88.67 ± 6.42) than that in the TBW group (80.78 ± 11.99). Logistic regression analysis showed an association between fixation method and fracture healing time, complications and elbow function. Internal fixation by CPS is an effective method for olecranon fracture and is associated with a shorter healing time, fewer complications and better function than TBW.

  15. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  16. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  17. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants.

  18. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants

  19. 47 CFR 27.1202 - Cable/BRS cross-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... portion of the franchise area actually served by the cable operator's cable system and the cable operator... franchise area actually served by the cable operator's cable system the cable operator will use the BRS... that no portion of the GSA of the BRS station is within the portion of the franchise area actually...

  20. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  1. FY 1999 research and development results. Preparatory study for the underground thermal energy storage system; 1999 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The study is conducted for the underground thermal energy storage system which utilizes heat capacity of the underground, e.g., aquifer, to exchange heat with the underground, and the FY 1999 results are described. For establishment of the concept of the underground heat storage systems, 2 sites are selected for each of Tokyo, Osaka and Sapporo for the study as the geological ground models, for their weather characteristics. Two cases are considered for the site where underground heat exchangers are installed, open space and immediately below a building. The heat-storage system comprises a high-efficiency heat pump, water heat-storage tank and cooling tower. The evaluation results indicate that energy saving rate of 37% or more and CO2 reduction rate of 9.5% or more are achievable in all areas except Sapporo, i.e., Tokyo and Osaka. The economic evaluation results indicate that the simple pay-out period is around 100 years for Tokyo and Osaka, and 80 years for Sapporo. The underground heat storage system is approximately 10% lower in life-cycle cost than the conventional system, 3 versus 3.3 billion yen for the period of 60 years. (NEDO)

  2. Optimization of Waste Collection System Using Underground Containers with Source Separation Plan (Case Study: Zone 3 of Yazd Municipality, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Morakabatchian

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Optimization of urban waste collection system using underground containers for wet waste and the use of temporary stations of dry wastes, considering the significant economic, environmental and aesthetic advantages can be considered as an appropriate option in Iranian cities especially in areas with hot and humid weather such as Yazd.

  3. Review of underground logistic systems in the Netherlands : An ex-post evaluation of barriers, enablers and spin-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Visser, J.; Konings, R.; Pielage, B.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Now, 10 years after the first plans, we analyse in this paper what has happened with Underground Logistic Systems (ULS). The major question in this paper is: Which barriers and enablers led to the failure of ULS and what ULS spin-offs can be found nowadays? Several factors can be classified as

  4. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  5. A Comparison of Impedance-Based Fault Location Methods for Power Underground Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Personal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the Smart Grid paradigm presence has increased within power systems. These new kinds of networks demand new Operations and Planning approaches, following improvements in the quality of service. In this sense, the role of the Distribution Management System, through its Outage Management System, is essential to guarantee the network reliability. This system is responsible for minimizing the consequences arising from a fault event (or network failure. Obviously, knowing where the fault appears is critical for a good reaction of this system. Therefore, several fault location techniques have been proposed. However, most of them provide individual results, associated with specific testbeds, which make the comparison between them difficult. Due to this, a review of fault location methods has been done in this paper, analyzing them for their use on underground distribution lines. Specifically, this study is focused on an impedance-based method because their requirements are in line with the typical instrumentation deployed in distribution networks. This work is completed with an exhaustive analysis of these methods over a PSCADTM X4 implementation of the standard IEEE Node Test Feeder, which truly allows us to consistently compare the results of these location methods and to determine the advantages and drawbacks of each of them.

  6. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore......, measurements conducted within the cable industry have shown that an armoured three core cable has higher losses than equal unarmoured three core cables. It is also suggested that the inaccuracy in the IEC armour’s loss factor (λ2) is the main responsible for the conservatism in the IEC cable rating method...

  7. Wavelet and neuro-fuzzy based fault location for combined transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.K.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, J.B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wonkwang University, 344-2, Shinyong-dong, Iksan (Korea); Kloeckl, Bernd [High Voltage Laboratory, ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes the fault location algorithm using neuro-fuzzy systems in combined transmission lines with underground power cables. The neuro-fuzzy system consists of two parts to perform different tasks. One is to discriminate the fault section between overhead and underground using the detailed coefficients obtained by wavelet transform. The other system calculates fault location. The algorithm for fault location again is divided into two parts: one to calculate the fault location on the overhead lines, the other one for the underground cable section. This system shows excellent results for discrimination of fault section and calculation of fault location. (author)

  8. Comparison of the cable pin system with conventional open surgery for transverse patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ningfang; Liu, Deding; Ni, Haijian; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Qiulin

    2013-07-01

    The cable pin system is an effective device for fixation of transverse patella fractures. However, whether this device provides superior results using a minimally invasive technique instead of conventional open surgery using the K wire tension band method is unclear. We asked whether a minimally invasive technique would be associated with (1) increased operative time; (2) reduced postoperative pain; (3) faster recovery of ROM; (4) higher knee scores; and (5) reduced complications. Forty patients with displaced transverse fractures of the patella participated in this prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Twenty of these patients underwent a minimally invasive technique and the others had conventional open surgery using K wires. Some data for six of the 20 patients who underwent the minimally invasive technique were published in an earlier prospective, observational trial. At postoperative intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, pain was measured by VAS scores, active flexion and extension of the knee were measured in degrees by goniometry, and knee function was evaluated using the Böstman clinical grading scale. Operative time was longer in the minimally invasive surgery group (54.3 ± 9.8 minutes versus 48.5 ± 6.1 minutes). Pain scores were better (lower) in the minimally invasive surgery group at 1 and 3 months but not at 6 months. Early flexion, ultimate flexion, and knee scores from 3 to 24 months, likewise, were better in the minimally invasive surgery group. Complications mostly related to symptomatic hardware were less common in the minimally invasive surgery group. The minimally invasive technique is superior to conventional open surgery using K wires in terms of less early postoperative pain, better mobility angles of the injured knee, higher functional score of the injured knee, and decreased incidence of complications. Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Calculation and measurement of space charge in MV-size xxtruded cables systems under load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshuis, P.H.F.; Bodega, R.; Fabiani, D.; Montanari, G.C.; Dissado, L.A.; Smit, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A load current in dc high voltage cables results in a temperature drop across the insulation and hence a radial distribution of the insulation conductivity is found. Direct consequence is an accumulation of space charge in the bulk of the nsulation, that may significantly affect its reliability.

  10. 77 FR 67290 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... a separated security solution like CableCARD to ensure that retail devices can access scrambled... subscribers explain that they rely on clear-QAM tuners in their electronic devices (such as computers and...-B402, Washington, DC 20554. To request these documents in accessible formats (computer diskettes, large...

  11. On-site PD diagnostics of power cables using oscillating wave test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulski, E.; Smit, J.J. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). High Voltage Laboratory; Seitz, P.N. [Seitz Instruments and Co., (Switzerland); Smit, J.C.; Turner, M. [Haefely Trench AG (Switzerland). Instruments Div.

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the results of partial discharge measurements in medium voltage power cables using oscillating test voltages. In particular, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of this new method for on-site testing are discussed. Based on laboratory and on-site tests the usefulness of this PD measuring technique for practical applications is presented. (author)

  12. 76 FR 66666 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... entertainment, motor vehicle, public address and musical instrument amplifications.'' The SBA has developed a... tier based on the argument that the rule imposes more burdens than benefits as cable operators... asserted that while encryption of all service tiers has its benefits, it also imposes some burdens on...

  13. Biodegradation of cis-1,2-Dichloroethene in Simulated Underground Thermal Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhuobiao; van Gaans, Pauline; Smit, Martijn; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2015-11-17

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) use has showed a sharp rise in numbers in the last decades, with aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) most widely used. In many urban areas with contaminated aquifers, there exists a desire for sustainable heating and cooling with UTES and a need for remediation. We investigated the potential synergy between UTES and bioremediation with batch experiments to simulate the effects of changing temperature and liquid exchange that occur in ATES systems, and of only temperature change occurring in BTES systems on cis-DCE reductive dechlorination. Compared to the natural situation (NS) at a constant temperature of 10 °C, both UTES systems with 25/5 °C for warm and cold well performed significantly better in cis-DCE (cis-1,2-dichloroethene) removal. The overall removal efficiency under mimicked ATES and BTES conditions were respectively 13 and 8.6 times higher than in NS. Inoculation with Dehalococcoides revealed that their initial presence is a determining factor for the dechlorination process. Temperature was the dominating factor when Dehalococcoides abundance was sufficient. Stimulated biodegradation was shown to be most effective in the mimicked ATES warm well because of the combined effect of suitable temperature, sustaining biomass growth, and regular cis-DCE supply.

  14. Secondary Containment for Underground Storage Tank Systems - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    These grant guidelines implement the secondary containment provision in Section 9003(i)(1) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  15. SC Power leads and cables - Nominal Current Test Performance of 2 kA-Class High-Tc Superconducting Cable Conductors and Its Implications for Cooling Systems for Utility Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willen, D. W. A; Daumling, M.; Rasmussen, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    configurations. The conductors are characterised under dc and ac conditions. The current and voltage is recorded during the tests in order to determine the impedances and the losses of the cable models. Using a phase-sensitive measurement with two lock-in amplifiers, small losses can be accurately measured...

  16. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  17. Superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Darrell F.; Lake, Bill L.; Ballinger, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    A superconducting cable comprising an in-situ-formed type II superconductor, e.g. Nb.sub.3 Sn, in association with a stabilizing conductor both in heat transfer relationship with at least one passage adapted to carry liquified gaseous refrigerant. The conductor and said at least one passage are enclosed by a sheath comprising an alloy consisting essentially of about 49% nickel, about 4% chromium, about 3% niobium, about 1.4% titanium, about 1% aluminum, balance essentially iron.

  18. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to dat...

  19. Review of potential 230-kV cable installation by horizontal directional drilling : Tsawwassen, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-29

    As part of the Vancouver Island transmission reinforcement (VITR) project, British Columbia Transmission Corporation (BCTC) is proposing a 4 km long section of overhead line between the existing Tsawwassen substation and the English Bluff terminal. Mill Creek Management Technologies, Inc. proposed that the 4-km installation be performed using underground cables installed by horizontal directional drilling. The Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources of British Columbia commissioned an independent assessment of the potential installation, addressing directional drilling feasibility as well as cable system design. This report presented the results of that assessment. It considered alignment and horizontal directional drills. Cable considerations such as cable design, installation, operation, repair and maintenance were discussed. The report also presented a cost estimate and time schedule. A review of the potential horizontal directional drills showed that the drills should be feasible. In addition, it was found that although the cable system was feasible, there were many effects on power system operation and maintenance that should be evaluated. 4 tabs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  20. What Is Data Cabling and Why It's Necessary for Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    IT Support

    2017-01-01

    What is Data Cabling? A structured cabling system is a type of network construction that is open and is used by different systems like data, access management, telephony, building automation, along with many other similar capabilities. It is an extremely flexible and economical set up. Usually, a cabling system such as this can be broken into six components: work space, horizontal cabling, backbone cabling, gear space, telecommunication closet (room) and entrance ways. Common Network ...

  1. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-12-09

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  2. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM. The implementation consists of four phases: (1 geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2 implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3 accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4 creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  3. Primary Droop Current-Sharing Control of the Parallel DC/DC Converters System considering Output Cable Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a primary droop current-sharing controller that can integrate into voltage feedback controller and, thus, provides a low-cost and simple solution for parallel DC/DC converters system. From the equivalent small-signal model, a two-port network was adapted to describe the output and control variables for designing voltage and droop current-sharing loops. From the analysis results, the designed primary droop current-sharing controller will not affect the original voltage loop gain profile to let the DC/DC converter preserve desire control performance. After designing a stable DC/DC converter with primary droop current-sharing control, the stability of the interconnected parallel DC/DC converters system was studied. When the cable resistance is reduced, when the cable resistance is reduced, the interconnected system might be unstable. Finally, some simulation and experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed controller in a prototype parallel DC/DC converters system.

  4. Enhancement of organizational and technical solutions regarding anchoring of completed construction facilities of underground railway system to operating control

    OpenAIRE

    Е. Г. Козин

    2017-01-01

    Stages of practical realization of measures prescribed by requirements documents regarding anchoring of capital structures of underground railway system to operating control are considered in the article. On the basis of algorithm structure analysis, which includes obtaining a permit for putting into operation and cadastre works execution a range of solutions was proposed concerning optimization of construction project owner and operating organization activities with the purpose of terms redu...

  5. Basic EMC technology advancement for C3 systems. Volume 4F: Prediction of crosstalk in flatpack coaxial cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, W. E.; Paul, C. R.

    1984-12-01

    The electromagnetic crosstalk present in a class of cables known as flatpack, coaxial cables is investigated. The multiconductor transmission line equations are used to derive a model of a general flatpack, coaxial cable consisting of n cables. This model is then implemented as a digital computer program to allow simulation of the crosstalk levels present in the cable. This simulation is compared to experimental results to prove that the model is valid and can accurately predict the crosstalk levels. Also, the effect of common impedance coupling, the presence of drain wires to allow for connection to the shields of the cable, and the presence of pigtail sections (exposed sections of wire) is examined to determine their effect on the overall electromagnetic crosstalk present in the cable.

  6. Identification of underground mine workings with the use of global positioning system technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science; Sharp, M. [Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program

    1998-12-31

    Identification of underground mine workings for well drilling is a difficult task given the limited resources available and lack of reliable information. Relic mine maps of questionable accuracy and difficulty in correlating the subsurface to the surface, make the process of locating wells arduous. With the development of global positioning system (GPS), specific locations on the earth can be identified with the aid of satellites. This technology can be applied to mine workings identification given a few necessary, precursory details. For an abandoned mine treatment project conducted by the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a Trimble ProXL 8 channel GPS receiver was employed to locate specific points on the surface with respect to a mine map. A 1925 mine map was digitized into AutoCAD version 13 software. Surface features identified on the map, such as mine adits, were located and marked in the field using the GPS receiver. These features were than imported into AutoCAD and referenced with the same points drawn on the map. A rubber sheeting program, Multric, was used to tweak the points so the map features correlated with the surface points. The correlation of these features allowed the map to be geo-referenced with the surface. Specific drilling points were located on the digitized map and assigned a latitude and longitude. The GPS receiver, using real time differential correction, was used to locate these points in the field. This method was assumed to be relatively accurate, to within 5 to 15 feet.

  7. Identification of underground mine workings with the use of global positioning system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.; Sharp, M.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of underground mine workings for well drilling is a difficult task given the limited resources available and lack of reliable information. Relic mine maps of questionable accuracy and difficulty in correlating the subsurface to the surface, make the process of locating wells arduous. With the development of global positioning system (GPS), specific locations on the earth can be identified with the aid of satellites. This technology can be applied to mine workings identification given a few necessary, precursory details. For an abandoned mine treatment project conducted by the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a Trimble ProXL 8 channel GPS receiver was employed to locate specific points on the surface with respect to a mine map. A 1925 mine map was digitized into AutoCAD version 13 software. Surface features identified on the map, such as mine adits, were located and marked in the field using the GPS receiver. These features were than imported into AutoCAD and referenced with the same points drawn on the map. A rubber sheeting program, Multric, was used to tweak the points so the map features correlated with the surface points. The correlation of these features allowed the map to be geo-referenced with the surface. Specific drilling points were located on the digitized map and assigned a latitude and longitude. The GPS receiver, using real time differential correction, was used to locate these points in the field. This method was assumed to be relatively accurate, to within 5 to 15 feet

  8. Bedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie; Brož, Milan; Záruba, J.; Sosna, K.; Najser, J.; Rukavičková, L.; Franěk, J.; Rudajev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 315-325 ISSN 1672-7975 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/367 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : underground storage * instability * seismicity * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2016

  9. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    in the junction point. This paper explains the phenomenon for pure cable lines and hybrid cable-OHL lines, and uses Denmark’s high voltage transmission grid, as planned for the year 2030, as test system. The accuracy of different cable models, and the number of substations from the transient event requiring...

  10. Manufacture, Installation and Operation of an In-situ Solute Migration System in KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Baik, Min Hoon

    2009-07-01

    This report describes the design, installation, operation and maintenance of the in-situ solute migration system (IMS) which was installed in KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) for the in-situ investigation of the solute migration. The IMS is consisted of the injection part, the extraction part, the measurement part, and the packer gas controlling system. The IMS was designed to measure the properties of the KURT groundwater in real time, which includes pH, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and temperature. the remote control system was established to control the data processing unit through the internet

  11. Low-level multicounter β/γ systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorsson, P.

    1997-01-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level β/γ multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  12. Low-level multicounter {beta}/{gamma} systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsson, P. [Iceland Univ. (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1997-03-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level {beta}/{gamma} multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  13. Designing Predictive Diagnose Method for Insulation Resistance Degradation of the Electrical Power Cables from Neutral Insulated Power Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobra, R.; Pasculescu, D.; Risteiu, M.; Buica, G.; Jevremović, V.

    2017-06-01

    This paper describe some possibilities to minimize voltages switching-off risks from the mining power networks, in case of insulated resistance faults by using a predictive diagnose method. The cables from the neutral insulated power networks (underground mining) are designed to provide a flexible electrical connection between portable or mobile equipment and a point of supply, including main feeder cable for continuous miners, pump cable, and power supply cable. An electronic protection for insulated resistance of mining power cables can be made using this predictive strategy. The main role of electronic relays for insulation resistance degradation of the electrical power cables, from neutral insulated power networks, is to provide a permanent measurement of the insulated resistance between phases and ground, in order to switch-off voltage when the resistance value is below a standard value. The automat system of protection is able to signalize the failure and the human operator will be early informed about the switch-off power and will have time to take proper measures to fix the failure. This logic for fast and automat switch-off voltage without aprioristic announcement is suitable for the electrical installations, realizing so a protection against fires and explosion. It is presented an algorithm and an anticipative relay for insulated resistance control from three-phase low voltage installations with insulated neutral connection.

  14. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  15. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  16. CABLES MUSCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    Full Text Available Los cables musculares o fibras de nitinol presentan una excelente alternativa a los actuadores convencionales, con una fuerza de actuación muy alta, equivalente a la de los actuadores hidráulicos, proporcionalmente a su peso, además de su acción silenciosa. Este material, inventado en 1963, aún no es muy conocido y de ahí que se haya realizado una recopilación de sus propiedades. Entre ellas, la temperatura de transición es la más importante, por ser la que activa la aleación. Muchos sistemas se han creado para alcanzar adecuadamente la temperatura de transición, y también se continúa en la investigación de métodos que ayuden a lograr un control preciso del movimiento de la aleación con memoria de forma (SMA.

  17. Proposal for the award of a contract without competitive tendering for the supply of coaxial high-voltage cable for the LHC beam dumping system

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract without competitive tendering for the supply of two types of coaxial high-voltage cable for the LHC beam dumping system. Following a market survey carried out among 14 firms in four Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2969/SL/LHC) was sent on 10 July 2001 to one firm. By the closing date, CERN had received one tender. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with DRAKA MULTIMEDIA CABLE (DE), the only bidder, for the supply of 14 km of coaxial high-voltage cable for the LHC beam dumping system for a total amount of 530 488 euros (779 900 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 100%.

  18. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  19. Suicide patterns on the London Underground railway system, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susanna; Rawala, Muffazal

    2017-10-01

    Aims and Method Suicidal acts on underground railway networks are an area of public health concern. Our aim was to review recent epidemiological patterns of suicidal acts on the London Underground to inform future preventive interventions. Data from 2000 to 2010 were obtained from the British Transport Police via a Freedom of Information request. Results The mean annual rate of suicidal acts from 2000 to 2010 was 5.8 per 100 million passenger journey stages. Of those who died by suicide, 77.3% were of White Northern European ethnicity. A fifth had a history of mental illness. Clinical implications The widening gap between the number of recorded suicide attempts and completed suicides is encouraging. Further research is required regarding the role of drug and alcohol use, psychiatric history and area of residence. Installation of platform screen doors should be considered in future railway network expansion.

  20. Suicide patterns on the London Underground railway system, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susanna; Rawala, Muffazal

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Method Suicidal acts on underground railway networks are an area of public health concern. Our aim was to review recent epidemiological patterns of suicidal acts on the London Underground to inform future preventive interventions. Data from 2000 to 2010 were obtained from the British Transport Police via a Freedom of Information request. Results The mean annual rate of suicidal acts from 2000 to 2010 was 5.8 per 100 million passenger journey stages. Of those who died by suicide, 77.3% were of White Northern European ethnicity. A fifth had a history of mental illness. Clinical implications The widening gap between the number of recorded suicide attempts and completed suicides is encouraging. Further research is required regarding the role of drug and alcohol use, psychiatric history and area of residence. Installation of platform screen doors should be considered in future railway network expansion. PMID:29018553

  1. Research on distributed strain separation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing system combining an electric power optical fiber cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuqing; Chen, Xi; Li, Jihui; Tong, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Brillouin-based optical fiber sensing system has been taken more and more attentions in power transmission line in recent years. However, there exists a temperature cross sensitivity problem in sensing system. Hence, researching on strain separation technology of fiber brillouin sensing system is an urgent requirement in its practical area. In this paper, a real-time online distributed strain separation calculation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing combining an electric power optical fiber cable is proposed. The technology is mainly composed of the Brillouin temperature-strain distributed measurement system and the Raman temperature distributed measurement system. In this technology, the electric power optical fiber cable is a special optical phase conductor (OPPC); the Brillouin sensing system uses the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) method. The optical unit of the OPPC includes single-mode and multimode fibers which can be used as sensing channel for Brillouin sensing system and Raman sensing system respectively. In the system networking aspect, the data processor of fiber Brillouin sensing system works as the host processor and the data processor of fiber Raman sensing system works as the auxiliary processor. And the auxiliary processor transfers the data to the host processor via the Ethernet interface. In the experiment, the BOTDA monitoring system and the Raman monitoring system work on the same optical unit of the OPPC simultaneously; In the data processing aspect, the auxiliary processor of Raman transfers the temperature data to the host processor of Brillouin via the Ethernet interface, and then the host processor of Brillouin uses the temperature data combining itself strain-temperature data to achieve the high sampling rate and high-precision strain separation via data decoupling calculation. The data decoupling calculation is achieved through the interpolation, filtering, feature point alignment, and the singular point prediction

  2. Lightning simulation of a combined overhead line/cable connected GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Jakob; Atlason, Vioir; Bak, Claus Leth

    2008-01-01

    The paper concerns different investigations of lightning simulation of a combined 170 kV overhead line/cable connected GIS. This is interesting due to the increasing amount of underground cables and GIS in the Danish transmission system. This creates a different system with respect to lightning...... performance, compared to a system consisting solely of AIS connected thorugh overhead lines. The main purpose is to investigate whether overvoltage protection is necessary at the GIS busbar. Here, the price for a GIS SA is significantly more expensive than the price for an AIS SA. The analysis is conducted...... by implementing a simulation model in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulations are conducted for both SF and BFO where the overvoltage at the transformer are evaluated as this component has the lowest insulation strength. The overvoltages are evaluated for different front imes of the lightning surge, different soil resistivities...

  3. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  4. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell email = campbek@nv.doe.gov

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  5. 47 CFR 1.1155 - Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations for cable television services. 1.1155 Section 1.1155 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services. Fee amount Address 1. Cable Television Relay Service $315 FCC, Cable, P.O. Box 979084, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000 2. Cable TV System (per...

  6. Assessment of the underground construction details of a road pavement using GPR antenna systems with different frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Amir M.; Tosti, Fabio; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Benedetto, Francesco; Benedetto, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of the underground construction details of a road infrastructure is a problem of great concern in highway engineering. The case becomes complicated especially when damages reoccur after carrying out remedial surface maintenance and repair works over the life cycle of the infrastructure. The challenge will be exacerbated at the presence of underground watercourses, such that the geotechnical stability of the entire road structure could be threatened. In this respect, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been recognised and accepted as one of the most effective non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques that could be employed in identifying the cause/s of such problems. The recent advancements and developments made in the field of GPR hardware as well as the current level of understanding of the applications and processing techniques of the GPR data have immensely added to the reliability in the utilisation of this tool in variety of subsurface investigation projects. In view of this, the work presented in here focuses on the assessment of the underground construction details of a road pavement using different frequency GPR antenna systems. In addition to this, the possible presence and location of an underground watercourse was investigated in this work. The existence of the latter problem was perceived due to reoccurrence of longitudinal and traversal road surface cracking as well as subsidence at a particular location of the road. Reoccurrence of this damage was interpreted and related to the possible existence of an underground watercourse. The original design and the construction of the road were as such to prevent this movement. Therefore it seemed necessary to perform a GPR survey to investigate and confirm the underground construction details of the road. To this purpose, the identified area was surveyed using high to low frequency antennas with 2000 MHz, 900 MHz, 600 MHz and 200 MHz central frequencies of investigation. Scans were performed at 1m

  7. Energy analysis of vehicle-to-cable barrier impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    An accident reconstruction technique was developed for estimating the energy absorbed during an impact with a cable barrier system as well as the initial impact velocity. The kinetic energy absorbed during a cable barrier system impact is comprised o...

  8. Application of ergonomics principles in underground mines through the Occupational Safety and Health Management System--OSHMS OHSAS 18.001:2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Agnaldo Fernando Vieira; Gontijo, Leila Maral

    2012-01-01

    The underground mining activity is regarded as one of the activities that cause most accidents, deaths and illnesses in the world, highlighting the coal mines. This study examined how ergonomics principles can help improve this environment, reduce the number of accidents and occupational diseases, train and empower workers and leaders and humanize the activities of the duty cycle of an underground mine. For this, it was developed a conceptual model of safety managing and health at work for the underground mining through the incorporation of ergonomics principles in the Occupational Safety and Health Management System and OHSAS 18001 (2007). The elaboration of the model was based on analysis of the environments and stages of work in underground mines and the PDCA cycle to ensure continuous improvement.

  9. Improvement of a high current DC power supply system for testing the large scaled superconducting cables and magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Tanahashi, Shugo; Mito, Toshiyuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Yanagi, Nagato; Sakamoto, Mizuki; Nishimura, Arata; Motojima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Junya

    1994-07-01

    A dc 75 kA power supply system was constructed to test the SC (superconducting) R&D (research and development) cables and magnets for the Large Helical Device (LHD). It consists of three 25 kA unit banks. A unit bank has two double-star-rectifier connections with the inter-phase reactors. A digital feedback control method is applied to the automatic current regulation (ACR) in each unit bank. For shortening the dead time of the feedback process, a new algorithm of a digital phase controller for the ACR is investigated. A Bode diagram of the feedback process is directly measured. It is confirmed that the dead time of the feedback process is reduced to one sixth, and that the feedback gain of PID (proportional, integral and differential) compensation is improved by a factor of two from the original method.

  10. Improvement of a high current DC power supply system for testing the large scaled superconducting cables and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Tanahashi, Shugo

    1993-11-01

    A dc 75 kA power supply system was constructed to test the superconducting (SC) R and D cables and magnets for the Large Helical Device. It consists of three 25 kA unit banks. A unit bank has two double-star-rectifier connections with the inter-phase reactors. A digital feedback control method is applied to the automatic current regulation (ACR) in each unit bank. For shortening the dead time of the feedback process, a new algorithm of a digital phase controller for the ACR is investigated. A Bode diagram of the feedback process is directly measured. It is confirmed that the dead time of the feedback process is reduced to one sixth, and that the feedback gain of PID compensation is improved by a factor of two from the original method. (author)

  11. Improvement of a high current dc power supply system for testing the large scaled superconducting cables and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Tanahashi, Shugo

    1994-01-01

    A dc 75 kA power supply system was constructed to test the SC (superconducting) R and D (research and development) cables and magnets for the Large Helical Device (LHD). It consists of three 25 kA unit banks. A unit bank has two double-star-rectifier connections with the inter-phase reactors. A digital feedback control method is applied to the automatic current regulation (ACR) in each unit bank. For shortening the dead time of the feedback process, a new algorithm of a digital phase controller for the ACR is investigated. A Bode diagram of the feedback process is directly measured. It is confirmed that the dead time of the feedback process is reduced to one sixth, and that the feedback gain of PID (proportional, integral and differential) compensation is improved by a factor of two from the original method

  12. Study on the reliability of the underground conveyor belt system installed at Vulcan Mine, the Jiu Valley Basin in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomuș Ovidiu-Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a comprehensive reliability analysis of the conveyor belts belonging to an underground coal mine in the Jiu Valley, Romania. As resulted from the mine management reports, the transportation system is responsible for many downtimes and is a real bottleneck in the constant and adequate production, and the suspicion is the weak state of belt conveyers, which are the spinal column of the extraction process. For this reason, a comprehensive reliability analysis has been decided, in order to deliver a maintenance-upgrading plan.

  13. A risk-based decision support framework for selection of appropriate safety measure system for underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantra, Chitrasen; Datta, Saurav; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar

    2017-03-01

    In the context of underground coal mining industry, the increased economic issues regarding implementation of additional safety measure systems, along with growing public awareness to ensure high level of workers safety, have put great pressure on the managers towards finding the best solution to ensure safe as well as economically viable alternative selection. Risk-based decision support system plays an important role in finding such solutions amongst candidate alternatives with respect to multiple decision criteria. Therefore, in this paper, a unified risk-based decision-making methodology has been proposed for selecting an appropriate safety measure system in relation to an underground coal mining industry with respect to multiple risk criteria such as financial risk, operating risk, and maintenance risk. The proposed methodology uses interval-valued fuzzy set theory for modelling vagueness and subjectivity in the estimates of fuzzy risk ratings for making appropriate decision. The methodology is based on the aggregative fuzzy risk analysis and multi-criteria decision making. The selection decisions are made within the context of understanding the total integrated risk that is likely to incur while adapting the particular safety system alternative. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been validated through a real-time case study. The result in the context of final priority ranking is seemed fairly consistent.

  14. Initial tension loss in cerclage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Jérémie; Émard, Maxime; Canet, Fanny; Brailovski, Vladimir; Petit, Yvan; Laflamme, George Y

    2013-10-01

    Cerclage cables, frequently used in the management of fractures and osteotomies, are associated with a high failure rate and significant loosening during surgery. This study compared the capacity to maintain tension of different types of orthopaedic cable systems. Multifilament Cobalt-Chrome (CoCr) cables with four different crimp/clamp devices (DePuy, Stryker, Zimmer and Smith&Nephew) and one non-metallic Nylon (Ny) cable from Kinamed were instrumented with a load cell to measure tension during insertion. Significant tension loss was observed with crimping for all cables (Ptensioner led to an additional unexpected tension loss (CoCr-DePuy: 18%, CoCr-Stryker: 29%, CoCr-Smith&Nephew: 33%, Ny: 46%, and CoCr-Zimmer: 52%). The simple CoCr (DePuy) cable system outperformed the more sophisticated locking devices due to its significantly better ability to prevent tension loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Cable Structures—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP is an advanced composite material with the advantages of high strength, lightweight, no corrosion and excellent fatigue resistance. Therefore, unidirectional CFRP has great potential for cables and to replace steel cables in cable structures. However, CFRP is a typical orthotropic material and its strength and modulus perpendicular to the fiber direction are much lower than those in the fiber direction, which brings a challenge for anchoring CFRP cables. This paper presents an overview of application of CFRP cables in cable structures, including historical review, state of the art and prospects for the future. After introducing properties of carbon fibers, mechanical characteristics and structural forms of CFRP cables, existing CFRP cable structures in the world (all of them are cable bridges are reviewed. Especially, their CFRP cable anchorages are presented in detail. New applications for CFRP cables, i.e., cable roofs and cable facades, are also presented, including the introduction of a prototype CFRP cable roof and the conceptual design of a novel structure—CFRP Continuous Band Winding System. In addition, other challenges that impede widespread application of CFRP cable structures are briefly introduced.

  16. Early detection of spontaneous combustion of coal in underground coal mines with development of an ethylene enriching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jun; Xue, Sheng [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Kenmore (Australia); Cheng, Weimin; Wang, Gang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal (sponcom) is a major hazard in underground coal mining operations. If not detected early and managed properly, it can seriously affect mine safety and productivity. Gaseous products of sponcom, such as carbon monoxide, ethylene and hydrogen, are commonly used in coal mines as indicators to reflect the state of the sponcom. Studies have shown that ethylene starts to occur when sponcom reaches a characteristic temperature. However, due to dilution of ventilation air and detection limits of the instruments used for gas analysis at coal mines, ethylene cannot be detected until the sponcom has developed past its early stage, missing an optimum opportunity for mine operators to control the hazard. To address the issue, an ethylene-enriching system, based on its physical adsorption and desorption properties, has been developed to increase detection sensitivity of the ethylene concentration in mine air by about 10 times. This system has successfully been applied in a number of underground coal mines in China to detect sponcom at its early stage and enable mine operators to take effective control measures. This paper describes the ethylene enriching system and its application. (author)

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well

  18. Results from the Danish high temperature superconducting power cable project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) demonstration cable system has been installed in a utility network supplying electricity to consumers. The cable is a 30-m long, 30kVrms, 2, 000Arms cable, installed in the network of Copenhagen Energy at a substation supplying approxim......For the first time, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) demonstration cable system has been installed in a utility network supplying electricity to consumers. The cable is a 30-m long, 30kVrms, 2, 000Arms cable, installed in the network of Copenhagen Energy at a substation supplying...

  19. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-01-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de

  20. An Event Reporting and Early-Warning Safety System Based on the Internet of Things for Underground Coal Mines: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wan Jo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatal accidents associated with underground coal mines require the implementation of high-level gas monitoring and miner’s localization approaches to promote underground safety and health. This study introduces a real-time monitoring, event-reporting and early-warning platform, based on cluster analysis for outlier detection, spatiotemporal statistical analysis, and an RSS range-based weighted centroid localization algorithm for improving safety management and preventing accidents in underground coal mines. The proposed platform seamlessly integrates monitoring, analyzing, and localization approaches using the Internet of Things (IoT, cloud computing, a real-time operational database, application gateways, and application program interfaces. The prototype has been validated and verified at the operating underground Hassan Kishore coal mine. Sensors for air quality parameters including temperature, humidity, CH4, CO2, and CO demonstrated an excellent performance, with regression constants always greater than 0.97 for each parameter when compared to their commercial equivalent. This framework enables real-time monitoring, identification of abnormal events (>90%, and verification of a miner’s localization (with <1.8 m of error in the harsh environment of underground mines. The main contribution of this study is the development of an open source, customizable, and cost-effective platform for effectively promoting underground coal mine safety. This system is helpful for solving the problems of accessibility, serviceability, interoperability, and flexibility associated with safety in coal mines.

  1. Accessing leaking underground storage tank case studies and publications through the EPA's Computerized On-Line Information System (COLIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillger, R.; Tibay, P.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA's regulations for underground storage tanks (USTs) require corrective action to be taken in response to leaking USTs. Recent developments of UST programs nationwide as well as the introduction of new technologies to clean up UST sites have increased the diversity of experience levels among personnel involved with this type of work. The EPA's Computerized On-Line Information System (COLIS) has been developed to facilitate technology transfer among the personnel involved in UST cleanup. The system allows for the quick and simple retrieval of data relating to UST incidents, as well as other hazardous waste-related information. The system has been used by response personnel at all levels of government, academia, and private industry. Although it has been in existence for many years, users are just now realizing the potential wealth of information stored in this system. COLIS access can be accomplished via telephone lines utilizing a personal computer and a modem

  2. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  3. The effects of spatial variability of the aggressiveness of soil on system reliability of corroding underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraoui, Yacine; Chateauneuf, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic methodology is presented for assessing the time-variant reliability of corroded underground pipelines subjected to space-variant soil aggressiveness. The Karhunen-Loève expansion is used to model the spatial variability of soil as a correlated stochastic field. The pipeline is considered as a series system for which the component and system failure probabilities are computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The probabilistic model provides a realistic time and space modelling of stochastic variations, leading to appropriate estimation of the lifetime distribution. The numerical analyses allow us to investigate the impact of various parameters on the reliability of underground pipelines, such as the soil aggressiveness, the pipe design variables, the soil correlation length and the pipeline length. The results show that neglecting the effect of spatial variability leads to pessimistic estimation of the residual lifetime and can lead to condemn prematurely the structure. - Highlights: • The role of soil heterogeneity in pipeline reliability assessment has been shown. • The impact of pipe length and soil correlation length has been examined. • The effect of the uncertainties related to design variables has been observed. • Pipe thickness design for homogeneous reliability has been proposed.

  4. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  5. Heat-shrinkable splicing materials for Class 1E wire and cable systems in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Katsue; Maruyama, Masahiro; Kanno, Mikio; Ohya, Shingo; Nagakawa, Seiji; Sugimori, Mikihiro

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the shapes of heat-shrinkable splicing materials (cable sleeve and breakout, and round end cap) made of polyolefine resin, their application to cable splicing, and the properties of the materials as well as of the splice using them. Particularly, the report features introduction of their properties as determined by tests under the same conditions as used in Japan in qualifying tests on wires and cables for nuclear power generating stations. The heat-shrinkable splicing materials proved to be equal in properties to flame-retardant cables for nuclear power plants when tested for oxygen index and subjected to a vertical flame test on ''insulated wire'' and a vertical tray flame test on the cable splice. It was also confirmed that Class 1E cable using these splicing materials could stand the most rigorous environmental test in Japan. Therefore they can be used for splicing Class 1E wires and cables and the splice formed with them can be regarded as Class 1E specified in IEEE Std. 383. (author)

  6. A decision support system framework to improve design-construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Gary Bruce

    One of the noted difficulties with the traditional public works project development process is the lack of integration and sharing of information between engineering and construction entities that results in a decrease in project performance. To improve project performance on public sector underground utility projects, the research develops a decision support system framework that enhances the exchange and integration of relevant information and knowledge between entities on such projects by incorporating a lessons-learned database to document, organize and disseminate lessons-learned on a project. To identify the critical activities within the project development process that could be linked to the decision support system, the Integration Definition for Functioning Modeling (IDEFO) technique was used to create a representative model of the public works project development process. The resultant model demonstrated the repeatable nature of the process both across project phases and from project-to-project and identified the decision-making activities of generating and evaluating alternatives as key opportunities for construction-related input that could be linked to a decision support system. An inspection of current industry practices was conducted through interviews with knowledgeable industry sources to determine the scope of the decision support system framework. Results revealed the type of critical decisions on underground utility projects that could benefit from construction-related input and identified the documentation of lessons-learned as a major industry weakness. A prototype decision support system incorporating a lessons-learned database was developed and the framework integrated into common project management reporting mechanisms found in the industry. The actual decision-maker can retrieve lessons-learned according to predetermined categories of critical decisions, compare and evaluated retrieved alternatives, and document the rationale behind the

  7. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  8. How do you like them cables?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sergei Malyukov

    Cabling work is not for clautrophobic people! Cables are like the blood vessels and nervous system of ATLAS. With the help of all these cables, we can power ATLAS, control the detector and read out the data. Like the human blood vessels, they penetrate inside the ATLAS volume, reaching each of its elements. The ATLAS developers started to think about design of services, cables and pipes at the very first stages of the project. The cabling project has been developing most intensively during the last five years, passing through the projection and CAD design phases, then the installation of cable trays and finally the cables. The cable installation itself took two and a half years and was done by teams of technicians from several institutes from Russia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Here are some numbers to illustrate the scale of the ATLAS cabling system. More than 25000 optical fiber channels are used for reading the information from the sub-detectors and delivering the timing signals. The total numbe...

  9. Simplified formulae for the estimation of the positive-sequence resistance and reactance of three-phase cables for different frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies that are ......The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies...... that are not power frequency. Software packages capable of performing exact calculations of these two parameters exist, but simple equations able to estimate the reactance and resistance of an underground cable for the frequencies associated to a transient or a resonance phenomenon would be helpful. This paper...

  10. Spectacular test of the fire extinguishing system in the underground cavern of the CMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The enormous rumbling heard 100 m under the earth on Friday, 12 May, was not the start of a foam party at CMS. The Safety Team looked on from the second tier of the CMS underground cavern as it reechoed to the sound of water rushing through the two huge pipes overhead and the air was filled with a mixture of water and foam. A minute later it was a winter wonderland, as fluffy puffs of foam came shooting out of the twelve foam blowers lining the upper cavern walls on both sides. In less than two minutes 7 m3 of water mixed with a small percentage of foaming liquid, was transformed into 5600 m3 of foam and discharged into the cavern.

  11. Evaluation of Underground Zinc Mine Investment Based on Fuzzy-Interval Grey System Theory and Geometric Brownian Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gligoric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground mine projects are often associated with diverse sources of uncertainties. Having the ability to plan for these uncertainties plays a key role in the process of project evaluation and is increasingly recognized as critical to mining project success. To make the best decision, based on the information available, it is necessary to develop an adequate model incorporating the uncertainty of the input parameters. The model is developed on the basis of full discounted cash flow analysis of an underground zinc mine project. The relationships between input variables and economic outcomes are complex and often nonlinear. Fuzzy-interval grey system theory is used to forecast zinc metal prices while geometric Brownian motion is used to forecast operating costs over the time frame of the project. To quantify the uncertainty in the parameters within a project, such as capital investment, ore grade, mill recovery, metal content of concentrate, and discount rate, we have applied the concept of interval numbers. The final decision related to project acceptance is based on the net present value of the cash flows generated by the simulation over the time project horizon.

  12. The ground-water system and possible effects of underground coal mining in the Trail Mountain area, central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Gregory C.

    1985-01-01

    The ground-water system was studied in the Trail Mountain area in order to provide hydrologic information needed to assess the hydrologic effects of underground coal mining. Well testing and spring data indicate that water occurs in several aquifers. The coal-bearing Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer is regional in nature and is the source of most water in underground mines in the region. One or more perched aquifers overlie the Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer in most areas of Trail Mountain.Aquifer tests indicate that the transmissivity of the Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer, which consists mainly of sandstone, siltstone, and shale, ranges from about 20 to 200 feet squared per day in most areas of Trail Mountain. The specific yield of the aquifer was estimated at 0.05, and the storage coefficient is about IxlO"6 per foot of aquifer where confined.The main sources of recharge to the multiaquifer system are snowmelt and rain, and water is discharged mainly by springs and by leakage along streams. Springs that issue from perched aquifers are sources of water for livestock and wildlife on Trail Mountain.Water in all aquifers is suitable for most uses. Dissolved solids concentrations range from about 250 to 700 milligrams per liter, and the predominant dissolved constituents generally are calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Future underground coal mines will require dewatering when they penetrate the Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer. A finitedifference, three-dimensional computer model was used to estimate the inflow of water to various lengths and widths of a hypothetical dewatered mine and to estimate drawdowns of potentiometric surfaces in the partly dewatered aquifer. The estimates were made for a range of aquifer properties and premining hydraulic gradients that were similar to those on Trail Mountain. The computer simulations indicate that mine inflows could be several hundred gallons per minute and that potentiometric surfaces of the partly dewatered aquifer could be drawn

  13. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  14. 47 CFR 1.767 - Cable landing licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concerning the application is to be addressed; (4) A description of the submarine cable, including the type... license to construct and operate a submarine cable system or to modify the construction of a previously approved submarine cable system, applicants must determine whether they are required to certify that their...

  15. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  16. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  17. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  18. Cable-to-post attachments for a non-proprietary high-tension cable barrier - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The research objectives reported herein were based on further development of cable-to-post attachment hardware for use in : the non-proprietary high-tension cable barrier system. Specifically, this project aimed to develop and evaluate alternative : ...

  19. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 1. Engineering Design and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Seim, Tom A.; LaMarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Thronas, Aaron I.; Eppard, M. Brad

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (OR, USA), started developing the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, a nonproprietary sensing technology, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through eight large hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began the development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in two or three dimensions for determining route of passage and behavior as the fish passed at the facility. The additional information on route of passage, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities through the FCRPS. PMID:22163918

  20. A new cable-tie based sternal closure system: description of the device, technique of implantation and first clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grapow Martin TR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wire closure still remains the preferred technique despite reasonable disadvantages. Associated complications, such as infection and sternal instability, cause time- and cost-consuming therapies. We present a new tool for sternal closure with its first clinical experience and results. Methods The sternal ZipFixTM System is based on the cable-tie principle. It primarily consists of biocompatible Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone implants and is predominantly used peristernally through the intercostal space. The system provides a large implant-to-bone contact for better force distribution and for avoiding bone cut through. Results 50 patients were closed with the ZipFixTM system. No sternal instability was observed at 30 days. Two patients developed a mediastinitis that necessitated the removal of the device; however, the ZipFixTM were intact and the sternum remained stable. Conclusions In our initial evaluation, the short-term results have shown that the sternal ZipFixTM can be used safely and effectively. It is fast, easy to use and serves as a potential alternative for traditional wire closure.

  1. Modeling vibration response and damping of cables and cabled structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Kaitlin S.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    In an effort to model the vibration response of cabled structures, the distributed transfer function method is developed to model cables and a simple cabled structure. The model includes shear effects, tension, and hysteretic damping for modeling of helical stranded cables, and includes a method for modeling cable attachment points using both linear and rotational damping and stiffness. The damped cable model shows agreement with experimental data for four types of stranded cables, and the damped cabled beam model shows agreement with experimental data for the cables attached to a beam structure, as well as improvement over the distributed mass method for cabled structure modeling.

  2. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  3. Comparison of Tension-Band Wiring With the Cable Pin System in Patella Fractures: A Randomized Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-xian; Hai, Yong; Du, Xin-ru; Xu, Zi-yu; Lu, Tie; Shan, Lei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jun-lin

    2015-12-01

    To compare the outcome of tension-band wiring (TBW) with the cable pin system (CPS) for transverse fractures of the patella. Randomized prospective study. Academic Level I trauma center. From February 2008 to December 2011, 73 consecutive patients with transverse fractures of the patella were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: one group was treated using the CPS, and the other group was treated using the modified TBW. The clinical outcome assessment included analyses of the radiographic images, the modified Hospital for Special Surgery scoring system, and complications. The follow-up time ranged from 12 to 29 months. All fractures healed, with a union rate of 100%. The fracture healing time was significantly shorter in the CPS group (8.51 ± 2.59 weeks, n = 34) compared with the TBW group (11.79 ± 3.04 weeks, n = 39). Postoperative complications in the CPS and TBW groups were observed in 1 and 9 patients, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery score for the CPS group (90.53 ± 5.19 points) was significantly higher than that for the TBW group (81.36 ± 12.71 points). The CPS is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella and is associated with a shorter healing time, fewer complications, and better function than TBW. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  5. Technical realization of a closure concept for a chamber-system in the underground Richard repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The Phare project CZ 632.02.04 'Realization of closure of a chamber in the Richard repository as input for establishing a safety case' is a follow up implementation phase of the Phare project, CZ 01.14.03 'Solution for closure of a chamber in the Richard repository'. Main objective of both projects is to propose and realize a disposal system in selected chambers of the Richard repository, which will eliminate burden from the past practices in waste management during the first phase of the Richard repository operation (1965 - 1980) and which will improve its overall long term safety. This objective will be assured by realization of the concept of so called 'hydraulic cage', which technical solution was developed by DBE Technology within the Phare project CZ 01.14.03. The solution is described in the previous presentation 'Hydraulic Cage Concept for Waste Chambers and its Technical Implementation for the Underground Richard Repository, Litomerice, Czech Republic'. (author)

  6. 46 CFR 111.60-6 - Fiber optic cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiber optic cable. 111.60-6 Section 111.60-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-6 Fiber optic cable. Each fiber optic cable must— (a) Be...

  7. A Multiscale Finite Element Model Validation Method of Composite Cable-Stayed Bridge Based on Structural Health Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumian Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-step response surface method for multiscale finite element model (FEM updating and validation is presented with respect to Guanhe Bridge, a composite cable-stayed bridge in the National Highway number G15, in China. Firstly, the state equations of both multiscale and single-scale FEM are established based on the basic equation in structural dynamic mechanics to update the multiscale coupling parameters and structural parameters. Secondly, based on the measured data from the structural health monitoring (SHM system, a Monte Carlo simulation is employed to analyze the uncertainty quantification and transmission, where the uncertainties of the multiscale FEM and measured data were considered. The results indicate that the relative errors between the calculated and measured frequencies are less than 2%, and the overlap ratio indexes of each modal frequency are larger than 80% without the average absolute value of relative errors. These demonstrate that the proposed method can be applied to validate the multiscale FEM, and the validated FEM can reflect the current conditions of the real bridge; thus it can be used as the basis for bridge health monitoring, damage prognosis (DP, and safety prognosis (SP.

  8. Design Improvements to Cables and Connectors in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Anna; Haufe, Christopher; Majorana Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an experiment constructed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decays in germanium-76 and to demonstrate the feasibility to deploy a large-scale experiment in a phased and modular fashion. It consists of two modular arrays of natural and 76Ge-enriched germanium p-type point contact detectors totaling 44.1 kg, located at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, USA. The DEMONSTRATOR uses custom high voltage cables to bias the detectors, as well as custom signal cables and connectors to read out the charge deposited at each detector's point contact. These low-mass cables and connectors must meet stringent radiopurity requirements while being subjected to thermal and mechanical stress. A number of issues have been identified with the currently installed cables and connectors. An improved set of cables and connectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR are being developed with the aim of increasing their overall reliability and connectivity. We will discuss some of the issues encountered with the current cables and connectors, the initial performance of our improved designs, and applications for development of LEGEND, a next-generation tonne-scale 76Ge experiment. This material is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  9. Determination of elemental impurities in polymer materials of electrical cables of safety systems of nuclear power plants by k(0)-INAA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kubešová, Marie; Bartoníček, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 2 (2014), s. 685-691 ISSN 0236-5731. [6th International Ko Users Workshop. Budapest, 22.09.2013-27.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010218; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * k(0) standardization * polymer materials * element additives * cables of safety systems * nuclear power plant Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2014

  10. Cable aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results from aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of class 1E electrical cables, per NUREG/CR-5772. This test was designed to test the performance of cables which had been aged with simultaneous radiation and thermal exposure. The tested cables included crosslinked polyolefin cables, ethylene propylene rubber cables, and miscellaneous cable types. Cables were exposed to 20, 40, and 60 years equivalent aging, and then exposed to LOCA tests at the end of their qualified life to determine the minimum insulation thickness needed for survival of the test. Failures were found in a large number of the tested cables. As a result the NRC has sent information notices to the industry regarding potential insulation problems. The results have raised the question of whether the artificial aging methods provide adequate testing methods. As a result of this testing the NRC is reviewing the artificial aging procedures, the adequacy of environmental qualification requirements for cable safety, and reexamining data from condition monitoring of installed cables

  11. Optimal Design of Cogeneration Systems in Industrial Plants Combined with District Heating/Cooling and Underground Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dovì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP systems in both power stations and large plants are becoming one of the most important tools for reducing energy requirements and consequently the overall carbon footprint of fundamental industrial activities. While power stations employ topping cycles where the heat rejected from the cycle is supplied to domestic and industrial consumers, the plants that produce surplus heat can utilise bottoming cycles to generate electrical power. Traditionally the waste heat available at high temperatures was used to generate electrical power, whereas energy at lower temperatures was either released to the environment or used for commercial or domestic heating. However the introduction of new engines, such as the ones using the organic Rankine cycle, capable of employing condensing temperatures very close to the ambient temperature, has made the generation of electrical power at low temperatures also convenient. On the other hand, district heating is becoming more and more significant since it has been extended to include cooling in the warm months and underground storage of thermal energy to cope with variable demand. These developments imply that electric power generation and district heating/cooling may become alternative and not complementary solutions for waste energy of industrial plants. Therefore the overall energy management requires the introduction of an optimisation algorithm to select the best strategy. In this paper we propose an algorithm for the minimisation of a suitable cost function, for any given variable heat demand from commercial and domestic users, with respect to all independent variables, i.e., temperatures and flowrates of warm fluid streams leaving the plants and volume and nature of underground storage. The results of the preliminary process integration analysis based on pinch technology are used in this algorithm to provide bounds on the values of temperatures.

  12. The US market for high-temperature superconducting wire in transmission cable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, D

    1996-04-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 utility engineers concerning the future prospects for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. All have direct responsibility for transmission in their utility, most of them in a management capacity. The engineers represented their utilities as members of the Electric Power Research Institute`s Underground Transmission Task Force (which has since been disbanded). In that capacity, they followed the superconducting transmission cable program and are aware of the cryogenic implications. Nineteen of the 23 engineers stated the market for underground transmission would grow during the next decade. Twelve of those specified an annual growth rate; the average of these responses was 5.6%. Adjusting that figure downward to incorporate the remaining responses, this study assumes an average growth rate of 3.4%. Factors driving the growth rate include the difficulty in securing rights-of-way for overhead lines, new construction techniques that reduce the costs of underground transmission, deregulation, and the possibility that public utility commissions will allow utilities to include overhead costs in their rate base. Utilities have few plans to replace existing cable as preventive maintenance, even though much of the existing cable has exceeded its 40-year lifetime. Ten of the respondents said the availability of a superconducting cable with the same life-cycle costs as a conventional cable and twice the ampacity would induce them to consider retrofits. The respondents said a cable with those characteristics would capture 73% of their cable retrofits.

  13. An Internet of Things System for Underground Mine Air Quality Pollutant Prediction Based on Azure Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ByungWan Jo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs for monitoring the complex, dynamic, and harsh environment of underground coal mines (UCMs is sought around the world to enhance safety. However, previously developed smart systems are limited to monitoring or, in a few cases, can report events. Therefore, this study introduces a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective internet of things (IoT system for air quality monitoring with newly added features of assessment and pollutant prediction. This system is comprised of sensor modules, communication protocols, and a base station, running Azure Machine Learning (AML Studio over it. Arduino-based sensor modules with eight different parameters were installed at separate locations of an operational UCM. Based on the sensed data, the proposed system assesses mine air quality in terms of the mine environment index (MEI. Principal component analysis (PCA identified CH4, CO, SO2, and H2S as the most influencing gases significantly affecting mine air quality. The results of PCA were fed into the ANN model in AML studio, which enabled the prediction of MEI. An optimum number of neurons were determined for both actual input and PCA-based input parameters. The results showed a better performance of the PCA-based ANN for MEI prediction, with R2 and RMSE values of 0.6654 and 0.2104, respectively. Therefore, the proposed Arduino and AML-based system enhances mine environmental safety by quickly assessing and predicting mine air quality.

  14. An Internet of Things System for Underground Mine Air Quality Pollutant Prediction Based on Azure Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, ByungWan; Khan, Rana Muhammad Asad

    2018-03-21

    The implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for monitoring the complex, dynamic, and harsh environment of underground coal mines (UCMs) is sought around the world to enhance safety. However, previously developed smart systems are limited to monitoring or, in a few cases, can report events. Therefore, this study introduces a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective internet of things (IoT) system for air quality monitoring with newly added features of assessment and pollutant prediction. This system is comprised of sensor modules, communication protocols, and a base station, running Azure Machine Learning (AML) Studio over it. Arduino-based sensor modules with eight different parameters were installed at separate locations of an operational UCM. Based on the sensed data, the proposed system assesses mine air quality in terms of the mine environment index (MEI). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified CH₄, CO, SO₂, and H₂S as the most influencing gases significantly affecting mine air quality. The results of PCA were fed into the ANN model in AML studio, which enabled the prediction of MEI. An optimum number of neurons were determined for both actual input and PCA-based input parameters. The results showed a better performance of the PCA-based ANN for MEI prediction, with R ² and RMSE values of 0.6654 and 0.2104, respectively. Therefore, the proposed Arduino and AML-based system enhances mine environmental safety by quickly assessing and predicting mine air quality.

  15. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    of reducing the intensity of the axial flow and disrupting the near wake flow structures. Similar studies during wet conditions with artificial simulation of light rain in the wind tunnel showed that the plain cable suffered from severe rain-wind induced vibrations. But despite the presence of both upper......This dissertation investigates the possibility of preventing wind-induced cable vibrations on cable-stayed bridges using passive aerodynamic means in the form of cable surface modifications. Especially the phenomenon of rainwind induced vibrations, which is known as the most common type...... of these vibrations and capable of inducing severe vibrations. The recent increase in the number of cable stayed bridges continuously becoming longer and lighter have resulted in a high number of observations of cable vibrations. A detailed literature review of the various types of passive means led...

  16. Sizewell 'B' cable installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    N G Bailey and Co. Ltd., UK were awarded the contract for the procurement, manufacture, works testing, works finishing, supply, delivery, off-loading, storage, installation, site finishing, preservation, setting to work and site testing of the following; the main cable installation throughout the Station including the addition of the Radioactive Waste Building, earthing and lightning protection installation, cable supporting steelwork and carriers and glanding and termination of cables. The cabling installation comprises power distribution, control and instrumentation cabling including all the associated cabling accessories, terminal boxes and similar components. The way that the contract was set-up, awarded and is now being carried out is described. Planning and industrial relations have been key features of the contract. (Author)

  17. 47 CFR 76.934 - Small systems and small cable companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operator from advertising from programming that is carried as part of the service for which a rate is being... rules, or membership fees in social service, recreational or athletic clubs or associations. (ii) The... responsive documents that are missing or destroyed. (iii) A system may file with the Media Bureau an...

  18. Power System Technical Performance Issues related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, W.; der Sluis, L.V.; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary ...

  19. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary ...

  20. Development of Compact Seafloor Cabled Seismic and Tsunami Observation System Using ICT and Installation Plan to Off-Sanriku Region, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Sakai, S.; Shiobara, H.; Kanazawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A seismic and tsunami observation system using seafloor optical fiber had been installed off Sanriku, northeastern Japan in 1996. The objectives of the system are to obtain exact seismic activity related to plate subduction and to observe tsunami on seafloor. The continuous real-time observation has been carried out since the installation. In March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake occurred at the plate boundary near the Japan Trench, and the system recorded seismic waves and tsunamis by the mainshock. These data are useful to obtain accurate position of the source faults and source region of tsunami generated by the event. However, the landing station of the system was damaged by huge tsunami, and the observation was suspended. Because the real-time seafloor observation by cabled system is important in this region, we decide to reconstruct a landing station and install newly developed Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismic and Tsunami (OBCST) observation system for additional observation and/or replacement of the existing system. From 2005, we have been developed the new compact Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Our system is characterized by securement of reliability by using TCP/IP technology and down-sizing of an observation node using up-to-date electronics technology. In 2010, the first OBCS was installed near Awashima-island in the Japan Sea, and is being operated continuously. The new OBCST system is placed as the second generation of our system, and has two types of observation nodes. Both types have accelerometers as seismic sensors. One type of observation nodes equips a crystal oscillator type pressure gauge as tsunami sensor. Another type has an external port for additional observation sensor by using Power over Ethernet technology. Clocks in observation nodes can be synchronized through TCP/IP protocol with an accuracy of 300 ns (IEEE 1588). A simple canister for tele-communication seafloor cable is

  1. Greater Trochanteric Fixation Using a Cable System for Partial Hip Arthroplasty: A Clinical and Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fırat Ozan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of greater trochanteric fixation using a multifilament cable to ensure abductor lever arm continuity in patients with a proximal femoral fracture undergoing partial hip arthroplasty. Mean age of the patients (12 men, 20 women was 84.12 years. Mean follow-up was 13.06 months. Fixation of the dislocated greater trochanter with or without a cable following load application was assessed by finite element analysis (FEA. Radiological evaluation was based on the distance between the fracture and the union site. Harris hip score was used to evaluate final results: outcomes were excellent in 7 patients (21.8%, good in 17 patients (53.1%, average in 5 patients (15.6%, and poor in 1 patient (9.3%. Mean abduction angle was 20.21°. Union was achieved in 14 patients (43.7%, fibrous union in 12 (37.5%, and no union in 6 (18.7%. FEA showed that the maximum total displacement of the greater trochanter decreased when the fractured bone was fixed with a cable. As the force applied to the cable increased, the displacement of the fractured trochanter decreased. This technique ensures continuity of the abductor lever arm in patients with a proximal femoral fracture who are undergoing partial hip arthroplasty surgery.

  2. Greater Trochanteric Fixation Using a Cable System for Partial Hip Arthroplasty: A Clinical and Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Fırat; Koyuncu, Şemmi; Pekedis, Mahmut; Altay, Taşkın; Yıldız, Hasan; Toker, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of greater trochanteric fixation using a multifilament cable to ensure abductor lever arm continuity in patients with a proximal femoral fracture undergoing partial hip arthroplasty. Mean age of the patients (12 men, 20 women) was 84.12 years. Mean follow-up was 13.06 months. Fixation of the dislocated greater trochanter with or without a cable following load application was assessed by finite element analysis (FEA). Radiological evaluation was based on the distance between the fracture and the union site. Harris hip score was used to evaluate final results: outcomes were excellent in 7 patients (21.8%), good in 17 patients (53.1%), average in 5 patients (15.6%), and poor in 1 patient (9.3%). Mean abduction angle was 20.21°. Union was achieved in 14 patients (43.7%), fibrous union in 12 (37.5%), and no union in 6 (18.7%). FEA showed that the maximum total displacement of the greater trochanter decreased when the fractured bone was fixed with a cable. As the force applied to the cable increased, the displacement of the fractured trochanter decreased. This technique ensures continuity of the abductor lever arm in patients with a proximal femoral fracture who are undergoing partial hip arthroplasty surgery. PMID:25177703

  3. NRC Information Notice No. 92-01: Cable damage caused by inadequate cable installation procedures and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1989, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) removed the cables from a conduit in the reactor protection system of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, to inspect for damage. TVA selected this conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit during construction may have damaged cables in the conduit. When the cables were removed, TVA found significant damage in the insulation of some cables. This damage was not attributed to heat generated by the alleged welding arc. The damage was principally attributed to the pulling stresses exerted during the initial installation of the cables. Some of the cables had insulation removed down to the conductors. To assess the extent of cable damage and determine the scope of its investigation, TVA removed more cables from conduits that constituted the most difficult pulls (worst case) and found varying degrees of damage that it attributed to pulling stresses. To fill a conduit at Watts Bar, personnel used pull cords to pull more cables through the conduits over the top of existing cables. This practice is called ''pull-by.'' This practice can cause damage to the existing cables from the sawing action of the pull cords and the friction of cables as they are pulled over existing cables. TVA instituted programs to assess the adequacy of cable installation at all its nuclear facilities and take appropriate corrective actions. At Watts Bar, TVA replaced cables in conduits which exceeded a calculated threshold value of side wall bearing pressure (SWBP) and performed a high-potential (hi-pot) tests on a number of other cables in conduits with SWBP below the calculated threshold value

  4. New method of trenchless cable replacement by the new HDD wash over technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have become time-worn technical defects or need a capacity increase. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in nature reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.New patented methods of trenchless cable replacement by using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, reaming around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shaped or sigmoidal embracing, depending on the coating structure of the old cable. The cable replacement drill heads separate the cable from adhesive or contacting soil or sand bedding, create a very small annular space around the cable which enables a pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between a start and an exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable is smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods embedding the new cable into a rich bed of Bentonite.The replacement drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits in order to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads can very fast (up to 3 meters per minute and effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary, only, the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and includes many practical job examples.

  5. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  6. Muon flux measurements at the davis campus of the sanford underground research facility with the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR veto system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2017-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR muon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31 ± 0.17) ×10-9 μ /s/cm2. Demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/(ROI-t-y)in the 4-keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value for 76Ge ββ(0ν) decay. This is required for tonne-scale germanium-based searches that will probe the inverted-ordering neutrino-mass parameter space for the effective Majorana neutrino mass in ββ(0ν) decay. Show technical and engineering scalability toward a tonne-scale instrument. Perform searches for additional physics beyond the Standard Model, such as dark matter and axions. The MAJORANA Collaboration has designed a modular instrument composed of two cryostats built from ultra-pure electroformed copper, with each cryostat capable of housing over 20 kg of HPGe detectors. The MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR contains 30 kg of detectors fabricated from Ge material enriched to 88% in 76Ge and another 15 kg fabricated from natural Ge (7.8% 76Ge). The modular approach allows us to assemble and optimize each cryostat independently, providing a fast deployment with minimal effect on already-operational detectors.Starting from the innermost cavity, the cryostats are surrounded by a compact graded shield composed of an inner layer of electroformed copper, a layer of commercially sourced C10100 copper, high-purity lead, an active muon veto, borated polyethylene, and pure polyethylene shielding. The cryostats, copper, and lead shielding are enclosed in a radon exclusion box and rest on an over-floor table that has openings for the active muon veto and polyethylene shielding panels situated below the detector. The entire experiment is located in a clean room at the 4850 ft level of SURF. A high

  7. Foundation design for high tension cable guardrails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    High tension cable guardrail is becoming increasing popular in median and roadside applications due to the promise of reduced deflections upon impact and reduced maintenance. As the performance of these systems is observed in service, there is a grow...

  8. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  9. Initial computer modeling of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] underground ventilation system, September 1985--March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.

    1986-11-01

    Provision of a good ventilation system has been and continues to be a major priority here of those responsible for its design, management, and operation. As an ongoing effort in this direction, development of computer simulated models for the system was initiated in September, 1985. It was decided to utilize Dravo's 'MINEVENT' computer program for this purpose. Accordingly, initial computer models of the mine's ventilation system have been developed for various modes of operation. Specifically, they include: Simulation of the current ventilation system, and Simulation of the designed ventilation system for modes: mine construction mode/shift, waste storage mode/shift, and air reversal mode. 5 figs

  10. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  11. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  12. Multistrand superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Albert R.

    1985-01-01

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

  13. Automated Cable Preparation for Robotized Stator Cable Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for robotized cable winding of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator stator has previously been presented and validated. The purpose of this study is to present and validate further developments to the method: automated stand-alone equipment for the preparation of the winding cables. The cable preparation consists of three parts: feeding the cable from a drum, forming the cable end and cutting the cable. Forming and cutting the cable was previously done manually and only small cable drums could be handled. Therefore the robot cell needed to be stopped frequently. The new equipment was tested in an experimental robot stator cable winding setup. Through the experiments, the equipment was validated to be able to perform fully automated and robust cable preparation. Suggestions are also given on how to further develop the equipment with regards to performance, robustness and quality. Hence, this work represents another important step towards demonstrating completely automated robotized stator cable winding.

  14. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  15. A new wireless underground network system for continuous monitoring of soil water contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Kuipers, H.; Kleiboer, L.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Oostindie, K.; Wesseling, J.G.; Wolthuis, J.W.; Havinga, P.

    2009-01-01

    A new stand-alone wireless embedded network system has been developed recently for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths. This paper presents information on the technical aspects of the system, including the applied sensor technology, the wireless communication protocols,

  16. A Study on the Radio Coverage in Underground Stations of the New Copenhagen Metro System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millan, Maria del Carmen de la O; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mikkelsen, Niels Michael

    2013-01-01

    In connection with the extension of the Copenhagen Metro system, architects and wireless operators met early in the design phase to plan the radio coverage inside the public areas of the metro transport system. Based on common best practice, an initial design for the antenna installations...

  17. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite{trademark} that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE`s waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  18. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite trademark that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  19. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  20. Spotting Radioactive Sources Buried Underground Using an Airborne Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Marcus, E.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides theoretical background concerning the capability of the Airborne Radiation Monitoring System [1]to detect fission products buried at 1-meter depth under the ground surface,at a flight altitude of 100 meters above ground.The 137 Cs source was used as a typical fission product. The System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground using two 2 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and computerized accessories for analysis purposes

  1. Compact ILU-type electron accelerators as a base for industrial 4-sided irradiation systems for cable and tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auslender, V.L.; Nekhaev, V.E.; Panfilov, A.D.; Tuvik, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ILU-type industrial electron accelerators are developed in BINP sins 1967. Their energy range is 0.7-4.0 MeV at beam power of 20-50 kW. The comparison of the irradiation results after bilateral and four-sided irradiation of cables and tubes is given. It is shown that the required electron energy and beam power in the case of four-sided irradiation are sufficiently lower than in the case of bilateral irradiation, resulting in an increase of productive rate of the process and improvement of treatment quality. The installations for four-sided irradiation of cables and tubes are based on the industrial electron accelerators type ILU

  2. Buoyant Cable Antenna System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerhard, Erich M

    2008-01-01

    .... For instance, in one embodiment two oppositely extending curves each float and each are pressed by the water in a balanced manner to provide a stable platform for one or more antennas which can be...

  3. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  4. Means to improve underground coal mine safety by automated control of methane drainage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babut Gabriel Bujor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the critical analysis of the presently employed management of methane drainage systems operation in Jiu Valley collieries, the paper aims to assess the basic elements required to develop an automated monitoring and control system of these. The results obtained after studies and researches carried out also allowed formulating certain proposals regarding the modification of manual control procedures of methane drainage systems operation, in order to correlate them with the prescriptions of legislation requirements from countries having a well-developed mining industry. Putting in practice the mentioned proposals could have immediate and beneficial effects on increasing the methane drainage process efficiency, leading meanwhile to an improved working environment and, implicitly, to a higher level of occupational safety and health in Jiu Valley collieries.

  5. 76 FR 39095 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... lining Piping Line leak detector Flexible connectors Drop tube Spill and overfill prevention equipment... drinking water for nearly half of all Americans, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates... components of the UST system, such as leak detection devices, sealants, and containment sumps, may not be...

  6. Going Underground: A Field Investigation and Lab Activity on Karst Topography and Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Gary; Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Students learn science best with activities that mirror the way scientists work. This article describes how geologists investigate groundwater flow systems in areas of karst topography--geologic formations shaped by dissolving bedrock--and provides a way for students to replicate this research. Students also use electric current to model water…

  7. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Lars; Stille, Haakan

    2002-08-01

    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2

  8. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Schenberg microwave cabling seismic isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, F. S.; Frajuca, C.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2018-02-01

    SCHENBERG is a resonant-mass gravitational wave detector with a frequency about 3.2 kHz. Its spherical antenna, weighing 1.15 metric ton, is connected to the external world by a system which must attenuate seismic noise. When a gravitational wave passes the antenna vibrates, its motion is monitored by transducers. These parametric transducers uses microwaves carried by coaxial cables that are also connected to the external world, they also carry seismic noise. In this analysis the system was modeled using finite element method. This work shows that the addition of masses along these cables can decrease this noise, so that this noise is below the thermal noise of the detector when operating at 50 mK.

  10. Application study on the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuihua Mei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to push forward the development of CFRP cable-stayed bridge and accumulate experiences, the study on the application of the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China was carried out. The design essentials of main components of the bridge were introduced and its integral performances, including static properties, dynamic properties and seismic response were analyzed using finite element method. A new bond-type anchorage was developed and the processes of fabricating and installing CFRP cables were elaborated. Based on the results of construction simulation, a tension scheme for bridge was propound. During constructing, the stresses and displacement of girder and pylon, as well as the forces and stresses of cables, were tested. The results indicate that all sections of the bridge could meet the requirements of the ultimate bearing capacity and normal service; the performance of the anchorage is good and the stresses in each cable system are similar; the tested values accord well with the calculated values. Further, creep deformation of the resin in anchorages under service load is not obvious. All these results demonstrate that the first application of CFRP cables in the cable-stayed bridge in China is successful.

  11. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  12. Switching studies for the Horns Rev 2 wind farm main cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    sections with a total length of 57.7 km and a 42 km long submarine cable. The submarine cable is a three phase type of cable, and three single conductor cables are used for the land cable. Methods of recalculating the physical cable parameters, given in the data sheet, to parameters suitable for the cable......This article proposes a method of constructing a PSCAD model suitable for switching studies in a system containing long HVAC cables. The transmission network connection to the 215 MW offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 is used as a case study. The connection to Horns Rev 2 consists of two land cable......, and the use of different cable models....

  13. Magnetic links among lava flows, tuffs and the underground plumbing system in a monogenetic volcano, derived from magnetics and paleomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Trigo-Huesca, Alfonso; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia

    2012-12-01

    A combined study using magnetics and paleomagnetism of the Toluquilla monogenetic volcano and associated lavas and tuffs from Valsequillo basin in Central Mexico provides evidence on a 'magnetic' link between the lavas, ash tuffs and the underground volcanic conduit system. Paleomagnetic analyses show that the lava and ash tuff carry reverse polarity magnetizations, which correlate with the inversely polarized dipolar magnetic anomaly over the volcano. The magnetizations in the lava and tuff show similar southward declinations and upward inclinations, supporting petrological inferences that the tuff was emplaced while still hot and indicating a temporal correlation for lava and tuff emplacement. Modeling of the dipolar anomaly gives a reverse polarity source magnetization associated with a vertical prismatic body with southward declination and upward inclination, which correlates with the reverse polarity magnetizations in the lava and tuff. The study documents a direct correlation of the paleomagnetic records with the underground magmatic conduit system of the monogenetic volcano. Time scale for cooling of the volcanic plumbing system involves a longer period than the one for the tuff and lava, suggesting that magnetization for the source of dipolar anomaly may represent a long time average as compared to the spot readings in the lava and tuff. The reverse polarity magnetizations in lava and tuff and in the underground source body for the magnetic anomaly are interpreted in terms of eruptive activity of Toluquilla volcano at about 1.3 Ma during the Matuyama reverse polarity C1r.2r chron.

  14. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  15. A Feasibility Study on the Inspection System Development of Underground Cavities Using Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Che Wook; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The detection efficiency using the gravimetry method is significantly low; therefore, it requires large surveying time. The magnetometry method detects the cavities by the magnitude of the magnetic field. However, the magnetometry method is problematical in urban areas due to pipes and electrical installations. GPR is the method that uses high frequency electromagnetic wave. This method is widely used for the inspection; however, the detection accuracy of sinkholes can be low in specific soil types. In this study, to verify the feasibility of the neutron source-based inspection system to detect the cavity detection, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed using neutron source. The analysis shows that the detection of the cavity with the given condition is possible when the diameter of cavity is over 100 cm. However, the detection efficiency can be enough increased if some optimization strategies for the inspection are developed. Also, it is expected that the proposed inspection method can detect the expected locations of the cavities.

  16. Development of a web-based, underground coalmine gas outburst information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naj Aziz; Richard Caladine; Lucia Tome; Ken Cram; Devendra Vyas [University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2007-04-15

    The primary objective of this project was to develop an online coal mine outburst information management system to provide the coal mining industry with the necessary information and knowledge on outbursts via the World Wide Web. The Website has been constructed using the standard web format. Access to the site is by standard web browsers. The address of the site is http://www.uow.edu.au/eng/outburst. The website has 85 conference papers which were held in Australia, dating as far back as the 1980's, various seminar presentations, more than 250 references, a limited but important collection of international papers, direct links to ACARP and NERRDC publication lists, links to several leading organisations of particular interest in mine gas and outburst control. These links include both private and government organisations, and a forum for discussion.

  17. Chemical characterisation of the coarse and fine particulate matter in the environment of an underground railway system: cytotoxic effects and oxidative stress-a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Ottria, Gianluca; Perdelli, Fernanda; Cristina, Maria Luisa

    2015-04-13

    Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM) and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. We collected the coarse fraction (5-10 µm) and the fine fractions (1-2.5 µm; 0.5-1 µm; 0.25-0.5 µm). Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assessment. The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5-10 µm and 1-2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air.

  18. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Spagnolo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. Method: We collected the coarse fraction (5–10 µm and the fine fractions (1–2.5 µm; 0.5–1 µm; 0.25–0.5 µm. Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS assessment. Results: The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5–10 µm and 1–2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air.

  19. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Ottria, Gianluca; Perdelli, Fernanda; Cristina, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM) and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. Method: We collected the coarse fraction (5–10 µm) and the fine fractions (1–2.5 µm; 0.5–1 µm; 0.25–0.5 µm). Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assessment. Results: The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5–10 µm and 1–2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air. PMID:25872016

  20. A test of a global seismic system for monitoring earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.R.; Muirhead, K.; Spiliopoulos, S.; Jepsen, D.; Leonard, M.

    1993-01-01

    Australia is a member of the Group of Scientific Experts (GSE) to consider international cooperative measures to detect and identify events, an ad hoc group of the United Nations Conference on Disarmament. The GSE conducted a large-scale technical test (GSETT-2) from 22 April to 9 June 1991 that focused on the exchange and analysis of seismic parameter and waveform data. Thirty-four countries participated in GSETT-2, and data were contributed from 60 stations on all continents. GSETT-2 demonstrated the feasibility of collecting and transmitting large volumes (around 1 giga-byte) of digital data around the world, and of producing a preliminary bulletin of global seismicity within 48 hours and a final bulletin within 7 days. However, the experiment also revealed the difficulty of keeping up with the flow of data and analysis with existing resources. The Final Event Bulletins listed 3715 events for the 42 recording days of the test, about twice the number reported routinely by another international agency 5 months later. The quality of the Final Event Bulletin was limited by the uneven spatial distribution of seismic stations that contributed to GSETT-2 and by the ambiguity of associating phases detected by widely separated stations to form seismic events. A monitoring system similar to that used in GSETT-2 could provide timely and accurate reporting of global seismicity. It would need an improved distribution of stations, application of more conservative event formation rules and further development of analysis software. 8 refs., 9 figs

  1. Long term investigation of thermal behaviour of 110 kV underground transmission lines in the Belgrade area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sredojevic, M.R.; Naumov, R.M.; Popovic, D.P. [Nikola Tesla Electrical Engineering Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Simic, M.D. [Electrical Utility Co., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes the procedure for applying a special cable backfill material, developed and manufactured at the Institute ``Nikola Tesla`` for the thermal stabilisation and reduction of hot spot cable operating temperature, on specific hot spots of 110 kV underground transmission lines in the Belgrade area. The results presented in this paper are an important contribution to the proof of the justification and necessity of defining and introducing in practice new procedures for the thermal stabilisation and reduction of operating temperature of existing, as well as of new, underground transmission cable lines to be built. (author)

  2. Bypassing and tightening of an underground water retention system in permeable karst: case study of the hydropower plant (HPP) Bribin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudella, Peter; Loges, Iryna; Mutschler, Thomas; Eiche, Elisabeth; Ruppert, Julia; Neumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) joint research project in the karst area of Gunung Kidul, Province of Yogyakarta Special Region on the Java Island, Indonesia, an underground hydropower driven water extraction facility in the cave "Bribin" was developed using pump-as-turbine-driven systems for freshwater supply of the rural area. As numerous other caves in the Gunung Kidul area, Bribin is part of a ramified system of all-season water-bearing subterraneous rivers and natural caves in karstic limestone. The elliptic cross section of the cave was completely closed with a concrete barrage, thus creating a year-round underground retention volume with an operational storage level of approx. 15 m. This contribution highlights the geotechnical and geohydraulic challenges handled within the sub-project "Short-time and long-time behaviour of karst rock surrounding pressure-bearing underground water-retaining structures". One key to the feasibility of an artificial water retention scheme in a natural cave is to ensure the mechanical stability of the cave roof and sidewalls. The necessary geotechnical investigations are described. Another key to the effectiveness of such a water retention concept is the control and minimization of "lost" seepage water bypassing the barrage structure through the karst rock mass. Measures to monitor and to explain the seepage phenomena are presented as well as grouting efforts to minimize them. The limitations of improving the overall tightness will be discussed. Interpretation includes the use of analytical and numerical methods.

  3. Double-peaked breakthrough curves as a consequence of solute transport through underground lakes: a case study of the Furfooz karst system, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaide, Lorraine; Collon, Pauline; Poulain, Amaël; Rochez, Gaëtan; Hallet, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    The existence of double-peaked breakthrough curves (BTC), which are the result of the transport of a dye tracer through underground lakes, is reported. Investigations were undertaken on the Furfooz karst system in southern Belgium. In this system, the River Lesse sinks partially into a swallow hole. The water follows a solitary conduit leading to an underground lake that is directly connected to a second underground lake. Double-peaked BTCs were detected in the resurgent water, downstream of this second lake. The report first describes field data (tracer tests in various hydrologic conditions) which point towards the double peak being linked to a nonlinear process that originates within the lakes. Complementary investigations within the lakes show a complex behavior of the dye tracer related to a specific hydrodynamic feature that leads to the separation of the solute plume. A conceptual model of the solute transport within the lakes is proposed. This model emphasizes the physical effect of the lakes on the dye flow-through process.

  4. Magnet cable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1985-07-01

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. The superconducting strands are mostly circular but a design of a cable made of preflattened wires was proposed a few years ago under the name of Berkeley flat; such cable shows some interesting characteristics. Another design consists of a few smaller precabled wires (e.g. 6 around 1). This configuration allows smaller filaments and a better transposition of the current elements. The Superconducting Super Collider project involves the largest amount of superconducting cable ever envisaged for a single machine. Furthermore, the design calls for exceptional accuracy and improved characteristics of the cable. A part of the SSC research and development program is focused on these important questions. In this paper we emphasize the difference between the conventional cabling and wires with superconducting. A new concept for the tooling will be introduced as well as the necessary characteristics of a specialized cabler. 5 figs

  5. Simplified frequency-dependent formulae for series-impedance matrices of single-core HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies that are ......The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies...... formula using Bessel equations exist, but they still have some complexity, e.g., hyperbolic cotangents and hyperbolic cosecants are used. Moreover, the series impedance matrix that is designed with these equations and used to estimate the resistance and reactance, requires the summation of at least eight...... different terms, all calculated in a different way. This paper simplifies the equations used in the loop method, by means of expansions in Taylor series, with other further simplifications that can be made for typical cable thicknesses and materials....

  6. Evaluation of the New York low-tension three-cable barrier on curved alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Three full-scale crash tests were performed on the New York Department of Transportations (NYSDOTs) curved, lowtension, : three-cable barrier systems utilizing the MASH Test Level 3 safety performance criteria. The cable barrier system : for te...

  7. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  8. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  9. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  10. Statistical Distribution of Energization Overvoltages of EHV Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Ametani, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    those on the overhead lines with respect to maximum, 2%, and mean values. As the minimum value is almost at the same level, standard deviations are smaller for the cables. The obtained statistical distributions in this paper are of a great importance in considering insulation levels of cable systems.......Statistical distributions of switching overvoltages have been used for decades for the determination of insulation levels of extremely high voltage (EHV) systems. Existing statistical distributions obtained in the 1970s are for overhead lines, and statistical distributions of switching overvoltages...... of EHV cables are not available to date. This paper derives the statistical distribution of energization overvoltages of EHV cables. Through the comparison of the statistical distributions of EHV cables and overhead lines, it has been found that line energization overvoltages on the cables are lower than...

  11. Passive Control System for Mitigation of Longitudinal Buffeting Responses of a Six-Tower Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Geng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the Jiashao Bridge, the longest multispan cable-stayed bridge in the world. A time-domain procedure for analyzing buffeting responses of the bridge is implemented in ANSYS with the aeroelastic effect included. The characteristics of longitudinal buffeting responses of the six-tower cable-stayed bridge are studied in some detail, focusing on the effects of insufficient longitudinal stiffness of central towers and partially longitudinal constraints between the bridge deck and part of bridge towers. The effectiveness of viscous fluid dampers on the mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the bridge is further investigated and a multiobjective optimization design method that uses a nondominating sort genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II is used to optimize parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The results of the parametric investigations show that, by appropriate use of viscous fluid dampers, the top displacements of central towers and base forces of bridge towers longitudinally restricted with the bridge deck can be reduced significantly, with hampering the significant gain achieved in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally unrestricted with the bridge deck. And the optimized parameters for the viscous fluid dampers can be determined from Pareto-optimal fronts using the NSGA-II that can satisfy the desired performance requirements.

  12. Statics and Dynamics of Offshore Cable and Flexible Pipe Systems Statique et dynamique des câbles flexibles en mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyrot A. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the static and dynamic analysis of offshore cable structures is presented. These structures may consist of floating platform, buoys, weights, anchors, etc. interconnected by arbitrary arrangements of cables and flexible pipes. Displacements or forces can be specified at any number of nodal points and wave or current interaction be simulated. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by several applications: dynamic response of deep-water oil production platform, anchor drop, sonar towing, dynamic stiffness of mooring lines, tanker loading systems with flexible pipes, etc. Cet article présente une méthode de calcul pour les structures marines comportant des câbles et des tuyaux flexibles. La méthode est applicable à des réseaux de câbles ou de flexibles reliant des plates-formes flottantes, des bouées, des ancrages, etc. Des déplacements ou des forces peuvent être imposés en un nombre quelconque de nSuds. L'action du courant et de la houle est prise en compte. La méthode a été utilisée pour l'étude de nombreux systèmes de câbles et de flexibles. Les résultats indiquent une excellente performance des calculs proposés.

  13. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable disruptions in the central North Sea area, Global Marine Systems Ltd. requested IMARES to investigate a possible link between these occurrences and the recent gear switch of the Dutch –demersal be...

  14. Analysis and simulation of electromagnetic transients in HVAC cable transmission grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DA Silva, F.M.F.

    2011-07-15

    Denmark is the first country in the world undergrounding most of its transmission network. As a result, several technical barriers and challenges associated to the use of an undergrounded transmission grid must first be dealt with. For that purpose, several research and development projects were initiated by the Danish TSO, among them this PhD thesis. The main objective of this PhD is to study electromagnetic transient phenomena. Thereto, the thesis is divided into two main parts: 1) Description of the different electromagnetic phenomena likely to occur in transmission grids with a large amount of HVAC cables and respective countermeasures; 2) Guidelines for the proper simulation of those phenomena when using EMTP software, more specifically PSCAD/EMTDC, and methods to optimize the simulations; A simulation network based on the Transmission Grid of West Denmark as planned for 2030 has been used as simulation base case to identify the dimensioning transient phenomena and find the right countermeasures for an undergrounded transmission network. In order to ensure that the transient studies are made on a proper model basis, the frequency dependent phasor model in PSCAD/EMTDC has been verified by measurements on a 100 km, 58 km of land cable plus 42 km of submarine cable, 165 kV cable, which is connecting an offshore wind farm to the Danish transmission network. The 2030 West Denmark Grid has two voltage levels, 165 kV and 400 kV. The 165 kV level will be all cables, whereas the 400 kV level will mostly be cables. This network provides the necessary complexity for the electromagnetic studies. The accuracy of cable simulation models has been addressed by several authors prior to this thesis. However, the validations were normally made for short cables, whereas in this thesis are analysed cables with dozens of km length. The thesis shows the measurement's results and demonstrates that the land cable model is accurate, yet the same is not true for the used submarine

  15. Design of Meter-Scale Antenna and Signal Detection System for Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding in Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Tiehu; Tian, Baofeng; Jiang, Chuandong

    2018-03-13

    Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a novel geophysical method to detect groundwater directly. By applying this method to underground projects in mines and tunnels, warning information can be provided on water bodies that are hidden in front prior to excavation and thus reduce the risk of casualties and accidents. However, unlike its application to ground surfaces, the application of MRS to underground environments is constrained by the narrow space, quite weak MRS signal, and complex electromagnetic interferences with high intensities in mines. Focusing on the special requirements of underground MRS (UMRS) detection, this study proposes the use of an antenna with different turn numbers, which employs a separated transmitter and receiver. We designed a stationary coil with stable performance parameters and with a side length of 2 m, a matching circuit based on a Q-switch and a multi-stage broad/narrowband mixed filter that can cancel out most electromagnetic noise. In addition, noises in the pass-band are further eliminated by adopting statistical criteria and harmonic modeling and stacking, all of which together allow weak UMRS signals to be reliably detected. Finally, we conducted a field case study of the UMRS measurement in the Wujiagou Mine in Shanxi Province, China, with known water bodies. Our results show that the method proposed in this study can be used to obtain UMRS signals in narrow mine environments, and the inverted hydrological information generally agrees with the actual situation. Thus, we conclude that the UMRS method proposed in this study can be used for predicting hazardous water bodies at a distance of 7-9 m in front of the wall for underground mining projects.

  16. FY 2000 research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices. R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables and faults current limiters, R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications, and study on the total systems and related subjects; 2000 nendo koryu chodendo denryoku kiki kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chodendo soden cable kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chodendo genryuki kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, denryokuyo chodendo magnet no kenkyu kaihatsu, total system nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project for research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices has been started, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables include grasping the mechanical characteristics associated with integration necessary for fabrication of large current capacity and long cables; development of barrier cable materials by various methods; and development of short insulated tubes as cooling technology for long superconducting cables, and grasping its thermal/mechanical characteristics. The R and D of faults current limiters include introduction of the unit for superconducting film fabrication, determination of the structures and layouts for large currents, and improvement of performance of each device for high voltages. R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications include grasping the fundamental characteristics of insulation at cryogenic temperature, completion of the insulation designs for high voltage/current lead bushing, and development of prototype sub-cooled nitrogen cooling unit for cooling each AC power device. Study on the total systems and related subjects include analysis for stabilization of the group model systems, to confirm improved voltage stability when the superconducting cable is in service. (NEDO)

  17. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two......-degrees-of-freedom system with one modal coordinate for the in-plane displacement and one for the out-of-plane displacement. At first harmonic varying chord elongation at excitation frequencies close to the corresponding eigenfrequencies of the cable is considered in order to identify stable modes of vibration. Depending......, the chord elongation is modelled as a narrow-banded Gaussian stochastic process, and it is shown that all the indicated harmonic solutions now become instable with probability one. Instead, the cable jumps randomly back and forth between the two in-plane and the whirling mode of vibration. A theory...

  18. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs between the fire alarm annunciator and fire detecting or fire alarm zones must be as direct as practicable and...

  19. Estimation of cables’ tension of cable-stayed footbridge using measured natural frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakiel Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of cables’ tension of steel cable-stayed footbridge using their field-test natural frequencies. A vibration method is usually used for the measured cable tension during the construction of cable systems stiffened with inclined cables. Practical formulas for the vibration method applied herein, mainly based on cable-sag and vertical angle effects (a survey measurement, have been verified on the one-tower steel cable-stayed bridge. The bridge is situated in Sieradz (Poland and it was the structure with the longest span concerning all the cable-stayed bridges in Poland until 1999. The obtained cable axial forces for estimated natural frequencies of low- and high-order modes are verified using FEM models. The final conclusions drawn on the basis of conducted studies can be useful for technical diagnosis, monitoring programs and repair works of similar class of cable-stayed bridges.

  20. Neutron detector cable monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.

    1976-01-01

    In a neutron detector connected by a cable with a current amplifier for the signal based on (n,e)-processes, any change in the insulation resistance of the cable is monitored by means of an a-c voltage which is super-imposed on the offset voltage of the amplifier. The resistance-dependent a-c variable at the output of the amplifier, is used to make a limit indicator respond via a connected filter. The invention is of importance particularly for monitoring the internal core instrumentation of pressurized-water reactors

  1. A cable SGEMP tutorial :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscum-Powell, Jennifer L.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Turner, C. David

    2007-05-01

    This tutorial is aimed at guiding a user through the process of performing a cable SGEMP simulation. The tutorial starts with processing a differential photon spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo code such as ITS into a discrete (multi-group) spectrum used in CEPXS and CEPTRE. Guidance is given in the creation of a nite element mesh of the cable geometry. The set-up of a CEPTRE simulation is detailed. Users are instructed in evaluating the quality of the CEPTRE radiation transport results. The post-processing of CEPTRE results using Exostrip is detailed. And finally, an EMPHASIS/CABANA simulation is detailed including the interpretation of the output.

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the advanced R and D for the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system; 2000 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this study, study was made of the commercialization of the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system using the underground heat source heat pump system technology as the base, considering that this is a technology suitable for the urban area where the heat demand intensively increases and a lot of exhaust heat and usable heat exist. By the realization of the UTES system technology, it is expected that the system promotes Japan's utilization of the unused energy and contributes to the construction of the CO2 emission control type society for Japan's energy policy and global warming prevention and secondarily to leveling of power loads and elimination of the heat island phenomenon in large cities. As to the UTES system which is aimed at being used for space heating and cooling and hot water supply in buildings, the following two were studied: the indirect system, BTES (borehole thermal energy storage) system, in which heat is collected/radiated from the ground by the heat exchanger installed underground; the direct system, ATES (aquifer thermal energy storage) system, in which the groundwater stored in aquifer is directly pumped up and used. The study was made in the items written below: 1) establishment of an system image of the UTES system; 2) evaluation study of effects of the introduction, practical applicability, etc. 3) extraction of the subjects for development. As a result, system images of the indirect/direct systems were obtained. (NEDO)

  3. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the July 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

  4. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  5. Handtool assists in bundling cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tool makes it possible to bundle electrical cables in channel or "tray" without requiring cables be lifted out. Procedure for bundling is faster and less awkward than lifting method. Used with commercially-available plastic ribbons that tie cables together, tool guides ribbon along tray wall, through bracket at bottom of tray, and up opposite wall. One end of ribbon locks in other end, securing cable bundle.

  6. SURVEY, REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF A WAR I COMPLEX SYSTEM OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND FORTIFICATIONS IN THE GRESTA VALLEY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salvador

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" – APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino, a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the

  7. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  8. Semiannual report for the period April 1 to September 30, 1978 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project technical note No. 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-07

    Progress in the development, fabrication and testing of superconductors for HVAC power transmission systems is reported. Information is included on the materials evaluation of superconducting alloys, production of tapes from these alloys, principally Nb/sub 3/Sn cable insulation requirements and development, and the cryogenic equipment used in this research program. (LCL)

  9. Spatial distribution and fruiting phenology of Protium heptaphyllum (Burseraceae) determine the design of the underground foraging system of Atta sexdens L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, P S D; Leal, I R; Wirth, R; Tabarelli, M

    2012-08-01

    Leaf-cutting ants have long been recognized to forage via complex trail systems but the nature and the ecological drivers of the different foraging strategies adopted remain a key topic. Here, we described the spatiotemporal use of belowground foraging galleries by Atta sexdens L. in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and examined the adaptive advantages of this foraging strategy. Protium heptaphyllum adult trees (DBH > 10 cm), seed/seedling clumps and ant gallery entrances were mapped across two 1-ha plots during two consecutive fruiting seasons (2002 and 2004). We recorded 75 ca. 40 cm deep gallery entrances beneath 26 P. heptaphyllum trees at nest distances ranging from 14 to 57 m. Furthermore, gallery abundance and galleries associated with seed/seedling clumps correlated positively with P. heptaphyllum density. Our results indicate that A. sexdens was able to set a permanent system of underground galleries targeting P. heptaphyllum trees and their seeds on the ground. Such network of galleries was spatially arranged according to both the spatial distribution and abundance of P. heptaphyllum trees in a way that most gallery entrances were disposed beneath or in close periphery of P. heptaphyllum crowns. Our findings suggest that underground trail systems shaped by fruit resources represent a foraging strategy clearly more common than existing literature on the subject would suggest. In addition, it reinforces the notion that the spatiotemporal availability of resources combined with predation risk largely influence trail configurations as well as overall foraging strategies adopted by leaf-cutting ants.

  10. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  11. Cable indenter aging monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements

  12. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring. 129.340 Section 129.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than...

  13. 46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring requirements. 120.340 Section 120.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.340 Cable and wiring requirements. (a) If individual...

  14. 46 CFR 183.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring requirements. 183.340 Section 183.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.340 Cable and wiring...

  15. Electrothermal Coordination in Cable Based Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2013-01-01

    Electrothermal coordination (ETC) is introduced for cable based transmission grids. ETC is the term covering operation and planning of transmission systems based on temperature, instead of current. ETC consists of one part covering the load conditions of the system and one covering the thermal be...

  16. Full-scale horizontal cable-tray tests: Fire-propagation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the Fermi National Accelerator Center (Fermilab), as at any high-energy physics laboratory, the experimental program depends on complex arrays of equipment that require years to assemble and place in service. These equipment arrays are typically located in enclosed tunnels or experimental halls and could be destroyed by rapidly propagating, uncontrolled fire. Cable trays, both vertical and horizontal, are an integral and ubiquitous component of these installations. Concurrently, throughout industry and within the professional fire-fighting community, there has been concern over the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. While some information was available concerning fire propagation in vertical cable trays, little was known about fires in horizontal cable trays. In view of the potential for loss of equipment and facilities, not to mention the programmatic impact of a fire, Fermilab initiated a program of full-scale, horizontal cable-tray fire tests to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable-tray configurations and cable mixed typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings as Fermilab. This series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable-tray fill, fire-fighting techniques, and the effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection, and cable-coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling, or extinguishing a cable-tray fire. Detailed descriptions of each fire test, including sketches of cable-tray configuration and contents, instrumentation, ventilation rates, Fermilab Fire Department personnel observations, photographs, and graphs of thermocouple readings are available in a report of these tests prepared by the Fermilab Safety Section

  17. Sliding Mode Control of Cable-Driven Redundancy Parallel Robot with 6 DOF Based on Cable-Length Sensor Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sliding mode control of the cable-driven redundancy parallel robot with six degrees of freedom is studied based on the cable-length sensor feedback. Under the control scheme of task space coordinates, the cable length obtained by the cable-length sensor is used to solve the forward kinematics of the cable-driven redundancy parallel robot in real-time, which is treated as the feedback for the control system. First, the method of forward kinematics of the cable-driven redundancy parallel robot is proposed based on the tetrahedron method and Levenberg-Marquardt method. Then, an iterative initial value estimation method for the Levenberg-Marquardt method is proposed. Second, the sliding mode control method based on the exponential approach law is used to control the effector of the robot, and the influence of the sliding mode parameters on control performance is simulated. Finally, a six-degree-of-freedom position tracking experiment is carried out on the principle prototype of the cable-driven redundancy parallel robot. The experimental results show that the robot can accurately track the desired position in six directions, which indicates that the control method based on the cable-length sensor feedback for the cable-driven redundancy parallel robot is effective and feasible.

  18. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  19. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  20. Configuration of an inelastic flexible anchored cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Dreyer

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Consider an inelastic, perfectly flexible cable with given external forces acting on the total length of the cable. The one end-point is fixed in the origin and the other end-point is anchored at a given point (a;b;c in space. The resulting configuration of the cable in space can be modelled by a system of non-linear differential equations. In this article it is shown that this continuous model of the cable can always be solved in terms of an integral. In the special case of a constant (i.e. independent of the position on the cable external force per unit length the solution is given explicitly in terms of three constants that describe the tension at the origin. These three constants are determined by the boundary values a, b and c at the other end-point, and must be calculated in general by a numerical procedure from the three resulting simultaneous non-linear equations. A few applications of this method are shown.

  1. Reducing Actuator Requirements in Continuum Robots Through Optimized Cable Routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer C; White, Edward L; SunSpiral, Vytas; Kramer-Bottiglio, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Continuum manipulators offer many advantages compared to their rigid-linked counterparts, such as increased degrees of freedom and workspace volume. Inspired by biological systems, such as elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, many continuum manipulators are made of multiple segments that allow large-scale deformations to be distributed throughout the body. Most continuum manipulators currently control each segment individually. For example, a planar cable-driven system is typically controlled by a pair of cables for each segment, which implies two actuators per segment. In this article, we demonstrate how highly coupled crossing cable configurations can reduce both actuator count and actuator torque requirements in a planar continuum manipulator, while maintaining workspace reachability and manipulability. We achieve highly coupled actuation by allowing cables to cross through the manipulator to create new cable configurations. We further derive an analytical model to predict the underactuated manipulator workspace and experimentally verify the model accuracy with a physical system. We use this model to compare crossing cable configurations to the traditional cable configuration using workspace performance metrics. Our work here focuses on a simplified planar robot, both in simulation and in hardware, with the goal of extending this to spiraling-cable configurations on full 3D continuum robots in future work.

  2. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  3. Thermomechanical Properties of 30M HTS Power Cable in DAPAS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. H.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, I. S.; Park, I. S.; Jang, H. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, D. W.

    2006-04-01

    The 22.9 kV 3 phase 30 m HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power cable system that contributes to the research for commercial applications was developed as a part of "DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) Project" in Korea. LS Cable Ltd. has been playing a significant role in design, manufacture, installation, and test of the 30m power cable system. The manufacture and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. We performed the initial cool down and the basic operation test of the cable system. We have performed a long period of operation test of the cable system since February 2005. This paper reports the thermo-mechanical properties of the cable system measured during test.

  4. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  5. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  6. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  7. A unique cabling designed to produce Rutherford-type superconducting cable for the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisel, J.; Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.; Armer, R.

    1988-08-01

    Up to 25,000 Km of keystoned flat cable must be produced for the SSC project. Starting from a specification developed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), a special cabling machine has been designed by Dour Metal. It has been designed to be able to run at a speed corresponding to a maximum production rate of 10 m/min. This cabling machine is the key part of the production line which consists of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The main features of the cabling unit to be described are a design with nearly equal path length between spool and assembling point for all the wires, and the possibility to run the machine with several over- or under-twisting ratios between cable and wires. These requirements led Dour Metal to the choice of an unconventional mechanical concept for a cabling machine. 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. Electric Propulsion Cables For Milli-Newton Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Manfred; Bertrand, Arnaud; El-Idrissi, Mohamed; Schaper, Wolfgang, , Dr.

    2011-10-01

    AXON' Kabel GmbH, is developing and manufacturing cables and connectors up to complete interconnect systems for all types of applications needed in Space. As a request from ESA, AXON has developed a new generation of cables suitable for current and future applications to feed electric propulsion thruster systems in spacecraft with electric power. Under this project the main objectives were to find and select materials for the composition to produce a cable withstanding quite strongrequirements for operating temperature, radiation resistance, high voltage application and in variants to various current ratings (A); the cable construction will also include ESD immunisation. The paper will summarise the specification achieved and will give an overview on the test results with the prototype cables.

  9. Optimal Selection of AC Cables for Large Scale Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The investment of large scale offshore wind farms is high in which the electrical system has a significant contribution to the total cost. As one of the key components, the cost of the connection cables affects the initial investment a lot. The development of cable manufacturing provides a vast...... and systematical way for the optimal selection of cables in large scale offshore wind farms....

  10. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  11. Versatile cable handling mechanisms for remote operator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collie, A.A.; White, T.S.; Christopher, M.D.; Hewer, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a system of cable management for keeping the umbilical cables of remote operating vehicles and manipulators tidy and contained without direct intervention by operators. Two distinct types of winding mechanism have been designed. One mechanism is a fixed reel type where the cable is wound onto the reel by a rotating bail arm. The other mechanism consists of a pair of curved belts held against each other between which cable is passed. The complete system includes tension measuring and slack loop take-up devices. The whole system is controlled by a servo system in conjunction with a PC based visual graphic environment which allows a variety of mechanisms to be built up into a system able to handle up to four umbilical cables simultaneously. The control system provides additional tension sensors and cable odometers connected to the control system so that the operator has immediate perception of all the cable parameters, and by defining rules, can set up a variety of alarm situations. (Author)

  12. Versatile cable handling mechanisms for remote operator control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collie, A.A.; White, T.S.; Christopher, M.D.; Hewer, N.D. [Portech Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a system of cable management for keeping the umbilical cables of remote operating vehicles and manipulators tidy and contained without direct intervention by operators. Two distinct types of winding mechanism have been designed. One mechanism is a fixed reel type where the cable is wound onto the reel by a rotating bail arm. The other mechanism consists of a pair of curved belts held against each other between which cable is passed. The complete system includes tension measuring and slack loop take-up devices. The whole system is controlled by a servo system in conjunction with a PC based visual graphic environment which allows a variety of mechanisms to be built up into a system able to handle up to four umbilical cables simultaneously. The control system provides additional tension sensors and cable odometers connected to the control system so that the operator has immediate perception of all the cable parameters, and by defining rules, can set up a variety of alarm situations. (Author).

  13. Versatile cable handling mechanisms for remote operator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collie, A.A.; White, T.S.; Christopher, M.D.; Hewer, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a system of cable management for keeping the umbilical cables of remote operating vehicles and manipulators tidy and contained without direct intervention by operators. Two distinct types of winding mechanism have been designed. One mechanism is a fixed reel type where the cable is wound onto the reel by a rotating bail arm. The other mechanism consists of a pair of curved belts held against each other, between which cable is passed. The complete system includes tension measuring and slack loop take-up devices. The whole system is controlled by a servo system in conjunction with a PC based visual graphic environment which allows a variety of mechanisms to be built up into a system able to handle up to four umbilical cables simultaneously. The control system provides additional tension sensors and cable odometers connected to the control system so that the operator has immediate perception of all the cable parameters, and by defining rules, can set up a variety of alarm situations. (UK)

  14. Impact of an historic underground gas well blowout on the current methane chemistry in a shallow groundwater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schout, Gilian; Hartog, Niels; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Griffioen, Jasper

    2018-01-09

    Blowouts present a small but genuine risk when drilling into the deep subsurface and can have an immediate and significant impact on the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, studies that document their long-term impact are scarce. In 1965, a catastrophic underground blowout occurred during the drilling of a gas well in The Netherlands, which led to the uncontrolled release of large amounts of natural gas from the reservoir to the surface. In this study, the remaining impact on methane chemistry in the overlying aquifers was investigated. Methane concentrations higher than 10 mg/L ( n = 12) were all found to have δ 13 C-CH 4 values larger than -30‰, typical of a thermogenic origin. Both δ 13 C-CH 4 and δD-CH 4 correspond to the isotopic composition of the gas reservoir. Based on analysis of local groundwater flow conditions, this methane is not a remnant but most likely the result of ongoing leakage from the reservoir as a result of the blowout. Progressive enrichment of both δ 13 C-CH 4 and δD-CH 4 is observed with increasing distance and decreasing methane concentrations. The calculated isotopic fractionation factors of ε C = 3 and ε D = 54 suggest anaerobic methane oxidation is partly responsible for the observed decrease in concentrations. Elevated dissolved iron and manganese concentrations at the fringe of the methane plume show that oxidation is primarily mediated by the reduction of iron and manganese oxides. Combined, the data reveal the long-term impact that underground gas well blowouts may have on groundwater chemistry, as well as the important role of anaerobic oxidation in controlling the fate of dissolved methane. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. 3D visualisation of underground pipelines : Best strategy for 3D scene creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero, J.M.; Zlatanova, S.; Meijers, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Underground pipelines pose numerous challenges to 3D visualization. Pipes and cables are conceptually simple and narrow objects with clearly defined shapes, spanned over large geographical areas and made of multiple segments. Pipes are usually maintained as linear objects in the databases. However,

  16. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  17. Effect of changing of the parameters of the cable network of monitoring systems of high-rise buildings on the basis of string converters on their operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Nikolay; Svatovskaya, Larisa; Kucherenko, Alexandr

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of improving the reliability of monitoring systems for the technical conditions of high-rise buildings. The improvement is based on string sensors with an impulsed excitation method ensuring the maximum signal-to-noise ratio at their output. The influence of the parameters of the monitoring system on the shape of the excitation impulses of the string, and, consequently, on the amplitude of the string vibration of the string converter is also considered in the article. It has been experimentally proved that the parameters of the excitation impulses of the string converters. The article presents the results of the experiments showing the effect of the fronts duration of the excitation impulses on the amplitude of the oscillations of the strings. The influence of the fronts duration of the excitation impulse with the frontal lengths up to 0.5 ms is studied at the excitation impulse duration not exceeding 0.5 times the duration of natural oscillation periods of the string. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical ones and hypotheses explaining their difference are advanced. The article suggests some methods of reducing the influence of the cable-switching equipment system parameters on the amplitude of string oscillations. The possibilities of improving the reliability of the systems developed on the basis of string sensors with an impulsed excitation method and used for monitoring the technical conditions of the high-rise buildings are proposed.

  18. Method for determining correction factors induced by irradiation of ionization chamber cables in large radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.L.C.

    1988-01-01

    A simple method was developed to be suggested to hospital physicists in order to be followed during large radiation field dosimetry, to evaluate the effects of cables, connectors and extension cables irradiation and to determine correction factors for each system or geometry. All quality control tests were performed according to the International Electrotechnical Commission for three clinical dosimeters. Photon and electron irradiation effects for cables, connectors and extention cables were investigated under different experimental conditions by means of measurements of chamber sensitivity to a standard radiation source of 90 Sr. The radiation induced leakage current was also measured for cables, connectors and extension cables irradiated by photons and electrons. All measurements were performed at standard dosimetry conditions. Finally, measurements were performed in large fields. Cable factors and leakage factors were determined by the relation between chamber responses for irradiated and unirradiated cables. (author) [pt

  19. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  20. Method to improve superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.